At the gas station there were only two cars.
The city has railway shops and foundries, and manufactures furniture, carriages, tile, cigars and gas engines.
Brandon gave the car more gas and it straightened up, darting between the two vehicles.
The gas contains a certain amount of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, also traces of nitrogen.
If you worry about gas emissions from cows contributing to climate change, lobby for a cow that doesn't have gas.
"Just one massive gas leak," he said with a shrug.
Petroleum and natural gas also occur in the plateau rocks in great quantities.
rend., 1906, 1 43, p. 795, and 146, p. 435), and considerable quantities occur in some natural gas (Journ.
He listened attentively to her requests – something easy to see on the road, lots of room inside, easy to drive and with good gas mileage.
Store fronts interspersed with vacant lots lined one side of the street while the other remained absent of any buildings except a closed gas station and a dollar store.
She had tied the silk cord to the brass gas lamp at the ceiling in the center of the room, before knotting the other end about her soft white neck.
That'll give you more gas than the Hindenberg, Dean said but he couldn't be sure he was heard over the din of music and vacuum.
Early the next morning, after showering, he walked around the corner to a gas station and from an outside payphone dialed Cece Baldwin.
She didn't immediately notice the tall man watching her from the gas station.
Much of the natural gas is piped out of the state into Ohio (even into the northern parts), Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland; within the state gas has been utilized as a fuel in carbon black and glass factories.
Ramsay, repeating these experiments, found that the inert gas emitted refused xIIl.
"It handles well and gets good gas mileage," she answered, hoping Alex would be out soon.
A gas station that fixed flats, a few houses and the store – that was about it.
Natural gas, piped from the Kansas fields, is used for light and power, and electricity for commercial lighting and power is derived from plants on Spring River, near Vark, Kansas, and on Shoal creek.
The gas gage registered three quarters of a tank.
In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
I spotted a gas station on a corner as we entered the city of Lynn but as we pulled closer, we saw the place was out of business.
Jn 1841 natural gas was found with salt brine in a well on the Kanawha, and was used as a fuel to evaporate the salt water.
The glass industry began in Wheeling in 1821, and there a process was discovered by which in 1864 for soda ash bicarbonate of lime was substituted, and a lime glass was made which was as fine as lead glass; other factors contributing to the localization of the manufacture of glass here are the fine glass sand obtained in the state and the plentiful supply of natural gas for fuel Transportation and Commerce.
Natural gas, like petroleum, was first heard of in West Virginia in connexion with a burning spring on the Kanawha, and there were gas springs on the Big Sandy and the Little Kanawha.
Certain difficulties that he met with in his speculations led him to the conclusion that the particles of any one kind of gas, though all of them alike, must differ from those of another gas both in size and weight.
The gas is in all probability only mechanically retained in the minerals in which it is found.
In the hot springs of Bath it amounts to about one-thousandth part of the gas evolved.
I had let so much gas out of my balloon that I could not rise again, and in a few minutes the earth closed over my head.
He could figure the gas he'd have used and written his own receipt when he filled up the motor home, stopping after filling the tank part way.
The gas also occurs in minute quantities in the common minerals of the earth's crust.
I made my way back to the kitchen and turned on the gas stove burner for enough light to rummage through drawers until I located a box of wooden matches.
The electroscope was used in conjunction with an oil lamp or gas flame.
It was three miles before he came to a closed gas station, but there was a phone booth outside.
Following Newton, he believed a gas to be made up of particles or atoms, From Dalton's Hydrogen Gas.
With another form of gas stove coke is used in place of the perforated asbestos; the fire is started with the gas, which, when the coke is well alight, may be dispensed with, and the fire kept up with coke in the usual way.
She talked about a friend in Chicago but gas was costing lots more than we thought and she was getting real tired from driving.
I'm sure there's some lighter fluid around here but your grill is gas so you don't need it.
The silk cord was fastened to the brass gas lamp that centered the ceiling of the room, the other end tightly knotted about her soft white neck.
The city owns its water-supply system and owns and operates its gas plant; an electric plant, privately owned, lights the streets and many houses.
Kyaukpyu contains numerous "mud volcanoes," from which marsh gas is frequently discharged, with occasional issue of flame.
I wouldn't tell that ninny if his shoes were on fire and he was standing at a leaky gas pump.
There was also a small sheet of white paper listing 11.2 gallons of gas purchased in Aberdeen, Maryland, a mileage figure and the amount of the purchase.
Alex had the foresight to have the builders install a gas range.
An apartment sized gas range stood beside a small refrigerator that looked like something out of the 50's.
Pump gas and sign baseball cards?
The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
The best form of stove is that with which perfect combustion is most nearly attained, and to which a pan of water is affixed to supply a desirable humidity to the air, the gas having the effect of drying the atmosphere.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
Dalton believed that the molecules of the elementary gases consisted each of one atom; his diagram for hydrogen gas makes the point clear.
Aside from a wasted 20 minutes searching for gas in New Brunswick and a missed exit on the Garden State Parkway, the trip was uneventful.
Cyanogen is a colourless gas, possessing a peculiar characteristic smell, and is very poisonous.
Rutherford, who showed that on removing oxygen from air a gas remained, which was incapable of supporting combustion or respiration.
Schlutius in 1903 employed Dowson gas as a source of hydrogen, and induced combination by means of platinum and the silent discharge.
The residual gas is then passed through a tube containing porous materials, such as woodor bone-charcoal, platinized pumice or spongy platinum, then mixed with steam and again forced through the tube.
Nitrogen is a colourless, tasteless and odourless gas, which is only very slightly soluble in water.
If, however, the gas be first passed through a scrubber so as to wash out the ammonia this danger is avoided.
The hotel lobby looks like something out of the roaring twenties: there are ornate ceilings, brass chandeliers and a gas fireplace.
The outdoor space is lit with old gas lamps, has running fountains and is surrounded with palm and crepe myrtle trees.
When acetylene was first introduced on a commercial scale grave fears were entertained as to its safety, it being represented that it had the power of combining with certain metals, more especially copper and silver, to form acetylides of a highly explosive character, and that even with coal gas, which contains less than i %, such copper compounds had been known to be formed in cases where the gas-distributing mains were composed of copper, and that accidents had happened from this cause.
Thus the contribution to the total impulsive pressure exerted on the area dS in time dt from this cause is mu X udtdS X (11 3 m 3 /,r 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2 )dudvdw (I o) The total pressure exerted in bringing the centres of gravity of all the colliding molecules to rest normally to the boundary is obtained by first integrating this expression with respect to u, v, w, the limits being all values for which collisions are possible (namely from - co too for u, and from - oo to + oo for v and w), and then summing for all kinds of molecules in the gas.
The equation of energy is dQ=dE+pdv, (17) expressing that the total energy dQ is used partly in increasing the internal energy of the gas, and partly in expanding the gas against the pressure p. If we take p = RNT/v from equation (14) and substitute for E from equation (16), this last equation becomes dQ 2 (n +3)RNdT +RNTdv (18) which may be taken as the general equation of calorimetry, for a gas which accurately obeys equation (14).
Natural gas is found to consist mainly of the lower paraffins, with varying quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, in some cases also sulphuretted hydrogen and possibly ammonia.
This on being washed and decomposed with hydrochloric acid yielded a stream of acetylene gas.
The term is more customarily given to productions of flame such as we have in the burning of oils, gas, fuel, &c., but it is conveniently extended to other cases of oxidation, such as are met with when metals are heated for a long time in air or oxygen.
A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.
in diameter, and the smallest 2 in., are wrapped in asbestos, felt and other non-conducting materials, and are placed in wooden tubes laid under ground like water and gas pipes.
In the 'seventies all the facilities of a modern city - gas, street-cars, water-works, telephones - were introduced.
Hydrogen gas readily burns in oxygen or air with the formation of water.
Boron hydride has probably never been isolated in the pure condition; on heating boron trioxide with magnesium filings, a magnesium boride Mg 3 B 2 is obtained, and if this be decomposed with dilute hydrochloric acid a very evil-smelling gas, consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and boron hydride, is obtained.
This mixture burns with a green flame forming boron trioxide; whilst boron is deposited on passing the gas mixture through a hot tube, or on depressing a cold surface in the gas flame.
Hatfield obtained from it a gas of composition B3H3.
It is a colourless pungent gas which is exceedingly soluble in water.
It rapidly absorbs the elements of water wherever possible, so that a strip of paper plunged into the gas is rapidly charred.
A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric acid HF BF3 in solution.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
Boron chloride BC1 3 results when amorphous boron is heated in chlorine gas, or more readily, on passing a stream of chlorine over a heated mixture of boron trioxide and charcoal, the volatile product being condensed in a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture.
It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.
Borimide B 2 (NH) 3 is obtained on long heating of the compound B 2 S 3.6NH 3 in a stream of hydrogen, or ammonia gas at 115-120° C. It is a white solid which decomposes on heating into boron nitride and ammonia.
By the action of zinc methyl on ethyl borate, in the requisite proportions, boron trimethyl is obtained, thus :-2B(OC2H5)2+ 6Zn(CH 3) 2 =2B(CH 3) 3 +6Zn< OC2H5 as a colourless spontaneously inflammable gas of unbearable smell.
Many of the well-waters contain gases; thus the town of Roma is lighted by natural gas which escapes from its well.
Trans., 18 53, p. 357, 18 54, p. 321, and 1862, p. 579) showed that the statement that no internal work is done when a gas expands or contracts is not quite true, but the amount is very small in the cases of those gases which, like oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, can only be liquefied by intense cold and pressure.
Clerk Maxwell supposed two compartments, A and B, to be filled with gas at the same temperature, and to be separated by an ideal, infinitely thin partition containing a number of exceedingly small trap-doors, each of which could be opened or closed without any expenditure of energy.
By continuing this process every unit of mass which enters B will carry with it more energy than each unit which leaves B, and hence the temperature of the gas in B will be raised and that of the gas in A lowered, while no heat is lost and no energy expended; so that by the application of intelligence alone a portion of gas of uniform pressure and temperature may be sifted into two parts, in which both the temperature and the pressure are different, and from which, therefore, work can be obtained at the expense of heat.
He shows that the amount of work obtainable is equal to that which can be done by the first gas in expanding into the space occupied by the second (supposed vacuous) together with that done by the second in expanding into the space occupied by the first.
In such experiments the molecular energy of a gas is converted into work only in virtue of the molecules being separated into classes in which their velocities are different, and these classes then allowed to act upon one another through the intervention of a suitable heat-engine.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
Fleming discovered that if the filament is made incandescent by the current from an insulated battery there is a unilateral conductivity of the rarefied gas between the hot filament and the metal plate, such that if the negative terminal of the filament is connected outside the lamp through a coil in which electric oscillations are created with the platinum plate, only one half of the oscillations are permitted to pass, viz., those which carry negative electricity from the hot filament to the cooled plate through the vacuous space.
Poulsen immensely improved this process by placing the arc in an atmosphere of hydrogen, coal-gas or some other nonoxidizing gas, and at the same time arranging it in a strong magnetic field.'
Then the Turin gas men struck, and a general sympathy strike broke out in that city in consequence, which resulted in scenes of violence, lasting two days.
Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
That the fixation of the gas is carried out by the fungal organism either in the soil or in the plant, and the nitrogenous substance so produced is absorbed by the organism, which is in turn consumed by the green plant.
(5) There must be a supply of oxygen to the growing cell, for the protoplast is dependent upon this gas for the performance of its vital functions, and particularly for the liberation of the energy which is demanded in the constructive processes.
Ustilago, and filling a greenhouse with hydrocyanic acid gas when young insects are commencing their ravages, e.g.
Exchange of gas through the walls of the air-sacs, almost devoid of blood-vessels, can at best be much restricted.
Natural gas is piped to Frostburg from the West Virginia fields, 120 m.
The next following instalments of vapour, getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, condense into a kind of "snow," known in commerce and valued as "flowers of sulphur" (fibres sulphuris).
Sulphuretted hydrogen is a colourless gas possessing an extremely offensive odour.
The gas is much more soluble in alcohol.
It is tasteless, colourless and odourless gas, which is exceedingly stable and inert.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
It is a colourless gas which possesses a characteristic suffocating odour.
The solution of the gas in water is used under the name of sulphurous acid.
Thionyl fluoride, SOF 21 has been obtained as a fuming, gas by decomposing arsenic fluoride with thionyl chloride (Moissan and Lebeau, Corn pt.
1 3 2, p. 374), is an exceedingly stable colourless gas at ordinary temperatures, becoming solid at about -120° C. Sulphuryl chloride, SO 2 C1 2, first obtained in 1838 by Regnault (Ann.
Soc., 1856, 7, p. 11) by the direct union of sulphur trioxide with hydrochloric acid gas, may also be obtained by distilling concentrated sulphuric acid with phosphorus oxychloride: 2H 2 SO 4 +POC1 3 =2SO 2 C1.
Hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 0 4, was first really obtained by Berthollet in 1789 when he showed that iron left in contact with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide dissolved without any evolution of gas, whilst C. F.
Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o° C. The solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
The steam produced in consequence of this heat transference from the furnace gas to the water carries heat to the cylinder, where 7 to II% is transformed into mechanical energy, the remainder passing away up the chimney with the exhaust steam.
As to lighting, the oil lamp has been largely displaced by gas and electricity.
Gas has the disadvantage that in case of a collision its inflammability may assist ally fire that may be started.
This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.
The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
The city is supplied with natural gas.
Besides the royal foundry, with which are connected machine manufactories and boilerworks, there are other foundries, meal mills and manufactories of wire, gas pipes, cement and paper.
For example, when metallic zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid with production of zinc sulphate (in solution) and hydrogen gas, a definite quantity of heat is produced for a given amount of zinc dissolved, provided that the excess of energy in the initial system appears entirely as heat.
Each grammemolecule of a gas which appears under constant pressure during a chemical action (e.g.
The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
The city owns its gas works, water works and an electric-lighting plant (1910) for municipal lighting.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
The mass is then covered with two-thirds of its weight of alcohol, and saturated with hydrochloric acid gas.
The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.
Natural gas abounds in the eastern, central and north-western parts of the state.
Thus by heating spirits of salt he obtained "marine acid air" (hydrochloric acid gas), and he was able to collect it because he happened to use mercury, instead of water, in his pneumatic trough.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
Natural gas is also furnished to the city from oil-fields in Kansas.
Here the application of the term is limited to the liquid which is so important an article of commerce, though references will also be made to natural gas which accompanies petroleum.
The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.
Petroleum (" burning water ") was known in Japan in the 7th century, whilst in Europe the gas springs of the north of Italy led to the adoption in 1226 by the municipality of Salsomaggiore of a salamander surrounded by flames as its emblem.
In the 17th century, Thomas Shirley brought the natural gas of Wigan, in Shropshire, to the notice of the Royal Society.
The main requisites for a productive oil or gas field are a porous reservoir and an impervious cover.
Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.
In addition to these two necessary factors, structural conditions play an important part in determining the accumulation of oil and gas.
Any gas which may be present rises to the summits of the anticlines.
Oil and gas are often met with in drilled wells under great pressure, which is highest as a rule in the deepest wells.
The gas wells of Pennsylvania indicate about double the pressure of those drilled in the Trenton limestone, 600-800 lb.
In April 1897 there was still an occasional outburst of oil and gas.
That it is caused by the compressed condition of the gradually accumulating gas.
But new deposits are continually being exploited, and there may be others as yet unknown, which would entirely alter any view that might be expressed at the present time in regard to the probable duration of the world's supply of oil and gas.
The question of the origin of petroleum (and natural gas), though for the first half of the 19th century of little more than academic interest, has engaged the attention of naturalists and others for over a hundred years.
It is either set in the first instance at some distance from the engine and well, or is subsequently removed sufficiently far away before the drill enters the oil-bearing formation, and until the oil and gas are under control, in order to minimize the risk of fire.
A flow of oil may often be induced in a well which would otherwise require to be pumped, by preventing the escape of gas which issues with the oil, and causing its pressure to raise the oil.
The gas thus confined in the oil-chamber forces the oil up the tubing.
The wells from which the supplies of natural gas are obtained in the United States are drilled and cased in the same manner as the oil wells.
Natural gas is largely used in the United States, and for some time, owing to defective methods of storage, delivery and consumption, great waste occurred.
The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.
The gas is distributed to the consumer from the wells in wrought-iron pipes, ranging in diameter from 20 in.
In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
They found that the paraffin was thus converted, with the evolution of but little gas, into hydrocarbons which were liquid at ordinary temperatures.
without any valve between them - the space in the still and condenser not occupied by liquid being charged with air, carbon dioxide or other gas, under the required pressure, and the condenser being provided with a regulated outlet for condensed liquid.
Petroleum products are also largely utilized in gas manufacture for, (1) the production of " air-gas," (2) the manufacture of oil-gas, and (3) the enrichment of coal-gas.
Sand bars keep filling up the mouths of these channels, necessitating frequent dredging and extension of the breakwaters, work undertaken by the Federal government, which also maintains a most comprehensive and completeystem of aids to navigation, including lighthouses and lightships, fog alarms, gas and other buoys, life-saving, storm signal and weather report stations.
above Laredo on the Rio Grande, and natural gas was discovered about 28 m.
The city was built by the state on an open plateau, and provided with all necessary public buildings, gas, water and tramway services before the seat of government was transferred from Ouro Preto.
Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.
In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
Turning to the study of radioactivity, he noticed its association with the minerals which yield helium, and in support of the hypothesis that that gas is a disintegration-product of radium he proved in 1903 that it is continuously formed by the latter substance in quantities sufficiently great to be directly recognizable in the spectroscope.
He also showed that on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary air; moreover, the weight of the " air " set free from a given weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern carbon dioxide, was formed.
The former experiment had been performed by Scheele and Priestley, who had named the gas " phlogisticated air "; Lavoisier subsequently named it oxygen, regarding it as the " acid producer " (OE, sour).
Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.
Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.
One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
When nitric peroxide, N204, is converted into gas, it decomposes, and at about 180° C. its vapour entirely consists of molecules of the composition N02; while at temperatures between this and o C. it consists of a mixture in different proportions of the two kinds of molecules, N 2 O 4 and N02.
Atmospheric air was carefully investigated by Cavendish, who showed that it consisted of two elementary constituents: nitrogen, which was isolated by Rutherford in 1772, and oxygen, isolated in 1774; and Black established the presence, in minute quantity, of carbon dioxide (van Helmont's gas sylvestre).
Davy also described and partially investigated the gas, named by him " euchlorine," obtained by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid; this gas has been more recently examined by Pebal.
A consequence of this empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included in the same division.
According to this theory a " chemical type " embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same type.
In his earlier experiments he burned the substance in a known volume of oxygen, and by measuring the residual gas determined the carbon and hydrogen.
Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour.
Any evolved gas must be examined.
The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.
(a) Gravimetric. - This method is made up of four operations: (I) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable solvent; (2) a particular reagent is added which precipitates the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and ignited either in air or in any other gas, and then weighed.
The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen.
But this relation is not rigorously true; in fact, it does not accurately express the behaviour of any gas.
In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
From the ratio Cp/C„ conclusions may be drawn as to the molecular condition of the gas.
Now the value of K, -y being measured in dynes and M being the molecular weight of the substance as a gas, is in general 2.121; this value is never exceeded, but in many cases it is less.
The region is a good one for general farming, and natural gas and petroleum are found in abundance in the vicinity.
Lancaster is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural region, has good transportation facilities, and is near the Hocking Valley and Sunday Creek Valley coal-fields; its commercial and industrial importance increased greatly, after 1900, through the development of the neighbouring natural gas fields and, after 1907-1908, through the discovery of petroleum near the city.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks and natural gas plant.
Natural gas has been found at several points.
The most notable gas discovery is that at Medicine Hat, which has wells with unlimited quantities.
The gas is excellent, is used for lighting the town, supplies light and fuel for the people, and a number of industries are using the gas for manufacturing.
Coal, oil, natural gas, clay and iron are found in the vicinity, and among the city's manufactures are iron, steel, glass, furniture and pottery.
The important mineral products are salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas.
Natural gas is found in Caddo parish, about 20 m.
Shreveport, Oil City, Blanchard, Mooringsport, Bozier City and Texarkana are supplied with natural gas by pipe lines from this field.
Locally, asphalts are used as gas enrichers.
Priestley, who obtained it by reducing nitrogen peroxide with iron, may be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate at 170-260° C., or by reducing a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with zinc. It is a colourless gas, which is practically odourless, but possesses a sweetish taste.
It is used as an anaesthetic, principally in dentistry, producing when inhaled a condition of hysterical excitement often accompanied by loud laughter, whence it is sometimes called "laughing gas."
It is a colourless gas which is only sparingly soluble in water.
It may be liquefied, its critical temperature being -93, 5°, and the liquid boils at -153.6° C. It is not a supporter of combustion, unless the sustance introduced is at a sufficiently high temperature to decompose the gas, when combustion will continue at the expense of the liberated oxygen.
If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.
A dark blue liquid is produced, and the first portions of gas boiling off from the mixture correspond fairly closely in composition with nitrogen trioxide.
Nitrogen peroxide, NO 2 or N204, may be obtained by mixing oxygen with nitric oxide and passing the red gas so obtained through a freezing mixture.
The production of this red gas when air is mixed with nitric oxide was mentioned by R.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
Nitrogen is a very inert gas: it will neither burn nor support the combustion of ordinary combustibles.
It does not support the combustion of a taper, but burning phosphorus and red-hot carbon will continue to burn in the gas.
It is an orange-coloured gas which may be readily liquefied and by further cooling may be solidified.
It is a gas at ordinary temperature; when liquefied it boils at -63.5° C. and on solidification melts at -139° C. Water decomposes it into nitric and hydrofluoric acids.
A gas company, first incorporated in 1837, supplies the city as well as Llandaff and Penarth with gas, but the corporation also supplies electric power both for lighting and working the tramways, which were purchased from a private company in 1898.
The docks are provided with gas and electric lights, 18 steam cranes for loading and discharging vessels, a triple line of railway and a supply of fresh water.
Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.
When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
This irreversibility is due to the work required to evolve bubbles of gas at the surface of bright platinum plates.
Rubber mixed in the usual way with about WA of sulphur is now softened by heat, forced into the mould, and retained there by pressure during the operation of curing, which is usually effected in an iron box heated over a gas burner to 140° C.
Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.
In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.
The vessel is filled through the spout, and the water is driven out by the pressure of the gas it contains, when the valve is opened.
It is situated in a rich agricultural region which abounds in oil and natural gas.
The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).
If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
The ring thus prepared was placed in a cast-iron box and heated in a gas furnace.
The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.
They relate almost entirely to electrical phenomena, such as the magnetic rotation of light, the action of gas batteries, the effects of torsion on magnetism, the polarization of electrodes, &c., sufficiently complete accounts of which are given in Wiedemann's Galvanismus.
The lower members of the series are neutral liquids possessing a characteristic smell; they are soluble in water and are readily volatile (formaldehyde, however, is a gas at ordinary temperatures).
These are colourless crystalline compounds, which are most readily prepared by passing ammonia gas into an ethereal solution of the aldehyde.
The gas and electric lighting is in the hands of private firms. The administration of the park, the city improvements and the water and sewerage departments have been handed over to boards and trusts.
Much of the food remains in the stomach and, undergoing fermentation, causes the evolution of gas which distends the stomach and gives rise to unavoidable belching.
The mines are free from gas and fire damp and none is more than 500 ft.
Stannous Chloride, SnC1 2, can only be obtained pure by heating pure tin in a current of pure dry hydrochloric acid gas.
This salt is also formed by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric acid and allowing it to crystallize, and is industrially prepared by passing sufficiently hydrated hydrochloric acid gas over granulated tin contained in stoneware bottles and evaporating the concentrated solution produced in tin basins over granulated tin.
Pipe lines supply the city with natural gas.
Dry guncotton heated in ammonia gas detonates at about 70°, and ammonium hydroxide solutions of all strengths slowly decompose it, yielding somewhat complex products.
The relative stability is then judged by the amount of nitrogen gas collected in a certain time.
In contact with hydriodic acid gas at o° C., it forms ethyl iodide (R.
Bituminous coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity, and the borough ships coal and lumber, and has various important manufactures.
Fermentative changes are set up in it, characterized by the evolution of gas and the formation of products of suboxidation, some of which, being volatile, account for the characteristic odour.
Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.
Gas-lighting was introduced on one side of Pall Mall in 1807, and in 1810 the Gas Light & Coke Company received a charter, and developed gas-lighting in Westminster.
The City of London Gas Company followed in 1817, and seven other companies soon after.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
Various acts from 1860 onwards have laid down laws as to the quality and cost of gas.
Gas must be supplied at 16-candle illuminating power, and is officially tested by the chemists' department of the London County Council.
The amalgamations mentioned were effected subsequently to 1860, and there are now three principal companies within the county, the Gas Light & Coke, South Metropolitan and Commercial, though certain other companies supply some of the outlying districts.
Finsbury Square was the first public place in which gas lighting was actually adopted, and Grosvenor Square the last.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
By using compressed air vitiation of the mine air is avoided, as well as all danger of fire or explosion of gas.
By adopting modern non-sparking motors there is but little danger of igniting explosive gas.
In mining operations explosives are used on a large scale and the powder gases contain large quantities of the very poisonous gas, carbon monoxide, a small percentage of which may cause death, and even a minute percentage of which in the air will seriously affect the health.
In addition to these sources of contamination the air of the mine is frequently charged with gas issuing from the rocks or from the mineral deposit.
For example, carbon dioxide occurs in some mines, and hydrogen sulphide, which is a poisonous gas, in others.
In coal-mines we have to deal with " fire-damp " or marsh gas, and with inflammable coal dust, which form explosive mixtures with air and frequently lead to disastrous explosions resulting in great loss of life.
Supposing the vessel to be exhausted to have already been securely connected to the pump, we now lower the reservoir B so as to reduce the pressure in A sufficiently below the tension in the gas to be sucked in, and, by turning the cock so as to connect A with the vessels to be exhausted, cause the gas to expand into and almost fill A.
The cock is now shut against both communications, the reservoir lifted, the gas contents of A discharged and so on, until, when after an exhaustion mercury is let into A, the metal strikes against the top without interposition of a gas-bell.
be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube.
The great advantages of Sprengel's pump lie in the simplicity of its construction and in the readiness with which it adapts itself to the collecting of the gas.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
They are merely craters raised above the level of the surrounding country by the gradual accretion of the soft oily mud, which overflows at frequent intervals whenever a discharge of gas occurs.
15) employed for melting glass are usually heated with gas on the " Siemens," or some similar system of regenerative heating.
In the United States natural gas is used wherever it is available.
In Germany, Austria and the United States, gas furnaces are generally used.
The furnaces are driven to a white heat in order to fuse the mixture and expel bubbles of gas and air.
The fractured edge is smoothed by the impact of a gas flame.
The glass in process of fusion is contained in a basin or tank built up of large blocks of fire-clay and is heated by one or more powerful gas flames which enter the upper part of the furnace chamber through suitable apertures or " ports."
In Europe the gas burnt in these furnaces is derived from special gas-producers, while in some parts of America natural gas is utilized.
With producer gas it is necessary to pre-heat both the gas and the air which is supplied for its combustion by passing both through heated regenerators (for an account of the principles of the regenerative furnace see article Furnace).
In some works, the older method of melting the glass in large pots or crucibles is still adhered to, although the old-fashioned coal-fired furnaces have nearly everywhere given place to the use of producer gas and regenerators.
It is attacked rapidly by fluorine at ordinary temperature, and by chlorine when heated in a current of the gas.
Silicon hydride, SiH4, is obtained in an impure condition, as a spontaneously inflammable gas, by decomposing magnesium silicide with hydrochloric acid, or by the direct union of silicon and hydrogen in the electric arc. In the pure state it may be prepared by decomposing ethyl silicoformate in the presence of sodium (C. Friedel and A.
When pure, it is a colourless gas which is not spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperature and pressure, but a slight increase of temperature or decrease of pressure sets up decomposition.
It is a colourless, strongly fuming gas which has a suffocating smell.
Ruff and Curt Albert (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 53) by decomposing titanium fluoride with silicon chloroform in sealed vessels at 100 -120° C. It is a colourless gas which may be condensed to a liquid boiling at -80 2° C. On solidification it melts at about -110° C. The gas is very unstable, decomposing slowly, even at ordinary temperatures, into hydrogen,, silicon fluoride and silicon: 4SiHF 3 =2H 2 +3SiF 4 +Si.
It combines directly with ammonia gas to form SiC1 4 .
Wailer (Ann., 1857, 104, p. 94), is formed by heating crystallized silicon in hydrochloric acid gas at a temperature below red heat, or by the action of hydrochloric acid gas on copper silicide, the products being condensed by liquid air and afterwards fractionated (0.
It unites directly with ammonia gas yielding a compound of variable composition.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).
Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.
Tin dissolves readily in strong hot hydrochloric acid as SnC12; aqueous sulphuric acid does not act on it appreciably in the cold; at 150° it attacks it more or less quickly, according to the strength of the acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen or, when the acid is stronger, of sulphurous acid gas and deposition of sulphur (Calvert and Johnson).
- The noble metals (from silver upwards) do not combine directly with oxygen given as oxygen gas (02), although, like silver, they may absorb this gas largely when in the fused condition, and may not be proof against ozone, 03.
Chlorine.-All metals, when treated with chlorine gas at the proper temperatures, pass into chlorides.
BENZENE, C 6 H 6, a hydrocarbon discovered in 1825 by Faraday in the liquid produced in the compression of the illuminating gas obtained by distilling certain oils and fats.
Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.
A gas is a compressible fluid, and the change in volume is considerable with moderate variation of pressure.
Liquids, again, can be poured from one open vessel into another, and can be kept in an uncovered vessel, but a gas tends to diffuse itself indefinitely and must be preserved in a closed reservoir.
The distinguishing characteristics of the three kinds of substance or states of matter, the solid, liquid and gas, are summarized thus in O.
A gas has neither size nor shape.
Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
The theory preceding is of practical application in the vestigation of the stability of the axial motion of a submarine oat, of the elongated gas bag of an airship, or of a spinning rifled rojectile.
The branch of hydrodynamics which discusses wave motion in a liquid or gas is given now in the articles Sound and Wave; while the influence of viscosity is considered under Hydraulics.
Their "firedamp" (formerly fulminating damp) is marsh gas, which, when mixed with air and exploded, produced "choke damp," "after damp," or "suffocating damp" (carbon dioxide).
This is a closed vessel, into which carbonic acid gas (produced as described hereafter) is forced, and combining with the lime in the juice forms carbonate of lime.
The principal improvement made of recent years in this portion of the process has been the construction of pipes through which the carbonic acid gas is injected into the juice in such a manner that they can be easily withdrawn and a clean set substituted.
It is then treated with sulphurous acid gas, for the purpose of decolorization, again limed to neutralize the acid, and then passed through a third saturator wherein all traces of lime and sulphur are removed.
The use of sulphurous acid gas is entirely abandoned, and instead of three carbonatations with corresponding labour and plant only one is required.
The carbonic acid gas injected into the highly limed juice in the saturators is made by the calcination of limestone in a kiln provided with three cleaning doors, so arranged as to allow the lime to be removed simultaneously from them every six hours.
The gas generated in the kiln is taken off at the top by a pipe to a gas-washer.
In this it passes through four sheets of water, by which it is not only freed from any dust and dirt that may have come over with it from the kiln, but is also cooled to a temperature which permits an air-pump to withdraw the gas from the kiln, through the gas-washer, and force it into the saturators, without overheating.
If the latter is too compact or has its interstices filled with carbon dioxide gas or with water - as is the case when the ground is water-logged - the roots rapidly die of suffocation just as would an animal under the same conditions.
Pure carbonate of lime when heated loses 44% of its weight, the decrease being due to the loss of carbon dioxide gas.
Gas-lime is a product obtained from gasworks where quicklime is used to purify the gas from sulphur compounds and other objectionable materials.
When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.
The charging operation being completed, the temperature is raised, and as a consequence an evolution of carbon monoxide soon begins, and becomes visible by the gas bursting out into the characteristic blue flame.
(a) The gas is made from the fuel in a detached fireplace and conducted while hot into the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the air for complete combustion is heated by the products of combustion on their way to the chimney.
(b) Both the producer gas and the air are heated before they enter the combustion chamber, as in the Siemens system of regenerative firing.
(c) Natural gas is piped to the furnace, where it meets air heated by the chimney gases.
On a direct-fired furnace at least one man, the brigadier, must be an expert in all the operations involved; but with a gas furnace a division of labour is possible.
The men who charge and empty the retorts, those who draw and cast the metal, and those who keep the furnace in repair, need not know anything about the making or using of gas, and the men who make the gas need not know anything about a zinc furnace.
A rod of perfectly pure zinc, when immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, is so very slowly attacked that there is no visible evolution of gas; but, if a piece of platinum, copper or other more electro-positive metal be brought into contact with the zinc, it dissolves readily, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of the sulphate.
Dumas, who regarded them as hydrates of olefiant gas (ethylene); on the other they yielded chloroform, chloral and aldehyde, as well as other compounds of less general interest, and also the method of forming mirrors by depositing silver from a slightly ammoniacal solution by acet aldehyde.
Its importance as a manufacturing centre is due to its location in the natural gas region.
The reduction is not due to electrolysis, but to the action of carbon on alumina, a part of the carbon in the charge being consumed and evolved as carbon monoxide gas, which burns at the orifice in the cover so long as reduction is taking place.
At ordinary temperatures it is a gas, but may be condensed to a liquid which boils at - 6° C. It has a strong ammoniacal smell, burns readily and is exceedingly soluble in water.
Ottawa has an important trade in grain and live-stock; soft coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity; the manufactures include flour, windmills, wire-fences, furniture, bricks, brooms and foundry products.
Coal mining is an important industry, and the borough is supplied with natural gas.
The railways, lighthouses, gas and waterworks and other concessions and industries were placed in British hands.
Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.
Dittmar showed that this may be avoided by leading a fine, steady stream of dry gas - air, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, &c., according to the substance operated upon - through the liquid by means of a fine capillary tube, the lower end of which reaches to nearly the bottom of the flask.
The technology of distillation is best studied in relation to the several industries in which it is employed; reference should be made to the articles COAL-TAR, GAS, PETROLEUM, SPIRITS, NITRIC ACID, &c. (C. E.*)
Other lines in the red and green have been detected and found by comparison with the lines of marsh gas.
By concentrating the aqueous solution between 90-130° C., or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated aqueous solution, a second hydrated form of composition, SrC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained.
The anhydrous chloride is formed by heating strontium or its monoxide in chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.
The municipality owns and operates the water-works, electric-lighting plant and gas plant.
metal reacts with the water, as is well known, forming caustic alkali, which dissolves in the solution, and hydrogen, which comes off as a gas.
If the latter be insoluble, the gas diffuses into the solution and, when this becomes saturated, escapes into the air.
The same inventor has patented the application of electrolysed chlorides to the purification of starch by the oxidation of less stable organic bodies, to the bleaching of oils, and to the purification of coal gas, spirit and other substances.
Natural gas is extensively used for fuel and for lighting.
The first difficulty was to make it sufficiently light in relation to the power its machinery could develop; and several machines were built in which trials were made of steam, and of compressed air and carbonic acid gas as motive agents.
It can develop vacuoles, or rather fine bubbles of carbonic acid gas in its cytoplasm, to float up to the surface of the water.
An ample supply of natural gas is utilized by its manufacturing establishments; and among its manufactures are axes, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, furniture, boilers, woollen goods, glass and chemical fire-engines.
Weith, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1513), and by the spontaneous hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of cyanogen gas.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
This singular phenomenon is supposed to owe its appearance to an accumulation of gas, formed by the decay of vegetable matter, detaching and raising to the surface the matted weeds which cover the floor of the lake at this point.
At Fordsburg are the gas and electric light and power works, and north of Doornfontein there is a large reservoir.
The general illuminant is electricity, and both electrical and gas services are owned by the municipality.
The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.
Applying the above equation to a gas obeying the law pv=RT, for which the work done in isothermal expansion from a volume i to a volume r is W=RT loger, whence dW=R log e rdt, he deduced the expression for the heat absorbed by a gas in isothermal expansion H=R log er/F'(t).
done by a gas in isothermal expansion is assumed to be equivalent or proportional to the heat absorbed, H=R log e r/F'(t).
He now proposed to define absolute temperature as proportional to the reciprocal of Carnot's function, so as to agree as closely as possible with the scale of the gas thermometer.
An ideal gas is a substance possessing very simple thermodynamic properties to which actual gases and vapours appear to approximate indefinitely at low pressures and high temperatures.
- Since no gas is ideally perfect, it is most important for practical purposes to discuss the deviations of actual gases from the ideal state, and to consider how their properties may be thermodynamically explained and defined.
But this procedure in itself is not sufficient, because, although it would be highly probable that a gas obeying Boyle's law at all temperatures was practically an ideal gas, it is evident that Boyle's law would be satisfied by any substance having the characteristic equation pv = f (0), where f (0) is any arbitrary function of 0, and that the scale of temperatures given by such a substance would not necessarily coincide with the absolute scale.
This test was applied by Joule in the well-known experiment in which he allowed a gas to expand from one vessel to another in a calorimeter without doing external work.
Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
A continuous stream of gas, supplied at a constant pressure and temperature, is forced through a porous plug, from which it issues at a lower pressure through an orifice carefully surrounded with non-conducting material, where its temperature is measured.
The characteristic equation of the fluid must then be of the form v/0=f(p), where f(p) is any arbitrary function of p. If the fluid is a gas also obeying Boyle's law, pv = f (0), then it must be an ideal gas.
Trans., 1854, 1862) found that the cooling effect, do, was of the same order of magnitude as the deviations from Boyle's law in each case, and that it was proportional to the difference of pressure, dp, so that d0/dp was nearly constant for each gas over a range of pressure of five or six atmospheres.
Putting d0/dp=A/0 2 in equation (15), and integrating on the assumption that the small variations of S could be neglected over the range of the experiment, they found a solution of the type, v/0 =f(p) - SA /30 3, in which f(p) is an arbitrary function of p. Assuming that the gas should approximate indefinitely to the ideal state pv = R0 at high temperatures, they put f(p)=Rip, which gives a characteristic equation of the form v= Re/p - SA /30 2 .
p. 211, Paris, 1869) proposed an equation of the form (p+po)(v - b) =RO, in which the effect of the size of the molecules is represented by subtracting a quantity b, the " covolume," from the volume occupied by the gas, and the effect of the mutual attractions of the molecules is represented by adding a quantity po, the internal pressure, to the external pressure, p. This type of equation, was more fully worked out by van der Waals, who identified the internal pressure, po, with the capillary pressure of Laplace, and assumed that it varied directly as the square of the density, and could be written a/v 2 .
It appears to be a quantity of the same order as the volume of the liquid, or as the limiting volume of the gas at very high pressures.
The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
In the case of an ideal gas, dp/d9 at constant volume =R/v, and dvld6 at constant pressure =R/p; thus we obtain the expressions for the change of entropy 0-4)0 from the state poeovo to the state pev, log e e/eo+R logev/vo =S log e 9/00-R (32) In the case of an imperfect gas or vapour, the above expressions are frequently employed, but a more accurate result may be obtained by employing equation (17) with the value of the specific heat, S, from (29), which gives the expression 4-¢o = Sologe0/00 - R logep/po-n(cp/B-copo/Bo)
A common illustration of an irreversible process is the expansion of a gas into a vacuum or against a pressure less than its own.
In this case the work of expansion, pdv, is expended in the first instance in producing kinetic energy of motion of parts of the gas.
b, Covolume of molecules of gas.
S, Specific heat of gas at constant pressure.
s, Specific heat of gas at constant volume.
V =RD/p, Ideal volume of gas per unit mass.
Varrentrapp pointed out that " cornets " from the assay of gold may retain gas if they are not strongly heated.
- In this process moistened gold ores are treated with chlorine gas, the resulting gold chloride dissolved out with water, and the gold precipitated with ferrous sulphate, charcoal, sulphuretted hydrogen or otherwise.
The auric chloride is, however, decomposed at the elevated temperature into finely divided metallic gold, which is then readily attacked by the chlorine gas.
The city is in the Kansas-Oklahoma oil and gas field, and is surrounded by a fine farming and dairying region, in which special attention is given to the raising of small fruit; oil, gas, cement rock and brick shale are found in the vicinity.
The municipality owns and operates the waterworks, a natural gas plant, and an electric lighting plant.
Natural gas and oil were found here in 1899, and Chanute became one of the leaders of the Kansas independent refineries in their contest with the Standard Oil Company.
The corporation controls the gas and electric and similar undertakings.
The municipality owns and operates the gas and electric-lighting plants and the water works (the watersupply being derived from natural ponds, some of which are outside the city limits), and owns and leases (to the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad) a railway extending (10.3 m.) to Westfield, Mass.
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
In air of considerable density the mean free path of a molecule, between its collisions with other molecules, is exceedingly small, and any such increase of gaseous pressure in front of the black surface would be immediately neutralized by flow of the gas from places of high to places of low pressure.
As far as the order to which he carried the approximations - which, however, were based on a simplifying hypothesis that the molecules influenced each other through mutual repulsions inversely as the fifth power of their distance apart--the result was that the equations of motion of the gas, considered as subject to viscous and thermal stresses, could be satisfied by a state of equilibrium under a modified internal pressure equal in all directions.
If, therefore, the walls of the enclosure held the gas that is directly in contact with them, this equilibrium would be the actual state of affairs; and it would follow from the principle of Archimedes that, when extraneous forces such as gravity are not considered, the gas would exert no resultant force on any body immersed in it.
On this ground Maxwell inferred that the forces acting in the radiometer are connected with gliding of the gas along the unequally heated boundaries; and as the laws of this slipping, as well as the constitution of the adjacent layer, are uncertain, the problem becomes very intricate.
Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.
He lays stress on the dimensional relations of the problem, pointing out that the phenomena which occur with large vanes in highly rarefied gas could also occur with proportionally smaller vanes in gas at higher pressure.
Hull, with the result that there is a certain pressure at which the molecular effect of the gas.
In expressing the absolute or relative density of any substance, it is necessary to specify the conditions for which the relation holds: in the case of gases, the temperature and pressure of the experimental gas (and of the standard, in the case of relative density); and in the case of solids and liquids, the temperature.
The reason for this is readily seen; if a mass M of any gas occupies a volume V at a temperature T (on the absolute scale) and a pressure P, then its absolute density under these conditions is O = M/V; if now the temperature and pressure be changed to l and P,, the volume V l under these conditions is VPT/PIT1, and the absolute density is MP,T/VPT I.
The relative densities of gases are usually expressed in terms of the standard gas under the same conditions.
As originated by Regnault, it consisted in filling a large glass globe with the gas by alternately exhausting with an air-pump and admitting the pure and dry gas.
The flask was then brought to o° by immersion in melting ice, the pressure of the gas taken, and the stop-cock closed.
The flask is now partially exhausted, transferred to the cooling bath, and after standing the pressure of the residual gas is taken by a manometer.
The difference in the weights corresponds to the volume of gas at a pressure equal to the difference of the recorded pressures.
Related to the determination of the density of a gas is the determination of the density of a vapour, i.e.
To complete the experiment, the graduated tube containing the expelled air is brought to a constant and determinate temperature and pressure, and this volume is the volume which the given weight of the substance would occupy if it were a gas under the same temperature and pressure.
For higher temperatures the bulb of the vapour density tube is made of porcelain or platinum, and is heated in a gas furnace.
Lord Kelvin's experiment with a current of gas forced through a porous plug is also given.
Like sulphur and selenium, tellurium combines directly with hydrogen to form telluretted hydrogen, TeH2, an extremely objectionable smelling and highly poisonous gas, which was first prepared by Sir H.
1841, in Pennsylvania), became a citizen of the state, and after securing for himself the control of the Wilmington gas supply, systematically set about building up a personal " machine " that would secure his election to the national Senate as a Republican.
The formulae show the number of cubic centimetres of gas absorbed by i litre of sea-water; t indicates the temperature in degrees centigrade and CI the salinity as shown by the amount of chlorine per mille: 02 = 10.291 - 0 .
4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.
The facts regarding carbonic acid in sea-water are even less understood, for here we have to do not only with the solution of the gas but also with a chemical combination.
On this account it is very difficult to know when all the gas is driven out of a sample of sea-water, and a much larger proportion is present than the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere and its coefficient of absorption would indicate.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
Gases, consisting principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, are of ten present in considerable quantity in coal, in a dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter.
This excess is greatest in what is Gas known as cannel coal, the Lancashire kennel or candle coal, so named from the bright light it gives out when burning.
The ultimate term of bacterial activity seems to be the production of ulmic acid, containing carbon 65.31 and hydrogen 3.85%, which is a powerful antiseptic. By the progressive elimination of oxygen and hydrogen, partly as water and partly as carbon dioxide and marsh gas, the ratios of carbon to oxygen and hydrogen in the rendered product increase in the following manner: The resulting product is a brown pasty or gelatinous substance which binds the more resisting parts of the plants into a compact mass.
When the mine is free from gas, the furnace may be worked by the return air, but it is better to take fresh air directly from the downcast by a scale, or split, from the main current.
In fiery mines, however, a very much larger amount must be provided Distribu- in order to dilute the gas to the point of safety.
Lion of air Even with the best arrangements a dangerous increase under in the amount of gas is not infrequent from the sudden ground.
The management of such places, therefore, requires the most constant vigilance on the part of the workmen, especially in the examination of the working places that have been standing empty during the night, in which gas may have accumulated, to see that they are properly cleared before the new shift commences.
generally in South Staffordshire, the coals are suffi ciently free from gas, or rather the gases are not liable to become explosive when mixed with air, to allow the use of naked lights, candles being generally used.
The buildings near the pit bottom, such as the stables and lamp cabin, and even the main roads for some distance, are often in large collieries lighted with gas brought from the surface, or in some cases the gas given off by the coal is used for the same purpose.
The latter observer found the gases given off tion of gas by coal from the district of Newcastle and Durham evolved by to contain carbonic acid, marsh gas or light carburetted coal.
The results given below, which are selected from a much larger series published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, were obtained by heating samples of the different coals in vacuo for several hours at the temperature of boiling water: - In one instance about i% of hydride of ethyl was found in the gas from a blower in a pit in the Rhondda district, which was collected in a tube and brought to the surface to be used in lighting the engine-room and pit-bank.
The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
The latter class of coal contains the largest proportion of this dangerous gas, but holds it more tenaciously than do the steam coals, thus rendering the workings comparatively safer.
It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded gas in an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the temperature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, amounting to 650 cub.
per ton, was only to be driven out by a heat of 300° C. Steam coals being softer and more porous give off enormous volumes of gas from the working face in most of the deep pits, many of which have been the scene of disastrous explosions.
They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 1%, and from i to 4% of nitrogen.
The danger of explosion when gas exists in very small quantities is greatly increased by the presence of coal dust.
A gas explosion in a fiery mine may be intensified or indefinitely propagated by the dust raised by the explosion itself.
Coal dust alone, without any gas, may cause a dangerous explosion if ignited by a blown-out shot; but such cases are likely to be exceptional.
In all British coal-mines, when gas in dangerous quantities has appeared within three months, and in all places that are dry and dusty, blasting is prohibited, except with Safety ex= c, „ permitted explosives, whose composition and pro perties have been examined at the testing station at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich.
It is a colourless gas, having a density of 0.92.
When it has a very strong and penetrating odour, but when it is thoroughly purified from sulphuretted and phosphuretted hydrogen, which are invariably present with it in minute traces, this extremely pungent odour disappears, and the pure gas has a not unpleasant ethereal smell.
Ansdell show that if the gas be subjected to a pressure of 21ï¿½53 atmospheres at a temperature of o° C., it is converted into the liquid state, the pressure needed increasing with the rise of temperature, and decreasing with the lowering of the temperature, until at - 82° C. it becomes liquid under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
The critical point of the gas is 37° C., at which temperature a pressure of 68 atmospheres is required for liquefaction.
A great future was expected from its use in the liquid state, since a cylinder fitted with the necessary reducing valves would supply the gas to light a house for a considerable period, the liquid occupying about T h.
the volume of the gas, but in the United States and on the continent of Europe, where liquefied acetylene was made on the large scale, several fatal accidents occurred owing to its explosion under not easily explained conditions.
Continuing these experiments, they found that in acetylene gas under ordinary pressures the decomposition brought about in one portion of the gas, either by heat or the firing in it of a small detonator, did not spread far beyond the point at which the decomposition started, while if the acetylene was compressed to a pressure of more than 30 lb on the square inch, the decomposition travelled throughout the mass and became in reality detonation.
Acetylene is readily soluble in water, which at normal temperature and pressure takes up a little more than its own volume of the gas, and yields a solution giving a purple-red precipitate with ammoniacal cuprous chloride and a white precipitate with silver nitrate, these precipitates consisting of acetylides of the metals.
The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
water saturated with salt, is the best for the purpose, but in practice it is found that, unless water is agitated with acetylene, or the gas bubbled through, the top layer soon gets saturated, and the gas then dissolves but slowly.
Hess, who showed that acetone will absorb twenty-five times its own volume of acetylene at a temperature of 15° C. under atmospheric pressure, and that, providing the temperature is kept constant, the liquid acetone will go on absorbing acetylene at the rate of twentyfive times its own volume for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected.
This difficulty was overcome by first filling the cylinder with porous briquettes and then soaking them with a fixed percentage of acetone, so that after allowing for the space taken up by the bricks the quantity of acetone soaked into the brick will absorb ten times the normal volume of the cylinder in acetylene for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected, whilst all danger of explosion is eliminated.
Acetylene was at one time supposed to be a highly poisonous gas, the researches of A.
Crismer, and others, all conclusively show that acetylene is much less toxic than carbon monoxide, and indeed than coal gas.
It was therefore predicted that the introduction of acetylene on a large scale would be followed by numerous accidents unless copper and its alloys were rigidly excluded from contact with the gas.
These fears have, however, fortunately proved to be unfounded, and ordinary gas fittings can be used with perfect safety with this gas.
If a few pieces of carbide be dropped into saturated chlorine water the bubbles of gas take I.
When the gas is kept in a small glass holder exposed to direct sunlight, the surface of the glass soon becomes dimmed, and W.
Acetylene is readily decomposed by heat, polymerizing under its influence to form an enormous number of organic of compounds; indeed the gas, which can itself be directly prepared from its constituents, carbon and hydrogen, under the influence of the electric arc, can be made the startingpoint for the construction of an enormous number of different organic compounds of a complex character.
It has since been shown, however, that unless the gas is at a pressure of more than two atmospheres this wave soon dies out, and the decomposition is only propagated a few inches from the detonator.
With the gas in excess a heavy lurid flame emitting dense volumes of smoke results, whilst if it be driven out in a sufficiently thin sheet, it burns with a flame of intense brilliancy and almost perfect whiteness, by the light of which colours can be judged as well as they can by daylight.