Gaseous sentence example

gaseous
  • The stomata serve for all gaseous interchange between the plant and the surrounding air.
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  • The gaseous fluid with which we have chiefly to do is our atmosphere.
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  • He denied that gaseous atoms could have parts, although compound gases could.
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  • Roughly speaking, it is found that there are three main types of molecular motion corresponding to the three states of matter - solid, liquid and gaseous.
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  • In a gas the state of things is very different; an odour is known to spread rapidly through great distances, even in the stillest air, and a gaseous poison or corrosive will attack not only those objects which are in contact with its source but also all those which can be reached by the motion of its molecules.
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  • This is the conception which the molecular theory compels us to form of the gaseous state.
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  • At normal temperature and pressure the density of a substance in the gaseous state is of the order of one-thousandth of the density of the same substance in the solid or liquid state.
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  • It follows that the average distance apart of the molecules in the gaseous state is roughly ten times as great as in the solid or liquid state, and hence that in the gaseous state the molecules are at distances apart which are large compared with their linear dimensions.
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  • In terms of the molecular theory this indicates that the total energy of the gas is the sum of the separate energies of its different molecules: the potential energy arising from intermolecular forces between pairs of molecules may be treated as negligible when the matter is in the gaseous state.
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  • These two simplifying facts bring the properties of the gaseous state of matter within the range of mathematical treatment.
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  • It is not at present necessary to suppose that the molecules are those of substances in the gaseous state.
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  • So far it has not been necessary to suppose the matter to be in the gaseous state.
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  • We now pass to the consideration of laws and properties which are peculiar to the gaseous state.
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  • Van der Waals, in a famous monograph, On the Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous States (Leiden, 1873), has shown that the imperfections of equation (14) maybe traced to two_causes: (i.) The calculation has not allowed for the finite size of the molecules, and their consequent interference with one another's motion, and (ii.) The calculation has not allowed for the field of inter-molecular force between the molecules, which, although small, is known to have a real existence.
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  • Many forms of oxyhydrogen lamps have been invented, but the explosive nature of the gaseous mixture rendered them all more or less dangerous.
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  • It combines with gaseous ammonia and forms crystalline compounds with certain alcohols.
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  • He showed that the gaseous constituents of the air contribute largely to the nourishment of plants, and that the leaves are the organs which elaborate the food; the importance of leaves in nutrition had been previously pointed out by Malpighi in a short account of nutrition which forms an appendix to his anatomical work.
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  • By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.
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  • Its most important property is that it rapidly attacks glass, reacting with the silica of the glass to form gaseous silicon fluoride, and consequently it is used for etching.
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  • We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.
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  • In 1815 he published anonymously in the Annals of Philosophy a paper "On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms," in which he calculated that the atomic weights of a number of the elements are multiples of that of hydrogen; and in a second paper published in the same periodical the following year he suggested that the rrpcbrn iiXrl of the ancients is realized in hydrogen, from which the other elements are formed by some process of condensation or grouping.
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  • The salts of this acid, known as cyanides, may be prepared by the action of cyanogen or of gaseous hydrocyanic acid on a metal; by heating the carbonates or hydrooxides of the alkali metals in a current of hydrocyanic acid; by heating alkaline carbonates with carbon in the presence of free nitrogen: BaCO 3 + 4 C + N2 = Ba(NC) 2 + 3C0; by ignition of nitrogenous organic substances in the presence of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides; or by processes of double decomposition.
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  • In his widely used method for the quantitative determination of carbonic acid the gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or lime water of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid.
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  • Gaseous ammonia passed over the oxide reduces it to the sesquioxide with formation of nitrogen and water.
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  • The bromide and iodide are formed in a similar manner by heating the metal in gaseous hydrobromic or hydriodic acids.
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  • These rays are apparently the trajectories of positively charged particles having masses of the order of magnitude of the gaseous molecules.
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  • To take the simplest case of a one component system water substance has its three phases of solid ice, liquid water and gaseous vapour in equilibrium with each other at the freezing point of water under the pressure of its own vapour.
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  • The result of our consideration, therefore, is that the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of a volatile solute must have the same value as the gaseous pressure the same number of solute particles would exert if they occupied as gas a volume equal to that of the solution.
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  • Boltzmann offered a demonstration of the law of osmotic pressure in dilute solutions, based on the idea that the mean energy of translation of a molecule should be the same in the liquid as in the gaseous state.
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  • As they have no power of absorbing solid materials, their food must be of a liquid or gaseous character.
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  • Beside this their chief and easy work of oxidizing carbon, silicon and phosphorus, the conversion processes have the harder task of removing sulphur, chiefly by converting it into calcium sulphide, CaS, or manganous sulphide, MnS, which rise to the top of the molten metal and there enter the overlying slag, from which the sulphur may escape by oxidizing to the gaseous compound, sulphurous acid, S02.
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  • Minute vesicular cavities are not infrequently present, sometimes as negative cubes, and these may contain saline solutions or carbon dioxide or gaseous hydrocarbons.
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  • Keene's cement and its congeners are made in fixed kilns so constructed that only the gaseous products of combustion come into contact with the gypsum to be burnt, in order to avoid contamination with the ash of the fuel.
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  • The gaseous hydrochloric acid evolved during all this time must be absorbed in water, unless it is directly converted into chlorine (see below, 2 and 3).
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  • This requires more time and fuel than the work in " open " furnaces, but in the muffles the gaseous hydrochloric acid is separated from the fire-gases, just like that evolved in the pot, and can therefore be condensed into strong hydrochloric acid, like the pot-acid.
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  • The principles of the condensation, that is of converting the gaseous hydrochloric acid given off during the decomposition of common salt into a strong solution of this gas in water, can be summarized in a few words.
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  • This unavoidable gaseous bye-product of the manufacture of salt-cake was, during the first part of the 19th century, simply sent into the air.
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  • The sulphur was by these converted partly into gaseous sulphuretted hydrogen, partly into soluble polysulphides, thiosulphates and other soluble compounds, and in all shapes caused a nuisance which became more and more intolerable as the number and size of alkali works increased.
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  • The continuous flow method is specially applicable to the important case of calorific value of gaseous fuel, where a large quantity of heat is continuously generated at a nearly uniform rate by combustion.
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  • But a globe of gaseous matter under similar conditions will continually contract in volume, and in so doing transforms potential energy into heat.
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  • Thus in the first stage of a star's history we find it gradually condensing from a highly diffused gaseous state, and growing hotter as it does so.
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  • This may explain the existence of gaseous nebulae, which are often found intimately associated with star-clusters, a good example being the nebulosity surrounding the Pleiades.
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  • In 1807 an account of the magnetic observations made during the tour with Humboldt was published in the first volume of the Memoires d'Arcueil, and the second volume, published in 1809, contained the important memoir on gaseous combination (read to the Societe Philomathique on the last day of 1808), in which he pointed out that gases combining with each other in volume do so in the simplest proportions-1 to 1, 1 to 2, 1 to 3 - and that the volume of the compound formed bears a simple ratio to that of the constituents.
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  • This objection to the air-engine arises from the fact that the heat comes to it from external combustion; it disappears when internal combustion is resorted to; that is to say, when the heat is generated within the envelope containing the working air, by the combustion there of gaseous or other fuel.
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  • The hexafluoride, WF 6, is a very active gaseous compound, which attacks glass and metals, obtained from tungsten hexachloride and hydrofluoric acid (Ruff and Eisner, Ber., 1905, 38, p. 74 2).
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  • As water for respiration streams through the clefts, gaseous interchange takes place between the circulating colourless blood and the percolating water.
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  • Under favourable circumstances a process of fermentation should immediately be set up, which soon makes itself manifest by the evolution of gaseous bubbles.
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  • It also absorbs gaseous hydrochloric acid.
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  • Only here, instead of assuming something immaterial (and therefore unverifiable), we fall back upon a current of air or gas (irv€Uµa); the essential reason of the thing is itself material, standing to it in the relation of a gaseous to a solid body.
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  • But long before this the peculiar character of air had been recognized as something intermediate to the corporeal and the incorporeal: when Diogenes of Apollonia revived the old Ionian hylozoism in opposition to the dualism of Anaxagoras, he made this, the typical example of matter in the gaseous state, his one element.
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  • The only cases, however, in which we have experimental values of this quantity are when the substance is either liquid and surrounded by similar liquid, or gaseous and surrounded by similar gas.
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  • In a chloridizing roast chlorine produces its effect as nascent chlorine or gaseous hydrochloric acid.
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  • Three primary "states of aggregation" are recognized - gaseous, liquid and solid.
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  • Solid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 4 H 2, first obtained by Le Verrier (loc. cit.), is formed by the action of phosphorus trichloride on gaseous phosphine (Besson, Comptes rendus, 111, p. 972); by the action of water on phosphorus di-iodide and by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.
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  • When warmed with alcoholic potash it yields gaseous phosphine, hydrogen and a hypophosphite.
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  • It is also prepared by the action of iodine on gaseous phosphine, or by heating amorphous phosphorus with concentrated hydriodic acid solution to 160° C. It crystallizes in large cubes and sublimes readily.
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  • It does not dissociate on heating as do the pentachloride and pentabromide, thus indicating the existence of pentavalent phosphorus in a gaseous compound; dissociation, however, into the trifluoride and free fluorine may be brought about by induction sparks of 150 to 200 mm.
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  • They have lost completely the gaseous characteristic of producing a line spectrum, and radiate like incandescent solids.
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  • Enclosing the photosphere is a truly gaseous envelope which is called the chromosphere, and which shows a spectrum of bright lines when we can isolate its emission from that of the photosphere.
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  • In the Hexapods and Chilopods, and the Arachnids (usually), they form tree-like branching structures, and their finest branches are finer than any blood-capillary, actually in some cases penetrating a single cell and supplying it with gaseous oxygen.
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  • The second conclusion is that, as a general rule, the incandescent heavenly bodies are not masses of solid or liquid matter as formerly assumed, but mainly masses either of gas, or of substances gaseous in their nature, so compressed by the gravitation of their superincumbent parts toward a common centre that their properties combine those of the three forms of matter known to us.
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  • We have strong reason to believe that even the sun, though much denser than the general average of the stars, may possibly be characterized as gaseous rather than solid.
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  • This is imposed upon us by the fact that it is only when matter is in a gaseous form that the spectroscope can give us certain knowledge as to its physical condition.
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  • Moreover, a gaseous body of uniform temperature, and so dense as to be non-transparent, does not radiate the characteristic spectrum of the gas of which it is composed.
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  • Precise conclusions are possible only when a gaseous body is transparent through and through, so that the gas emits its characteristic rays - or when the rays from an incandescent body of any kind pass through a gaseous envelope at a temperature lower than that of the body itself.
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  • In this case the revelations of the spectroscope relate only to the constitution of the gaseous envelope, and not to the body below the envelope, from which the light emanates.
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  • It is decomposed by water into arsenious and hydrofluoric acids, and absorbs ammonia forming the compound 2AsF3.5NH3 By the action of gaseous ammonia on arsenious halides at -30° C. to -40° C., arsenamide, As(NH2) is formed.
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  • It seems not unlikely that the final conclusion will be that instead of the reflecting matter being composed of solid particles it is an exceedingly tenuous gaseous envelope surrounding the sun and revolving on an axis the mean position of which is between that of the sun's equator and that of the invariable plane of the solar system.
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  • When the critical point is reached the value of r disappears altogether, and a carbonic-acid machine is then dependent for its refrigerating effect on the reduction in temperature produced by the internal work performed in expanding the gaseous carbonic acid from the condenser pressure to that in the refrigerator.
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  • To determine the direct effects of gaseous ammonia on semi-natural vegetation close to point sources.
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  • These parameters are tested in both liquid and gaseous fuel combustions.
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  • The United States, meanwhile, is re-emphasizing centrifuges over gaseous diffusion, a more cumbersome enrichment technology.
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  • Gaseous hydrogen can also be made when it is separated from the oxygen atoms in water using electricity via a process called electrolysis.
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  • Also... bond enthalpy values apply to molecules in the gaseous state.
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  • The wpt offered they evolve gaseous a sponsor the.
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  • I looked at Hubble's greatest hits: nebulae, spiral galaxies, planets, star clusters, gaseous nebulae.
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  • It transforms in the air to form gaseous nitric acid and toxic organic nitrates.
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  • Did i not cut off from invisible phosphorescence they evolve gaseous.
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  • The cheapest sensors are basic diffusion tubes for one gaseous pollutant.
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  • These degradation processes produce gaseous and particulate pollutants into the indoor air.
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  • Plain abdominal X-rays are useful to detect gaseous distention of the dysfunctional organs.
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  • But while gaseous products and even falling water are capable of modifying electrical conditions in their immediate neighbourhood, the " infection " produced by radium is more insidious, and other drawbacks present themselves in practice.
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  • In addition to the above gaseous rectifiers of oscillations it has been found that several crystals, such as carborundum (carbide of silicon), hessite, anastase and many others possess a unilateral conductivity and enable us to rectify trains of oscillations into continuous currents which can affect a telephone.
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  • In the terrestrial plants it differs in the subterranean and subaerial parts, being in the former preeminently absorptive, and in the latter protectiveprovision at the same time being made for the gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide necessary for respiration and feeding.
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  • Mechanism and Function of StomataIt is not quite exact to speak of either the gaseous interchanges or the transpiration as taking place through the stomata.
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  • Plants are furnished with a constructive mechanism by which they are enabled to fabricate the food on which they live from the inorganic, gaseous and liquid matters which they absorb.
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  • When chemical change is expressed with the aid of molecular formulae not only is the distribution of weight represented, but by the mere inspection of the symbols it is possible to deduce from the law of gaseous combination mentioned above, the relative volumes which the agents and resultants occupy in the state of gas if measured at the same temperature and under the same pressure.
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  • Thomson has shown (see CONDUCTION, ELECTRIC, § III.) that the negative ions in certain cases of gaseous conduction are much more mobile than the corresponding positive ions, and possess a mass of about the one-thousandth part of that of a hydrogen atom.
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  • These differ in that comets are visible either in a telescope or to the naked eye, and seem to be either wholly or partially of a nebulous or gaseous character, while meteors are, individually at least, invisible to us except as they become incandescent by striking the atmosphere of the earth.
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  • When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
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  • Gas carbon is produced by the destructive distillation of coal in the manufacture of illuminating gas (see GAS: Manufacture), being probably formed by the decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons.
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  • Owing to this, it is practically impossible to condense the gaseous hydrochloric acid into the commercial acid, although this acid may be obtained sufficiently strong to be worked up in the Weldon chlorine process (see below, 3).
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  • It is also prepared by the action of iodine on gaseous phosphine, or by heating amorphous phosphorus with concentrated hydriodic acid solution to 160° C. It crystallizes in large cubes and sublimes readily.
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  • In the regenerative system of firing, a mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen is produced by passing air through incandescent gas coke in a generator placed below the bench of retorts, and the heating value of the gases so produced is increased in most cases by the admixture of a small proportion of steam with the primary air supply, the steam being decomposed by contact with the red-hot coke in the generator into water gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (see Fuel: Gaseous).
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  • It is decomposed by water into arsenious and hydrofluoric acids, and absorbs ammonia forming the compound 2AsF3.5NH3 By the action of gaseous ammonia on arsenious halides at -30° C. to -40° C., arsenamide, As(NH2) is formed.
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  • We are equipped to titrate solid acids using both gaseous and liquid phase bases.
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  • Plain abdominal x-rays are useful to detect gaseous distention of the dysfunctional organs.
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  • It can be in a solid form, gaseous fuel form or as a liquid.
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  • However, the use of injectable or gaseous anesthesia may be dangerous, and, in some cases, can lead to coma or even death.
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  • The gaseous wax is converted into energy, the plasma state of matter, when it enters the area of the flame that is the combustion area.
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  • Areas of a candle's flame that burns blue are separating hydrogen from the gaseous wax which then becomes water vapor.
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  • Each watch features traser lights, a Gaseous Tritium Light Source (GTLS).
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  • Plus, many people find that consuming that many gaseous vegetables can be pretty hard on their digestive systems.
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  • These aliens are semi-permeable, almost gaseous beings, and have three genders required for reproduction.
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  • Combustion calorimeters are employed for observing the heat generated by the brisk interaction of substances, one of which at least is gaseous.
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  • Hence the gaseous atoms of hydrogen and oxygen could not have parts.
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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
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  • It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
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  • Clausius (1850), applying the same assumption, deduced the same value of F'(t), and showed that it was consistent with the mechanical theory and Joule's experiments, but required that a vapour like steam should deviate more considerably from the gaseous laws than was at that time generally admitted.
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  • Thomson (Lord Kelvin) from Regnault's tables of the properties of steam, assuming the gaseous laws, did not vary exactly as J/T.
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  • Many complicated expressions have been suggested by subsequent writers in the attempt to represent the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states in a single formula, but these are of a highly empirical nature, and beyond the scope of the present inquiry.
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  • In air of considerable density the mean free path of a molecule, between its collisions with other molecules, is exceedingly small, and any such increase of gaseous pressure in front of the black surface would be immediately neutralized by flow of the gas from places of high to places of low pressure.
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  • The problem of the stresses in rarefied gaseous media arising from inequalities of temperature, which is thereby opened out, involves some of the most delicate considerations in molecular physics.
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  • Warburg in 1875 on the viscosity of gases; its effects would be corrected for, in general, by a slight effective addition to the thickness of the gaseous layer.
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  • Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.
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  • This hypothesis, however, does not accord with the theory of the development of the earth from the state of a sphere of molt s en rock surrounded by an atmosphere of gaseous metals by which the first-formed clouds of aqueous vapour must have been absorbed.
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  • The great similarity between the salts of the ocean and the gaseous products of volcanic eruptions at the present time, rich in chlorides and sulphates of all kinds, is a strong argument for the ocean having been salt from the beginning.
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  • According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
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  • When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
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  • In point of fact it is found that the properties which are most easily explained are those connected with the gaseous state; the explanation of these properties in terms of the molecular structure of matter is the aim of the " Kinetic Theory of Gases."
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  • In the following table are given the values of the diameters of the molecules of six substances with which it is easy to experiment in the gaseous state, these values being calculated in different ways from formulae supplied by the kinetic theory.
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  • The gaseous mixture, issuing from the latter, is washed with water in the usual condensing apparatus, to remove the 40 or 50 parts of hydrochloric acid left unchanged, and can then be immediately employed for the manufacture of chlorate of potash.
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  • Outside this again is an envelope of matter of enormous extent and extreme tenuity, whether gaseous or partly minute liquid or solid drops, which is called the corona.
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  • The lower gaseous cloaks absorb a large part of the light admitted by the photosphere, and especially at the limb and for the more refrangible rays the loss of intensity is very marked.
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  • Its temperature must be dominated directly or indirectly by the surface radiation, and since the matter is gaseous and so open to redistribution, the same is true of density and pressure.
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  • An equivalent statement of the same conclusion may be put thus: supposing a gaseous nebula is destined to condense into a sun, the elementary matter of which it is composed will develop in the process into our known terrestrial and solar elements, parting with energy as it does so.
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  • The continuous spectrum leads to no inference, except that of the temperature of the central globe; but the multitude of dark lines by which it is crossed reveal the elements composing pe ct rum o the truly gaseous cloaks which enclose it.
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  • In the higher chromosphere on occasions metallic gases are carried up to such a level that without an eclipse a bright line spectrum of many elements may be seen, but it is always possible to see those of hydrogen and helium, and by opening the slit of the spectroscope so as to weaken still further the continuous spectrum from the photosphere (now a mere reflection) the actual forms of the gaseous structures called prominences round the sun's rim may be seen.
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  • In 1862 he published a memoir, Intorno alle strie degli spettri stellari, which indicated the feasibility of a physical classification of the stars; and on the 5th of August 1864 discovered the gaseous composition of comets by submitting to prismatic analysis the light of one then visible.
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  • As the Badische process effects this prevention by cooling the contact apparatus by means of the gaseous mixture to be later submitted to the catalytic action, the mixture is at the time heated up to the requisite temperature, and a considerable saving of fuel is the consequence.
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  • Of artificial productions the most fruitful and important is provided by the destructive or dry distillation of many organic substances; familiar examples are the distillation of coal, which yields ordinary lighting gas, composed of gaseous hydrocarbons, and also coal tar, which, on subsequent fractional distillations, yields many liquid and solid hydrocarbons, all of high industrial value.
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  • The gaseous state was well known to the ancients; for instance, in Greek cosmology, "air" (7rvEUµa) was one of the fundamental elements.
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  • The historical development of the chemistry of gases - pneumatic chemistry - is treated in the article Chemistry; the technical analysis of gaseous mixtures is treated below under Gas Analysis.
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  • The term "gas analysis" is given to that branch of analytical chemistry which has for its object the quantitative determination of the components of a gaseous mixture.
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  • There is very little doubt that the general course of the decompositions follows these iines; but any such simple explanation of the actions taking place is rendered impossible by the fact that, instead of the breaking-down of the hydrocarbons being completed in the coal, and only secondary reactions taking place in the retort, in practice the hydrocarbons to a great extent leave the coal as the vapours of condensible hydrocarbons, and the breaking down of these to such simple gaseous compounds as ethylene is proceeding in the retort at the same time as the breaking up of the ethylene already formed into acetylene and methane, and the polymerization of the former into higher compounds.
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  • The gas which is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, and which we employ as our chief illuminant, is not a definite com pound, but a mechanical mixture of several gases, some Gaseous .
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  • The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.
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  • The result is that from the time the gaseous mixture leaves the retort it begins to deposit condensation products owing to the decrease in temperature.
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  • At the same time the high temperature causes the pores of the fabric to open, allowing the sublimation ink, in its gaseous form, to permeate the material.
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  • Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician.
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  • In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
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  • Meanwhile the astronomical theories of development of the solar system from a gaseous condition to its present form, put forward by Kant and by Laplace, had impressed men's minds with the conception of a general movement of spontaneous progress or development in all nature.
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  • So long as they are connected together mechanically they have apparently the power of influencing one another in various ways, and of passing liquid or gaseous materials from one to another.
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  • This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
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  • Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
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  • The interpretation of the phenomena of gaseous conduction was rendered possible by the knowledge previously acquired of conduction through liquids; the newer subject is now reaching a position whence it can repay its debt to the older.
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  • At the great Indian eclipse of 1868 he demonstrated the gaseous nature of the red prominences, and devised a method of observing them under ordinary daylight conditions.
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  • These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere.
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  • The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
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  • By passing chloroform vapour over the heated dioxide the tetradiand tri-chlorides are formed, together with the free metal and a gaseous hydride, TiH 4 (Renz, Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2 49).
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  • Terrestrial plants have a gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which is necessary for respiration and feeding.
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  • Gaseous Interchanges and their Mechanism.Another feature of the construction of the plant has in recent years come into greater prominence than was formerly the case.
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  • This system of channels is in communication with the outer atmosphere through numerous small apertures, known as stomata, which are abundant upon the leaves and young twigs, and gaseous interchange between the plant and the air is by their assistance rendered constant and safe.
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  • This power of varying the area of the apertures by which gases enter the internal reservoirs is not advantageous to the gaseous interchangesindeed it may be directly the reverse.
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  • Baeyers hypothesis was entertained by botanists partly because it explained the gaseous interchanges accompanying photosynthesis.
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  • The materials of each ring would continue to cool and to contract until they passed from the gaseous to the liquid condition.
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  • In the older type the combustion chamber (of metal or glass) is sunk in the calorimeter proper, tubes being provided for the entrance and exit of the gaseous substances involved in the action.
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  • Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+[12]-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
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  • In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
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  • As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.
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  • This law states that: - gases combine with one another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are simply related to their combining weights.
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  • Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
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  • Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
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  • He made researches on volcanic phenomena, especially on the gaseous emanations.
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  • Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
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  • The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.
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  • These bubbles arise partly from the air enclosed between the particles of raw materials and partly from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials themselves.
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  • Sodium percarbonates of the formulae Na 2 CO 4, Na2C206, Na 2 C05, NaHCO 4 (two isomers) are obtained by the action of gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on the peroxides Na 2 0 2, Na 2 0 3, NaHO 2 (two isomers)in the presence of water at a low temperature (R.Wolffenstein and E.Peltner, Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 275, 280).
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  • By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
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  • Again, by raising the temperature, a metal in the solid state can be melted and liquefied, and poured into a mould to assume any form desired, which is retained when the metal cools and solidifies again; the gaseous state of a metal is revealed by the spectroscope.
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  • Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
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  • The chief disadvantage is the loss of nitrogen which it entails, this element being given off into the air in a free gaseous state.
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  • This phenomenon is connected with the fact that incandescent bodies, especially in rarefied gases, throw off or emit electrons or gaseous negative ions.
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  • Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels.
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  • The organism is largely dependent for its vital processes upon gaseous interchanges.
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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
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  • It may at other times lead to great difficulties in the supply of the gaseous constituents which are used in the manufacture of food.
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  • The dioxide has been known since the earliest times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in some volcanic springs.
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  • Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
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  • One man who understands the use of gaseous fuel can regulate the heat of a thousand or more retorts.
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  • These natural philosophers suggested that equal volumes of all gaseous substances must contain, at the same temperature and pressure, the same number of molecules.
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  • At low temperatures, on the other hand, they find, using an initial pressure of 'coo mm., that the temperatures on the helium scale are measurably higher than on the hydrogen scale, owing to the more perfectly gaseous condition of helium.
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  • Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.
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  • The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
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  • A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
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