Galvanometer sentence example
The strength of the field is proportional to the swing of the galvanometer-needle, and, when the galvanometer is calibrated, can be expressed in C.G.S.
If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.
Two receiving instruments, a siphon recorder and a mirror galvanometer, are shown; one only is absolutely necessary, but it is convenient Cable to have the galvanometer ready, so that in case of accident to the recorder it may be at once switched into circuit by the switch s.
If any sensible current flows through this insulator the galvanometer will show a deflection.
If, however, there is leakage, the current received on the galvanometer will be less than the current sent out, and the result will be a deflection of the needle proportional to the amount of leakage.Advertisement
The galvanometer being so adjusted that a current of definite strength through one of the coils gives a definite deflection of the needle, the amount of leakage expressed in terms of the insulation resistance of the wires is given by the formula.
At first a considerable current is indicated by the galvanometer; the deflexion soon diminishes, however, and finally becomes very small.
To one end of this fine wire is attached one terminal of a sensitive galvanometer.
Under these circumstances a small portion of the current from the battery is shunted through the galvanometer circuit, and can be used to make electric signals.
If a battery on the mainland is connected through a key with the shore end of the main cable, and a speaking galvanometer is in circuit with the short cable crossing the Fastnet rock, then closing or opening the battery connexion will create a deflection of the galvanometer.Advertisement
When such a tube is inserted in series with a single voltaic cell and galvanometer it is found that the resistance of the tube is nearly infinite, provided the filings are not too tightly squeezed.
A pair of fine wires of iron and constantan are twisted together in the middle, and one pair of unlike ends are connected to a galvanometer.
The mercury vapour then possesses a unilateral conductivity, and can be used to filter off all those oscillations in a train which pass in one direction and make them readable on an ordinary galvanometer.
If we connect together in series a single Daniell's cell, a galvanometer, and two platinum electrodes dipping into acidulated water, no visible chemical decomposition ensues.
Now let us disconnect the platinum plates from the battery and join them directly with the galvanometer.Advertisement
K is a commutator for reversing the direction of the magnetizing current, and G a galvanometer for measuring it.
Various currents are then passed through the magnetizing coil, the galvanometer readings and the simultaneous magnetometer deflections being noted.
If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.
Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.
In practice it is usual to standardize or " calibrate " the galvanometer by causing a known change of induction to take place within a standard coil connected with it, and noting the corresponding deflection on the galvanometer scale.Advertisement
Rowland and others have used an earth coil for calibrating the galvanometer, a known change of induction through the coil being produced by turning it over in the earth's magnetic field, but for several reasons it is preferable to employ an electric current as the source of a known induction.
Grassot has devised a galvanometer, or " fluxmeter," which greatly alleviates the tedious operation of taking ballistic readings.2 The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type; its coil turns in a strong uniform field, and is suspended in such a manner that torsion is practically negligible, the swings of the coil being limited by damping influences, chiefly electromagnetic. The index therefore remains almost stationary at the limit of its deflection, and the deflection is approximately the same whether the change of induction occurs suddenly or gradually.
The induction coil wound upon the ring is connected to the ballistic galvanometer G2 in series with a large permanent resistance R3.
In the same circuit is also included the induction coil E, which is used for standardizing the galvanometer; this secondary coil is represented in the diagram by three turns of wire wound over a much longer primary coil.
By means of the three-way switch C the battery current may be sent either into the primary of E, for the purpose of calibrating the galvanometer, or into the magnetizing coil of the ring under test.Advertisement
The galvanometer throw which results from the change of current measures the amount by which the induction is reduced, and thus a second point on the curve is found.
Between the magnetizing coils is a small induction coil D, which is connected with a ballistic galvanometer.
The joint was surrounded by an induction coil connected with a ballistic galvanometer, an arrangement which enabled him to make an independent measurement of the induction at the moment when the two portions of the bar were separated.
A small coil of fine wire, connected in series with a ballistic galvanometer, is placed in the field, with its windings perpendicular to the lines of force, and then suddenly reversed or withdrawn from the field, the integral electromotive force being twice as great in the first case as in the second.
Upon the central neck was wound a coil consisting of one or two layers of very fine wire, which was connected with a ballistic galvanometer for measuring the induction in the iron; outside this coil, and separated from it by a small and accurately determined distance, a second coil was wound, serving to measure the induction in the iron, together with that in a small space surrounding it.
If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.
The primary coil carried the magnetizing current; the secondary, which was wound inside the other, could be connected either with a ballistic galvanometer for determining the induction, or with a Wheatstone's bridge for measuring the resistance, whence the temperature was calculated.
Hall Efect.-If an electric current is passed along a strip of thin metal, and the two points at opposite ends of an equipotential line are connected with a galvanometer, its needle will of course not be deflected.
If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.
The electromotive force thus generated is measured by a galvanometer, the scale of which is divided and figured so that the temperature may be-directly read.
Depending on the fact that the electrical conductivity of a metallic conductor is decreased by heat, it consists of two strips of platinum, arranged to form the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge; one strip being exposed to a source of radiation from which the other is shielded, the heat causes a change in the resistance of one arm, the balance of the bridge is destroyed, and a deflection is marked on the galvanometer.
One of the best methods for doing this is to charge the Ab l condenser by the known voltage of a battery, and then d e t erdischarge it through a galvanometer and repeat this minations.
If a condenser of capacity C is charged to potential V, and discharged n times per second through a galvanometer, this series of intermittent discharges is equivalent to a current nCV.
The metal slips are so placed that, as the disk revolves, the middle brush, connected to one terminal of the condenser C, is alternately put in conductive connexion with first one and then the other outside brush, which are joined respectively to the battery B and galvanometer G terminals.
This contact is shifted until such a point is found by trial that the two condensers charged at the different sections and then joined as above described and tested on a galvanometer show no charge.
A simple method for condenser comparison is to charge the two condensers to the same voltage by a battery and then discharge them successively through a ballistic galvanometer and observe the respective " throws " or deflections of the coil or needle.
In this case one terminal of the battery is connected to the earth, and the other terminal is connected through the galvanometer with the copper wire, the insulation of which it is desired to test.
It is possible so to arrange the value of the shunt and of the high resistance R' that the same or nearly the same deflection of the galvanometer is obtained as when it is used in series with the battery and the insulation-resistance.
In these circumstances the current passing through the galvanometer is known, provided that the voltage of the battery is determined by means of a potentiometer.
Hence the resistance of the insulator can be ascertained, since it is expressed in ohms by the ratio of the voltage of the battery in volts to the current through the C C galvanometer in amperes.
This guard wire prevents any current which leaks over the surface of the insulator from passing through the galvanometer G, and the galvanometer indication is therefore only determined by the amount of current which passes through the insulator, or by its insulation-resistance.
The resistance in circuit with the fine wire is then altered until the galvanometer shows no deflexion.
If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.
Instead of adjusting in this manner the electromotive force of any form of cell, if we pass any constant current through a known resistance and bring wires from the extremities of that resistance into connexion with the slider and the galvanometer terminal, we can in the same way determine the fall of potential down the above resistance in terms of the electromotive force of the standard cell and thus measure the current flowing through the standard resistance.
One terminal of the galvanometer can then be shifted to the junction 6 7 g between any pair of consecutive coils and the slider shifted to any point on the potentiometer wire.
A simple form, which is sometimes referred to as a conical pen dulum, may be con structed with a large sewing needle carrying a galvanometer mirror, suspended by means of a silk or quartz fibre as shown in fig.
The currents induced in the coil are led to a dead-beat D'Arsonval galvanometer having the same natural period of vibration as the pendulum.
It is found that the motion of the galvanometer mirror faithfully records, except in a few special cases, the motion of the pendulum; the actual record is made on sensitized paper.
The principles of telegraphy (land, submarine and wireless) and of telephony are discussed in the articles Telegraph and Telephone, and various electrical instruments are treated in separate articles such as Amperemeter; Electrometer; Galvanometer; Voltmeter; Wheatstone'S Bridge; Potentiometer; Meter, Electric; Electrophorus; Leyden Jar; &C.
He seems in this way to have educated in himself a very precise " electrical sense," making use of his own nervous system as a kind of physiological galvanometer.
It led at once to the construction of the galvanometer as a means of detecting and measuring the electric current in a conductor.
Hence followed the astatic multiplying galvanometer.
One of these coils was connected with the voltaic battery and the other with the galvanometer.
He found that at the moment the current in the battery circuit was started or stopped, transitory currents appeared in the galvanometer circuit in opposite directions.
It has been already mentioned that Schweigger invented in 1820 the " multiplier," and Nobili in 1825 the astatic galvanometer.
One of his earliest and most useful contributions (in 1858) was the invention of the mirror galvanometer.
Lord Kelvin's mirror galvanometer was first used in receiving signals through the short-lived 1858 cable.
In this condition there is complete electrical insulation between the jets, as may be proved by the inclusion in the circuit of a delicate galvanometer, and a low electro-motive force.
It was, therefore, the earliest example of a true "magnetic" telegraph, all preceding experiments to this end having been on the galvanometer or needle principle.
The circuits in which the batterybattery P and and d being galvanometer called the ratio branches placed are called conjugate circuits, and the circuits P, Q, R, and S are called the arms of the bridge, the '44 S arms and S the measuring arm.
The circuit in which the galvanometer is placed is the bridge circuit.
Keys are inserted in the battery and galvanometer circuits to open or close them at pleasure.
The operation of determining the value of the resistance R therefore consists in altering the ratio of the three resistances P, Q,, and S, until the galvanometer indicates no current through it when the battery circuit is completed or closed by the key.
The observer begins by moving the slider until the galvanometer shows no current.
Seebeck (1822), employing a galvanometer then recently invented, which was more suited for the detection of small electromotive forces, found that a current was produced if the junctions of the two metals were at different temperatures.
The opposite convention is sometimes adopted, but the above is' the most convenient in practice, as the circuit is generally broken at or near the cold junction for the insertion of the galvanometer.
A piece of iron or steel wire in the circuit of a galvanometer is heated in a flame to bright redness at any point.
This law is commonly applied in connecting a thermocouple to a galvanometer with coils of copper wire, the junctions of the copper wires with the other metals being placed side by side in a vessel of water or otherwise kept at the same temperature.
The effect is most easily shown by connecting a voltaic cell to a thermopile for a short interval, then quickly (by means of a suitable key, such as a Pohl commutator with the cross connectors removed) disconnecting the pile from the cell and connecting it to a galvanometer, which will indicate a current in the reverse direction through the pile, and approximately proportional to the original current in intensity, provided that the other conditions of the experiment are constant.
A lowresistance galvanometer is connected by a very fine wire (2 to 3 mils) to the centre C of the experimental wire AB, and also to the middle point D of the parallel wire so as to form a Wheatstone bridge.
This will disturb the resistance balance by an amount which can be measured by the deflection of the galvanometer, or by the change of the shunt-box, S, required to restore the balance.
The mirror galvanometer and the siphon recorder, which was patented in 1867, were the outcome of these researches; but the scientific value of the mirror galvanometer is independent of its use in telegraphy, and the siphon recorder is the direct precursor of one form of galvanometer (d'Arsonval's) now commonly used in electrical laboratories.
They consist essentially of a galvanometer of which the needle or coil has such a short natural periodic time that it can follow all the variations of a current which runs through its cycle in say i;nth second.
He also carried on extensive researches in the theory of magnetism; and it is interesting that in connexion with his observations in terrestrial magnetism he not only employed an early form of mirror galvanometer, but also, about 1833, devised a system of electromagnetic telegraphy, by which a distance of some 9000 ft.
Thus a sensitive galvanometer will show a weak current if a copper wire connected in circuit with it be warmed at one point.
The German physicist and chemist studied electricity and magnetism, and designed a mirror galvanometer.
The answer was to use the principles of the string galvanometer.
The deflection observed on the galvanometer when the lines are leaky is d, while D is the deflection obtained through one coil of the galvanometer with all the other resistances in circuit; and assuming that no leakage exists on the lines, this deflection is calculated from the " constant " of the instrument, i.e., from the known deflection obtained with a definite current.
The galvanometer which is used for ballistic observations should have a somewhat heavy needle with a period of vibration of not less than five seconds, so that the transient current may have ceased before the swing has well begun; an instrument of the d'Arsonval form is recommended, not only because it is unaffected by outside magnetic influence, but also because the moving part can be instantly brought to rest by means of a short-circuit key, thus effecting a great saving of time when a series of observations is being made.
One form consists of a tuning-fork electrically maintained in vibration of known period, which closes an electric contact at every vibration and sets another electromagnet in operation, which reverses a switch and moves over one terminal of the condenser from a battery to a galvanometer contact.
The ohmmeter recommends itself by its portability, but in default of the possession of an ohmmeter the insulation-resistance can be measured by means of an ordinary mirror galvanometer (see Galvanometer) and insulated battery of suitable voltage.
Hence any apparatus, such as a galvanometer, may be partially shielded from extraneous magnetic action by enclosing it in an iron case.
All the data required for standardizing the galvanometer can in this way be determined with accuracy.