How to use Furnace in a sentence
The furnace is to make iron.
It's humiliating to think you'd come to this empty furnace just to get away from me.
The Silesian furnace has an oblong hearth sloping from the firebridge to the flue-bridge.
Liquation, if not followed by poling, is carried on as a rule in a reverberatory furnace with an oblong, slightly trough-shaped inclined hearth; if the lead is to be poled it is usually melted down in a cast-iron kettle.
The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.Advertisement
Lead ores are smelted in the reverberatory furnace, the ore-hearth, and the blast-furnace.
The medicinal preparations which required the aid of a furnace, such as mineral earths, were undertaken by the chymists, who probably derived their name from the Alchymists, who flourished from the 14th to the 16th centuries.
The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).
In small works the cupellation is finished in one furnace, and the resulting low-grade silver fined in a plumbago crucible, either by overheating in the presence of air, or by the addition of silver sulphate to the melted silver, when air or sulphur trioxide and oxygen oxidize the impurities.
The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.Advertisement
In the more recent form of the hearth process the blocks of cast iron forming the sides and back of the Scottish furnace are now generally replaced in the United States by water-cooled shells (waterjackets) of cast iron.
The spelter used must therefore be of a good grade, and the lead is usually first refined in a reverberatory furnace (the softening furnace).
The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
This large quantity of air is forced through the furnace by means of the difference of pressure established between the external atmospheric pressure in the ash-pan and the pressure in the smoke-box.
Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.Advertisement
Besides the sugar-refinery already mentioned, there were in Ig00 four tobacco factories, a national printing-press, an annular furnace for brick-burning, an iron-foundry and several blast-furnaces, under the management of the state.
In this way continuous working has been rendered possible, whereas formerly operations had to be stopped every twelve or fifteen hours to allow the over-heated blocks and furnace to cool down.
By beginning with a small amount The reverberatory furnace commonly used for cupelling goes by the name of the English cupelling furnace.
The ring thus prepared was placed in a cast-iron box and heated in a gas furnace.
But these applications are being superseded by the electric furnace, and electric light.Advertisement
Readman, experimenting with a Cowles furnace in Staffordshire in 1888, patented his process, and in the same year Parker and Robinson, working independently, patented a similar one.
These foliaceous heaps lie along the bank like the slag of a furnace, showing that Nature is "in full blast" within.
The smallness of the pipes renders it liable to damage by frost, but this accident may be prevented by always keeping in frosty weather a small fire in the furnace.
In the first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace.
The most common are the history of Jonah as a type of the Resurrection, the Fall, Noah receiving the dove with the olive branch, Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, Moses taking off his shoes, David with the sling, Daniel in the lions' den, and the Three Children in the fiery furnace.Advertisement
They are long and narrow; the sole is plane, but slopes from the fire-bridge towards the flue, so that the metal runs to the latter end to collect in pots placed outside the furnace.
It is then raked out on the work-stone and divided into a very poor "grey" slag which is put aside, and a richer portion, which goes back into the furnace.
If the lead is to be liquated and then brought to a bright-red heat, both operations are carried on in the same reverberatory furnace.
In large works the silver-lead alloy is removed when it contains 60-80 silver, and the cupellation of the rich bullion from several concentration furnaces is finished in a second furnace.
The latest cupelling furnaces have the general form of a reverberatory copper-smelting furnace.
Ventilation may be produced by heating the air of the mine, as for example, by constructing a ventilating furnace at the bottom of an air shaft.
Calcium cyanamide has assumed importance in agriculture since the discovery of its economic production in the electric furnace, wherein calcium carbide takes up nitrogen from the atmosphere to form the cyanamide with the simultaneous liberation of carbon.
Long experience has fixed the mixtures, so far as ordinary furnace temperatures are concerned, which produce the varieties of glass in common use.
In the Fery radiation pyrometer this difficulty is obviated, as the instrument may be placed at a considerable distance from the furnace.
The hotter the furnace the greater is the rise of temperature of the couple.
The crucibles or pots used for the production of optical glass very closely resemble those used in the manufacture of flint glass for other purposes; they are " covered " and the molten materials are thus protected from the action of the furnace gases by the interposition of a wall of fireclay, but as crucibles for optical glass are used for only one fusion and are then broken up, they are not made so thick and heavy as those used in flint-glass making, since the latter remain in the furnace for many weeks.
The furnace used for the production of optical glass is generally constructed to take one crucible only, so that the heat of the furnace may be accurately adjusted to the requirements of the particular glass under treatment.
The empty crucible, having first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the temperature of which is then gradually raised.
The stages of the process so far described generallyoccupy from 36 to 60 hours, and during this time the constant care and watchfulness of those attending the furnace is required.
For this purpose a cylinder of fireclay, provided with a square axial hole at the upper end, is heated in a small subsidiary furnace and is then introduced into the molten glass.
The crucible with the semi-solid glass which it contains is now allowed to cool considerably in the melting furnace, or it may be removed to another slightly heated furnace.
When the glass has cooled so far as to become hard and solid, the furnace is hermetically sealed up and allowed to cool very gradually to the ordinary temperature.
The heat passes from the melting furnace into the annealing kiln.
The vases of Karl Koepping of Berlin are so fantastic and so fragile that they appear to be creations of the lamp rather than of the furnace.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
The proportions in which these ingredients are mixed vary according to the exact quality of glass required and with the form and temperature of the melting furnace employed.
The glass in process of fusion is contained in a basin or tank built up of large blocks of fire-clay and is heated by one or more powerful gas flames which enter the upper part of the furnace chamber through suitable apertures or " ports."
With producer gas it is necessary to pre-heat both the gas and the air which is supplied for its combustion by passing both through heated regenerators (for an account of the principles of the regenerative furnace see article Furnace).
In many respects the glassmelting tank resembles the open-hearth steel furnace, but there are certain interesting differences.
Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than.
In a sheet-glass tank there is therefore a gradient of temperature and a continuous passage of material from the hotter end of the furnace where the raw materials are introduced to the cooler end where the glass, free from bubbles and raw material, is withdrawn by the gatherers.
For the purpose of the removal of the glass, the cooler end of the furnace is provided with a number of suitable openings, provided with movable covers or shades.
The lower end of the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open.
When flattened, the sheet is moved away from the working opening of the furnace, and pushed to a system of movable grids, by means of which it is slowly moved along a tunnel, away from a source of heat nearly equal in temperature to that of the flattening chamber.
For the production of coloured sheet-glass, however, the employment of pot furnaces is still almost universal, probably because the quantities of glass required of any one tint are insufficient to employ even a small tank furnace continuously; the exact control of the colour is also more readily attained with the smaller bulk of glass which has to be dealt with in pots.
More modern inventors have therefore adopted the plan of drawing the glass direct from the furnace.
For the commoner grades of dark-coloured bottles the glass mixture is cheapened by substituting common salt for part of the sulphate of soda, and by the addition of felspar, granite, granulite, furnace slag and other substances fusible at a high temperature.
The finished bottle is taken by the " taker in " to the annealing furnace.
The whole pot, with its contents of viscous glass, is then removed bodily from the furnace by means of huge tongs and is transported to a crane, which grips the pot, raises it, and ultimately tips it over so as to pour the glass upon the slab of the rolling-table.
The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller scale.
For this reason every piece of pressed glass-ware, as soon as it is liberated from the mould, is exposed to a sharp heat in a small subsidiary furnace in order that the ruffled surface may be removed by melting.
In 1428 a Muranese glass-worker set up a furnace in Vienna, and another furnace was built in the same town by an Italian in 1486.
A somewhat impure silicon (containing 90-98% of the element) is made by the Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls (United States Patents 745 122 and 842273, 1908) by heating coke and sand in an electric furnace.
The mixture of ore and charcoal is put into the crucible around the pipe, the crucible closed by a luted-on lid, and placed in a furnace constructed so as to permit of the lower end of the pipe projecting into the ash-pit.
For manufacturing purposes a furnace similar to that used for the making of glass was employed to heat a circular row of crucibles standing on a shelf along the wall of the furnace.
These distilling vessels are called retorts if they are supported only at the ends, and the furnace using them is termed a Belgian furnace.
If they are supported at intervals along a flat side, they are called muffles, and the furnace is known as a Silesian furnace.
Various combinations and modifications of these two types of furnace have given rise to distinctive names, and as each system has its advantages and disadvantages local conditions determine which is the better.
Some fortysix or more retorts, arranged in parallel horizontal rows, are heated in one furnace.
To start a new furnace, the front side is closed provisionally by a brick wall, a fire lighted inside, and the temperature raised very gradually to a white heat.
The charge of the retorts consists of a mixture of 1100 lb of roasted calamine and 550 lb of dry powdered coal per furnace.
As soon as the adapters have been cleaeed of their contents, they are replaced, and again left to themselves for two hours, to be once more emptied and replaced, &c. The complete exhaustion of the charge of a furnace takes about eleven hours.
In the Silesian process the distillation is conducted in specially constructed muffles of a prismatic shape arched above, which are arranged in two parallel rows within a low-vaulted furnace, similar to the pots in a glass furnace.
As a rule every furnace accommodates ten muffles.
The primary advantages of gasfiring are that less fuel is required, that there is better control of the heat in the furnace, and that larger and more accessible furnaces can be built.
On a direct-fired furnace at least one man, the brigadier, must be an expert in all the operations involved; but with a gas furnace a division of labour is possible.
The men who charge and empty the retorts, those who draw and cast the metal, and those who keep the furnace in repair, need not know anything about the making or using of gas, and the men who make the gas need not know anything about a zinc furnace.
Again, in direct-fired furnaces there are commonly seven or eight rows of retorts, one above another, so that to serve the upper rows the workman must stand upon a table, where he is exposed to the full heat of the furnace and requires a helper to wait upon him.
This method is rarely practised except by the rollers of zinc. A certain amount of refined zinc can be dipped from the furnace; a further amount, nearly free from iron, can be liquated out of the ingots cast from the bottom of the bath in a subsequent slow remelting, and it is sometimes possible to eliminate a zinciferous lead which collects in the sump of the furnace.
As each retort in a furnace is in all essentials a separate crucible, and as the metal from only a few of them goes into a single ingot, there can be no uniformity either in the ingots made from the same furnace during a day's run or in those made from several furnaces treating the same ore.
The present article, as explained under Electrochemistry, treats only of those processes in which electricity is applied to the production of chemical reactions or molecular changes at furnace temperatures.
Johnson in England Arc appear, in 1853, to have introduced the earliest practical form of furnace.
In these arrangements, which were similar if not identical, the furnace charge was crushed to a fine powder and passed through two or more electric arcs in succession.
Although this primitive furnace could be made to act, its efficiency was low, and the use of a separate fire was disadvantageous.
In 1878 Sir William Siemens patented a form of furnace' which is the type of a very large number of those designed by later inventors.
This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.
When the furnace with this well-known regulating device was to be used, say, for the melting of metals or other conductors of electricity, the fragments of metal were placed in the crucible and the positive electrode was brought near them.
The furnace used by Henri Moissan in his experiments on reactions at high temperatures, on the fusion and volatilization of refractory materials, and on the formation of carbides, suicides and borides of various metals, consisted, in its simplest form, of two superposed blocks of lime or of limestone with a central cavity cut in the lower block, and with a corresponding but much shallower inverted cavity in the upper block, which thus formed the lid of the furnace.
Such a furnace, to take a current of 4 H.P. (say, of 60 amperes and so volts), measured externally about 6 by 6 by 7 in., and the electrodes were about o 4 in.
The fact that energy is being used at so high a rate as Too H.P. on so small a charge of material sufficiently indicates that the furnace is only used for experimental work, or for the fusion of metals which, like tungsten or chromium, can only be melted at temperatures attainable by electrical means.
Moissan succeeded in fusing about 4 lb of either of these metals in 5 or 6 minutes in a furnace similar to that last described.
On a larger scale several pencils are used to make the connexions between carbon blocks which form the end walls of the furnace, while the side walls are of fire-brick laid upon one another without mortar.
Many of the furnaces now in constant use depend mainly on this principle, a core of granular carbon fragments stamped together in the direct line between the electrodes, as in Acheson's carborundum furnace, being substituted for the carbon pencils.
But in some cases in which the current is used for electrolysis and for the production of extremely high temperatures, for which the calorific intensity of ordinary fuel is insufficient, the electric furnace is employed with advantage.
The temperature of the electric furnace, whether of the arc or incandescence type, is practically limited to that at which the least easily vaporized material available for electrodes is converted into vapour.
The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
This advantage is especially observed in some cases in which the charge of the furnace is liable to attack the containing vessel at high temperatures, as it is often possible to maintain the outer walls of the electric furnace relatively cool, and even to keep them lined with a protecting crust of unfused charge.
Again, the construction of electric furnaces may often be exceedingly crude and simple; in the carborundum furnace, for example, the outer walls are of loosely piled bricks, and in one type of furnace the charge is simply heaped on the ground around the carbon resistance used for heating, without containing-walls of any kind.
There is, however, one (not insuperable) drawback in the use of the electric furnace for the smelting of pure metals.
It is for this reason that Siemens, Borchers and others substituted a hollow watercooled metal block for the carbon cathode upon which the melted metal rests while in the furnace.
Liquid metal coming in contact with such a surface forms a crust of solidified metal over it, and this crust thickens up to a certain point, namely, until the heat from within the furnace just overbalances that lost by conduction through the solidified crust and the cathode material to the flowing water.
In such an arrangement, after the first instant, the melted metal in the furnace does not come in contact with the cathode material.
Borchers predicted that, at the high temperatures available with the electric furnace, every oxide would prove to be reducible by the action of carbon, and this prediction has in most instances been justified.
Alumina and lime, for example, which cannot be reduced at ordinary furnace temperatures, readily give up their oxygen to carbon in the electric furnace, and then combine with an excess of carbon to form metallic carbides.
Later in that year they patented a process for the reduction of aluminium by carbon, and in 1886 an electric furnace with sliding carbon rods passed through the end walls to the centre of a rectangular furnace.
Chaplet has patented a muffle or tube furnace, similar in principle, for use on a larger scale, with a number of electrodes placed above and below the muffle-tube.
The arc furnaces now widely used in the manufacture of calcium carbide on a large scale are chiefly developments of the Siemens furnace.
But whereas, from its construction, the Siemens furnace was intermittent in operation, necessitating stoppage of the current while the contents of the crucible were poured out, many of the newer forms are specially designed either to minimize the time required in effecting the withdrawal of one charge and the introduction of the next, or to ensure absolute continuity of action, raw material being constantly charged in at the top and the finished substance and by-products (slag, &c.) withdrawn either continuously or at intervals, as sufficient quantity shall have accumulated.
In the King furnace, for example, the crucible, or lowest part of the furnace, is made detachable, so that when full it may be removed and an empty crucible substituted.
In the United States a revolving furnace is used which is quite continuous in action.
The furnace is built of fire-brick, and may measure (internally) 5 ft.
The carbons can thus, by the application of suitable mechanism, be withdrawn from or plunged into the furnace at will.
In starting the furnace, the bottom is prepared by ramming it with charcoal-powder that has been soaked in milk of lime and dried, so that each particle is coated with a film of lime, which serves to reduce the loss of current by conduction through the lining when the furnace becomes hot.
A sheet iron case is then placed within the furnace, and the space between it and the walls rammed with limed charcoal; the interior is filled with fragments of the iron or copper to be alloyed, mixed with alumina and coarse charcoal, broken pieces of carbon being placed in position to connect the electrodes.
In such a furnace a continuous current, for example, of 3000 amperes, at 50 to 60 volts, may be used at first, increasing to 5000 amperes in about half an hour.
The reduced aluminium alloys itself immediately with the fused globules of metal in its midst, and as the charge becomes reduced the globules of alloy unite until, in the end, they are run out of the tap-hole after the current has been diverted to another furnace.
Moissan (ibid., 5906, 142, p. 673) has distilled this metal in a very intense electric furnace.
TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
Titanium monoxide, TiO, is obtained as black prismatic crystals by heating the dioxide in the electric furnace, or with magnesium powder.
Wirthwein, the titanium mineral is fused with carbon in the electric furnace, the carbides treated with chlorine, and the titanium chloride condensed.
In its simplest form the apparatus consists of a straight tube, made of glass, porcelain or iron according to the temperature required and the nature of the reacting substances, heated in an ordinary combustion furnace, the mixture entering at one end and the vapours being condensed at the other.
Strontium carbide, SrC2, is obtained by heating strontium carbonate with carbon in the electric furnace.
Neither metal, when it emerges from the furnace, has any beauty, shakudo being simply dark-colored copper and shibuichi pale gun-metal.
Much information as to the nature of an alloy can be obtained by placing several small ingots of the same alloy in a furnace which is above the melting-point of the alloy, and allowing the temperature to fall slowly and uniformly.
The chilling stereotypes the structure existing in the ingot at the moment it was withdrawn from the furnace, and we can af terwards study this structure by means of the microscope.
The calcination, or roasting, is conducted at a low temperature in some form of reverberatory furnace.
The fusion process is preferably carried out in crucible furnaces; shaft furnaces are unsatisfactory on account of the disintegrating action of the molten bismuth on the furnace linings.
Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.
For higher temperatures the bulb of the vapour density tube is made of porcelain or platinum, and is heated in a gas furnace.
Moissan obtained a carbon-bearing metal by fusing the pentoxide with carbon in the electric furnace.
The preparation of the pure metal was successfully effected by Werner von Bolton in 1905, who fused the compressed product obtained in the Berzelius process in the electric furnace, air being excluded.
At a red heat it absorbs large volumes of hydrogen and nitrogen, the last traces of which can only be removed by fusion in the electric furnace.
Underground boilers placed near the up-cast pit so that the smoke and gases help the ventilating furnace have been largely used but are now less favourably regarded than formerly.
Such a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical means when the workings are of any extent, the methods actually adopted being - (i) The rarefaction of the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface.
The usual form of ventilating furnace is a plain fire grate placed under an arch, and communicating with the upcast shaft by an inclined drift.
When the mine is free from gas, the furnace may be worked by the return air, but it is better to take fresh air directly from the downcast by a scale, or split, from the main current.
The return air from fiery workings is never allowed to approach the furnace, but is carried into the upcast by a special channel, called a dumb drift, some distance above the furnace drift, so as not to come in contact with the products of combustion until they have been cooled below the igniting point of fire-damp. Where the upcast pit is used for drawing coal, it is usual to discharge the smoke and gases through a short lateral drift near the surface into a tall chimney, so as to keep the pit-top as clear as possible for working.
Moissan in France that if lime and carbon be fused together at the temperature of the electric furnace, the lime is reduced to calcium, which unites with the excess of carbon present to form calcium carbide.
In the manufacture of calcium carbide in the electric furnace, lime and anthracite of the Manufac- highest possible degree of purity are employed.
Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.
Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.
It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself.
Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2.22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent "non-automatic."
In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
The carbide, SmC2, is formed when the oxide is heated with carbon in the electric furnace.
It can be distilled in the electric furnace.
It is more conveniently prepared by heating the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace.
The furnace is 12 in.
Here A is the iron cover surrounding the furnaces, B is the revolving lid of a furnace, save time and to reduce the loss of the precious metals.
The losses are caused by volatilization, by the absorption of metal by the crucible, stirring rod, &c., and by occasional projection of particles from the pot into the furnace.
In the Royal Mint silver bars are annealed once during rolling by passing through a Bates & Peard gas furnace.
The fillets are placed on an endless chain which moves slowly through the furnace, returning underneath.
At each end of the furnace is a trough of water which covers the furnace mouth, so that air is prevented from entering the furnace.
The chain dips below the water, then rises into the furnace and passes down into the other trough on its way out.
In England gold and copper blanks are protected from oxidation, and after their passage through the furnace are merely washed in colanders with water and dried with sawdust in a rotating drum.
The blanks are charged into a hopper at one end of the furnace and conveyed towards the other end by a revolving Archimedean screw.
The last Wealden furnace was put out in 1828.
It is now manufactured by heating lime and carbon in the electric furnace (see Acetylene).
In 1893 Girard and Street patented a furnace and a process by which this transformation could be effected.
The articles are slacked transversely in a furnace, each being packed in granular coke and covered with carborundum.
In graphitizing en masse large lumps of anthracite are treated in the electric furnace.
Moissan has also shown that it will combine with many metals at the temperature of the electric furnace, to form carbides (q.v.).
The legends of his escape from a fiery furnace may have a philological basis (Ur interpreted as " fire "), but the allusion to the redemption of Abraham in Isa.
The junction of the edges of the silver and copper-blend was treated with a flux of borax and the whole was submitted to the heat of a furnace until the silver was seen to be melting, when it was instantly removed, care being taken to avoid pressing upon the upper or lower surfaces, as the liquid silver in that case would have been squeezed out from between the two enclosing plates and the operation ruined.
Good crystals have also been obtained as a furnace product.
Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1893, 116, p. 349; 1894, 119, p. 185) reduces the sesquioxide with carbon, in an electric furnace; the product so obtained (which contains carbon) is then strongly heated with lime, whereby most of the carbon is removed as calcium carbide, and the remainder by heating the purified product in a crucible lined with the double oxide of calcium and chromium.
Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.
Gases, like atmospheric air, hydrogen or carbon dioxide do not become luminous if they are placed in tubes, even when heated up far beyond white heat as in the electric furnace.
Moissan found that the oxide resisted reduction by carbon in the electric furnace, so that electrolysis of a fusible salt of the metal must be resorted to.
On account of its refractory nature, it is employed in the manufacture of crucibles, furnace linings, &c. It is also used in making hydraulic cements.
But the state's iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1902, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72.2% of which was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742.
The manufacture of iron was established on a commercial basis in 1716-1718, when a furnace was built on Manatawney Creek above Pottstown, and before the close of the colonial era Pennsylvania had risen to first rank among the iron-producing colonies, a position which it has always held among the states of the Union.
The metal in the form of thin turnings is charged into hard glass or iron tubes heated to a full red in a combustion furnace.
Broken bricks or tiles and broken furnace slag are sometimes used, the essential points being that the aggregate should be hard, clean and sound.
After various assaults upon his constancy, he was sentenced to be cast into the fiery furnace, through which he passed wholly unharmed.
Nevertheless, it was found impracticable to smelt alumina electrically except in presence of copper, so that the Cowles furnace yielded, not the pure metal, but an alloy.
In order to prepare pure alumina, bauxite and sodium carbonate were heated in a furnace until the reaction was complete; the product was then extracted with water to dissolve the sodium aluminate, the solution treated with carbon dioxide, and the precipitate removed and dried.
The whole was thrown in several portions on to the hearth of a furnace previously heated to low redness and was stirred at intervals for three hours.
At length when the furnace was tapped a white slag was drawn off from the top, and the liquid metal beneath was received into a ladle and poured into cast-iron moulds.
Tissier, formerly his assistants, who had devised an improved sodium furnace and had acquired a thorough knowledge of their leader's experiments, also left, and erected a factory at Amfreville, near Rouen, to work the cryolite process.
The furnace consisted of a flat, rectangular, firebrick box, packed with a layer of finely-powdered charcoal 2 in.
The central space of the furnace was filled with a mixture of corundum, coarsely-powdered charcoal and copper; and an iron lid lined with firebrick was luted in its place to exclude air.
The charge was reduced by means of a 50-volt current from a Soo-kilowatt dynamo, which was passed through the furnace for 12 hours till decomposition was complete.
It was also necessary to give the fine charcoal a thin coating of calcium oxide by soaking it in lime-water, for the temperature was so high that unless it was thus protected it was gradually converted into graphite, losing its insulating power and diffusing the current through the lining and walls of the furnace.
That this process did not depend upon electrolysis, but was simply an instance of electrical smelting or the decomposition of an oxide by means of carbon at the temperature of the electric arc, is shown by the fact that the Cowles furnace would work with an alternating current.
In connexion with these experiments he developed the electric furnace as a convenient means of obtaining very high temperatures in the laboratory; and by its aid he prepared many new compounds, especially carbides, silicides and borides, and melted and volatilized substances which had previously been regarded as infusible.
The water is heated by a furnace, and is conveyed from the boiler into the houses by a main or " flow " pipe, connected by means of syphon branches with as many pipes as it is intended to serve.
The Cornish is cylindrical with the furnace occupying about half the length of the cylinder.
It is set to span the furnace, additional exposure to heat being secured in a variety of ways by flues.
Draught is regulated in the ashpit by opening or closing the bottom door of the furnace and by the damper on the smoke shaft.
The indirect process once established, the gradual increase in the height and diameter of the high furnace, which has lasted till our own days, naturally went on and developed the gigantic blast furnaces of the present time, still called " high furnaces " in French and German.
It was then, in 1735, that Abraham Darby showed how to make cast iron with coke in the high furnace, which by this time had become a veritable blast furnace.
The next great improvement in blast-furnace practice came in 1811, when Aubertot in France used for heating steel the furnace gases rich in carbonic oxide which till then had been allowed to burn uselessly at the top of the blast furnace.
Neilson's invention in 1828 of heating the blast, which increased the production and lessened the fuel-consumption of the furnace wonderfully.
About 1740 Benjamin Huntsman introduced the " crucible process " of melting steel in small crucibles, and thus freeing it from the slag, or rich iron silicate, with which it, like wrought iron, was mechanically mixed, whether it was made in the old forge or in the puddling furnace.
Knowing this, and having in the Siemens regenerative gas furnace an independent means of generating this temperature, the Martin brothers of Sireuil in France in 1864 developed the open-hearth process of making steel of any desired carbon-content by melting together in this furnace cast and wrought iron.
After the remarkable development of the blast furnace, the Bessemer, and the open-hearth processes, the most important work of this, the third period of the history of iron, is the birth and growth of the science and art of iron metallography.
These two things are done simultaneously by heating and melting the ore in contact with coke, charcoal or anthracite, in the iron blast furnace, from which issue intermittently two molten streams, the iron now deoxidized and incidentally carburized by the fuel with which it has been in contact, and the mineral matter, now called " slag."
This crude cast iron, called " pig iron," may be run from the blast furnace directly Ore FIG.
Grey iron castings are made by remelting the pig iron either in a small shaft of " cupola " furnace, or in a reverberatory or " air " furnace, with very little change of chemical composition, and then casting it directly into suitable moulds, usually of either " baked," i.e.
Thus the furnace may be said to have four zones, those of (1) deoxidation, (2) heating, (3) melting, and (4) collecting, though of course the heating is really going on in all four of them.
This carburizing is an indispensable part of the process, because through it alone can the iron be made fusible enough to melt at the temperature which can be generated in the furnace, and only when liquid can it be separated readily and completely from the slag.
The limits set to the furnace builder's natural desire to make his furnace as large as possible, and its present shape (an obtuse inverted cone set below an acute upright one, both of them truncated), have been reached in part empirically, and in part by reasoning which is open to question, as indeed are the reasons which will now be offered reservedly for both size and shape.
With the width at the bottom thus limited, the furnace builder naturally tries to gain volume as rapidly as possible by flaring or " battering " his walls outwards, i.e.
The reason why at this level the walls must form an upright instead of an inverted cone, why the furnace must widen downward instead of narrowing, is, according to some metallurgists, that this shape is needed in order that, in spite of the pastiness of the slag in this formative period of incipient fusion, this layer may descend freely as the lower part of the column is gradually eaten away.
To this very plausible theory it may be objected that in many slowrunning furnaces, which work very regularly and show no sign of scaffolding, the outward flare of the boshes continues (though steepened) far above this region of pastiness, indeed nearly half-way to the top of the furnace.
To this objection it may in turn be answered that, though this degree of freedom of descent may suffice for a slowrunning furnace, particularly if the slag is given such a composition that it passes quickly from the solid state to one of decided fluidity, yet it is not enough for swift-running ones, especially if the composition of the slag is such that, in melting, it remains long in a very sticky condition.
In limiting the diameter at the tuyeres to 122 ft., the height of the boshes to one which will keep their upper end below the region of pastiness, and their slope to one over which the burning coke will descend freely, we limit the width of the furnace at the top of the boshes and thus complete the outline of the lower part of the furnace.
The height of the furnace is rarely as great as roo ft., and in the belief of many metallurgists it should not be much more than 80 ft.
There are some very evident disadvantages of excessive height; for instance, that the weight of an excessively high column of solid coke, ore and limestone tends to crush the coke and jam the charge in the lower and narrowing part of the furnace, and that the frictional resistance of a long column calls for a greater consumption of power for driving the blast up through it.
Moreover, this resistance increases much more rapidly than the height of the furnace, even if the rapidity with which the blast is forced through is constant; and it still further increases if the additional space gained by lengthening the furnace is made useful by increasing proportionally the rate of production, as indeed would naturally be done, because the chief motive for gaining this additional space is to increase production.
The reason why the frictional resistance would be further increased is the very simple one that the increase in the rate of production implies directly a corresponding increase in the quantity of blast forced through, and hence in the velocity of the rising gases, because the chemical work of the blast furnace needs a certain quantity of blast for each ton of iron made.
In short, to increase the rate of production by lengthening the furnace increases the frictional resistance of the rising gases, both by increasing their quantity and hence their velocity and by lengthening their path.
The furnace is made rather narrow at the top or " stock line," in order that the entering ore, fuel and flux may readily be distributed evenly.
To widen it more abruptly would indeed increase the volume of the furnace, but would probably lead to grave irregularities in the distribution of the gas and charge, and hence in the working of the furnace.
When we have thus fixed the height of the furnace, its diameter at its ends, and the slope of its upper and lower parts, we have completed its outline closely enough for our purpose here.
In the hearth of the blast furnace the heat made latent by the fusion of the iron and slag must of course be supplied by some body which is itself at a temperature above the melting point of these bodies, which for simplicity of exposition we may call the critical temperature of the blast-furnace process, because heat will flow only from a hotter to a cooler object.
The special conditions of the blast-furnace actually exaggerate the saving due to this widening of the available temperature-margin, and beyond this drying the blast does great good by preventing the serious irregularities in working the furnace caused by changes in the humidity of the air with varying weather.
This heating was formerly done by burning part of the gases, after their escape from the furnace top, in a large combustion chamber, around a series of cast iron pipes through which the blast passed on its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres.
They are heat-filters or heat-traps for impounding the heat developed by the combustion of the furnace gas, and later returning it to the blast.
Each blast-furnace is now provided with three or even four of these stoves, which collectively may be nearly thrice as large as the furnace itself.
But in the latter case their edges still determine the effective profile of the furnace walls because the depressions at the back of these edges become filled with carbon and scoriaceous matter when the furnace is in normal working.
When the gas which escapes from the furnace top is used in gas engines it generates about four times as much power as when it is used for raising steam.
In order to utilize this power, the converting mill, in which the pig iron is converted into steel, and the rolling mills must adjoin t h e blast - furnace.
From A and B the materials are drawn as they are needed into large buckets D standing on cars, which carry them to the foot of the hoist track EE, up which they are hoisted to the top of the furnace.
Arrived here, the material is introduced into the furnace by an ingenious piece of mechanism which completely prevents the furnace gas from escaping into the air.
The bucket then descends along the hoist-track to make way for the next succeeding one, and K is lowered, dropping the charge into the furnace.
Thus some 1700 tons of materials are charged daily into each of these furnaces without being shovelled at all, running by gravity from bin to bucket and from bucket to furnace, and being hoisted and charged into the furnace by a single engineer below, without any assistance or supervision at the furnacetop.
Should several furnaces simultaneously make iron too rich in silicon, this may be diluted by pouring into the mixer some low-silicon iron melted for this purpose in a cupola furnace.
At Hourpes, in order to save the expense of this remelting, the molten cast iron as it comes from the blast-furnace is poured directly into the puddling furnace, in large charges of about 2200 lb, which are thus about four times as large as those of common puddling furnaces.
Moreover, since the mould acts as a covering to retard the loss of heat, it should not be removed from the ingot until just before the latter is to be placed in its soaking furnace.
Wood, of Sparrows Point, Md., in which the moulds, while receiving the steel, stand on a train of cars, which are immediately run to the side of the soaking furnace.
Here, as soon as the ingots have so far solidified that they can be lifted without breaking, their moulds are removed and set on an adjoining train of cars, and the ingots are charged directly into the soaking furnace.
In this system there is for each ingot and each mould only one handling in which it is moved as a separate unit, the mould from one train to the other, the ingot from its train into the furnace.
When the ingots had so far solidified that they could be handled, the moulds were removed and set on the floor to cool, the ingots were set on a car and carried to the soaking furnace, and the moulds were then replaced in the casting pit.
In the Bessemer process, and indeed in most high-temperature processes, to operate on a large scale has, in addition to the usual economies which it offers in other industries, a special one, arising from the fact that from a large hot furnace or hot mass in general a very much smaller proportion of its heat dissipates through radiation and like causes than from a smaller body, just as a thin red-hot wire cools in the air much faster than a thick bar equally hot.
But in the crucible and the open-hearth processes the temperature attainable is limited by the danger of melting the furnace itself, both because some essential parts of it, which, unfortunately, are of a destructible shape, are placed most unfavourably in that they are surrounded by the heat on all sides, and because the furnace is necessarily hotter than the steel made within it.
In it the steel heats the converter, whereas in the open-hearth and crucible processes the furnace heats the steel.
The charge may be melted down on the " open hearth " itself, or, as in the more advanced practice, the pig iron may be brought in the molten state from the blast furnace in which it is made.
He then pours or taps the molten charge from the furnace into a large clay-lined casting ladle, giving it the final additions of manganese, usually with carbon and often with silicon, needed to give it exactly the desired composition.
The oxidation of the foreign elements must be very slow, lest the effervescence due to the escape of carbonic oxide from the carbon of the metal throw the charge out of the doors and ports of the furnace, which itself must be shallow in order to hold the flame down close to the charge.
Thus the necessary slowness of the heating up of the molten charge would compel us to make the removal of the carbon slow, even if this slowness were not already forced on us by the danger of having the charge froth so much as to run out of the furnace.
The general plan of the open-hearth process was certainly conceived by Josiah Marshall Heath in 1845, if not indeed by Reaumur in 1722, but for lack of a furnace in which a high enough temperature could be generated it could not be carried out until the development of the Siemens regenerative gas furnace about 1860.
The working chamber indeed is the furnace proper, in which the whole of the open-hearth process is carried out, and the function of all the rest of the apparatus, apart from the tilting mechanism, is simply to pre-heat the air and gas, and to lead them to the furnace proper and thence to the chimney.
These regenerators are the essence of the Siemens or " regenerative furnace "; they are heat-traps, catching and storing by their -11, Ton Traver 7s 20 Tan Tra y.
Wellman's tilting furnace rolls on a fixed rack instead of on rollers.
Here the charging machine lifts one box at a time from its car, pushes it through the momentarily opened furnace door, and empties the metal upon the hearth of the furnace by inverting the box, which it then replaces on its car.
The oxygenated metal is prepared by melting cast iron diluted with as much scrap steel as is available, and oxidizing it with the flame and with iron ore as it lies in a thin molten layer, on the hearth of a large open-hearth furnace; the thinness of the layer hastens the oxidation, and the large size of the furnace permits considerable frothing.
Yet the use of an open-hearth furnace of very great capacity, say of 200 tons per charge, has the disadvantage that such very large lots of steel, delivered at relatively long intervals, are less readily managed in the subsequent operations of soaking and rolling down to the final shape, than smaller lots delivered at shorter intervals.
Talbot carries on the process as a quasicontinuous instead of an intermittent one, operating on Too-ton or 200-ton lots of cast iron in such a way as to draw off his steel in 20-ton lots at relatively short intervals, charging a fresh 20-ton lot of cast iron to replace each lot of steel thus drawn off, and thus keeping the furnace full of metal from Monday morning till Saturday night.
Such a slag not only corrodes the furnace lining, but also impedes dephosphorization, because it is irretentive of phosphorus.
At the Carnegie works Mr Monell gets the two dephosphorizing conditions, low temperature and basicity of slag, early in the process, by pouring his molten but relatively cool cast iron upon a layer of pre-heated lime and iron oxide on the bottom of the open-hearth furnace.
The ebullition from the formation of carbonic oxide puffs up the resultant phosphoric slag enough to make most of it run out of the furnace, thus both removing the phosphorus permanently from danger of being later deoxidized and returned to the steel, and partly freeing the bath of metal from the heat-insulating blanket of slag.
In the duplex process the conversion of the cast iron into steel is begun in the Bessemer converter and finished in the openhearth furnace.
In the most promising form of this process an acid converter and a basic open-hearth furnace are used.
The advantage of this combination is that, by simplifying the conditions with which the composition of the pig iron has to comply, it makes the management of the blast furnace easier, and thus lessens the danger of making " misfit " pig iron, i.e.
For the acid Bessemer process the sulphur-content must be small and the silicon-content should be constant; for the basic openhearth process the content of both silicon and sulphur should be small, a thing difficult to bring about, because in the blast furnace most of the conditions which make for small sulphur-content make also for large silicon-content.
In the basic open-hearth process, on the other hand, silicon is harmful because the silica which results from its oxidation not only corrodes the lining of the furnace but interferes with the removal of the phosphorus, an essential part of the process.
Hence the blast furnace process, thus freed from the hampering need of controlling accurately the silicon-content, can be much more effectively guided so as to prevent the sulphur from entering the pig iron.
By rapidly stirring molten iron oxide into molten pig iron in a furnace shaped like a saucer, slightly inclined and turning around its axis, at a temperature but little above the melting-point of the metal itself, the phosphorus and silicon are removed rapidly, without removing much of the carbon, and by this means an extremely pure cast iron is made.
The Heroult furnace, the best known in the arc class, and the Kjellin and Roechling-Rodenhauser fur- lc naces, the best known of the induction class, will serve as examples.
The lining of the crucible may be of either magnesite (MgO) or chromite (FeO Cr203) The whole furnace, electrodes and all, rotates about the line KL for the purpose of pouring out the molten FIG.
Like the Heroult furnace, the Kjellin furnace may be lined with either magnesite or chromite, and it may be tilted for the purpose of pouring off slag and metal.
The shape which the molten metal under treatment has in the Kjellin furnace, a thin ring of large diameter, is evidently bad, inconvenient for manipulation and with excessive heat-radiating surface.
It is in the metal in these channels and in that part of the main mass of metal which immediately adjoins the coils that the current is induced by means of the coils and cores, as in the Kjellin furnace.
When the Heroult furnace is used for completing the purification of molten steel begun in the Bessemer or open-hearth process, and this is its most appropriate use, the process carried out in it may be divided into two stages, first dephosphorization, and second deoxidation and desulphurization.
When the removal of the phosphorus is sufficiently complete, this slag is withdrawn from the furnace.
It is by forming calcium sulphide that sulphur is removed in the manufacture of pig iron in the iron blast furnace, in the crucible of which, as in the electric furnaces, the conditions are strongly deoxidizing But in the Bessemer and open-hearth processes this means of removing sulphur cannot be used, because in each of them there is always enough oxygen in the atmosphere to re-oxidize any calcium as fast as it is deoxidized.
When the desulphurization is sufficiently complete, the sulphurbearing slag is removed, the final additions needed to give the metal exactly the composition aimed at are made, and the molten steel is tapped out of the furnace into its moulds.
While the metal lies tranquilly on the bottom of the furnace, any slag mechanically suspended in it has a chance to rise to the surface and unite with the slag layer above.
In addition to this work of purification, the furnace may be used for melting down the initial charge of cold metal, and for beginning the purification - in short not only for finishing but also for roughing.
The melting can be done much more cheaply in a cupola or open-hearth furnace, and the first part of the purification much more cheaply in a Bessemer converter or open-hearth furnace.
The normal use of the Kjellin induction furnace is to do the work usually done in the crucible process, i.e.
This furnace may be used also for purifying the molten metal, but it is not so well suited as the arc furnaces for dephosphorizing.
The reason for this is that in it the slag, by means of which all the purification must needs be done, is not heated effectively; that hence it is not readily made thoroughly liquid; that hence the removal of the phosphoric slag made in the early dephosphorizing stage of the process is liable to be incomplete; and that hence, finally, the phosphorus of any of this slag which is left in the furnace becomes deoxidized during the second or deoxidizing stage, and is thereby returned to befoul the underlying steel.
The Roechling-Rodenhauser furnace is unfitted, by the vulnerability of its interior walls, for receiving charges of cold metal to be melted down, but it is used to good advantage for purifying molten basic Bessemer steel sufficiently to fit it for use in the form of railway rails.
Electric furnaces are at an advantage over others as regards the removal of sulphur and of iron oxide from the molten steel, because their atmosphere is free from the sulphur always present in the flame of coal-fired furnaces, and almost free from oxygen, because this element is quickly absorbed by the carbon and silicon of the steel, and in the case of arc furnaces by the carbon of the electrodes themselves, and is replaced only very slowly by leakage, whereas through the Bessemer converter and the open-hearth furnace a torrent of air is always rushing.
It is practically unattainable in the open-hearth furnace, because here the oxygen of the furnace atmosphere indirectly oxidizes the carbon of the metal which is kept boiling by the escape of the resultant carbonic oxide.
In short the electric furnaces can be used to improve the molten product of the Bessemer converter and open-hearth furnace, essentially because their atmosphere is free from sulphur and oxygen, and because they can therefore remove sulphur, iron oxide and mechanically suspended slag, more thoroughly than is possible in these older furnaces.
Beyond this sulphur and phosphorus can be removed in the electric furnace, whereas in the crucible process they cannot.
In short electric furnaces replace the old crucible furnace primarily because they work more cheaply, though in addition they may be made to yield a better steel than it can.
They are not likely to displace either the open-hearth furnace or the Bessemer converter, because their normal work is only to improve the product of these older furnaces.
But this ancient furnace does its fourfold work of deoxidizing, melting, removing the gangue and desulphurizing, so very economically that it is not likely to be driven out in other places until the exhaustion of our coal-fields shall have gone so far as to increase the cost of coke greatly.
In a very few places the molten cast iron as it issues from the blast furnace is cast directly in these moulds, but in general it is allowed to solidify in pigs, and then remelted either in cupola furnaces or in air furnaces.
The blast of air forced in through the tuyeres near the bottom of the furnace burns the coke there, and the intense heat thus caused melts away the surrounding iron, so that this column of coke and iron gradually descends; but it is kept at its full height by feeding more coke and iron at its top, until all the iron needed for the day's work has thus been charged.
As the iron melts it runs out through a tap hole and spout at the bottom of the furnace, to be poured into the moulds by means of clay-lined ladles.
There are two distinct ways of making the steel objects actually used in the arts, such as rails, gear wheels, guns, beams, &c., out of the molten steel made by the Bessemer, open hearth, or crucible process, or in an electric furnace.
Many of the furnaces used for this heating are in a general way like the puddling furnace shown in fig.
Hence in the intermittent system most of the heat generated within the furnace escapes from it with the products of combustion.
As soon as a hot billet A is withdrawn by pushing it endwise out of the exit door B, the whole row is pushed forward by a set of mechanical pushers C, the billets sliding on the raised water-cooled pipes D, and, in the hotter part of the furnace, on the magnesite bricks E, on which iron slides easily when red-hot.
As the foremost end of the billet emerges from the furnace it enters the first of a series of roll-trains, and passes immediately thence to others, so that before half of the billet has emerged from the furnace its front end has already been reduced by rolling to its final shape, that of merchant-bars, which are relatively thin, round or square rods, in lengths of 300 ft.
Beryllium oxide, beryllia or glucina, BeO, is a very hard white powder which can be melted and distilled in the electric furnace, when it condenses in the form of minute hexagonal crystals.
The carbide BeC 2 is formed when beryllia and sugar charcoal are heated together in the electric furnace.
If his questing had been unsuccessful, he appeased the rage of hunger with some scraps of broken meat, and lay down to rest under the piazza of Covent Garden in warm weather, and, in cold weather, as near as he could get to the furnace of a glass house.
Round this core threads of glass were wound of various colors; the whole could be reset in the furnace to soften it for nsoulding the foGt or neck, or attaching handles, or dragging the surface into various patterns.
These materials were heated in pans in the furnace so as to combine in a pasty, half-fused condition.
A broken lump would then be heated to softness in the furnace; rolled out under a bar of metal, held diagonally across the roll; and when reduced to a rod of a quarter of an inch thick, it was heated and pulled out into even rods about an eighth of an inch thick.
By placing ingots in a furnace and observing which one melted a fair idea of the temperature was obtained.
If he had, so to speak, thrown into one furnace all the law contained in the treatises of the jurists and in the imperial ordinances, fused them down, the gold of the one and the silver of the other, and run them out into new moulds, this would have been codification.
Good hydraulic mortars may be made from lime mixed with furnace ashes or burnt clay as the pozzuolanic constituent.
Another method of making Portland cement which has been proposed and tried with some success consists in fusing the raw materials together in an apparatus of the type of a blast furnace.
It is made by granulating blast furnace slag of suitable composition and finely grinding the product, either alone or with an admixture of about To% of Portland cement clinker.
Remains of an ancient bronze furnace, discovered near the town, tend to prove that tinsmelting was practised here at an early period.
Manganese Carbide, Mn 3 C, is prepared by heating manganous oxide with sugar charcoal in an electric furnace, or by fusing manganese chloride and calcium carbide.
One man is raking out the fire in a high furnace, while another behind is blowing the bellows.
The latter was formerly often constructed as a reverberatory furnace, which is easy to build and to work, but the hydrochloric acid given off here, being mixed with the products of the combustion of the fuel, cannot be condensed to strong acid and is partly, if not entirely, wasted.
The salt is conveyed to the furnace by a chain of buckets running on the pulley (g), and passing into the hopper (h), and through the pipe (i) is mixed with the proper amount of acid supplied by the pipe (f).
This furnace acts very well, and has been widely introduced both in Great Britain and in other countries, but it has one great drawback, apart from its high cost, viz.
The mixture of hydrochloric acid and air is taken directly from the " decomposing-pan " of an ordinary salt-cake furnace, is first cooled down in pipes sufficiently to condense most of the moisture present 1 ?i; \'\` (together with about 8% of the hydrochloric acid), and then passed through a cast-iron superheater and from this into the " decomposer."
The furnace in which the reaction taks place is shown in fig.
It is called a " black-ash " furnace, and belongs to the class of reverberatory furnaces.
The flame issuing from the furnace by (o) is always further utilized for boiling down the liquors obtained in a later stage, either in a pan (p) fired from the top and supported on pillars (qq) as shown in the drawing, or in pans heated from below.
When the " candles " of carbon monoxide appear, the pasty mass is quickly drawn out of the furnace into iron " bogies," where it solidifies into a grey, porous mass, the " black-ash."
The hand-wrought black-ash furnace has been mostly superseded in the large factories by the revolving black-ash furnace, shown in fig.
The drained crystals are dried and heated to redness in a reverberatory furnace; when " finished," the mass is of an impure white or light yellow colour and is sold as ordinary " soda-ash."
The latter rests on a brick pillar; the remaining part of the sloping bottom is heated, either by the waste fire from a black-ash furnace or by a special fireplace.
Soon after the Civil War he went to Malden, West Virginia, where he worked in a salt furnace and then in a coal mine.
When this happens the plug being no longer covered with water is heated to such a temperature that it melts and allows the contents of the boiler to escape into the furnace.
When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.
The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.
This rich matte is then mixed with coke and salt-cake and melted down in an open hearth furnace.
The air receives heat from an external furnace just as water does in the boiler of a steam-engine, by contact with a heated metallic surface, but it takes up heat from such a surface with much less readiness than does water.
There A is the externallyfired heating vessel, the lower part of which contains hot air which is taking in heat from the furnace beneath.
It then takes in heat from the furnace, expanding in volume and forcing the piston (B) to rise, which completes the cycle.
The stages at which heat is taken from the furnace and rejected to the cooler (C) are approximately isothermal at the upper and lower limits of temperature respectively, and the cycle accordingly is approximately "perfect" in the thermodynamic sense.
It was then allowed to expand further, taking in heat from a furnace under the cylinder and falling in pressure.
It thus resembles magnetite in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considerable amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 20% of manganese oxides).
Associated with franklinite at Franklin Furnace, and found also at some other localities, is another member of the spinel group, namely, gahnite or zinc-spinel, which is a zinc aluminate, ZnAl 2 O 4, with a little of the zinc replaced by iron and manganese.
On a small scale it is obtained by reducing the trioxide in a current of hydrogen, or the chloride by sodium vapour, or the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace; in the last case the product is porous and can be welded like iron.
The metal may be used uncombined, but large quantities of ferrotungsten are made in the electric furnace; other alloys are prepared by acting on a mixture of the oxides with aluminium.