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galicia

galicia

galicia Sentence Examples

  • KOLOMEA (Polish, Kolomyja), a town of Austria, in Galicia, 12 2 m.

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  • A ruined castle, near the city, recalls its strategic importance in the 8th century, when Asturias, Galicia and Leon were the headquarters of resistance to the Moors.

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  • I've also moved articles on cities in South Tirol and Kustenland to this category, as well as those on cities in Galicia, Bukovina, Transylvania, and Dalmatia.

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  • JOSEF BEM (1795-1850), Polish soldier, was born at Tarnow in Galicia, and was educated at the military school at Warsaw, where he especially distinguished himself in mathematics.

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  • After serving under Stadion in Galicia, he was in 1848, after the outbreak of the revolution, appointed president of the administration and acting Stadthalter in Bohemia.

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  • WIELICZKA, a mining town in Galicia, Austria, 220 m.

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  • to embrace Poland, and separating Russia from Prussia, Austrian Galicia and Rumania.

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  • in Russia) rises in Galicia.

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  • (Great, Little and White Russians), it will be seen that, with the exception of some 3,000,000 Little Russians, now settled in East Galicia and in Poland, and of a few on the southern slope of the Carpathians, the whole of the E.

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  • Outside of the suburb there are saltpans, most of the proceeds of which are exported to Galicia.

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  • Oleg, prince of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory - the Ponizie, or "lowlands," which became later a part of the principalities of Volhynia, Kiev and Galicia.

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  • 415), historian and theologian, was born in Spain (possibly at Braga in Galicia) towards the close of the 4th century.

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  • Marco Polo refers to the oil springs of Baku towards the end!of the 13th century; the medicinal properties of the oil of Tegernsee in Bavaria gave it the name of " St Quirinus's Oil " in 1436; the oil of Pechelbronn, Elsass, was discovered in 1498, and the " earthbalsam " of Galicia was known in 1506.

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  • France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.

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  • France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.

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  • Sussex, France, Switzerland, Spain, Hungary, Transylvania, Bukowina, Galicia, Hesse, Baden, Hanover, Brunswick, California, Texas, Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina.

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  • In Galicia the Canadian system is nearly exclusively adopted.

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  • This consists in the use of an expanding reamer by means of which Drilling in the well may be drilled to a diameter admitting of the Galicia.

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  • The latter was introduced by Canadians into Galicia and, with certain modifications, has hitherto been found to be the best for that country.

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  • The stills employed in Russia and Galicia are usually smaller than those already described.

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  • Castile was left to his eldest son Sancho, Leon to Alphonso, Galicia to Garcia, Zamora and Toro to his two daughters Urraca and Elvira.

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  • There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Galicia, she at last escaped from the dungeon of Napoleonic Europe.

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  • Spanish levies, numbering nearly ioo,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.

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  • Baird was to move south through Galicia to meet him, and the army was to concentrate at Valladolid, Burgos, or whatever point might seem later on to be best.

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  • Moore was ignorant of their exact position and strength, but he knew that Valladolid had been occupied, and so his first orders were that Baird should fall back to Galicia and Hope to Portugal.

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  • Napoleon, directly he realized Moore's proximity, had ordered Soult to Astorga to cut him off from Galicia; recalled his other troops from their march towards Lisbon and Andalusia, and, with 50,000 men and 150 guns, had left Madrid himself (Dec. 22).

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  • By this time, French armies, to a great extent controlled by Napoleon from a distance, had advanced - Soult from Galicia to capture Oporto and Lisbon (with General Lapisse from Salamanca moving on his left towards Abrantes) and Marshal Victor, still farther.

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  • Soult (over 20,000), leaving Ney in Galicia, had taken and sacked Oporto (March 29, 1809); but the Portuguese having closed upon his rear and occupied Vigo, he halted, detaching a force to Amarante to keep open the road to Braganza and asked for reinforcements.

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  • Romana's force was now near Orense in Galicia.

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  • Wellington had further organized the Spanish forces - Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and northern Spain; Copons (io,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell (15,000) in Andalusia.

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  • The allied army, raised by the junction of the Spanish troops in Galicia to 90,000, now concentrated near Toro, and moved towards the Pisuerga, when Joseph, blowing up the castle of Burgos, fell back behind the Ebro.

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  • STANISLAU (Polish, Stanislawow), a town in Galicia, Austria, 87 m.

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  • GALICIA (the ancient Gallaecia or Callaecia, KaAAaucia or KaXaucia), a captaincy-general, and formerly a kingdom, countship and province, in the north-western angle of Spain; bounded on the N.

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  • In 1833 Galicia was divided for administrative purposes into the provinces of Corunna, Lugo, Orense and Pontevedra.

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  • Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded as a continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken in the east by the westernmost ridges of that system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, rise above the basin of the Mino.

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  • The high land north of the headwaters of the Mino forms the sole connecting link between the Cantabrians properly so-called and the mountains of central and western Galicia.

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  • The coast-line of Galicia, extending to about 240 m., is everywhere bold and deeply indented, presenting a large number of secure harbours, and in this respect forming a marked contrast to the neighbouring province.

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  • The Eo, which bounds Galicia on the east, has a deep estuary, the Rivadeo or Ribadeo, which offers a safe and commodious anchorage.

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  • The largest town in Galicia is Corunna (pop. 1900, 43,971) Santiago de Compostela is the ancient capital and an archiepiscopal see; Lugo, Tuy, Mondonedo and Orense are bishoprics.

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  • During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the subject of dispute between more than one count of Galicia and the suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Normans.

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  • divided his kingdom among his sons in 1063, Galicia was the portion allotted to Garcia, the youngest of the three.

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  • The honorary title of count of Galicia has frequently been borne by younger sons of the Spanish sovereign.

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  • Meakin, Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain (London, 1909).

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  • by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia).

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  • Leopolis), the capital of the crownland of Galicia, Austria, 468 m.

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  • In Lemberg is the National Institute founded by Count Ossolinski, which contains a library of books and manuscripts relating chiefly to the history and literature of Poland, valuable antiquarian and scientific collections, and a printing establishment; also the Dzieduszycki museum with collections of natural history and ethnography relating chiefly to Galicia.

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  • Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..

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  • A Russian army destined for the Bosporus, which had been gathered near Odessa, obliging the Porte to keep strong bodies of troops about Constantinople, had been called to Galicia, thus liberating several Turkish divisions for service at the Dardanelles.

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  • The Tatra Mountains extend through the Hungarian counties of Lipt6 and Szepes, and with their northern extremities also through the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and have a length of 4 o m.

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  • "Heron's Neck," was born in Spanish Galicia, in the earlier years of the 14th century.

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  • The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.

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  • At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.

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  • TARNOPOL, a town in Galicia, Austria, 87 m.

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  • For weeks he scoured the interminable snow-covered plains of Poland in pursuit of the Polish guerillas, penetrating as far south as Jaroslau in Galicia, by which time he had lost two-thirds of his 15,000 men with no apparent result.

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  • In German Silesia there is a third rich field, which extends into Austria (Austrian Silesia and Galicia), for which country it forms the chief home source of supply (apart from lignite).

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  • His following gradually melted away, and he was about to flee to Portugal when Galicia revolted.

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  • JAWOROW, a town in Galicia, Austria, 30 m.

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  • The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred in the 12th century when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.

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  • The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.

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  • In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.

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  • After a short period of German government, which was highly beneficial to the country, Galicia received after the Constitution of 1867 an exceptional position which was gradually consolidated; the German officials were removed, and the Polish members in the Reichsrat (who represented 71 votes) held the balance between the parties, which brought Galicia, without any effort, great financial advantages at the cost of the other Crown territories.

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  • Just as the Czechs had a majority in Bohemia, so had the Poles in Galicia; and they used their strength against the Ruthenians.

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  • It was not till towards the end of the war that the Austrian Government, in response to the wishes of the Ruthenians, began to come round to the idea of a separate status for Eastern Galicia; but it was then too late for such changes within the old territory of the empire.

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  • The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.

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  • The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there.

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  • On April 12 1908 Count Potocki, the governor of Galicia, was shot by a Ruthenian student.

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  • His programme was to be an honourable mediator in the German-Bohemian quarrel, to extend the railway system, and to satisfy the wishes of the Poles in the waterways question by an expenditure of 73.4 million kronen on canal construction in Galicia, to which Galicia was to contribute only 9.4 million kronen, the State finding the other 64, and by an expenditure of 125 millions on river improvements, 99 of which would be contributed by the State.

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  • Similarly the Ruthenians demanded that East Galicia should be erected into a separate Crown land under the name of the Ukraine (March 3).

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  • Since the Northern and Southern Sla y s had absented themselves and the Poles were in opposition, the Reichsrat was adjourned (May 3), and the Germans now again demanded the grant of a revised constitution, with German as the language of State, a special status for Galicia and Dalmatia, access for the Germans to the Adriatic, and the partition of Bohemia.

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  • Hussarek got through a six months' provisional budget with the help of the Poles against the votes of the Ukrainians, a proof that he had shelved the partition of Galicia.

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  • It is to him that Poland owed the important acquisition of the greater part of Red Russia, or Galicia, which enabled her to secure her fair share of the northern and eastern trade.

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  • tition of By the third treaty of partition Austria had to be Poland, content with Western Galicia and Southern Masovia; 1796.

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  • m., to which Western Galicia and Cracow, about 900 sq.

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  • By the final act of the Congress of gress of Vienna, signed on the 9th of June 1815, Poland was divided between Prussia, Austria and Russia, with one trifling exception: Cracow with its population of 61,000 was erected into a republic embedded in Galicia.

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  • Austria remained in possession of Galicia with its 1,500,000 inhabitants.

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  • and even unable to enforce its, neutrality, Cracow was a centre of disturbance, and, after Russia, Prussia, and Austria had in 1846 agreed to its suppression, was finally occupied by Austria on the 6th of November 1848, as a consequence of the troubles, more agrarian than political, which convulsed Galicia.

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  • of Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, and has left us a very valuable history which has merits of style and shows considerable research.

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  • In another piece, Rhoxolania, in Latin, he describes the beauties of Galicia.

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  • During the last war of Poland as an independent country Kollataj betook himself to the camp of Kosciuszko, but when he saw that there was no longer hope he went to Galicia, but was captured by the Austrians and imprisoned at Olmiitz till 1803.

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  • An important writer of history is Karl Szajnocha (1818-1868), born in Galicia of Czech parents.

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  • Schmitt got mixed up with some of the political questions of the day - he was a native of Galicia and therefore a subject of the Austrian emperor - and was sentenced to death in 1846, but the penalty was commuted into imprisonment in Spielberg, whence he was released by the revolution of 1848.

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  • Casimir Stadnicki has treated of the period of the Jagiellons; and Szaraniewicz, professor at the university of Lemberg, has written on the early history of Galicia.

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  • At Lemberg, the capital of Austrian Galicia, there is an active Polish press.

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  • In the course of 1496 John Albert with great difficulty collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland, but the crusade was deflected from its proper course by the sudden invasion of Galicia by the hospodar, who apparently - for the whole subject is still very obscure - had been misled by reports from Hungary that John Albert was bent upon placing his younger brother Sigismund on the throne of Moldavia.

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  • (2) The kingdom of New Galicia, including the present states of Zacatecas, Jalisco and part of San Luis Potosi.

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  • Krakau), a town and episcopal see of Austria, in Galicia, 212 m.

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  • Although in regard to its population it is only the second place in Galicia, Cracow is the most interesting town in the whole of Poland.

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  • In the presence of the revolutionary troubles, which began with agrarian riots in Galicia in 1846, and then spread over the whole empire, he was personally helpless.

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  • It once formed part of the reyno of Nueva Galicia, which also included Aguas Calientes and Zacatecas.

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  • NAHMAN KROCHMAL (1785-1840), Jewish scholar, was born at Brody in Galicia in 1785.

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  • The great feudatories did not even respect the lives of the royal family, for Andrew was recalled from a futile attempt to reconquer Galicia (which really lay beyond the Hungarian sphere of influence), through the murder of his first wife Gertrude of Meran (September 24, 1213), by rebellious nobles jealous of the influence of her relatives.

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  • by Galicia.

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  • In 713, two years after the defeat and death of Roderick, the last Visigothic king, all Spain, except Galicia and Asturias, fell into the hands of the Moors.

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  • The Asturians chose him as their king in 718, and although Galicia was lost in 734, the Moors proved unable to penetrate into the remoter fastnesses held by the levies of Pelayo.

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  • After his death in 737,the Asturians continued to offer the same heroic resistance, and ultimately enabled the people of Galicia, Leon and Castile to recover their liberty.

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  • German Silesia is bounded by Brandenburg, Posen, Russian Poland, Galicia, Austrian Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia and the kingdom and province of Saxony.

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  • by Galicia, S.

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  • The successful resistance offered by Asturias to the invaders had been followed by the liberation of Galicia and Leon, when Ferdinand I.

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  • Besides Grottaferrata, there are Catholic Basilian monasteries in Poland, Hungary, Galicia, Rumania; and among the Melchites or Uniat Syrians.

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  • Even to-day the ignorant peasantry of many European countries, Russia, Galicia and elsewhere, believe that all disease is the work of demons, and that medicinal herbs owe their curative properties to their being the materialized forms of benevolent spirits.

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  • Originally settled in Galicia and the Bukovina, they appeared on the lower Danube about 200 B.C., and were used by Philip V.

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  • by the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and E.

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  • east of Berlin); and in the south they extend along the right bank of the Vistula to the river San in western Galicia.

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  • The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.

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  • He landed at Corunna, and during the autumn conquered Galicia.

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  • Fortifications.-The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komarom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Petervarad, 6-Arad and Temesvar in Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

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  • Her own share of the spoils was the acquisition, by the first treaty of partition (August 5, 1772), of Galicia f and Lodomeria.

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  • The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.

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  • Meanwhile the old system of provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in Tirol and Vorarlberg, 1817 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond registering the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and dealing with matters of local police.

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  • In this lies the main significance of the rising in Galicia in 1846.

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  • On the 13th of April 1846 an imperial decree abolished some of the more burdensome feudal obligations; but this concession was greeted with so fierce an outcry, as an authoritative endorsement of the atrocities, that it was again revoked, and Count Franz von Stadion was sent to restore order in Galicia.

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  • In Bohemia, where the attempt to hold elections for the Frankfort parliament had broken down on the opposition of the Czechs and the conservative German aristocracy, a separate constitution had been proclaimed on the 8th of April; on March the 23rd the election by the diet of Agram of Baron Joseph Jellachich as ban of Croatia was confirmed, as a concession to the agitation among the southern Sla y s; on the 18th of March Count Stadion had proclaimed a new con stitution for Galicia.

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  • Count Stadion began it in Galicia, where, before bombarding insurgent Cracow into submission (April 26), he had won over the Ruthenian peasants by the abolition of feudal dues and by forwarding a petition to the emperor for the official recognition of their language alongside Polish.

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  • This constitution had failed; territories so different in size, history and circumstances were not contented with similar institutions, and a form of self-government which satisfied Lower Austria and Salzburg did not satisfy Galicia and Bohemia..

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  • The Poles of Galicia stood apart from the other Slav races.

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  • It was, however, easier to deal with the Poles of Galicia, for they had no historical rights to defend; and by sending delegates to Vienna they would not sacrifice any principle or prejudice any legal claim; they had only to consider how they could make the best bargain.

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  • Beust promised them that there should be a special minister for Galicia, a separate board for Galician education, that Polish should be the language of instruction in all secondary schools, that Polish instead of German should be the official language in the law courts and public offices, Ruthenian being only used in the elementary schools under strict limitations.

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  • (For the concordat see Laveleye, La Prusse et l'Autriche, Paris, 1870.) During 1868 the constitution then was open to attack on two sides, for the nationalist movement was gaining ground in National- Bohemia and Galicia.

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  • In Galicia the extreme party, ism in Oa- headed by Smolka, had always desired to imitate the licia and Czechs and not attend at Vienna; they were outvoted, Bohemia, but all parties agreed on a declaration in which the final demands of the Poles were drawn up;' they asked that the powers of the Galician diet should be much increased, and that the members from Galicia should cease to attend the Reichsrath on the discussion of those matters with which the Galician diet should be qualified to deal.

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  • In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.

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  • All laws were published in German; German was the sole language used in the central public offices in Vienna, and the language of the court and of the army; moreover, in almost every part of the monarchy it had become the language of what is called the internal service in the public offices and law courts; all books and correspondence were kept in German, not only in the German districts, but also in countries such as Bohemia and Galicia.

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  • There seems no doubt that the condition of the workmen in the factories of Moravia and the oil-mines of Galicia was peculiarly unfortunate; the hours of work were very long, the Count convictions, and on the first day of the session Rieger S' g unless he could speak and write German.

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  • In 1869 a great innovation was made, when Polish was introduced throughout the whole of Galicia as the normal language of government; and since that time the use of German has almost entirely disappeared in that territory.

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  • This was not the result of any law, but depended on administrative regulations of the government service; it was practically necessary in remote districts, such as Galicia and Bukovina, where few of the population understood German.

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  • The Germans demand the recognition of German as a customary language in every part of the empire, so that a German may claim to have his business attended to in his own language, even in Dalmatia and Galicia.

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  • They spoke much of Germanentum and Unverfcilschtes Deutschtu y n, and they advocated a political union with the German empire, and were strongly anti-Hungarian and wished to resign all control over Galicia, if by a closer union with Germany they could secure German supremacy in Bohemia and the south Slav countries.

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  • After a short interval the emperor appointed as ministerpresident Count Badeni, who had earned a great reputation as governer of Galicia.

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  • Abrahamovitch, an Armenian from Galicia, refused to call on Schonerer to speak.

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  • KARL EMIL FRANZOS (1848-1904), German novelist, was born of Jewish parentage on the 25th of October 1848 in Russian Podolia, and spent his early years at Czortkow in Galicia.

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  • At Cardona, near Barcelona, Tertiary salt forms hill-masses, while the Carpathian sandstone in Galicia and Transylvania is rich in salt.

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  • The extensive mines at Wieliczka are in this rock-salt, as also is the salt of Kalusz in Galicia, which is associated with sylvite, KCI.

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  • BRODY, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 62 m.

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  • It is situated near the Russian frontier, and has been one of the most important commercial centres in Galicia, especially for the trade with Russia.

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  • HALICZ, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 70 m.

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  • In the neighbourhood are the ruins of the old castle, the seat of the ruler of the former kingdom from which Galicia derived its Polish name.

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  • His father, descended from an old and noble Polish family, was governor of Galicia.

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  • Priority of mention is due to St James of Compostella (Santiago, in the Spanish province of Galicia).

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  • ZOLKIEWSKI, STANISLAUS (1547-1619), the most illustrious member of an ancient Ruthenian family which emigrated to Galicia in the 15th century.

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  • PRZEMYSL, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 60 m.

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  • It is situated on the river San and is one of the strongest fortresses in Galicia.

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  • Przemysl, one of the oldest towns in Galicia, claims to have been founded in the 8th century, and was at one time capital of a large independent principality.

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  • The climate of Bukovina is healthy but severe, especially in winter; but it is generally milder than that of Galicia, the mean annual temperature at Czernowitz being 46.9° F.

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  • It was incorporated with Galicia in a single province in 1786, but was separated from it in 1849, and made a separate crownland.

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  • Some years later he became involved in a war that had broken out among the kings of Spain; and in 1167, being disabled during an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, he was made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of Leon, and was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia.

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  • of Brody railway station (Austrian Galicia).

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  • The Jews, who are numerous, carry on a brisk trade in tobacco and grain exported to Galicia and Odessa.

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  • It affected also Transylvania and part of Hungary, and still more severely Poland, but was confined to Podolia, Volhynia, the Ukraine and east Galicia (5° E.), not even penetrating as far as Warsaw.

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  • Transylvania was again affected in 1785, Slavonia and Livonia (a district of eastern Galicia) in1795-1796(25° E.), Volhynia in 1798.

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  • It may be mentioned, however, in passing, that their marriage rate is generally considerably higher than that here indicated, as may be seen from the example of Galicia, which is here shown separately from cis-Leithian Austria.

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  • That proportion is exceeded in southern Europe, where women develop earlier, and in Galicia.

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  • The table also shows that the proportion of the women of the ages in question who were married exceeds half only in Italy, France and Germany, not to mention Galicia.

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  • The great difference between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remarkably high rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the case of most of the other countries in question, shows that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in the estimate of hygienic balance.

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  • The Church, however, still numbers some 3,000,000 adherents in Galicia, and 500,000 in Hungary.

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  • In Galicia it has an independent organization under the Greek-Catholic archbishop of Lemberg, with two suffragan sees: Przemysl, for West Galicia, and Stanislawov for East Galicia.

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  • The grapes are cut and then conveyed in baskets by the Gallegos (as the labourers who come specially from Galicia in Spain for this purpose are termed) to the winery.

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  • One, the Asdingian Vandals, occupied Galicia, the other, the Silingian, Andalusia.

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  • The orography of Portugal cannot be scientifically studied except in relation to that of Spain, for there is no dividing line between the principal Portuguese ranges and the highlands of Galicia, Leon and Spanish Estremadura.

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  • The following ranges belong to the Transmontane system, which is the southern extension of the mountains of Galicia: Peneda (4728 ft.), forming the watershed between the river Lima and the lower Minho; the Serra do Gerez (4817 ft.), which rises like a gigantic wall between the Lima and the Homem, and sends off a spur known as the Amarella, Oural and Nora, south-westward between the Homem and the Cavado; La Raya Seca, a continuation of Gerez, which culminates in Larouco (4390 ft.) and contains the sources of the Cavado; Cabreira (4196 ft.), which contains the sources of the river Ave and separates the basin of the Tamega from that of the Cavado; Marao (4642 ft.), Villarelho (3547 ft.) and Padrella (3763 ft.), forming together a large massif between the rivers Tamega, Tua and Douro; and Nogueira (4331 ft.) and Bornes (3944 ft.), which divide the valley of the Tua from that of the Sabor.

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  • It rises in the highlands of Galicia, and, after forming for some distance the boundary between that province and Entre-Minho-e-Douro, falls into the sea below the port of Caminha.

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  • Small coasters can ascend the river as far as Salvatierra in Galicia (20 m.), but larger vessels are excluded by a sandy bar at the mouth.

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  • Between the Minho and Douro the chief rivers are the Lima (Spanish Limia or Antela), which also rises in Galicia, and reaches the sea at Vianna do Castello; the Cavado, which receives the Homem on the right, and forms the port of Espozende in its estuary; and the Ave, which rises in the Serra da Cabreira and issues at the port of Villa do Conde.

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  • Alphonso succeeded in conquering part of Galicia, but in attempting to capture the frontier fortress of Badajoz he was wounded and forced to surrender to Ferdinand II.

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  • Alphonso was therefore released under promise to abandon all his conquests in Galicia.

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  • From Lisbon Moore marched north-eastward with about 3 2,000 men to assist the Spanish armies against Napoleon; his subsequent retreat to join Sir David Baird in Galicia, in January 1809, diverted the pursuing army under Napoleon to the north-west, and temporarily saved Portugal from attack.

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  • Of him also nothing is really known except the bare facts of his reign and of his comparative success in consolidating the kingdom known as "of Galicia" or "of Oviedo" during the weakness of the Omayyad princes of Cordova.

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  • Kassa is the see of a Roman Catholic bishopric. It is the chief political and commercial town of Upper Hungary, and the principal entrepot for the commerce between Hungary and Galicia.

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  • As regards numbers, it occupies the second place amongst the Austrian provinces, coming after Galicia, and as regards density of population it stands third, Silesia and Lower Austria, which contains Vienna, standing higher.

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  • indeed established his rule not only over Bohemia and Moravia, but also over a large part of Silesia, and over that part of Poland which is now the Austrian province of Galicia.

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  • TARNOW, a town in Galicia, Austria, 164 m.

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  • Down the Dniester come timber and wooden wares from Galicia, and grain and wool from Bessarabia itself.

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  • He was a native of Spain, but the exact place of his birth is uncertain (Cauca in Galicia according to Idatius and Zosimus, Italica according to Marcellinus).

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  • The house of Austria, which had already annexed Galicia in 1772, profited by the situation to cession of 77 ?

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  • Nothing is known of their earlier history except that they lived as an agricultural people in Galicia, near the sources of the rivers Wissla and Dniester.

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  • On the other hand Galicia, extending on the eastern side of the Carpathians, belongs to the great plain of Russia; Bohemia stretches far into the body of Germany; while Dalmatia, which is quite separated from the other provinces, belongs to the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • The second great mountain-system of Austria, the Carpathians, occupy its eastern and north-eastern portions, and stretch in the form of an arch through Moravia, Silesia, Galicia and Bukovina, forming the frontier towards Hungary, within which territory they principally extend.

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  • The largest is the plain of Galicia, which is part of the extensive Sarmatic plain; while in the south, along the Isonzo, Austria comprises a small part of the Lombardo-Venetian plain.

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  • The Dniester, which, like the Danube, flows into the Black Sea, has its source in the Carpathians in Eastern Galicia, and pursues a very winding course towards the south-east, passing into Russia.

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  • The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir.

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  • The numerous and large marshes, found now mostly in Galicia and Dalmatia, have been greatly reduced in the other provinces through the canalization of the rivers, and other works of sanitation.

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  • Beyond this, in Russia and Galicia, lies an extensive plateau, much of which is covered by flat-lying Miocene and Pliocene beds; but in the deep valleys of the Dniester and its tributaries the ancient rocks which form the foundation of the plateau are laid bare.

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  • The great salt mines of Galicia are in Miocene deposits; but salt is also worked largely in the Trias of the Alps.

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  • lat., comprising Bohemia, Northern Moravia, Silesia and Galicia.

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  • Of these, three-namely, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, and Dalmatia-are kingdoms; two-Lower and Upper Austria-archduchies; six-Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Silesia and Bukovina-duchies; two-Gorz-Gradisca and Tirol-countships of princely rank (gefitrstete Grafschaften); two -Moravia and Istria-margraviates (march counties).

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  • GALICIA (Ger.

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  • It comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand duchy of Cracow.

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  • Galicia lies on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, which with their offshoots cover about a third of the whole area of the country.

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  • of these rivers Galicia forms a continuation of the great plains of Russia, intersected only by a few hills, which descend from the plateaus of Poland and Podolia, and which attain in some places an altitude of 1300 to 1500 ft.

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  • The Carpathians, which, extending in the form of an arc, form the boundary between Galicia and Hungary, are divided into the West and the East Beskides, which are separated by the northern ramifications of the massif of the Tatra.

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  • The river Vistula, which becomes navigable at Cracow, and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia, receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with its affluents the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San and the Bug.

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  • The Dniester, which rises in the Carpathians, within the territory of Galicia, becomes navigable at Sambor, and receives on the right the Stryj, the Swica, the Lomnica and the Bystrzyca, and on the left the Lipa, the Strypa, the Sereth, and the Zbrucz, the boundary river towards Russia.

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  • Galicia, traverses its south-eastern corner and receives the Czeremosz, the boundary river towards Bukovina.

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  • Exposed to the cold northern and north-eastern winds, and shut out by the Carpathians from the warm southerly winds, Galicia has the severest climate in Austria.

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  • Galicia has the largest area under potatoes and legumes in the whole of Austria, and hemp, flax, tobacco and hops are of considerable importance.

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  • The manufacturing industries of Galicia are not highly developed.

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  • Cloth manufacture is concentrated at Biala, while the weaving of linen and of woollens is pursued as a household industry, the former in the Carpathian region, the latter in eastern Galicia.

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  • Galicia had in 1900 a population of 7,295,538, which is equivalent to 241 inhabitants per sq.

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  • The local Diet is composed of 151 members, including the 3 archbishops, the 5 bishops, and the 2 rectors of the universities, and Galicia sends 78 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.

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  • Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise, along with the neighbouring principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir), in the course of the 12th century - the seat of the ruling dynasty being Halicz or Halitch.

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  • Polish assistance, however, enabled Vladimir, the former possessor, to expel Andreas, and in 1198 Roman, prince of Lodomeria, made himself master of Galicia also.

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  • On his death in 1205 the struggle between Poland and Hungary for supremacy in the country was resumed; but in 1215 it was arranged that Daniel (1205-1264), son of Roman, should be invested with Lodomeria, and Coloman, son of the Hungarian king, with Galicia.

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  • Though in 1235 he had recognized the overlordship of Hungary, yet, when he found himself hard pressed by the Mongolian general Batu, he called in the assistance of Innocent IV., and accepted the crown of Galicia from the hands of a papal legate; and again, when Innocent disappointed his expectation, he returned to his former connexion with the Greek Church.

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  • of Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; on Casimir's death in 1370 Louis the Great of Hungary, in accordance with previous treaties, became king of Poland, Galicia and Lodomeria; and in 1382, by the marriage of Louis's daughter with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as part of his Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became definitively assigned to Poland.

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  • On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.

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  • After the introduction of the constitution of February 1861, Galicia gained a larger degree of autonomy than any other province in the Austrian empire.

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  • Galicia, Spain >>

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  • The kings of Northumbria and Sussex, the kings of the Basques and of Galicia, Arab amirs of Spain and Fez, and even the caliph of Bagdad came to visit him in person or sent gifts by the hands of ambassadors.

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  • The precise line of the western frontier is formed for a considerable length by portions of the chief rivers or by small tributaries, and on the north (between Portugal and Galicia) it is determined to a large extent by small mountain ranges.

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  • and N, of Galicia, where high tides keep the inlets well scoured here occur the fine natural harbours of Pontevedra and Vigo, Corunna and Ferrol.

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  • In other parts, as in the Basque country, in Galicia, in the Serrania de Cuenca (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Jiicar), in the Sierra de Albarracin (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Guadalaviar), there are extensive tracts of undulating forest-clad hill country, and almost contiguous to these there are apparently boundless plains, or tracts of level table-land, some almost uninhabitable, and some streaked with irrigation canals and richly cultivatedlike the Rcquena of Valencia.

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  • On the north-west the valley of the Sil and a series of valleys farther south, along both of which military roads have been carried from an early period, open tip comrntinication between Leon and the hill country of Galicia, which explains why this province was united to Leon even before the conquest of Portugal from the Moors.

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  • Archean rocks are exposed in the north of the Peninsula, particu larly along the great Pyrenean axis, in Galicia, Estremadura, tb Sierra Morena, the Sierra Nevada and Serrania de Ronda.

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  • Emerita Cceres Augusta (Mrida) had a Roman garrison of Galicia.

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  • In the Basque Provinces and in Galicia the cultivable area is quite as fully utilized, but in these the difficulties are not so great.

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  • Among the vegetable products not yet mentioned the most important are the mulberry, grown in almost all provinces, but principally in those bordering on the Mediterranean, and above all in Valencia, the chief seat of the Spanish silk production and manufacture; tobacco, which is also imported, hemp and flax, grown chiefly in Galicia and other northern provinces; among dye-plants, madder, saffron, woad (Isatis tinctoria), and wild woad or dyers weed (Reseda luteola); ground-nuts (Arachis hypogaea), grown for their oil, for the preparation of which the nuts are exported in considerable quantity to France; liquorice, cummin, colocynth, &c. Esparto, chiefly from the arid lands of the south-east, is largely exported to Great Britain.

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  • Flax-spinning is confined to Galicia.

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  • Metal industries, at first limited to the Basque Provinces, particularly around Bilbao, have spread to Asturias, Almeria, Galicia, near the great ore beds and in the vicinity of many coal mines.

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  • Merino, Contribucin a Ia flora de Galicia (Tuy, 1897); A.

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  • Some of these were dealt with by Julius Caesar, governor here in 61 B.C., who is said also to have made his way, by his lieutenant Crassus, to the tin mines of the north-we~t in Galicia.

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  • Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.

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  • In it we must distinguish (1) Portuguese (Portuguez, perhaps a contraction from the old Porlugalez = Portugalensis), the language of the kingdom of Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America (Brazil); (2) Galician (Gallego), or the language of the old kingdom of Galicia (the modern provinces of Pontevedra, La Coruna, Orense, and Lugo) and of a portion of the old kingdom of Leon (the territory of Vierzo in the province of Leon).

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  • Galician, on the other hand, which began a literary life early in the middle ages for it was employed by Alfonso the Learned in his Cani-igas in honor of the Virgindecayed in proportion as the monarchy of Castile and Leon, to which Galicia had been annexed, gathered force and unity in its southward conquest.

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  • of the spot where the frontiers of Russia, Poland and Galicia meet and 300 m.

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  • asocial elements in, Galicia.

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  • Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 5 bedroom casa and 3 bedroom casita (all bedrooms en-suite ).

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  • The family had escaped the pogroms in Galicia which was then part of the Austrian Empire.

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  • A ruined castle, near the city, recalls its strategic importance in the 8th century, when Asturias, Galicia and Leon were the headquarters of resistance to the Moors.

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  • Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.

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  • I've also moved articles on cities in South Tirol and Kustenland to this category, as well as those on cities in Galicia, Bukovina, Transylvania, and Dalmatia.

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  • JOSEF BEM (1795-1850), Polish soldier, was born at Tarnow in Galicia, and was educated at the military school at Warsaw, where he especially distinguished himself in mathematics.

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  • After serving under Stadion in Galicia, he was in 1848, after the outbreak of the revolution, appointed president of the administration and acting Stadthalter in Bohemia.

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  • Krochmal, of Galicia (d.

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  • WIELICZKA, a mining town in Galicia, Austria, 220 m.

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  • KOLOMEA (Polish, Kolomyja), a town of Austria, in Galicia, 12 2 m.

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  • to embrace Poland, and separating Russia from Prussia, Austrian Galicia and Rumania.

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  • in Russia) rises in Galicia.

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  • (Great, Little and White Russians), it will be seen that, with the exception of some 3,000,000 Little Russians, now settled in East Galicia and in Poland, and of a few on the southern slope of the Carpathians, the whole of the E.

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  • Outside of the suburb there are saltpans, most of the proceeds of which are exported to Galicia.

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  • and S., Bessarabia on the S.W., and Galicia (Austria) on the W., from which it is separated by the Zbrucz, or Rodvocha, a tributary of th° Dniester.

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  • Oleg, prince of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory - the Ponizie, or "lowlands," which became later a part of the principalities of Volhynia, Kiev and Galicia.

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  • 415), historian and theologian, was born in Spain (possibly at Braga in Galicia) towards the close of the 4th century.

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  • Marco Polo refers to the oil springs of Baku towards the end!of the 13th century; the medicinal properties of the oil of Tegernsee in Bavaria gave it the name of " St Quirinus's Oil " in 1436; the oil of Pechelbronn, Elsass, was discovered in 1498, and the " earthbalsam " of Galicia was known in 1506.

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  • From the time of the completion on the Baku field of the first flowing well (which was unmanageable and resulted in the loss of the greater part of the oil), Russia has ranked second in the list of producing countries, whilst Galicia and Rumania became prominent in 1878 and 1880 respectively.

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  • France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.

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  • France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.

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  • Devonshire (retinasphalt), France, Spain, Italy, Asia Minor, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rumania, Dalmatia, Istria, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Moravia, Bavaria, Elsass, Kutais, Armenia, Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Punjab, Assam, Sumatra, Algeria, Egypt, Maryland, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California, Louisiana, Texas, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil.

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  • Sussex, France, Switzerland, Spain, Hungary, Transylvania, Bukowina, Galicia, Hesse, Baden, Hanover, Brunswick, California, Texas, Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina.

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  • In Galicia the Canadian system is nearly exclusively adopted.

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  • This consists in the use of an expanding reamer by means of which Drilling in the well may be drilled to a diameter admitting of the Galicia.

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  • The latter was introduced by Canadians into Galicia and, with certain modifications, has hitherto been found to be the best for that country.

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  • The stills employed in Russia and Galicia are usually smaller than those already described.

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  • Castile was left to his eldest son Sancho, Leon to Alphonso, Galicia to Garcia, Zamora and Toro to his two daughters Urraca and Elvira.

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  • There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Galicia, she at last escaped from the dungeon of Napoleonic Europe.

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  • Spanish levies, numbering nearly ioo,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.

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  • Baird was to move south through Galicia to meet him, and the army was to concentrate at Valladolid, Burgos, or whatever point might seem later on to be best.

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  • Moore was ignorant of their exact position and strength, but he knew that Valladolid had been occupied, and so his first orders were that Baird should fall back to Galicia and Hope to Portugal.

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  • Napoleon, directly he realized Moore's proximity, had ordered Soult to Astorga to cut him off from Galicia; recalled his other troops from their march towards Lisbon and Andalusia, and, with 50,000 men and 150 guns, had left Madrid himself (Dec. 22).

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  • By this time, French armies, to a great extent controlled by Napoleon from a distance, had advanced - Soult from Galicia to capture Oporto and Lisbon (with General Lapisse from Salamanca moving on his left towards Abrantes) and Marshal Victor, still farther.

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  • Soult (over 20,000), leaving Ney in Galicia, had taken and sacked Oporto (March 29, 1809); but the Portuguese having closed upon his rear and occupied Vigo, he halted, detaching a force to Amarante to keep open the road to Braganza and asked for reinforcements.

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  • Romana's force was now near Orense in Galicia.

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  • Wellington had further organized the Spanish forces - Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and northern Spain; Copons (io,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell (15,000) in Andalusia.

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  • The allied army, raised by the junction of the Spanish troops in Galicia to 90,000, now concentrated near Toro, and moved towards the Pisuerga, when Joseph, blowing up the castle of Burgos, fell back behind the Ebro.

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  • STANISLAU (Polish, Stanislawow), a town in Galicia, Austria, 87 m.

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  • GALICIA (the ancient Gallaecia or Callaecia, KaAAaucia or KaXaucia), a captaincy-general, and formerly a kingdom, countship and province, in the north-western angle of Spain; bounded on the N.

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  • In 1833 Galicia was divided for administrative purposes into the provinces of Corunna, Lugo, Orense and Pontevedra.

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  • Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded as a continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken in the east by the westernmost ridges of that system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, rise above the basin of the Mino.

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  • The high land north of the headwaters of the Mino forms the sole connecting link between the Cantabrians properly so-called and the mountains of central and western Galicia.

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  • The coast-line of Galicia, extending to about 240 m., is everywhere bold and deeply indented, presenting a large number of secure harbours, and in this respect forming a marked contrast to the neighbouring province.

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  • The Eo, which bounds Galicia on the east, has a deep estuary, the Rivadeo or Ribadeo, which offers a safe and commodious anchorage.

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  • Galicia is also remarkable for the number of its sulphur and other warm springs, the most important of which are those at Lugo, and those from which Orense is said to take its name (Aquae urentes).

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  • The largest town in Galicia is Corunna (pop. 1900, 43,971) Santiago de Compostela is the ancient capital and an archiepiscopal see; Lugo, Tuy, Mondonedo and Orense are bishoprics.

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  • During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the subject of dispute between more than one count of Galicia and the suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Normans.

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  • divided his kingdom among his sons in 1063, Galicia was the portion allotted to Garcia, the youngest of the three.

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  • The honorary title of count of Galicia has frequently been borne by younger sons of the Spanish sovereign.

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  • Meakin, Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain (London, 1909).

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  • by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia).

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  • Another important fact is that these races are all in direct contact with kindred peoples living outside Hungary: the Rumanians in Transylvania and Banat with those in Rumania and Bukovina; the Serbs and Croats with those on the other bank of the Danube, the Save and the Unna; the Germans in western Hungary with those in Upper Austria and Styria; the Slovaks in northern Hungary with those in Moravia; and lastly the Ruthenians with the Ruthenians of Galicia, who occupy the opposite slopes of the Carpathians.

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  • Leopolis), the capital of the crownland of Galicia, Austria, 468 m.

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  • In Lemberg is the National Institute founded by Count Ossolinski, which contains a library of books and manuscripts relating chiefly to the history and literature of Poland, valuable antiquarian and scientific collections, and a printing establishment; also the Dzieduszycki museum with collections of natural history and ethnography relating chiefly to Galicia.

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  • Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..

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  • A Russian army destined for the Bosporus, which had been gathered near Odessa, obliging the Porte to keep strong bodies of troops about Constantinople, had been called to Galicia, thus liberating several Turkish divisions for service at the Dardanelles.

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  • The Tatra Mountains extend through the Hungarian counties of Lipt6 and Szepes, and with their northern extremities also through the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and have a length of 4 o m.

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  • "Heron's Neck," was born in Spanish Galicia, in the earlier years of the 14th century.

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  • The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.

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  • At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.

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  • TARNOPOL, a town in Galicia, Austria, 87 m.

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  • But he assisted the Rascians or Serbs (see Hungary: History) to throw off the Greek yoke and establish a native dynasty, and attempted to made Galicia an appanage of his younger son Andrew.

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  • For weeks he scoured the interminable snow-covered plains of Poland in pursuit of the Polish guerillas, penetrating as far south as Jaroslau in Galicia, by which time he had lost two-thirds of his 15,000 men with no apparent result.

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  • In German Silesia there is a third rich field, which extends into Austria (Austrian Silesia and Galicia), for which country it forms the chief home source of supply (apart from lignite).

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  • His following gradually melted away, and he was about to flee to Portugal when Galicia revolted.

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  • JAWOROW, a town in Galicia, Austria, 30 m.

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  • The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred in the 12th century when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.

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  • The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.

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  • In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.

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  • After a short period of German government, which was highly beneficial to the country, Galicia received after the Constitution of 1867 an exceptional position which was gradually consolidated; the German officials were removed, and the Polish members in the Reichsrat (who represented 71 votes) held the balance between the parties, which brought Galicia, without any effort, great financial advantages at the cost of the other Crown territories.

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  • Just as the Czechs had a majority in Bohemia, so had the Poles in Galicia; and they used their strength against the Ruthenians.

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  • It was not till towards the end of the war that the Austrian Government, in response to the wishes of the Ruthenians, began to come round to the idea of a separate status for Eastern Galicia; but it was then too late for such changes within the old territory of the empire.

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  • The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.

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  • The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there.

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  • On April 12 1908 Count Potocki, the governor of Galicia, was shot by a Ruthenian student.

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  • His programme was to be an honourable mediator in the German-Bohemian quarrel, to extend the railway system, and to satisfy the wishes of the Poles in the waterways question by an expenditure of 73.4 million kronen on canal construction in Galicia, to which Galicia was to contribute only 9.4 million kronen, the State finding the other 64, and by an expenditure of 125 millions on river improvements, 99 of which would be contributed by the State.

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  • Similarly the Ruthenians demanded that East Galicia should be erected into a separate Crown land under the name of the Ukraine (March 3).

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  • Since the Northern and Southern Sla y s had absented themselves and the Poles were in opposition, the Reichsrat was adjourned (May 3), and the Germans now again demanded the grant of a revised constitution, with German as the language of State, a special status for Galicia and Dalmatia, access for the Germans to the Adriatic, and the partition of Bohemia.

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  • Hussarek got through a six months' provisional budget with the help of the Poles against the votes of the Ukrainians, a proof that he had shelved the partition of Galicia.

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  • It is to him that Poland owed the important acquisition of the greater part of Red Russia, or Galicia, which enabled her to secure her fair share of the northern and eastern trade.

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  • Austria got the greater part of Galicia, minus Cracow: 1710 sq.

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  • tition of By the third treaty of partition Austria had to be Poland, content with Western Galicia and Southern Masovia; 1796.

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  • m., to which Western Galicia and Cracow, about 900 sq.

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  • By the final act of the Congress of gress of Vienna, signed on the 9th of June 1815, Poland was divided between Prussia, Austria and Russia, with one trifling exception: Cracow with its population of 61,000 was erected into a republic embedded in Galicia.

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  • Austria remained in possession of Galicia with its 1,500,000 inhabitants.

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  • and even unable to enforce its, neutrality, Cracow was a centre of disturbance, and, after Russia, Prussia, and Austria had in 1846 agreed to its suppression, was finally occupied by Austria on the 6th of November 1848, as a consequence of the troubles, more agrarian than political, which convulsed Galicia.

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  • of Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, and has left us a very valuable history which has merits of style and shows considerable research.

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  • In another piece, Rhoxolania, in Latin, he describes the beauties of Galicia.

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  • During the last war of Poland as an independent country Kollataj betook himself to the camp of Kosciuszko, but when he saw that there was no longer hope he went to Galicia, but was captured by the Austrians and imprisoned at Olmiitz till 1803.

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  • An important writer of history is Karl Szajnocha (1818-1868), born in Galicia of Czech parents.

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  • Schmitt got mixed up with some of the political questions of the day - he was a native of Galicia and therefore a subject of the Austrian emperor - and was sentenced to death in 1846, but the penalty was commuted into imprisonment in Spielberg, whence he was released by the revolution of 1848.

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  • Casimir Stadnicki has treated of the period of the Jagiellons; and Szaraniewicz, professor at the university of Lemberg, has written on the early history of Galicia.

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  • At Lemberg, the capital of Austrian Galicia, there is an active Polish press.

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  • In the course of 1496 John Albert with great difficulty collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland, but the crusade was deflected from its proper course by the sudden invasion of Galicia by the hospodar, who apparently - for the whole subject is still very obscure - had been misled by reports from Hungary that John Albert was bent upon placing his younger brother Sigismund on the throne of Moldavia.

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  • (2) The kingdom of New Galicia, including the present states of Zacatecas, Jalisco and part of San Luis Potosi.

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  • Krakau), a town and episcopal see of Austria, in Galicia, 212 m.

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  • Although in regard to its population it is only the second place in Galicia, Cracow is the most interesting town in the whole of Poland.

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  • In the presence of the revolutionary troubles, which began with agrarian riots in Galicia in 1846, and then spread over the whole empire, he was personally helpless.

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  • It once formed part of the reyno of Nueva Galicia, which also included Aguas Calientes and Zacatecas.

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  • NAHMAN KROCHMAL (1785-1840), Jewish scholar, was born at Brody in Galicia in 1785.

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  • The great feudatories did not even respect the lives of the royal family, for Andrew was recalled from a futile attempt to reconquer Galicia (which really lay beyond the Hungarian sphere of influence), through the murder of his first wife Gertrude of Meran (September 24, 1213), by rebellious nobles jealous of the influence of her relatives.

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  • by Galicia.

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  • In 713, two years after the defeat and death of Roderick, the last Visigothic king, all Spain, except Galicia and Asturias, fell into the hands of the Moors.

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  • The Asturians chose him as their king in 718, and although Galicia was lost in 734, the Moors proved unable to penetrate into the remoter fastnesses held by the levies of Pelayo.

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  • After his death in 737,the Asturians continued to offer the same heroic resistance, and ultimately enabled the people of Galicia, Leon and Castile to recover their liberty.

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  • German Silesia is bounded by Brandenburg, Posen, Russian Poland, Galicia, Austrian Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia and the kingdom and province of Saxony.

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  • by Galicia, S.

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  • The successful resistance offered by Asturias to the invaders had been followed by the liberation of Galicia and Leon, when Ferdinand I.

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  • Besides Grottaferrata, there are Catholic Basilian monasteries in Poland, Hungary, Galicia, Rumania; and among the Melchites or Uniat Syrians.

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  • Even to-day the ignorant peasantry of many European countries, Russia, Galicia and elsewhere, believe that all disease is the work of demons, and that medicinal herbs owe their curative properties to their being the materialized forms of benevolent spirits.

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  • Originally settled in Galicia and the Bukovina, they appeared on the lower Danube about 200 B.C., and were used by Philip V.

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  • by the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and E.

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  • east of Berlin); and in the south they extend along the right bank of the Vistula to the river San in western Galicia.

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  • The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.

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  • He landed at Corunna, and during the autumn conquered Galicia.

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  • Fortifications.-The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komarom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Petervarad, 6-Arad and Temesvar in Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

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  • Her own share of the spoils was the acquisition, by the first treaty of partition (August 5, 1772), of Galicia f and Lodomeria.

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  • The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.

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  • Meanwhile the old system of provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in Tirol and Vorarlberg, 1817 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond registering the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and dealing with matters of local police.

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  • In this lies the main significance of the rising in Galicia in 1846.

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  • On the 13th of April 1846 an imperial decree abolished some of the more burdensome feudal obligations; but this concession was greeted with so fierce an outcry, as an authoritative endorsement of the atrocities, that it was again revoked, and Count Franz von Stadion was sent to restore order in Galicia.

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  • In Bohemia, where the attempt to hold elections for the Frankfort parliament had broken down on the opposition of the Czechs and the conservative German aristocracy, a separate constitution had been proclaimed on the 8th of April; on March the 23rd the election by the diet of Agram of Baron Joseph Jellachich as ban of Croatia was confirmed, as a concession to the agitation among the southern Sla y s; on the 18th of March Count Stadion had proclaimed a new con stitution for Galicia.

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  • Count Stadion began it in Galicia, where, before bombarding insurgent Cracow into submission (April 26), he had won over the Ruthenian peasants by the abolition of feudal dues and by forwarding a petition to the emperor for the official recognition of their language alongside Polish.

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  • Shortly afterwards Magyar resentment of an army order issued from the cavalry manoeuvres at Chlopy in Galicia - in which the monarch declared that he would " hold fast to the existing and well-tried organization of the army " and would never " relinquish the rights and privileges guaranteed to its highest war-lord "; and of a provocative utterance of the Austrian premier Korber in the Reichsrath led to the overthrow of the Khuen-Hedervary cabinet (September 30) by an immense majority.

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  • This constitution had failed; territories so different in size, history and circumstances were not contented with similar institutions, and a form of self-government which satisfied Lower Austria and Salzburg did not satisfy Galicia and Bohemia..

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  • The Poles of Galicia stood apart from the other Slav races.

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  • It was, however, easier to deal with the Poles of Galicia, for they had no historical rights to defend; and by sending delegates to Vienna they would not sacrifice any principle or prejudice any legal claim; they had only to consider how they could make the best bargain.

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  • Beust promised them that there should be a special minister for Galicia, a separate board for Galician education, that Polish should be the language of instruction in all secondary schools, that Polish instead of German should be the official language in the law courts and public offices, Ruthenian being only used in the elementary schools under strict limitations.

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  • (For the concordat see Laveleye, La Prusse et l'Autriche, Paris, 1870.) During 1868 the constitution then was open to attack on two sides, for the nationalist movement was gaining ground in National- Bohemia and Galicia.

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  • In Galicia the extreme party, ism in Oa- headed by Smolka, had always desired to imitate the licia and Czechs and not attend at Vienna; they were outvoted, Bohemia, but all parties agreed on a declaration in which the final demands of the Poles were drawn up;' they asked that the powers of the Galician diet should be much increased, and that the members from Galicia should cease to attend the Reichsrath on the discussion of those matters with which the Galician diet should be qualified to deal.

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  • In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.

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  • All laws were published in German; German was the sole language used in the central public offices in Vienna, and the language of the court and of the army; moreover, in almost every part of the monarchy it had become the language of what is called the internal service in the public offices and law courts; all books and correspondence were kept in German, not only in the German districts, but also in countries such as Bohemia and Galicia.

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  • There seems no doubt that the condition of the workmen in the factories of Moravia and the oil-mines of Galicia was peculiarly unfortunate; the hours of work were very long, the Count convictions, and on the first day of the session Rieger S' g unless he could speak and write German.

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  • In 1869 a great innovation was made, when Polish was introduced throughout the whole of Galicia as the normal language of government; and since that time the use of German has almost entirely disappeared in that territory.

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  • This was not the result of any law, but depended on administrative regulations of the government service; it was practically necessary in remote districts, such as Galicia and Bukovina, where few of the population understood German.

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  • The Germans demand the recognition of German as a customary language in every part of the empire, so that a German may claim to have his business attended to in his own language, even in Dalmatia and Galicia.

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  • They spoke much of Germanentum and Unverfcilschtes Deutschtu y n, and they advocated a political union with the German empire, and were strongly anti-Hungarian and wished to resign all control over Galicia, if by a closer union with Germany they could secure German supremacy in Bohemia and the south Slav countries.

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  • After a short interval the emperor appointed as ministerpresident Count Badeni, who had earned a great reputation as governer of Galicia.

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  • Abrahamovitch, an Armenian from Galicia, refused to call on Schonerer to speak.

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  • KARL EMIL FRANZOS (1848-1904), German novelist, was born of Jewish parentage on the 25th of October 1848 in Russian Podolia, and spent his early years at Czortkow in Galicia.

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  • At Cardona, near Barcelona, Tertiary salt forms hill-masses, while the Carpathian sandstone in Galicia and Transylvania is rich in salt.

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  • The extensive mines at Wieliczka are in this rock-salt, as also is the salt of Kalusz in Galicia, which is associated with sylvite, KCI.

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  • BRODY, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 62 m.

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  • It is situated near the Russian frontier, and has been one of the most important commercial centres in Galicia, especially for the trade with Russia.

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  • HALICZ, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 70 m.

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  • In the neighbourhood are the ruins of the old castle, the seat of the ruler of the former kingdom from which Galicia derived its Polish name.

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  • His father, descended from an old and noble Polish family, was governor of Galicia.

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  • Priority of mention is due to St James of Compostella (Santiago, in the Spanish province of Galicia).

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  • ZOLKIEWSKI, STANISLAUS (1547-1619), the most illustrious member of an ancient Ruthenian family which emigrated to Galicia in the 15th century.

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  • PRZEMYSL, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 60 m.

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  • It is situated on the river San and is one of the strongest fortresses in Galicia.

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  • Przemysl, one of the oldest towns in Galicia, claims to have been founded in the 8th century, and was at one time capital of a large independent principality.

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  • The climate of Bukovina is healthy but severe, especially in winter; but it is generally milder than that of Galicia, the mean annual temperature at Czernowitz being 46.9° F.

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  • It was incorporated with Galicia in a single province in 1786, but was separated from it in 1849, and made a separate crownland.

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  • Some years later he became involved in a war that had broken out among the kings of Spain; and in 1167, being disabled during an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, he was made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of Leon, and was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia.

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  • of Brody railway station (Austrian Galicia).

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  • The Jews, who are numerous, carry on a brisk trade in tobacco and grain exported to Galicia and Odessa.

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  • In 1717 plague raged severely in Constantinople; and in 1719 it made a fresh progress westward into Transylvania, Hungary, Galicia and Poland, but not farther (about 20° E.).

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  • It affected also Transylvania and part of Hungary, and still more severely Poland, but was confined to Podolia, Volhynia, the Ukraine and east Galicia (5° E.), not even penetrating as far as Warsaw.

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  • Transylvania was again affected in 1785, Slavonia and Livonia (a district of eastern Galicia) in1795-1796(25° E.), Volhynia in 1798.

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  • It may be mentioned, however, in passing, that their marriage rate is generally considerably higher than that here indicated, as may be seen from the example of Galicia, which is here shown separately from cis-Leithian Austria.

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  • That proportion is exceeded in southern Europe, where women develop earlier, and in Galicia.

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  • The table also shows that the proportion of the women of the ages in question who were married exceeds half only in Italy, France and Germany, not to mention Galicia.

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  • The great difference between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remarkably high rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the case of most of the other countries in question, shows that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in the estimate of hygienic balance.

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  • The Church, however, still numbers some 3,000,000 adherents in Galicia, and 500,000 in Hungary.

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  • In Galicia it has an independent organization under the Greek-Catholic archbishop of Lemberg, with two suffragan sees: Przemysl, for West Galicia, and Stanislawov for East Galicia.

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  • The grapes are cut and then conveyed in baskets by the Gallegos (as the labourers who come specially from Galicia in Spain for this purpose are termed) to the winery.

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  • and Podolia and Galicia (Austria) on the S., with an area of 27,690 sq.

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  • One, the Asdingian Vandals, occupied Galicia, the other, the Silingian, Andalusia.

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  • The orography of Portugal cannot be scientifically studied except in relation to that of Spain, for there is no dividing line between the principal Portuguese ranges and the highlands of Galicia, Leon and Spanish Estremadura.

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  • The following ranges belong to the Transmontane system, which is the southern extension of the mountains of Galicia: Peneda (4728 ft.), forming the watershed between the river Lima and the lower Minho; the Serra do Gerez (4817 ft.), which rises like a gigantic wall between the Lima and the Homem, and sends off a spur known as the Amarella, Oural and Nora, south-westward between the Homem and the Cavado; La Raya Seca, a continuation of Gerez, which culminates in Larouco (4390 ft.) and contains the sources of the Cavado; Cabreira (4196 ft.), which contains the sources of the river Ave and separates the basin of the Tamega from that of the Cavado; Marao (4642 ft.), Villarelho (3547 ft.) and Padrella (3763 ft.), forming together a large massif between the rivers Tamega, Tua and Douro; and Nogueira (4331 ft.) and Bornes (3944 ft.), which divide the valley of the Tua from that of the Sabor.

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  • It rises in the highlands of Galicia, and, after forming for some distance the boundary between that province and Entre-Minho-e-Douro, falls into the sea below the port of Caminha.

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  • Small coasters can ascend the river as far as Salvatierra in Galicia (20 m.), but larger vessels are excluded by a sandy bar at the mouth.

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  • Between the Minho and Douro the chief rivers are the Lima (Spanish Limia or Antela), which also rises in Galicia, and reaches the sea at Vianna do Castello; the Cavado, which receives the Homem on the right, and forms the port of Espozende in its estuary; and the Ave, which rises in the Serra da Cabreira and issues at the port of Villa do Conde.

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  • Alphonso succeeded in conquering part of Galicia, but in attempting to capture the frontier fortress of Badajoz he was wounded and forced to surrender to Ferdinand II.

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  • Alphonso was therefore released under promise to abandon all his conquests in Galicia.

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  • From Lisbon Moore marched north-eastward with about 3 2,000 men to assist the Spanish armies against Napoleon; his subsequent retreat to join Sir David Baird in Galicia, in January 1809, diverted the pursuing army under Napoleon to the north-west, and temporarily saved Portugal from attack.

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  • Of him also nothing is really known except the bare facts of his reign and of his comparative success in consolidating the kingdom known as "of Galicia" or "of Oviedo" during the weakness of the Omayyad princes of Cordova.

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  • Kassa is the see of a Roman Catholic bishopric. It is the chief political and commercial town of Upper Hungary, and the principal entrepot for the commerce between Hungary and Galicia.

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  • As regards numbers, it occupies the second place amongst the Austrian provinces, coming after Galicia, and as regards density of population it stands third, Silesia and Lower Austria, which contains Vienna, standing higher.

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  • indeed established his rule not only over Bohemia and Moravia, but also over a large part of Silesia, and over that part of Poland which is now the Austrian province of Galicia.

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  • TARNOW, a town in Galicia, Austria, 164 m.

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  • Down the Dniester come timber and wooden wares from Galicia, and grain and wool from Bessarabia itself.

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  • He was a native of Spain, but the exact place of his birth is uncertain (Cauca in Galicia according to Idatius and Zosimus, Italica according to Marcellinus).

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  • The house of Austria, which had already annexed Galicia in 1772, profited by the situation to cession of 77 ?

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  • Nothing is known of their earlier history except that they lived as an agricultural people in Galicia, near the sources of the rivers Wissla and Dniester.

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  • On the other hand Galicia, extending on the eastern side of the Carpathians, belongs to the great plain of Russia; Bohemia stretches far into the body of Germany; while Dalmatia, which is quite separated from the other provinces, belongs to the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • The second great mountain-system of Austria, the Carpathians, occupy its eastern and north-eastern portions, and stretch in the form of an arch through Moravia, Silesia, Galicia and Bukovina, forming the frontier towards Hungary, within which territory they principally extend.

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  • The largest is the plain of Galicia, which is part of the extensive Sarmatic plain; while in the south, along the Isonzo, Austria comprises a small part of the Lombardo-Venetian plain.

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  • The Dniester, which, like the Danube, flows into the Black Sea, has its source in the Carpathians in Eastern Galicia, and pursues a very winding course towards the south-east, passing into Russia.

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  • The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir.

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  • The numerous and large marshes, found now mostly in Galicia and Dalmatia, have been greatly reduced in the other provinces through the canalization of the rivers, and other works of sanitation.

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  • Beyond this, in Russia and Galicia, lies an extensive plateau, much of which is covered by flat-lying Miocene and Pliocene beds; but in the deep valleys of the Dniester and its tributaries the ancient rocks which form the foundation of the plateau are laid bare.

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  • The great salt mines of Galicia are in Miocene deposits; but salt is also worked largely in the Trias of the Alps.

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  • lat., comprising Bohemia, Northern Moravia, Silesia and Galicia.

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  • Of these, three-namely, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, and Dalmatia-are kingdoms; two-Lower and Upper Austria-archduchies; six-Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Silesia and Bukovina-duchies; two-Gorz-Gradisca and Tirol-countships of princely rank (gefitrstete Grafschaften); two -Moravia and Istria-margraviates (march counties).

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  • GALICIA (Ger.

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  • It comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand duchy of Cracow.

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  • Galicia lies on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, which with their offshoots cover about a third of the whole area of the country.

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  • of these rivers Galicia forms a continuation of the great plains of Russia, intersected only by a few hills, which descend from the plateaus of Poland and Podolia, and which attain in some places an altitude of 1300 to 1500 ft.

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  • The Carpathians, which, extending in the form of an arc, form the boundary between Galicia and Hungary, are divided into the West and the East Beskides, which are separated by the northern ramifications of the massif of the Tatra.

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  • The river Vistula, which becomes navigable at Cracow, and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia, receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with its affluents the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San and the Bug.

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  • The Dniester, which rises in the Carpathians, within the territory of Galicia, becomes navigable at Sambor, and receives on the right the Stryj, the Swica, the Lomnica and the Bystrzyca, and on the left the Lipa, the Strypa, the Sereth, and the Zbrucz, the boundary river towards Russia.

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  • Galicia, traverses its south-eastern corner and receives the Czeremosz, the boundary river towards Bukovina.

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  • Exposed to the cold northern and north-eastern winds, and shut out by the Carpathians from the warm southerly winds, Galicia has the severest climate in Austria.

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  • Galicia has the largest area under potatoes and legumes in the whole of Austria, and hemp, flax, tobacco and hops are of considerable importance.

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  • The manufacturing industries of Galicia are not highly developed.

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  • Cloth manufacture is concentrated at Biala, while the weaving of linen and of woollens is pursued as a household industry, the former in the Carpathian region, the latter in eastern Galicia.

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  • Galicia had in 1900 a population of 7,295,538, which is equivalent to 241 inhabitants per sq.

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  • The local Diet is composed of 151 members, including the 3 archbishops, the 5 bishops, and the 2 rectors of the universities, and Galicia sends 78 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.

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  • Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise, along with the neighbouring principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir), in the course of the 12th century - the seat of the ruling dynasty being Halicz or Halitch.

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  • Polish assistance, however, enabled Vladimir, the former possessor, to expel Andreas, and in 1198 Roman, prince of Lodomeria, made himself master of Galicia also.

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  • On his death in 1205 the struggle between Poland and Hungary for supremacy in the country was resumed; but in 1215 it was arranged that Daniel (1205-1264), son of Roman, should be invested with Lodomeria, and Coloman, son of the Hungarian king, with Galicia.

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  • Though in 1235 he had recognized the overlordship of Hungary, yet, when he found himself hard pressed by the Mongolian general Batu, he called in the assistance of Innocent IV., and accepted the crown of Galicia from the hands of a papal legate; and again, when Innocent disappointed his expectation, he returned to his former connexion with the Greek Church.

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  • of Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; on Casimir's death in 1370 Louis the Great of Hungary, in accordance with previous treaties, became king of Poland, Galicia and Lodomeria; and in 1382, by the marriage of Louis's daughter with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as part of his Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became definitively assigned to Poland.

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  • On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.

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  • After the introduction of the constitution of February 1861, Galicia gained a larger degree of autonomy than any other province in the Austrian empire.

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  • Galicia, Spain >>

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  • The kings of Northumbria and Sussex, the kings of the Basques and of Galicia, Arab amirs of Spain and Fez, and even the caliph of Bagdad came to visit him in person or sent gifts by the hands of ambassadors.

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  • The precise line of the western frontier is formed for a considerable length by portions of the chief rivers or by small tributaries, and on the north (between Portugal and Galicia) it is determined to a large extent by small mountain ranges.

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  • and N, of Galicia, where high tides keep the inlets well scoured here occur the fine natural harbours of Pontevedra and Vigo, Corunna and Ferrol.

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  • In other parts, as in the Basque country, in Galicia, in the Serrania de Cuenca (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Jiicar), in the Sierra de Albarracin (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Guadalaviar), there are extensive tracts of undulating forest-clad hill country, and almost contiguous to these there are apparently boundless plains, or tracts of level table-land, some almost uninhabitable, and some streaked with irrigation canals and richly cultivatedlike the Rcquena of Valencia.

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  • On the north-west the valley of the Sil and a series of valleys farther south, along both of which military roads have been carried from an early period, open tip comrntinication between Leon and the hill country of Galicia, which explains why this province was united to Leon even before the conquest of Portugal from the Moors.

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  • Of the mountains belonging to the table-land the most continuous are those of the Cantabrian chain, which stretches for the most part from east to west, parallel to the Bay of Biscay, btit Mountains, ultimately bends round towards the south between Leon and Galicia (see CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS) - A peculiar feature of this chain, arid of the neighboring parts of the table-land, is the number of the parameras or isolated plateaus, surrounded by steep rocky mountains, or even by walls of sheer cliff.

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  • Archean rocks are exposed in the north of the Peninsula, particu larly along the great Pyrenean axis, in Galicia, Estremadura, tb Sierra Morena, the Sierra Nevada and Serrania de Ronda.

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  • Emerita Cceres Augusta (Mrida) had a Roman garrison of Galicia.

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  • In the Basque Provinces and in Galicia the cultivable area is quite as fully utilized, but in these the difficulties are not so great.

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  • Among the vegetable products not yet mentioned the most important are the mulberry, grown in almost all provinces, but principally in those bordering on the Mediterranean, and above all in Valencia, the chief seat of the Spanish silk production and manufacture; tobacco, which is also imported, hemp and flax, grown chiefly in Galicia and other northern provinces; among dye-plants, madder, saffron, woad (Isatis tinctoria), and wild woad or dyers weed (Reseda luteola); ground-nuts (Arachis hypogaea), grown for their oil, for the preparation of which the nuts are exported in considerable quantity to France; liquorice, cummin, colocynth, &c. Esparto, chiefly from the arid lands of the south-east, is largely exported to Great Britain.

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  • Flax-spinning is confined to Galicia.

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  • Metal industries, at first limited to the Basque Provinces, particularly around Bilbao, have spread to Asturias, Almeria, Galicia, near the great ore beds and in the vicinity of many coal mines.

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  • Merino, Contribucin a Ia flora de Galicia (Tuy, 1897); A.

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  • Some of these were dealt with by Julius Caesar, governor here in 61 B.C., who is said also to have made his way, by his lieutenant Crassus, to the tin mines of the north-we~t in Galicia.

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  • Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.

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  • In it we must distinguish (1) Portuguese (Portuguez, perhaps a contraction from the old Porlugalez = Portugalensis), the language of the kingdom of Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America (Brazil); (2) Galician (Gallego), or the language of the old kingdom of Galicia (the modern provinces of Pontevedra, La Coruna, Orense, and Lugo) and of a portion of the old kingdom of Leon (the territory of Vierzo in the province of Leon).

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  • Galician, on the other hand, which began a literary life early in the middle ages for it was employed by Alfonso the Learned in his Cani-igas in honor of the Virgindecayed in proportion as the monarchy of Castile and Leon, to which Galicia had been annexed, gathered force and unity in its southward conquest.

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  • of the spot where the frontiers of Russia, Poland and Galicia meet and 300 m.

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  • Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.

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  • and S., Bessarabia on the S.W., and Galicia (Austria) on the W., from which it is separated by the Zbrucz, or Rodvocha, a tributary of th° Dniester.

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  • He then finally decided to attack Soult (intending subsequently to fall back through Galicia) and ordered up transports from Lisbon to Corunna and Vigo; thus changing his base from Portugal to the north-west of Spain; Blake's Spanish army, now rallying under the marquis de la Romana near Leon, was to co-operate, but was able to give little effective aid.

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  • He then finally decided to attack Soult (intending subsequently to fall back through Galicia) and ordered up transports from Lisbon to Corunna and Vigo; thus changing his base from Portugal to the north-west of Spain; Blake's Spanish army, now rallying under the marquis de la Romana near Leon, was to co-operate, but was able to give little effective aid.

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