Galen sentence example
When Galen again attacked Holland six years later he was in alliance with Louis, but he soon deserted his new friend, and fought for the emperor Leopold I.
Galen showed himself anxious to reform the church, but his chief energies were directed to increasing his power and prestige.
His work is not essentially different from that of his predecessors Rhazes and Ali; all present the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle.
Galen is said to have invented hiera-picra, which he employed as an anthelmintic; it is still used in England as a domestic remedy.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.Advertisement
In the first half of the 14th century lived the two translators Qalonymos ben David and Qalonymos ben Qalonymos, the latter of whom translated many works of Galen and Averroes, and various scientific treatises, besides writing original works, e.g.
The greater part is taken from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides and later Greek writers.
Cosimo he called his second father, saying that Ficino had given him life, but Cosimo new birth, - the one had devoted him to Galen, the other to the divine Plato, - the one was physician of the body, the other of the soul.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
From the time of Galen, however, it has been usual to speak of the life of the body either as proceeding in accordance with nature (Kara Ou6cv, secundum naturam) or as overstepping the bounds of nature (irapa OvQCV, praeter naturam).Advertisement
It is probable that the science, like others, shared in the general intellectual decline of Greece after the Macedonian supremacy; but the works of physicians of the period are almost entirely lost, and were so even in the time of Galen.
Galen classes them all as of the dogmatic school; but, whatever may have been their characteristics, they are of no importance in the history of the science.
The reputation of Herophilus is attested by the fact that four considerable physicians wrote works about him and his writings, and he is further spoken of with the highest respect by Galen and Celsus.
His numerous works are also almost entirely lost, fragments only being preserved by Galen and others.
The methodic school lasted certainly for some centuries, and influenced the revival of medical science in the middle ages, though overshadowed by the greater reputation of Galen.Advertisement
The work of Celsus is thus for us only second in importance to the Hippocratic writings and the works of Galen; but it is valuable rather as a part of the history of medicine than as the subject of that history.
Galen was a man furnished with all the anatomical, medical and philosophical knowledge of his time; he had studied all kinds of natural curiosities, and had stood in near relation to important political events; he possessed enormous industry, great practical sagacity and unbounded literary fluency.
Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine.
In his anatomical studies Galen had a twofold object - a philosophical, to show the wisdom of the Creator in making everything fit to serve its purpose; and a practical, to aid the diagnosis, or recognition, of disease.
The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or mixtures which Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity.Advertisement
Galen showed extreme ingenuity in explaining all symptoms and all diseases on his system.
Galen's use of drugs was influenced largely by the same theories.
But the reputation of Galen grew slowly; he does not appear to have enjoyed any pre-eminence over other physicians of his time, to most of whom he was strongly opposed in opinion.
When the Arabs possessed themselves of the scattered remains of Greek culture, the works of Galen were more highly esteemed than any others except those of Aristotle.
The history of medicine in Roman times is by no means the same thing as the history of the fate of the works of Galen.Advertisement
The Byzantine school of medicine, which closely corresponds to the Byzantine literary and historical schools, followed closely in Galen's footsteps, and its writers were chiefly compilers and encyclopaedists.
In the West the period after Galen affords little evidence of anything but a gradual though unvarying decline in Roman medicine.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant.
In Mahommedan Spain he was lees regarded, but in Europe his works even eclipsed and superseded those of Hippocrates and Galen.
The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author.
As in the case of Galen, the formal and encyclopaedic character of Avicenna's works was the chief cause of his popularity and ascendancy, though in modern times these very qualities in a scientific or medical writer would rather cause him to become more speedily antiquated.
The study of Hippocrates, Galen, and other classics was recommended by Cassiodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there what could be called a medical school; nor had this foundation any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school of Salerno.
None of these Salernitan works rise much above the rank of compilations, being founded on Hippocrates, Galen and later Greek writers, with an unmistakable mixture of the doctrines of the methodists.
The school of Salerno thus forms a bridge between the ancient and the modern medicine, more direct though less conspicuous than that circuitous route, through Byzantium, Bagdad and Cordova, by which Hippocrates and Galen, in Arabian dress, again entered the European world.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Rabelais not only lectured on Galen and Hippocrates, but edited some works of the latter; and Michael Servetus (1511-1553), in a little tract Syruporum universa ratio, defended the practice of Galen as compared with that of the Arabians.
The great Aldine Press made an important contribution to the work, by editiones principes of Hippocrates and Galen in the original.
Thus was the campaign opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took the place of Avicenna.
He began his lectures at Basel by burning the books of Avicenna and others; he afterwards boasted of having read no books for ten years; he protested that his shoe-buckles were more learned than Galen and Avicenna.
The spread of syphilis, a disease equally unknown to the ancients, and the failure of Galen's remedies to cure it, had a similar effect.
The practice and theory of medicine were mainly founded upon Hippocrates and Galen, with everincreasing additions from the chemical school.
It is noteworthy that concurrently with the rise of clinical study the works of Hippocrates were more and more valued, while Galen began to sink into the background.
Boerhaave may be in some respects compared tO Galen, but again differed from him in that he always abstained from attempting to reduce his knowledge to a uniform and coherent system.
In Parthey's edition (Berlin, 1850) other recipes for the manufacture of kuphi, by Galen and Dioscorides, are given; also some results of the editor's own experiments.
He was a great admirer of Galen; and in his writings he protests emphatically against quackery and the superstitious remedies of the astrologers.
Medical literature was indebted for its origin to the works of Galen and the medical school of Gondesapur.
The treatises have been classified according to (I) the direct evidence of ancient writers, (2) peculiarities of style and method, and (3) the presence of anachronisms and of opinions opposed to the general Hippocratic teaching - greatest weight being attached to the opinions of Erotian and Galen.
He has been identified with the Aelius Gallus frequently quoted by Galen, whose remedies are stated to have been used with success in an Arabian expedition.
Servetus succeeded Vesalius as assistant to Gunther, who extols his general culture, and notes his skill in dissection, and ranks him vix ulli secundus in knowledge of Galen.
Polemon, Aristotle and Adamantius may also be named as having dealt with the subject; as also have the medical writers of Greece and Rome - Hippocrates, Galen and Paulus Aegineta, and in later times the Arabian commentators on these authors.
At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the Nestorian Christians.
His translation of a treatise of Galen was printed at Cambridge in 1521 by Siberch, who, in the same year and place, was the first to use Greek type in England.
It is usually the case that a unit lasts later in trade than in coinage; and the prominence of this standard in Italy may show how it is that this mina (18 unciae = 7400) was known as the "Italic" in the days of Galen and Dioscorides (2).
Then the "Alexandrian mina" of Dioscorides and Galen (2) is 20 unciae = 8250; in the "Analecta" (2) it is 150 or 158 drachmae = 8100.
In medicine, the term is applied to a school of physicians who, in the time of Celsus and Galen, advocated accurate observation of the phenomena of health and disease in the belief that only by the collection of a vast mass of instances would a true science of medicine be attained.
But in its second aspect it touched divination and astrology, of which Galen' says that the physiognomical part is the greater, and this aspect of the subject ' bulked largely in the fanciful literature of the middle ages.
Galen, in his work Ilepi Twv Tis LGuxiis nBWV, having discussed the nature and immortality of the soul, proceeds in ch.
But it may be well in this place to observe that his successors continued his work by giving Pausanias, Strabo, Aeschylus, Galen, Hippocrates and Longinus to the world in first editions.
They were in German, not in Latin; they were expositions of his own experience, of his own views, of his own methods of curing, adapted to the diseases that afflicted the Germans in the year 1527, and they were not commentaries on the text of Galen or Avicenna.
Among the twenty-nine guests are Galen and Ulpian, but they are all probably fictitious personages, and the majority take no part in the conversation.
On the other hand, it is argued that the authority of Galen and Cicero (pro Cluentio) place it beyond a doubt that, so far from being allowed to pass with impunity, the offence in question was sometimes punished by death; that the authority of Lysias is of doubtful authenticity; and that the speculative reasonings of Plato and Aristotle, in matters of legislation, ought not to be confounded with the actual state of the laws.
Aristotle in the East no less than in the West was the " master of them that know "; and Moslem physicians to this day invoke the names of Hippocrates and Galen.
Yet the substance, quality, condition absolute (7rws gxov) and condition relative of Stoicism have no enduring influence outside the school, though they recur with eclectics like Galen.
This is perhaps fortunate for the history of doctrine, for it produces the commentator, your Aspasius or Alexander of Aphrodisias, and the substitute for the critic, your Cicero, or your Galen with his attempt at comprehension of the Stoic categories and the like while starting from Aristotelianism.
In metaphysics and in natural history Aristotle was a law to him, and in medicine Galen, but he was not a slave to the text or the details of either.
In Stoicism, for the moment, the two conceptions are united, soon, however, to diverge - the medical conception to receive its final development under Galen, while the philosophical conception, passing over to Philo and others, was shaped and modified at Alexandria under the influence of Judaism, whence it played a great part in the developments of Jewish and Christian theology.
In 146 Galen began the study of medicine, and in about his twentieth year he left Pergamus for Smyrna, in order to place himself under the instruction of the anatomist and physician Pelops, and of the peripatetic philosopher Albinus.
In Rome Galen remained for some years, greatly extending his reputation as a physician, and writing some of his most important treatises.
Galen was one of the most versatile and accomplished writers of his age.
Galen, who in his youth was carefully trained in the Stoic philosophy, was an unusually prolific writer on logic. Of the numerous commentaries and original treatises, a catalogue of which is given in his work De propriis libris, one only has come down to us, the treatise on Fallacies in dictione (IIepi TWV KaTa T1jv M Gi' oocio-µarouv).
There is no evidence from Galen's own works that he did make this addition to the doctrines of syllogism, and the remarkable passage quoted by Minoides Minas from a Greek commentator on the Analytics, referring the fourth figure to Galen, clearly shows that the addition did not, as generally supposed, rest on a new principle, but was merely an amplification or alteration of the indirect moods of the first figure already noted by Theophrastus and the earlier Peripatetics.
He shows demonstratively that it cannot be regarded as a writing of Galen's, and ascribes it to some one or other of the later Greek logicians.
There have been numerous issues of the whole or parts of Galen's works, among the editors or illustrators of which may be mentioned Jo.
Further details as to the life and an account of the anatomical and medical knowledge of Galen will be found in the historical articles under the headings of Anatomy and Medicine.
Kidd, "A Cursory Analysis of the Works of Galen, so far as they relate to Anatomy and Physiology," Trans.
Early in 1531 he lectured publicly on Galen and Hippocrates, while his more serious pursuits seem to have been chequered by acting in a morale comedic, then a very frequent university amusement.
He edited for Sebastian Gryphius, in the single year 1532, the medical Epistles of Giovanni Manardi, the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, with the Ars Parva of Galen, and an edition of two supposed Latin documents, which, however, happened unluckily to be forgeries.
At Pavia in 1494 we find him taking up literary and grammatical studies, both in Latin and the vernacular; the former, no doubt, in order the more easily to read those among the ancients who had laboured in the fields that were his own, as Euclid, Galen, Celsus, Ptolemy, Pliny, Vitruvius and, above all, Archimedes; the latter with a growing hope of some day getting into proper form and order the mass of materials he was daily accumulating for treatises on all his manifold subjects of enquiry.
In physiological matters he is in advance of Aristotle and Galen, though we can hardly assert - as has sometimes been thought - that he anticipated Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood.
Though hampered in his command by the restrictions of the states-general, he repelled the invasion, and the bishop, Christoph von Galen, was forced to conclude peace.
This possibility, according to Averroes, led to the adoption by the physician Galen of the so-called fourth figure, in which the middle term is predicate of the major and subject of the minor.
To the Arabians Aristotle represented and summed up Greek philosophy, even as Galen became to them the code of Greek medicine.
With Ricci's assistance, he rapidly mastered the elements of the science, and eventually extorted his father's reluctant permission to exchange Hippocrates and Galen for Euclid and Archimedes.
The name Dead Sea first appears in late Greek writers, as Pausanias and Galen.
Galen himself couldn't dissect human cadavers, because Romans were even more appalled by the notion than the Greeks.
Galen believed in a vital energy or creative force that he called pneuma similar to the Ayurvedic " prana.
Working through the groups, Cumbria's Gary Thwaite remained supreme taking out the newcomer, Galen le Cheminant, 9/5 9/2 9/2.
After restoring some degree of peace and prosperity in his principality, Galen had to contend with a formidable insurrection on the part of the citizens of Munster; but at length this was crushed, and the bellicose bishop, who maintained a strong army, became an important personage in Europe.
Harvey proceeds to contrast this view with that of the " Medici," or followers of Hippocrates and Galen, who, " badly philosophizing," imagined that the brain, the heart, and the liver were simultaneously first generated in the form of vesicles; and, at the same time, while expressing his agreement with Aristotle in the principle of epigenesis, he maintains that it is the blood which is the primal generative part, and not, as Aristotle thought, the heart.
The writings of Galen contain less of simple objective observations than those of several other ancient physicians, all being swept into the current of dogmatic exposition.
Even when Arabian medicine gave way before the direct teaching of the Greek authors rescued from neglect, the authority of Galen was increased instead of being diminished; and he assumed a position of autocracy in medical science which was only slowly undermined by the growth of modern science in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The basis of medicine through the middle ages had been literary and dogmatic, and it was literary and dogmatic still; but the medical literature now brought to light - including as it did the more important works of Hippocrates and Galen, many of them hitherto unknown, and in addition the forgotten element of Latin medicine, especially the work of Celsus - was in itself far superior to the second-hand compilations and incorrect versions which had formerly been accepted as standards.
There is no record of Paracelsus' knowledge of Greek, and as, at least in his student days, the most important works of Greek medicine were very imperfectly known, it is probable he had little first hand acquaintance with Galen or Hippocrates, while his breach with the humanists is the more conspicuous from his lecturing and writing chiefly in his native German.
Well acquainted with the doctrines of Galen, he rejected them as thoroughly as Paracelsus did, and borrowed from the latter some definite ideas as well as his revolutionary spirit.
Elias of Nisibis), medicine (Galen) and cosmetics (Cleopatra), in ready-reckoners (Didymus), clerk's (katib's) guides, and like handbooks, and in indirect explanations of the equivalents of measures mentioned by authors (e.g.
Aristotle from the first profited by having a father who, being physician to Amyntas II., king of Macedon, and one of the Asclepiads who, according to Galen, practised their sons in dissection, both prepared the way for his son's influence at the Macedonian court, and gave him a bias to medicine and biology, which certainly led to his belief in nature and natural science, and perhaps induced him to practise medicine, as he did, according to his enemies, Timaeus and Epicurus, when he first went to Athens.
Working through the groups, Cumbria 's Gary Thwaite remained supreme taking out the newcomer, Galen le Cheminant, 9/5 9/2 9/2.
The Egyptians, Greeks, and the early physician Galen all advocated a medical system that focused on particular aspects of human physiology.
In the 1990s, in Galen's Prophecy, Jerome Kagan and his colleagues studied two types of children whom they defined as inhibited and uninhibited (or exuberant) respectively.
Galen Gering played Luis Lopez-Fitzgerald on Passions was discovered in a hair salon, which led to him dropping out of UCLA to make time to model overseas.
Galen Gering (ex-Luis Lopez-Fitzgerald, Passions) - Gering portrayed Owen, Gina's brother and an aspiring actor.
The Final Five are Colonel Saul Tigh, his wife Ellen, Chief of the Deck Galen Tyrol, President's Chief Aide Tory Foster and Ensign Samuel Anders.
Galen Tyrol, better known as "The Chief", and played by Aaron Douglas, looks more than troubled in the photo.
Chief Galen Tyrol - The blue collar engineer kept Galactica together by the skin of his teeth and all his skill.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
It is doubtful whether the treatise in which this theory is fully expounded is as old as Hippocrates himself; but it was regarded as a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, its terms not only became the common property of the profession, but passed into general literature and common language.
Among many descriptions of this disease, that by John Kaye or Caius, already referred to, was one of the best, and of great importance as showing that the works of Galen did not comprise all that could be known in medicine.