(solar) stars show no tendency to congregate in the galactic plane.
We describe a sphere about S with radius SP so as just to touch the boundaries of the stratum of stars, then, provided a class of stars is considered wholly or mainly included within this sphere, no concentration of stars in the galactic plane is to be expected, for the shape of the universe does not enter into the question.
However, congregate towards the galactic plane.
On these the belt of greatest density can be easily traced, and it follows very closely the course of the Milky Way; but, whereas the latter is a belt having rather sharply defined boundaries, the star-density decreases gradually and continuously from the galactic equator to the galactic poles.
No doubt many of the lucid stars which appear to lie in the Milky Way actually belong to it, and the presence of this unique cluster helps to swell the numbers along the galactic equator; but, for example, the increased density between latitudes 30° to 50° (both north and south) as compared with the density at the poles cannot be attributed to the Galaxy itself, for the Galaxy passes nowhere near these zones.
According to their results the star-density increases continuously from 109 per square degree at the poles to 2019 along the galactic equator.
In general, the fainter the stars included in the discussion the more marked is their crowding towards the galactic plane.
Imagine this stratum to be uniformly filled with stars (of course in the actual universe instead of sharply defined boundaries AB and CD, we shall have a gradual thinning out of the stars) it follows that in the two directions SP and SP' the fewest stars will be seen; these then are the directions of the galactic poles.
That the sun is nearly midway between the two boundary planes can be tested by comparing the star-densities of the northern and southern galactic hemispheres.
This is confirmed by the fact that the Milky Way is not quite a great circle of the celestial sphere, but has a mean south galactic latitude of about 1.7°.
If, instead of considering the whole mass of stars, attention is directed to those of large proper motion, which are therefore in the mean relatively near us, the crowding to the galactic plane is much less noticeable, if not indeed entirely absent.
Show a condensation towards the galactic plane.
(WolfRayet) stars; in their case the condensation into the galactic regions is complete, for of the 91 known stars of this type, 70 are actually in the Milky Way and the remaining 21 are in the Magellanic Clouds (two large clusters in the southern hemisphere, which resemble the Milky Way in several respects).
Excluding the latter, the 70 Wolf-Rayet stars have a mean distance from the central galactic circle of only 2.6°.
The bewildered climbers looked longingly at their friends and especially Penny, but were trapped into listening to the galactic adventures of some creatures called "womps."
But Gladys was delighted and after a night, ostensibly in adjoining rooms, the pair were off, with giggles and tears and a proud pronouncement that Arlen had agreed to present all seven volumes of Belfair and her galactic cohorts to the waiting world of letters—in paperback form.
Seeliger, who investigated this ratio for the stars of the Bonn Durchmusterung and Southern Durchmusterung, came to the conclusion (as summarized by Simon Newcomb) that for these stars the ratio ranges from 3.85 to 3.28, the former value being found for regions near the Milky Way and the latter for regions near the galactic poles.
But it is necessary to make a careful distinction between the galactic plane and the Galaxy itself; the latter, though it is necessarily one of the most remarkable features of the universe, is not the only peculiarity associated with the galactic plane.
Actually we know that the intrinsic brightness varies very greatly, so that each increase of telescopic power not The table, which is based on over 130,000 stars, shows that along the galactic circle the stars are scattered nearly three times more thickly than at the north and south poles of the Galaxy.
As we consider a direction such as SQ farther and farther from the pole the boundary of the universe in that direction becomes more and more remote so that more stars are seen, and finally in the directions SR and SR' in the galactic plane, the boundary is perhaps beyond the limits of our telescopes.
Dyson and Thackeray's tables show the same result for the Groombridge stars down to magnitude 6.5; but the fainter stars (with centennial proper motions greater than 5") show a marked tendency to draw towards the galactic circle.
There can be little doubt that these stars belong to the Milky Way cluster, so that their presence is a property of the cluster rather than of the galactic plane in general.
Spiral nebulae have the remarkable characteristic of avoiding the galactic plane, and it has been suggested that the space outside the limits of the stellar universe is filled with them.
It does not, however, seem probable that their apparent anti-galactic tendency has such a significance; in the Magellanic Clouds spiral nebulae are very abundant, a fact which shows that there is no essential antipathy between the stars and the spiral nebulae.
As might be expected, the relative motion of the two great star-drifts is parallel to the galactic plane.
Yes, a comet slamming into the planet or some galactic cataclysm could wipe us all out.
This is the galactic plane, well known from the fact that it is marked in the sky by the broad irregular belt of milky light called the Galaxy or Milky Way.
It is only when some of the stars considered are more remote and lie outside this sphere (but of course between the two planes) that there is a galactic crowding.
Dean's morning had been filled with enough ghosts, dreams and galactic sex to last a lifetime and he excused himself.