How to use Gained in a sentence
How he gained her trust?
Bridget's saintly and charitable life soon made her known far and wide; she gained, too, great religious influence over her husband, with whom (1341-1343) she went on pilgrimage to St James of Compostella.
It was beautiful in winter, but it would be much more so when the trees gained color.
Nothing could be gained by remaining still.
I've gained five pounds.Advertisement
Nothing could be gained by dwelling on such thoughts.
She had gained enough weight to fill out the bodice completely.
The dark eyes lost their concern and gained a spark of humor.
The great Conde was given, for a victory gained near this place, the right to use the style of Enghien among his subsidiary titles.
In 1838 he gained a fellowship, and graduated with first-class honours in 1839.Advertisement
Giuseppe Balsamo - for such was the "count's" real name - gave early indications of those talents which afterwards gained for him so wide a notoriety.
Having gained admittance to the offices of the Directory, he became head of a department.
She was looking him over, noting that he had gained back the weight and muscle tone, and that he looked delightful again.
They darted outside and closed the door before the room lost the little warmth it had gained.
Clusters of sixties and seventies-style subdivisions had blossomed during the post-war era of rush to the 'burbs. These look-alikes that originally carried names like Camelot or South Pacific were at first scorned by Parkside's gentry but had slowly gained a level of respectability.Advertisement
The doctor suggested as much exercise could be gained by walking without the added risk of injury.
Vinnie Baratto stuffed his face with a double breakfast order and gained confidence with every bite.
Although he couldn't do everything he'd been able to do as a White God, he'd gained other abilities.
Her eyes went to Darian and Yully as she thought of the family she'd gained.
It would be my honor to show you what you've gained.Advertisement
Fabricius afterwards gained a series of victories over the Samnites, the Lucanians and the Bruttians, and on his return to Rome received the honour of a triumph.
McClellan's forces gained possession of the greater part of the territory in the summer of 1861, and Union control was never seriously threatened, in spite of Lee's attempt in the same year.
Rupert, who from 1353 to 1390 was sole ruler, gained the electoral dignity for the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1356 by a grant of some lands in upper Bavaria to the emperor Charles IV.
In 294 B.C. he was defeated at Mantineia by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who invaded Laconia, gained a second victory close to Sparta, and was on the point of taking the city itself when he was called t So Plut.
On sea the Athenians, after two minor engagements, gained a decisive victory which enabled them to blockade Aegina.Advertisement
The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
Theodosius, after a two days' fight, gained the victory by the treachery of one of Arbogast's generals, sent to cut off his retreat.
The most important are those on Madame de Montausier (1672), which gained him the membership of the Academy, the duchesse d'Aiguillon (1675), and, above all, Marshal Turenne (1676).
Flechier, by his leniency and tact, succeeded in bringing over some of them to his views, and even gained the esteem of those who declined to change their faith.
While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.
The statistics presented at the last showed that the Church during the preceding decade had gained about a million members and three million adherents.
Hayes by a majority of less than 3000 votes; but the Democrats gained a majority in both branches of the state legislature, and Thurman was elected to the United States Senate, where he served from 1869 until 1881 - during the 46th Congress (1879-1881) as president pro tempore.
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
Foremost among the leaders of the revolutionary armies were Manuel Belgrano, and after March 1812 General Jose de San Martin, an officer who had gained experience against the French in the Peninsular War.
The government troops gained two decisive victories over the insurgents under Generals Mitre and Arredondo, and they were compelled to surrender at discretion.
Public primary schools include (1) icoles maternellesinfant schools for children from two to six years old; (2) elementary primary schoolsthese are the ordinary schools for children from six to thirteen; (3) higher primary schools (coles primaires suprieures) and supplementary courses; these admit pupils who have gained the certificate of primary elementary studies (cerlificat diludes primaires), offer a more advanced course and prepare for technical instruction; (4) primary technical schools (coles manuelles dapprenlissage, coles primaires suprleures professionnelles) kept by the communes or departments.
She was helpless, and the violence of her grief and anger soon changed to passive resistance, and than to a complete forbearance and complaisance which gained the king's regard and favour.
In 1703 she supported the Methuen Treaty, which cemented still further the alliance between Portugal and England, and in 1704 she was appointed regent of Portugal during the illness of her brother King Pedro II., her administration being distinguished by several successes gained over the Spaniards.
Everywhere on the centre the Christians gained the upper hand, but their victory was almost turned into a defeat by the mistaken manoeuvres of Doria.
Going to Trinity College, Cambridge, he graduated as senior wrangler in 1865, and obtained the first Smith's prize of the year, the second being gained by Professor Alfred Marshall.
The chief success of the government lay in the field of foreign politics, where it prudently avoided entanglement in the ambitious schemes of Hellenistic monarchs, but gained great prestige by energetic interference against aggressors who threatened the existing balance of power or the security of the seas.
Oxley now turned aside - led by Mr Evans's report of the country eastward - crossed the Arbuthnot range, and traversing the Liverpool Plains, and ascending the Peel and Cockburn rivers to the Blue Mountains, gained sight of the open sea, which he reached at Port Macquarie.
A valuable extension of geographical knowledge had been gained by this circuitous journey of more than Boo m.
The error was discovered, after eighteen years, by the explorations of Mr Babbage and Major Warburton in 1858, while Mr Stuart, about the same time, gained a more complete knowledge of the same district.
These valuable additions to Australian geography were gained through humane efforts to relieve the lost explorers.
On the death of his elder brother in September 1843 Henry Smith left Rugby, and at the end of 1844 gained a scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford.
He gained the senior mathematical scholarship in 1851.
He gained a victory at Heiligerlee (May 23) over a Spanish force under Count Aremberg.
War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful and gained a small rectification of frontier; then a few months later Crete was taken over "en depot" by the Four Powers - Germany and Austria not participating, - and Prince George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.
He took a leading part in the negotiation of 1890 for the Bohemian settlement, but the elections of 1891, in which the young Czechs who were opposed to the feudal party gained a decisive victory, made his position a very difficult one.
After a struggle the Protestant faction gained the upper hand, and on the 7th of February 1550 Bonner's deprivation was confirmed by the council sitting in the Star Chamber, and he was further condemned to perpetual imprisonment.
On his return to London he found the parliament again negotiating Cromwell with Charles, and on the eve of making a treaty which Charles himself had no intention of keeping and the regarded merely as a means of regaining his power, and which would have thrown away in one moment all the advantages gained during years of bloodshed and struggle.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
In 1658 Colonel Edward Doyley, the governor, gained a decisive victory over thirty companies of Spanish foot, and sent ten of their flags to Cromwell.
The experience gained on the northern survey under Argelander's direction enabled Schdnfeld to introduce some improvements in the methods employed, which increased the accuracy of this work, which was practically accomplished in March 1881, some revision only remaining to be done.
In 1875 Lord Rayleigh published an investigation on "the work which may be gained during the mixing of gases."
When they are worked from a power station the great advantage is gained that the same plant which drives them can be used for many other purposes, such as working machine tools and supplying current for lighting.
Owing to the experience gained with many thousands of miles of cable in all depths and under varying conditions of weather and climate, the risk, and consequently the cost, of laying has been greatly reduced.
The experience gained in the earlier days of ocean telegraphy, from the failure and abandonment of nearly 50 per cent.
It very soon, therefore, became clear to inventors that a very great advantage would be gained if some means could be discovered of creating high frequency oscillations which were not intermittent but continuous.
Podébrad, who had gained the throne of Bohemia with the aid of the Hussites and Utraquists, had long been in ill odour at Rome, and in 1465 Pope Paul II.
Those who believe that the Italians would have gained strength by unification in a single monarchy must regret that this Gothic kingdom lacked the elements of stability.
Berengar gained nothing by his act of obedience to Otto.
But, in proportion as the people gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in transactions with its neighbors.
Though the communes gained so much by the war of investitures, the division of the country between the popes and emperors parties was no small price to pay for inde- Munlelpendence.
While the former faction gained in Lombardy by the massacre of Ezzelino, the latter revived in Tuscany after the battle of Montaperti, which in 1260 placed Florence at the discretion of the Ghibellines.
In spite of repeated efforts on the part of the Ghibellines, in spite of King Roberts supine incapacity, the imperialists gained no permanent advantage.
During their season of ascendancy Pisa was enslaved, and Florence gained the access to the sea.
Philip founded the Bourbon line of Spanish kings, renouncing in Italy all that his Habsburg predecessors had gained.
A little later he gained possession of Genoa.
He had little sympathy with Liberalism and abhorred revolution, but his hatred of Austria and his resentment at the galling tutelage to which she subjected him had gained strength year by year.
Yet the opposition gained recruits among all the ablest and most respectable Tuscans.
In the Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, although in the latter regions the autonomist feeling was still strong even among the Liberals.
By the end of September the idea had gained such ground in Italy that the visit was practically settled, and on the 7th of October Mancini informed Robilant (who was then in Italy) of the fact.
Admiral Canevaro, who had gained distinction as commander of the international forces in Foreign affairs.
At the elections for the local bodies the Catholics had already been permitted to vote, and, availing themselves of the privilege, they gained seats in many municipal councils and obtained the majority in some.
He was introduced to public life and to court by his neighbour in Yorkshire, George, 2nd duke of Buckingham, was elected M.P. for York in 1665, and gained the "first step in his future rise" by joining Buckingham in his attack on Clarendon in 1667.
At a later period, when the Atharvan gained admission to the Vedic canon, a special connexion with the Brahman priest was sometimes claimed, though with scant success, for this fourth collection of hymns and spells, and the comparatively late and unimportant Gopatha-brahmana attached to it.
When, however, he was again attacked by Charles Martel, the Saracens renewed their ravages, and Odo was defeated near Bordeaux; he was compelled to crave protection from Charles, who took up this struggle and gained his momentous victory at Poitiers in 732.
The Franks, who had thrice previously sacked the city, gained permanent possession of it about 455.
The temporal power of the archbishops was not gained without opposition.
His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.
When Gotama the Buddha, himself a Kosalan by birth, determined on the use, for the propagation of his religious reforms, of the living tongue of the people, he and his followers naturally made full use of the advantages already gained by the form of speech current through the wide extent of his own country.
In 174 Aurelius gained over the Quadi a decisive victory, which is commemorated by one of the sculptures on the column of Antonine.
He was instrumental in saving New York and Vermont from invasion by his brilliant victory of lake Champlain gained, on the nth of September 1814, with a flotilla of 14 vessels carrying 86 guns, over Captain George Downie's 16 vessels and 92 guns.
Meanwhile, however divided in opinion as to his political conduct, his countrymen were practically unanimous in admiring his dramatic work; and his reputation, if it gained little by El Nuevo Don Juan, was greatly increased by El Tanto por Ciento and El Tejado de Vidrio.
The reputation thus gained, confirmed by his translation of Horace (1750), led to his becoming a member of the Academie des Inscriptions (1754) and of the French Academy (1761).
In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws based on the experience already gained.
Deputy in 1865, he was from 1868 to 1880 Obergespan (lord-lieutenant), in which capacity he gained the reputation of an excellent administrator.
In Bothwell also, "the glorious, rash and hazardous young man," romantic, handsome, charming even in his guilt, Mary gained what she lacked in her husband, a lover.
It gained prominence after 1543, when the archbishop of Esztergom and primate of Hungary made it his residence after the capture of Esztergom by the Turks.
By the victory he gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I.
At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a humanist, and in 1504 was appointed by the abbot of the Praemonstratensian monastery at Belbuck rector of the town school at Treptow.
In 1497 he attacked and gained possession of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought he had a natural and hereditary right.
By this dexterous stroke he gained a new and wealthy kingdom, and completely re-established his fortunes.
This seemed equally favourable to Austria and Prussia, but it was the latter power which gained all the substantial advantages; and when the conflict arose between Austria and Prussia in 1866, Russia remained neutral and permitted Prussia to reap the fruits and establish her supremacy in Germany.
When this relief has been gained by a series of enactments, a second struggle follows, in which the plebeians win political equality with the patricians.
Nowhere else did nobility so distinctly rise out of wealth, and that wealth gained nobility.
If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.
The majority of these reformers exemplified their preaching in their own persons, and St Dominic gained great renown by inflicting upon himself 300,000 strokes in six days.
Thus among those who became "tyrants" in the Greek world he gained his position as one of the old nobility, like Phalaris of Agrigentum, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of Sicyon, who had previously been a cook.
On the other hand, Western Protestantism has also made great headway, notably the Stundists, whose rationalisticProtestant teaching has gained a firm foothold especially in Little Russia, where the Raskol never penetrated.
For this purpose Dimitri Donskoi formed in 1380 a coalition of Russian princes, and gained a great victory over Khan Mamai of the Golden Horde on the famous battlefield of Kulikovo, the memory of which still lives in the popular legends.
Having thus gained the support of a large majority of the landed proprietors and the ecclesiastics, Boris Godunov increased his influence to such an extent that on the Boris death of Tsar Feodor without male issue in 1598 he Godunov, was elected his successor by a Great National Assembly.
The result of the war was to make Russia supreme at Constantinople; and before long an opportunity of further increasing her influence was created by Mehemet Ali, the ambitious pasha of Egypt, who in November 1831 began a war with his sovereign in Syria, gained a series of victories over the Turkish forces in Asia Minor and threatened Constantinople.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
This form of automatic coupler has now gained practically universal acceptance in the United States.
In 1148, having lost by the earl's death her principal supporter, she retired to Normandy, of which her husband had in the meantime gained possession.
There he gained an acquaintance with the Lutheran hymns, which he turned to account on his return to Scotland.
Entering the army as lieutenant of artillery in 1857, he gained the medal for military valour at the battle of Custozza in 1866, and in 1870 commanded the brigade of artillery which battered the breach in the wall of Rome at Porta Pia.
He renewed former acquaintance, however, with the " poet " Mallet, and through him gained access to Lady Hervey's circle, where a congenial admiration, not to say affectation, of French manners and literature made him a welcome guest.
Until 1870 the state was regularly Republican, but in this year the Democrats gained most of the offices, including the seat in the national House of Representatives.
A movement to elect Mr Taft president of Yale University gained some strength in 1898-99, but was promptly checked by him, on the ground that the head of a great university should be primarily an educationalist.
Mr Taft gained great influence among the more conservative Filipinos, and their entreaties to him to remain influenced him to decline the offer of a place upon the Supreme bench offered by President Roosevelt in 1902.
In Herat, where he spent the greater part of his life, he gained the favour of that famous patron of letters, Mir `Alishir (1440-1501), who served his old schoolfellow, the reigning sultan Husain (who as the last of the Timurides in Persia ascended the throne of Herat in 1468), first as keeper of the seal, afterwards as governor of Jurjan.
His son Murkertagh, who gained a great victory over the Norse in 926, is celebrated for his triumphant march round Ireland, the Moirthimchell Eiream, in which, starting from Portglenone on the Bann, he completed a circuit of the island at the head of his armed clan, returning with many captive kings and chieftains.
The young Saul was chosen by lot and gained unanimous recognition by delivering Jabesh in Gilead from the Ammonites.
The decisive victories were gained by Jeroboam II.
Assyrian officers were placed in the land and Judah thus gained its deliverance at the expense of Israel.
It is part of the scheme which runs through the book of Kings, and its apparent object is to show that the Temple planned by David and founded by Solomon ultimately gained its true position as the only sanctuary of Yahweh to which his worshippers should repair.
But the former gained the day, and, realizing that the only hope of maintaining a pure worship of Yahweh lay in a forcible isolation from foreign influence, its adherents were prepared to take measures to ensure the religious independence of their assembly.
After the defeat of Scopas, Antiochus gained Batanaea and Samaria and Abila and Gadara, and a little later those of the Jews who live round the Temple called Jerusalem adhered to him."
The siege was raised, more probably in consequence of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes than because Judas had gained any real victory.
The French assembly did not succeed in obtaining formal assent to these decisions (except from Frankfort and Holland), but they gained the practical adhesion of the majority of Western and American Jews.
It is rendered memorable by the decisive victory gained here on the 12th of July 1691 by the forces of William III.
Some idea of the business efficiency of the C.R.B., as it was familiarly called, may be gained from the fact that although almost $1,000,000,000 was expended on food and transportation, only about one-half of one per cent was required for overhead expenses.
Gould gained control of the Union Pacific, from which in 1883 he withdrew after realizing a large profit.
This is one of the many respects where Syriac has gained greater flexibility in syntax than Hebrew.
He also posed as an author and patron of literature; his poems, severely criticized by Philoxenus, were hissed at the Olympic games; but having gained a prize for a tragedy on the Ransom of Hector at the Lenaea at Athens, he was so elated that he engaged in a debauch which proved fatal.
During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.
Again, with the accession of large territories, the Order became a governing aristocracy; the original care for the sick, and even the later crusading zeal of the period of conquest, gave way, when conquests were gained and administration was needed, to the problem, half military, half political, of governing a frontier state.
When Frederic the Great gained West Prussia by the first partition of Poland (1772), he was uniting together once more the dominions of the Order, sundered since 1466; and it is the kings of Prussia who have inherited the Order's task of maintaining German influence on the banks of the Vistula.
Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet.
Strong, talented and ambitious, Gaveston gained great influence over young Edward, and early in 1307 he was banished from England by the king; but he returned after the death of Edward I.
Many other inquiries conducted by him might be mentioned, and some idea may be gained of his scientific activity from the fact that a selection only from his papers, published by the Cambridge University Press, fills three large volumes.
Townshend's belief in the growing of turnips gained him the nickname of " Turnip Townshend."
He also gained a thorough acquaintance with the French language.
Some idea of the importance of this subject may be gained from the following figures.
In the campaign of 1304, when Edward renewed his attempt on Scotland and reduced Stirling, Bruce supported the English king, who in one of his letters to him says, "If you complete that which you have begun, we shall hold the war ended by your deed and all the land of Scotland gained."
In 1554 she took into her service William Maitland of Lethington, who as secretary of state gained very great influence over her.
Thanks to the friendly intervention of the marechal du camp, baron Duteil, Bonaparte once more gained leave of absence for three months and reached Corsica in September 1791.
Probably these plans gained for him an appointment (loth of August) in the topographical bureau of the committee of Public Safety.
In January 1796 he drew up another plan for the conquest of Italy, which gained the assent of the Directory.
His oracular reserve, personal honesty and consistency of aim had gained him the suffrages of all who hoped to save France from the harpies of the Directory and the violent rhetoricians of the now reconstituted Jacobin Club.
But in another and wider sense the Consulate has a well-defined unity; it is the time when France gained most of her institutions and the essentials of her machinery of government.
It gained valuable powers of patronage by founding 6400 exhibitions (bourses) in connexion with the lycees; 2400 of which were reserved for the sons of soldiers and government officials.
Besides holding his powers for life, he now gained the right of nominating his successor.
Napoleon's powers as First Consul for Life were so wide as to render much extension both superfluous and impossible; but we may note here that the senate now gained a further accession of authority at the expense of the two legislative bodies; and practically legislation rested with the emperor, who sent his decrees to the senate to be registered as senatus consulta.
The prestige which the First Consul had gained by the Concordat was now lost by the overweening emperor.
In their first interview, held on a raft in the middle of the river Niemen at Tilsit on the 25th of June, the French emperor, by his mingled strength and suppleness of intellect, gained an easy mastery over the impressionable young potentate.
Still worse was the prospect when Sir Arthur Wellesley with a British force landed in Portugal, gained the battle of Vimiero (21st of August), and brought the French commander, Junot, by the so-called convention of Cintra, to agree to the evacuation of the country by all the French troops.
The sea power thus gained what had all along been wanting, a sure basis for the exercise of its force against the land power, Napoleon.
His diplomacy before the war of 1812 was less successful than that of Alexander, who skilfully ended his quarrel with Turkey and gained over to his side Sweden.
The folly of the monarchs of the Holy Alliance in Europe gained for the writings of Montholon and Las Cases (that of Gourgaud was not published till 1899) a ready reception, with the result that Napoleon reappeared in the literature of the ensuing decades wielding an influence scarcely less potent than that of the grey-coated figure into whose arms France flung herself on his return from Elba.
When the War of the Austrian Succession approached, his sympathies were entirely with Maria Theresa - mainly on the ground that the fall of the house of Austria would dangerously increase the power of France, even if she gained no accession of territory.
His convictions gained weight from the simplicity, uprightness and diligence of his character; but they need a more effective justification than he was able to give them.
Human self-perfection cannot be gained in isolation; it is attainable only in inter-relation with fellow-citizens in the social community.
But this view is gained by following the methods which Cuvier taught.
The success it gained was doubtless due in some degree to the difficulty which most men had in comprehending it, for it was enwrapped in alluring mystery, but more to the confidence with which it was announced as being the long-looked-for key to the wonders of creation, since its promoters did not hesitate to term it the discovery of " the Natural System," though they condescended, by way of explanation to less exalted intellects than their own, to allow it the more moderate appellation of the Circular or, Quinary System.
The Spaniards invaded the duchy from Lombardy, and although the duke was defeated several times he fought bravely, gained some successes, and the terms of the peace of 1618 left him more or less in the status quo ante.
Although he was the father of two children by Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha, one of them named Nithard, we have no authentic account of his marriage, and from 790 he was abbot of St Riquier, where his brilliant rule gained for him later the renown of a saint.
In the interior the effect is gained by broad masses of chromatic decoration in marble-veneer and mosaics on a gold ground to cover the walls and vaults, and by elaborate pavements of opus sectile and opus Alexandrinum.
By the establishment of the Latin empire Venice had gained a preponderance.
In the Atlanta campaign under Sherman he gained considerable distinction, rising successively to the rank of brigadier-general in 1864 and major-general in 1865.
From very early days executive officers known as " select-men," constables, clerks of markets, hog reeves, packers of meat and fish, &c., were chosen; and the select-men, particularly, gained power as the attendance of the freemen on meetings grew onerous.
Three years later he removed to Warrington as classical tutor in a new academy, and there he attended lectures on chemistry by Dr Matthew Turner of Liverpool and pursued those studies in electricity which gained him the fellowship of the Royal Society in 1766 and supplied him with material for his History of Electricity.
The cotton from each is collected and kept separately, and at the end of the season carefully examined and weighed, and a final selection is then made which reduces the number to perhaps five; the cotton from each of these plants is gained separately and the seed preserved for sowing.
He was engaged in war with the Moors and gained a victory over them at Alcacer do Sal in 1217.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
The crusaders were driven back towards Damietta; and at the end of August 1221 Pelagius had to make a treaty with Malik-al-Kamil, by which he gained a free retreat and the surrender of the Holy Cross at the price of the restoration of Damietta.
Ralph of Coggeshall, who used information gained from crusaders, and William of Newburgh, who had access to a work by Richard I.'s chaplain Anselm, which is now lost.4 The French side is presented in Rigord's Gesta Philippi Augusti and in the Gesta (an abridgment and continuation of Rigord) and the Philippeis of William the Breton.
Viewed from a distance the mountains appear as dark perpendicular barriers, quite impenetrable; but narrow paths lead round the precipitous face of the hills, and when the inner side is gained a wonderful panorama opens out.
Nagykanizsa once ranked as the second fortress of Hungary, and consequently played an important part during the wars with the Turks, who, having gained possession of it in 1600, held it until, in 1690, after a siege of two years, it was recovered by the Austrian and Hungarian forces.
Nothing is more likely than that Christianity gained adherents among the Therapeutae, and that their institutions were adapted to the new religion, just as they seem to have been borrowed by the Jews from the Egyptians.
Some support for this view is gained from study of the alchemistical writings of the period.
Numerous less distinguished adepts also practised the art, and sometimes were so successful in their deceptions that they gained the ear of kings, whose desire to profit by the achievements of science was in several instances rewarded by an abundant crop of counterfeit coins.
He had already gained a reputation in his narrow circle as a keen debater and a jovial companion, and it is said that he had several smuggling adventures.
He took refuge with Amalric, king of Jerusalem, whose favour he gained, and who invested him with the town of Berytus, now Beirut.
He was especially interested in questions relating to the polarization of light, and his observations in this field, which gained him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1840, laid the foundations of the polarimetric analysis of sugar.
During the struggle that went on in his soul, he began to take note of his psychological state; and this was the first time that he exercised his reason on spiritual things; the experience thus painfully gained he found of great use afterwards in directing others.
During the absence of Ignatius, Faber gained three more adherents.
Here, on the 20th of April 1809, Napoleon gained a signal victory over the Austrians under the Archduke Louis and General Hiller.
Fulvius Flaccus gained a triumph for his victory, and it was probably then that the statue of Vertumnus which stood in the Vicus Tuscus at Rome was brought from Volsinii.
Finally, although Clay for his support of the compromises and Seward and Chase for their opposition have gained in reputation, Webster has been selected as the special target for hostile criticism.
The retaining of alchemists at various courts shows the high opinion which the doctrines had gained.
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
It is remarkable that this theory should have gained the esteem of the notable chemists who flourished in the 18th century.
Of practical instruction there was none other than that to be gained in a few private laboratories and in the shops of apothecaries.
This rejuvenation of the notion of radicals rapidly gained favour; and the complete fusion of the radical theory with the theory of types was not long delayed.
Her caution had its reward, for whatever she did was permanently gained, whereas her successor in his boundless zeal for reform brought his empire to the verge of a general rebellion.
Louis, however, gained sound experience in warfare in the defence of Aquitaine, shared in campaigns against the Saxons and the Avars, and led an army to Italy in 792.
The universal misery gave point to the virulent attacks of Babeuf on the existing order, and at last gained him a hearing.
It has also gained admittance into Ireland, and now abounds there as much as in England.
He may be said to have gained a world-wide reputation by his use of the phrase "blood is thicker than water" to justify his intervention on behalf of the British squadron engaged in the operations against the Peiho Forts.
The abolition of the cropping of the ears of Great Danes, bull terriers, black and tan terriers, white English terriers, Irish terriers and toy terriers, in 1889 gained the approval of all humane lovers of dogs, and although attempts have been made to induce the club to modify the rule which prohibits the exhibition of cropped dogs, the practice has not been revived; it is declared, however, that the toy terriers and white English terriers have lost such smartness by the retention of the ears that they are becoming.
It is of interest to note that, although John Bunyan was bitterly opposed to Quakers, his friends, on hearing of the petition contemplated by them, requested them to insert his name on the list, and in this way he gained his freedom.
Cobbe (who had gained the V.C. at Erigo) was pushed west to Gumburu, and came into contact with the enemy.
The first hold of the Athabasca region was gained by Peter Pond, who, on behalf of the North-West Company of Montreal, built Fort Athabasca on river La Biche in 1778.
He gained the esteem of Leopold I., and was presented to Queen Victoria of England and the Prince Consort.
It was often a pecuniary advantage to the master to liberate his slave; he obtained a payment which enabled him to buy a substitute, a^ .d at the same time gained a client.
He gained considerable reputation in the disputation for his master's degree in February 1727.
He was called to the bar in 1795, and gained a considerable reputation there as well as a tolerable practice.
In this sense the word " catacomb " has gained universal acceptance, and has found a place in most modern languages.
Some additional discoveries were described by Marc Antonio Boldetti in his Osservazioni, published in 1720; but, writing in the interests of the Roman Church with an apologetic, not a scientific object, truth was made to bend to polemics, and little addition to our knowledge of the catacombs is to be gained from his otherwise important work.
No doubt they are subsequently guided to higher excellence and effectiveness with the experience gained in their oft-repeated performance.
The instincts of nest-building, incubation and the rearing of young, though they occur later in life than those concerned in locomotion and the obtaining of food, are none the less founded on a hereditary basis, and in some respects are less rather than more liable to modification by the experience gained by the carrying out of hereditarily definite modes of procedure.
The consistent firmness with which he adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen, by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.
Spain set up no claim to the region, and when Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, came down the river in 1682 from the French possessions to the north, he took possession in the name of France, which hereby gained her first title to the vast drainage basin of the Mississippi.
The last were peninsulars, the others mainly creoles, and among the wealthy classes of the latter the separatists gradually gained increasing support.
His absolute independence was as little gained as if he had camped out in Hyde Park; relatively he lived the life of a recluse.
From Emerson he gained more than from any man, alive or dead; and, though the older philosopher both enjoyed and learned from the association with the younger, it cannot be said that the gain was equal.
For a long time she remained true to Artemis and rejected all suitors, but Meilanion at last gained her love by his persistent devotion.
During the finance ministry of Agop Pasha (1889 to 1894) a good deal was done to set matters in order, but most of the ground then gained has since been lost."
Meanwhile, in June 1499, war had again broken out with Venice, mainly owing to the intervention of the pope and emperor, who, with Milan, Florence and Naples, urged the sultan to crush the republic. On the 28th of July the Turks gained over the Venetians at Sapienza their first great victory at sea; and this was followed by the capture of Lepanto, at which Bayezid was present, and by the conquest of the Morea and most of the islands of the archipelago.
Russia having thus lost all the advantage gained by the peace of Karlowitz, Venice was next taken in hand, she having invaded the Bosnian frontier and incited the Montenegrins to revolt, besides capturing Turkish ships in the Mediterranean.
By the former Austria gave up Belgrade and the places on the right bank of the Save and the Danube which she had gained by the treaty of Passarowitz, together with the Austrian portions of Walachia.
The opportunity for this concentration he owed to the time gained for him by his rearguard at Joukendorf, for this had stood just long enough to induce the French columns to swing in to surround him, and the next day was thus lost to the emperor as his corps had to extend again to their manoeuvring intervals.
Thus covered by his rearguard Hiller gained space and time to pass his troops over to the north bank of the Danube and remove all boats on the river.
Napoleon, however, failed to allow for the psychology of his opponents, who, utterly indifferent to the sacrifice of life, refused to be drawn into engagements to support an advance or to extricate a rearguard, and steadily withdrew from every position when the French gained touch with them.
It took Blucher time to extricate his troops from the confusion into which the battle had thrown them, and the garrison of Leipzig and the troops left on the right bank of the Elster still resisted obstinately - hence no direct pursuit could be initiated and the French, still upwards of 10o,000 strong, marching rapidly, soon gained distance enough to be reformed.
He settled in the island of Hydra on the east of the Morea, and when the Greek War of Independence began was known among his fellow townsmen as a trader in corn who had gained wealth, and who made a popular use of his money.
The reputation which he had gained in the physical sciences soon caused him to be raised to the position of rector of the university (for the first term of the year 1313).
This he endeavoured to do on the 22nd of July 1812, which brought on the important battle of Salamanca (q.v.) in which Battle of Wellington gained a decisive victory, the French Salamanca, falling back to Valladolid and thence to Burgos.
Crushed for a time the party gained strength through the winter of 1791-1792.
After several military successes gained by Zizka (q.v.) in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussites was concluded on the 13th of September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city.
There are no figures from which even an approximate idea can be gained as to the value of the internal trade of Siberia, but it is certainly considerable.
As praetor in 227, he gained the lasting gratitude of the people of his province (Sicily) by his excellent administration.
Reinforced by the Cenomani, he gained a decisive victory on the banks of the Addua.
Before the general peace of 1815 he had served in North America and the West Indies and gained a wide knowledge of conditions of life on board ship under various commanders.
Eclecticism gained great popularity, and, partly owing to Cousin's position as minister of public instruction, became the authorized system in the chief seats of learning in France, where it has given a most remarkable impulse to the study of the history of philosophy.
The town is described as "but little" in 1733, but a few years afterwards it gained a reputation as a watering-place, and the duke of Gloucester built a house here; George III.
This demand gained overwhelmingly in force with the revolutionary outbreaks of 1848.
His archaeological and mythological Memoire sur Venus (1775),(1775), which has been ranked with similar works of Heyne and Winckelmann, gained him admission to the Academie des Inscriptions (1778).
The latter prince was dethroned, and, being in a state of mental derangement, was during his lifetime confined by Fateh Mahommed, a native of Sind, who continued, with a short interval (in which the party of the legal heir, Bhaiji Bawa, gained the ascendancy), to rule the country until his death in 1813.
He gained the patronage of the bishop of Cyprus, who brought him to Venice, where his abilities were immediately recognized by his appointment to the chair of philosophy at Ferrara.
He left for Rome, where, after a short imprisonment on suspicion of being a spy, he gained the favour of Pope Paul V., through whose influence with Cosimo II., grand duke of Tuscany, he was appointed to the professorship of the Pandects at Pisa.
The publicist Charles Joseph Panckoucke (1736-1798), owner of the Mercure de France and publisher of the famous Encyclopedie (1781), persuaded him to merge this in a larger paper, the Moniteur universel, which gained a wide repute for correctness and impartiality.
Having gained Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate on his uncle's death in 1247, he granted sections of his lands to his three sons in 1265, but retained Meissen.
As late as the time of Augustus it was but little known in Roman territory, and gained a firm foothold in Italy only gradually, as a result of the intercourse between Rome and Asia consequent upon the erection of the Eastern provinces and the submission and colonization of Mesopotamia.
He gained a temporary victory when the diet of Augsburg in 1500 established a council of regency (Reichsregiment), and in 1502 persuaded the electors to form a union to uphold the reforms of 1495 and 1500.
Potgieter, one of the voortrekers, and was named by him in commemoration of a victory gained over the Matabele chief Mosilikatze.
Alarmed at length at the ground gained by this idea in the provinces, the emperor set off to Minas to stir up the former enthusiasm in his favour from recollections of the independence, but was coldly received.
Even among the advocates of republi canism there was no intention of dethroning Dom of Pedro, excepting a few extreme members of the party, who now gained the upper hand.
An important accession of territory was gained in 1896, when portions of the parishes of Liberton and Duddingston and the police burgh of Portobello were incorporated.
At last the revolt broke out and gained the upper hand, in March 1385.
The noveschi, being "fat burghers" with powerful connexions, abilities and traditions, gained increased strength and influence in exile; and five years later, on 22nd July 1487, they returned triumphantly to Siena, dispersed the few adherents of the popolo who offered resistance, murdered the captain of the people, reorganized the state, and placed it under the protection of the Virgin Mary.
In sanctioning the occupation of the port the British government of the day had no intention of making Natal a British colony, but wished to prevent the Boers establishing an independent republic upon the coast with a harbour through which access to the interior could be gained.
The movement for union rapidly gained strength, and a National Convention to consider the matter met in Durban in October 1908.
His first distinctions are said to have been gained in theological controversy, but at an early age he became mathematical teacher in the military school of Beaumont, the classes of which he had attended as an extern.
The publication of the Mecanique celeste gained him world-wide celebrity, and his name appeared on the lists of the principal scientific associations of Europe, including the Royal Society.
Carinus was successful in several engagements, and at the battle on the Margus (Morava), according to one account, the valour of his troops had gained the day, when he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced.
This adventuress soon gained the greatest ascendancy over the cardinal, with whom she had intimate relations.
Thanks to Fresnel and his followers, this department of optics is now precisely the one in which the theory has gained its greatest triumphs.
There will be destruction by interference of the first, third and odd spectra generally; while the advantage gained in the spectra of even order is not in dispersion, nor in resolving power, but simply in brilliancy, which is increased four times.
He entered the Turkish army as a subaltern with - out money or influence but gained admission to the staff college at Constantinople, and from there went to Salonika, the head - quarters of the Young Turk movement.
Surrey's archers and cannon soon gained the upper hand, and the Scots, unable quietly to endure their losses, rushed to close quarters.
In all other parts of the field, save where James and Surrey were personally opposed, the English gradually gained ground.
Within the Transvaal the forces making for union gained strength notwithstanding these events, and by the year i 860 Zoutpansberg and Lydenburg had become incorporated with the republic. Pretoria, newly founded, and named in honour of the elder Pretorius, was made the seat of government and capital of the country.
Buller began his fourth advance on the 14th of February, and though this was Relief of checked the foothold gained was not abandoned, Ladysmith.
In 1488 he gained a great victory over the Ottomans, and in 1491 a peace was made which was not again broken till after Bayezid's death.
A rise then came in the wages of agricultural labourers, but this had the unforeseen effect of destroying the union; for the labourers, deeming their object gained, ceased to "agitate."
No writer in any literature, who has contented himself with so limited a function, has gained so great a reputation as Terence.
In 1875 his " Warrior Bearing a Wounded Youth from the Field of Battle " gained the gold medal at the Royal Academy schools, and when exhibited in 1876 it divided public attention with the "Tennyson " of Woolner and " Wellington monument " sculptures of Alfred Stevens, now in St Paul's Cathedral.
The Prussians followed on the 29th, but, owing to the iie of the roads, they had to march in two long columns, separated by almost a day's march, and when the advanced guard of the left column, late in the afternoon, gained touch with the enemy, the latter were in a position to crush them by weight of numbers, had they not suddenly been ordered to continue the retreat on Miletin.
Thus the Austrians gained 24 hours, and the direction of XXIV.
He came to Rome in the reign of Hadrian, and soon gained such renown as an advocate and orator as to be reckoned inferior only to Cicero.
He was the son of a tailor, and was left an orphan in his eighth year; but, through the kindness of a friend, admission was gained for him into the military school of his native town, which was then under the direction of the Benedictines of Saint-Maur.
Profiting by the experience gained during the Athenian siege, he included in his new lines the whole plateau of Epipolae, with a strong fortress at Euryelus, its apex on the west; the total length of the outer lines (excluding the fortifications of the island) has been calculated at about 12 m.
Here the wall gained the top of the cliffs which mark the southern edge of the plateau of Epipolae, which from this point onwards it followed as far as Euryelus.
In his second period he developed the theory of "potentiality" or dynamization - namely, that medicines gained in strength by being diluted, if the dilution was accompanied by shaking or pounding, which was supposed to "potentialize" or increase the potency of the medicine.
With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.
In our conceptions of the later stages of assimilation and of excretion, with the generation of poisons (auto-intoxication) in the intestinal tract, there is still much obscurity and much guess-work; yet in some directions positive knowledge has been gained, partly by the physiologist, partly by the physician himself.
The wonderful Roman remains at Trier and elsewhere, the Roman roads, bridges and aqueducts, are convincing proofs of what the Rhine gained from Roman domination.
He gained full licence to return in the spring of 1729.
Before he was sixteen he attended lectures at Owens College, and at eighteen he gained a mathematical scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1871 as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, having previously taken the degree of D.Sc. at London University and won a Whitworth scholarship. Although elected a fellow and tutor of his college, he stayed up at Cambridge only for a very short time, preferring to learn practical engineering as a pupil in the works in which his father was a partner.
In 1841 some slaves who were being carried in the brig "Creole" from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to New Orleans, revolted, killed the captain, gained possession of the vessel, and soon afterwards entered the British port of Nassau.
Osborn was succeeded as resident commissioner by Sir Marshal Clarke,' who gained the confidence and good will of the Zulu.
The information so gained not only determines the value of the deposit, but also serves to indicate the best methods of development and of working.
A firm footing was gained on shore by the assailants at three out of the five points where disembarkation was attempted, while the effort was also, within restricted limits, successful at the two remaining points.
As it turned out, the actual disembarkations at " S," " X " and " Y " were carried out without any very great difficulty; but the troops detailed for " W " beach only gained a footing after incurring very heavy losses and by a display of indomitable resolution, while at " V " the operation went very near to failing altogether.
Additional infantry was got ashore at " W " and " X " beaches, the first elements of the French division began disembarking at " V " beach in the afternoon, and before evening touch had been gained with the battalion that had made good at " S " beach.
The advantage gained in the first instance by the surprise was lost, and the Turkish r9th Div.
A general attack was delivered on the Ottoman positions on the 5th, by which some little ground was gained along most of the front.
Then, by a resolute if somewhat costly counter-attack delivered from the dominating position which they occupied, the Osmanlis thrust those opposed to them back down the slopes all along the line and could fairly claim to have gained the upper hand.
A footing had no doubt been gained at Suvla, giving the Allies control of a fairly well-sheltered inlet on the outer coast of the peninsula; but as the high ground within easy artillery range of the landing-places, and which overlooked the whole occupied area, remained in the hands of the Turks, much of the benefit hoped for from the acquisition was in reality neutralized.
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality.
Its somewhat gloomy aspect, enhanced by the tortuous narrow lanes flanked by gabled houses of the 15th century, has gained for it among countryfolk the sobriquet of the "Witches' nest" (Hexen-Nest).
His account of the aluminous district of Tolfa and adjacent hills, published in 1786, gained for him the notice of the king of Naples, who invited him to inspect the mines and similar works in that kingdom, and appointed him professor of mineralogy to the royal artillery.
On the 15th of August 1760 Frederick the Great gained a decisive victory near Liegnitz over the Austrians, and in August 1813 Blucher defeated the French in the neighbourhood at the battle of the Katzbach.
It went through five editions before 1728, and gained the author much reputation.
He gained a fellowship at New College in 1657, and proceeded B.A.
This represented the triumph of the feudal party, which had gained the support of the arti minori or minor gilds.
The Florentines were successful until Pisa enlisted Sir John Hawkwood's English company; the latter won several battles, but were at last defeated at Cascina, and peace was made in 1364, neither side having gained much advantage.
War broke out once more, and the allies were successful, but as soon as Bonif ace had gained his ends he made peace, leaving the Florentines unsatisfied.
An attempt by the Venetians to seize Ferrara led to a general Italian war, in which Florence also took part on the side hostile to Venice, and when peace was made in 1484 the republic gained some advantages.
Ill-health now gained on Lorenzo, and Savonarola, whom he had summoned to his bedside, refused to give absolution to the destroyer of Florentine liberties.
When the king began to hint at the recall of Piero de' Medici, whose envoys had gained his ear, the signory ordered the citizens to be ready to fly to arms. The proposal was dropped, but Charles demanded an immense sum of money before he would leave the city; long discussions followed, and when at last he presented an insolent ultimatum the syndics refused to accept it.
New Medici plots having been discovered, Bernardo del Nero and other prominent citizens were tried and put to death; but the party hostile to Savonarola gained ground and had the support of the Franciscans, who were hostile to the Dominican order.
About 1540 the Reformation gained an entrance into the town, which was taken by both parties during the Thirty Years' War.
He soon gained recognition as a learned and successful teacher, and the younger Adalhard, St Anskar the apostle of Sweden, Odo bishop of Beauvais and Warinus abbot of Corvei in Saxony may be mentioned among the more distinguished of his pupils.
Was this limitation a reason for sacrificing the advantages we had gained?
During the Terror he was one of those deputies of the centre who supported Robespierre; but he was gained over by the members of the Mountain hostile to Robespierre, and his support, along with that of some other leaders of the Marais, made possible the 9th Thermidor.
Aymer, however, gained the support of the pope; he was on his way back to England when he was overtaken by a fatal illness at Paris.
Having gained another victory in 542, this time in the valley of Mugello, he left Tuscany for Naples, captured that city and then received the submission of the provinces of Lucania, Apulia and Calabria.
In their previous travels in Syria they had gained the confidence and friendship of a young sheikh whose family, though long settled at Tadmur, came originally from Nejd, and who was anxious to renew the connexion with his kinsmen by seeking a bride among them.
Details of their history are not known, but they seem to have gained power at one time even over the aakhmids of Hira; and to have ruled over Bahrein as well as Yemama until the battle of Shi'b ul Jabala, when they lost this province to Hira.
In g06 the court at Bagdad learned that these sectaries had gained almost all Yemen and were threatening Mecca and Medina.
After them the Bani Nebhan gained the upper hand and established a succession of kings (maliks) who governed from 1154 to 1406.
The grand-ducal government of the Seekreis was dissolved, and Hecker gradually gained reinforcements.
By these works of regulation over 2400 acres of ground were gained for building purposes.
Here he gained several victories, and in conjunction with the famous general, Mir Jumla, who had deserted from the king of Golconda, he seized and plundered the town of Hyderabad, which belonged to that monarch.
Though a thorough and avowed partisan, he was within the party the counsellor of moderate rather than extreme measures, and thus gained on the whole a position of great influence.
The movement for independence, which slowly gained force during the opening decade of the 19th century, did not actually become serious until the conquest of Spain by the French in 1807-1808.
In the month of August 1894 General Caceres was again elected to fill the office of president, but the revolutionary movement rapidly gained ground.
Thus encouraged, those who desired an immediate battle soon gained the upper hand in the councils of the tsar and the emperor Francis.
Savonarola's first success as a preacher was gained at St Gemignano (1484-1485), but it was only at Brescia in the following year that his power as an orator was fully revealed.
Henry Wilson learned to make shoes here, and in the presidential campaign in 1840 gained the sobriquet of the " Natick cobbler."
He gained possession of the Janiculum, and was prevented from entering Rome only by the bravery of Horatius Codes (q.v.).
The Athenians under Chares suffered a severe defeat from Amyntas, the Macedonian admiral, but in the following year gained a decisive victory under Phocion and compelled Philip to raise the siege.
The family was in the habit of spending the summer holidays at the coast of the county, commonly at Mablethorpe, and here Tennyson gained his impressions of the vastness of the sea.
Otto gained a victory near Xanten, which was followed by the surrender of the fortresses held by his brother's adherents in Saxony, but the rebels, joined by Eberhard of Franconia and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz continued the struggle, and Giselbert of Lorraine transferred his allegiance to Louis IV., king of France.
When Adelaide bore a son, and a report gained currency that Otto intended to make this child his heir, Ludolf rose in revolt and was joined by Conrad of Lorraine and Frederick of Mainz.
Otto marched against them, and in a battle fought on the Lechfeld on the 10th of August 955 the king's troops gained a brilliant victory which completely freed Germany from these invaders; while in the same year Otto also defeated the Sla y s who had been ravaging the Saxon frontier.
The Roman empire of the German nation was indeed less universal and less theocratic under Otto, its restorer, than under Charlemagne, but what it lacked in splendour it gained in stability.
He gained a temporary authority in northern Italy, but was soon compelled by his rival Berengar, margrave of Friuli, to leave the country and to swear he would never return.
Meanwhile he had gained a high reputation as a preacher, and especially as the advocate of religious freedom; but his teaching became more and more offensive to the orthodox party, and on the appearance (1864) of his article on Renan's Vie de Jesus in the Nouvelle Revue de theologie he was forbidden by the Paris consistory to continue his ministerial functions.
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
In 1512 he gained his first military experience in Guienne, and in the following year he commanded the army of Picardy.