How to use Galls in a sentence
I know it still galls you that he was willing to help pay for your college education, but not Katie's.
Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.
Irritation and hypertrophy of cells are common signs of the presence of parasites, as ovinced by the numerous malformations, galls, witches-brooms, &c., on diseased plants.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
Excrescences may be divided into those occurring on herbaceous tissues, of which Galls are well-known examples, and those found on the woody stem, branches, &c., and themselves eventually woody, of which Burrs of various kinds afford common illustrations.Advertisement
Cecidia or galls arise by the hypertrophy of the subepidermal cells of a leaf, cortex, &c., which has been pierced by theovipositor of an insect, and in which the egg is deposited.
The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
Other flies of this group have the inquiline habit, laying their eggs in the galls of other species, while others again pierce the cuticle of maggots or aphids, in whose bodies their larvae live as parasites.
The galls and the gallproducing form are much commoner in America than in the Old World.
In animals galls occur mostly on or under the skin of living mammals and birds, and are produced by Acaridea, and by dipterous insects of the genus Oestrus.Advertisement
The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants.
Many galls are brightly coloured, as, for instance, the oak-leaf hairy galls of Spathegaster tricolor, which are of a crimson hue, more or less diffused according to exposure to light.
The variety of forms of galls is very great.
The " knoppern " galls of Cynips polycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge.
Of the Ceylonese galls, " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."Advertisement
In degree of complexity of internal structure galls differ considerably.
The largest class are the unilocular, or simple, external galls, divided by Lacaze-Duthiers into those with and those without a superficial protective layer or rind, and composed of hard, or spongy, or cellular tissue.
Among the commoner of the galls of the Cynipidae are the " oak-apple " or " oak-sponge " of Andricus terminalis, Fab.; the " currant " or " berry galls " of Spathegaster baccarum, L., above mentioned; and the " oak-spangles " of Neuroterus lenticularis, 9 Oliv., generally reputed to be fungoid growths, until the discovery of their true nature by Frederick Smith, 10 and the succulent " cherry-galls " of Dryophanta scutellaris, Oliv.
The " marble " or " Devonshire woody galls " of oak-buds, which often destroy the leading shoots of young trees, are produced by Cynips Kollari," already alluded to.
Aleppo galls (gallae halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, in.Advertisement
Less valued are the galls of Tripoli (Taraplus or Tarabulus, whence the name " Tarablous galls ").
The most esteemed Syrian galls, according to Pereira, are those of Mosul on the Tigris.
The larvae of the latter usually vacate their galls, to spin their cocoons in the earth, or, as in the case of Athalia abdominalis, Klg., of the clematis, may emerge from their shelter to feed for some days on the leaves of the gall-bearing plant.
Some of them build cocoons within their galls, others descend to the ground or become pupae.
Their galls are to be met with on a great variety of plants of widely distinct genera, e.g.Advertisement
A strong north-west wind, at such times, is of incalculable value to the farmer."8 Other gall-making dipterous flies are members of the family Trypetidae, which disfigure the seed-heads of plants, and of the family Mycetophilidae, such as the species Sciara tilicola, 9 Low, the cause of the oblong or rounded green and red galls of the young shoots and leaves of the lime.
Galls are formed also by hemipterous and homopterous insects of the families Tingidae, Psyllidae, Coccidae and Aphidae.
The Chinese galls of commerce (Woo-pei-tsze) are stated to be produced by Aphis Chinensis, Bell, on Rhus semialata, Murr.
The galls are gathered before the frosts set in, and are exposed to steam to kill the insects."
Chinese galls examined by Viedt 12 yielded 72% of tannin, and less mucilage than Aleppo galls.
Several other varieties of galls are produced by Aphides on species of Pistacia.
Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).
Pliny knew that flies emerge from galls.
Oval or larval irritation also, without doubt, plays an important part in the formation of many galls.
Thus the galls of Cynips and its allies are inhabited by members of other cynipideous genera, as Synergus, Amblynotus and Synophrus; and the pine-cone-like gall of Salix strobiloides, as Walsh has shown, 2 is made by a large species of Cecidomyia, which inhabits the heart of the mass, the numerous smaller cecidomyidous larvae in its outer part being mere inquilines.
Some saw-flies, for example, are inquilinous in the galls of gall-gnats and some gall-gnats in the galls of saw-flies.
Again, galls may afford harbour to insects which are not essentially gall-feeders, as in the case of the Curculio beetle Conotrachelius nenuphar, Hbst., of which one brood eats the fleshy part of the plum and peach, and another lives in the " black knot " of the plum-tree, regarded by Walsh as probably a true cecidomyidous gall.
Among the numerous insects parasitic on the inhabitants of galls are hymenopterous flies of the family Proctotrypidae, and of the family Chalcididae, e.g.
Phytoptocecidia are the galls formed by Phytoptid mites.
Simple galls are those that arise when only one member of a plant is involved; compound galls 1 For figure and description see Zoology of the " Erebus " and " Terror," ii.
Amongst the most remarkable galls recently discovered we may mention those found on Eucalyptus, Casuarina and other trees and plants in Australia.
As regards the mode of production of galls, the most important distinction is between galls that result from the introduction of an egg, or other matter, into the interior of the plant, and those that are due to an agent acting externally, the gall in the latter case frequently growing in such a manner as ultimately to enclose its producers.
The views of Adler as to the alternation of generations of numerous gall-flies have been fully confirmed, it having been ascertained by direct observation that the galls and the insects produced from them in one generation are entirely different from the next generation; and it has also been rendered certain that frequently one of the alternate generations is parthenogenetic, no males being produced.
Hartig, Die Familien der Blattwespen and Holzwespen (Berlin, 1860); Walsh, " On the Insects, Coleopterous, Hymenopterous and Dipterous, inhabiting the Galls of certain species of Willow," Proc. Ent.
The Phylloxera vastatrix is an insect belonging to the green fly tribe, which destroys the roots and leaves of the growing plant by forming galls and nodosities.
The production of the acid appears to be due to the presence in the galls of a ferment.
The galls produced at the ends of the branches have been used in medicine, and the wood yields cedar-camphor and oil of cedar-wood.
Some of the apterous young that are hatched from these form fresh galls and continue to multiply in the leaves, others descend to the root of the plant, becoming what are known as root-forms. These, like the parent form of spring, reproduce parthenogenetically, giving rise to generation after generation of egg-laying individuals.
This review incorporates new data on morphological diversity in galls from several large assemblages of Cretaceous and early Tertiary angiosperm leaves.
The galls form very hard woody encrustations on the seed bearing stem.
Two species of rust fungus occur on juniper, and these induce galls to form on the stems and twigs.
Instead, it is a pathogen that causes stem galls on a wide range of plants.
It produces large fleshy galls up to 7cms in diameter on the leaves.
I have used cynipid galls in ecological studies for over 13 years.
One was a mixture of iron salt and oak galls, which tended to burn into the paper, and become brown with age.
Amongst the forest and other trees are the oak, which yields large quantities of galls, the beech, fir, pine, ash and alder, also the chestnut, walnut and filbert.
Within this gall the stock-mother lives and surrounds herself with numerous parthenogenetically produced eggs - sometimes as many as two hundred in a single gall; these eggs give birth after six or eight days to a numerous progeny (gallicola), some of which form new galls and multiply in the leaves, whilst others descend to the roots and become the root-dwelling forms already described.
What are commonly known as galls are vegetable excrescences, and, according to the definition of Lacaze-Duthiers, comprise " all abnormal vegetable productions developed on plants by the action of animals, noreparticularly by insects, whatever may be their form, bulk or situation."
For the larvae of their makers the galls provide shelter and sustenance.
The polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radicis, found on the roots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls of another Cynipid, Andricus occultus, Tschek, 6 which occurs on the male flowers of Quercus sessiliflora, is 2 millimetres, or barely a line, in length.
Besides the larva of the gall-maker, or the householder, galls usually contain inquilines or lodgers, the larvae of what are termed guest-flies or cuckoo-flies.
Several different spangle type galls are to be found on oak leaves so close inspection is required for proper identification.
Galls is one of the biggest retailers of clothing and other equipment for public safety personnel.