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fungus

fungus

fungus Sentence Examples

  • Grapes attacked by the fungus; the fruit becomes black, hard and shrivelled.

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  • A fungus which may carelessly be mistaken for the mushroom is M.

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  • Oranges and pears are seriously damaged by insect and fungus pests.

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  • The fungus assails all the green parts of the vine, and injures the leaves and young shoots as much as it does the grape itself.

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  • They are branches in which a perennial Fungus (Aecidium, Exoascus, &c.) has obtained a hold.

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  • The fungus is cut into slices and then steeped in a solution of nitre.

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  • In Australia Tryon published a work on the Insect and Fungus Enemies of Queensland in 1889.

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  • A similar disease which of late has frequently been found in England, and which is ascribed to the fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum, is very similar to it.

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  • Amadou is prepared on the continent of Europe, chiefly in Germany, but the fungus is a native of Britain.

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  • Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.

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  • This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.

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  • This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.

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  • Perithecium or "fruit" of the fungus with its curled appendages, X too.

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  • An allied fungus peculiar to woods, with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture mushroom under the name of A.

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  • An allied fungus peculiar to woods, with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture mushroom under the name of A.

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  • velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.

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  • To this character the fungus owes its generic name (Marasmius) as well as one of its most valuable qualities for the table, for examples may be gathered from June to November, and if carefully dried may be hung on strings for culinary purposes and preserved without deterioration for several years; indeed, many persons assert that the rich flavour of these fungi increases with years.

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  • To this character the fungus owes its generic name (Marasmius) as well as one of its most valuable qualities for the table, for examples may be gathered from June to November, and if carefully dried may be hung on strings for culinary purposes and preserved without deterioration for several years; indeed, many persons assert that the rich flavour of these fungi increases with years.

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  • Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.

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  • Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.

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  • The insects cultivate their fungus, weeding out.

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  • AMADOU, a soft tough substance used as tinder, derived from Polyporus fomentarius, a fungus belonging to the group Basidiomycetes and somewhat resembling a mushroom in manner of growth.

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  • Each species of green plant may form a mycorhiza with two or three different Fungi, and a single species of Fungus may enter into symbiosis with several green plants.

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  • The complete life-history of this form is at present unknown; and information as to where the fungus passes the winter, and in what form, would probably afford some useful indications as to the method that should be adopted to combat the disease.

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  • A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.

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  • When the fungus is grown elsewhere than in the ants' nest it produces gonidia instead of the white masses on which the ants feed, hence it seems that these masses are indeed produced as the result of some unknown cultural process.

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  • The development of this fungus is greatly promoted by the presence of decaying stumps and wood in the plantation.

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  • In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites.

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  • The mildew is in its turn attacked by a fungus of the same tribe, Cicinnobolus Cesatii, which lives parasitically within the hyphae of its host, and at times even succeeds in destroying it.

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  • Another fungus which at tacks vines, especially those of America, is Plasmopara viticola, which has also been introduced from America to Europe.

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  • Fructification of the fungus, entire and in section; the latter shows the asci containing ascospores, much enlarged.

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  • When all these characters are taken together no other mushroom-like fungus - and nearly a thousand species grow in Britain - can be confounded with it.

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  • Sometimes a beautiful, somewhat slender, fungus peculiar to stumps in woods is mistaken for the mushroom in A.

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  • The mushroom is a semi-deliquescent fungus which rapidly falls into putridity in decay, whilst the champignon dries up into a leathery substance in the sun, but speedily revives and takes its original form again after the first shower.

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  • The fungus seems to do better when supplied with compounds of ammonia.

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  • In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.

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  • In the Fungi it is usually composed of a modified form of cellulose known as fungus cellulose, which, according to Mangin, consists of callose in combination either with cellulose or pectic compounds.

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  • Carbolic acid is an efficient parasiticide, and is largely used in destroying the fungus of ringworm and of the skin disease known as pityriasis versicolor.

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  • In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.

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  • Throughout this time, Borlaug constantly battled wheat's arch-nemesis: rust, a fungus that feeds on wheat, oats, and barley.

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  • The relations of the Alga and the Fungus, which have formed a close associationship in the structure known as the Lichen, were established many years ago.

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  • They are beautiful objects in the autumn woods; Amanita muscaria, the fly fungus, formerly known as Agaricus muscarius, being especially remarkable by its bright red cap covered with white warts.

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  • They are beautiful objects in the autumn woods; Amanita muscaria, the fly fungus, formerly known as Agaricus muscarius, being especially remarkable by its bright red cap covered with white warts.

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  • the application of ordinary antiseptic powders to leaves inside which a Fungus, such as a Uredo or Ustilago, is growing can only result in failtire, and similarly if tobacco fumes, for instance, are applied when the insects concerned are hibernating in the ground beneath.

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  • mould and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the surface of their " mushroom garden," of numerous small white bodies formed by swollen ends of the fungus hyphae.

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  • In " Root rot," as the name implies, the roots are attacked, the fungus being a species of Ozonium, which envelops the roots in a white covering of mould or mycelium.

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  • " Boll rot," or "Anthracnose," is a disease which may at times be sufficiently serious to destroy from ro to 50% of the crop. The fungus which causes it (Colletotrichum gossypii) is closely related to one of the fungi attacking sugar-cane in various parts of the world.

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  • The most serious trouble has been occasioned in the Malay States by a white thread-like fungus (Fomes semitostus) which attacks the roots of the Hevea tree and eventually kills it.

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  • mould and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the surface of their " mushroom garden," of numerous small white bodies formed by swollen ends of the fungus hyphae.

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  • Pear scab is caused by a parasitic fungus, Fusicladium pyrinum, very closely allied and perhaps merely a form of the apple scab fungus, F.

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  • The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.

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  • Portion of the mycelium of the fungus bearing spores (conidia), s, on erect branches, X250.

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  • But even when inside it does not follow that the Fungus can kill the cell, and many cases are known where the Fungus can break throtigh the cells first lines of defence (cell-wall and protoplasmic lining); but the struggle goes on at close quarters, and various degrees of hypertrophy, accumulation of plastic bodies or secretions, discolorations, &c.,, indicate the suffering of the still living cell.

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  • Moller - serves as the substratum for a special fungus (Rozites gongylophora), the staple food of the ants.

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  • In the Algae, such as Fucus, Volvox, Oedogonium, Bulbochaete, and in the Fungus Monoblepharis, the spermatozoid is a small oval or elongate cell containing nucleus, cytoplasm and sometimes plastids.

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  • For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.

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  • This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium.

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  • A plant may be diseased as a whole, because nearly all its tissues are in a morbid or pathological condition, owing to some Fungus pervading the wholee.g.

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  • In order that a Fungus may enter a plant, it must be able to overcome not merely the resistance of cell-walls, but that of the living protoplasm; if it cannot do this, it must remain outside as a mere epiphyte, e.g.

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  • These investigators regarded yeast as a plant, and Meyer gave to the germs the systematic name of "Saccharomyces" (sugar fungus).

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  • The root-hairs penetrate between masses of the hyphae of the Fungus.

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  • If the attack of a parasite is met by the formation of some substance in the protoplasm which is chemo- tactically repulsive to the invader, it may be totally incapable of penetrating the cell, even though equipped with a whole armoury of cytases, diastatic and other enzymes, and poisons which would easily overcome the more passive resistances offered by mere cell-walls and cell-contents of other plants, the protoplasm of which forms bodies chemotactically attractive to the Fungus.

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  • The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.

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  • The fungus is most conspicuous on the grapes, but the leaves and stems From Hartig's Lehrbuch der Pfanzenkrankheiten, by permission of Julius Springer.

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  • Mycelium of the fungus attacking root of vine (reduced).

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  • Portion of vine root, showing masses of fructification (perithecia) of the fungus (reduced).

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  • Portion of twig with discoloured patches, caused by the fungus.

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  • Fruit attacked by the fungus(reduced).

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  • The hyphae of the mycelium of this fungus are septate, with numerous short branches.

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  • The wood is nearly white, or of a yellowish tint, but sometimes exhibits blackish markings due to the mycelium of a fungus.

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  • Liming tends to produce earlier crops and destroys the fungus which causes finger-and-toe or club-root among turnips and cabbages.

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  • The latter is the more serious, as in addition to the actual damage done by the beetle the holes afford entrance to fungus spores, &c. Under the name " horn worms " are included the larvae or caterpillars of species of Protoparce.

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  • The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.

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  • The exports are copra, fungus and straw hats, which the women plait very cleverly.

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  • They mark the area of growth of some fungus, starting from a centre of one or more plants.

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  • The mycelium produced from the spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new growth round the circle.

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  • The fungus was never found growing within the circle during the time the ring was under observation, the decaying vegetation necessary for its growth having become exhausted.

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  • Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.

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  • The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.

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  • If the fungus appears on the foliage spray with potassium sulphide solution (2 oz.

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  • The fungus attacks injured roots.

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  • The fungus hibernates in the soil and enters through broken or injured roots, hence care should be taken when removing the bulbs that the roots are injured as little as possible.

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  • This prevents infection from outside and also destroys any spores or fungus mycelium that may have been packed away along with the bulbs.

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  • There is also an American beetle, the Ambrosia beetle, belonging to the family of Swlytidae, which derives its name from its curious cultivation of a succulent fungus, called ambrosia.

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  • Ambrosia beetles bore deep though minute galleries into trees and timber, and the wood-dust provides a bed for the growth of the fungus, on which the insects and larvae feed.

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  • An interesting species of the last is the leaf-cutting ant (Eciton) which lives in large underground colonies and feeds upon a fungus produced by leaf-cuttings stored in subterranean passages to promote fermentation.

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  • In Germany a fungus (Polyporus Laricis) grows on the roots and stems of decaying larches, which was formerly in esteem as a drastic purgative.

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  • Among the most fatal and disastrous of these diseases with which the cultivator had long to grapple was " muscardine," a malady due to the development of a fungus, Botrytis bassiana, in the body of the caterpillar.

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  • Turning now to instances of the opposite kind, it is known that silkworms which spin colourless cocoons are more resistant to the attacks of a certain deadly fungus than are those which spin the yellow ones.

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  • LICHENS, in botany, compound or dual organisms each consisting of an association of a higher fungus, with a usually unicellular, sometimes filamentous, alga.

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  • The fungal part of the organism nearly always consists of a number of the Discomycetes or Pyrenomycetes, while the algal portion is a member of the Schizophyceae (Cyanophyceae or Blue-green Algae) or of the Green Algae; only in a very few cases is the fungus a member of the Basidiomycetes.

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  • The fungus thus clearly takes the upper hand in the association.

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  • Owing to their peculiar dual nature, lichens are able to live in situations where neither the alga nor fungus could exist alone.

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  • The enclosed alga is protected by the threads (hyphae) of the fungus, and supplied with water and salts and, possibly, organic nitrogenous substances; in its turn the alga by means of its green or blue-green colouring matter and the sun's energy manufactures carbohydrates which are used in part by the fungus.

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  • He investigated the exact relation of fungus and alga and showed that the same alga is able to combine with a number of different fungi to form lichens; thus Chroolepns umbrinus is found as the gonidia of 13 different lichen genera.

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  • one in which the alga and fungus are equally distributed.

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  • 500 times.) A branched filiform thallus of Stigonema with the hyphae of the fungus growing through its gelatinous membranes.

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  • We find two chief types of fruit bodies in the lichens, the perithecium and apothecium; the first when the fungal element is a member of the Pyrenomycetes division of the Ascomycetes, the second when the fungus belongs to the Discomycetes division.

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  • In the two genera of lichens - the Basidiolichens - i n which the fungus is a member of the Basidiomycetes, we have the fructification characteristic of that class of fungi: these are dealt with separately.

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  • As is clear from the above, nearly all the lichens are produced by the association of an ascomycetous fungus with algae.

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  • size.) der Botanik, by ascolichens the fungus portion seems to have become so specialized to its symbiotic mode of life that it is never found growing independently.

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  • When the fungus predominates in the thallus it has a bracket-like mode of growth and is found projecting from the branches of trees with the hymenium on the under side.

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  • It is said that the fungus of Cora pavonia and of Dictyonema is identical, the difference being in the nature of the alga.

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  • On a bare rocky surface a fungus would die from want of organic substance and an alga from drought and want of mineral substances.

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  • Relation of Fungus and Alga.

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  • The algal cells are usually controlled in their growth by the hyphae and are prevented from forming zoospores, and in some cases, as already described, the algal cells are killed sooner or later by the fungus.

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  • The lichen algae are not alone in their specializa tion to the symbiotic (or parasitic) mode of life, for, as stated earlier, the fungus appear in the majority of cases to have completely lost the power of independent development since with very rare exceptions they are not found alone.

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  • The wall of the hyphae of the fungus give in the young state the ordinary reactions of cellulose but older material shows somewhat different reactions, similar to those of the so-called fungus-cellulose.

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  • Theoretically the lichens may be classified on the basis of their algal constituent, on the basis of their fungal constituent, or they may be classified as if they were homogeneous organisms. The first of these systems is impracticable owing to the absence of algal reproductive organs and the similarity of the algal cells (gonidia) in a large number of different forms. The second system is the most obvious one, since the fungus is the dominant partner and produces reproductive organs.

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  • In actual practice the difference between the second and third methods is not very great since the fungus is the producer of the reproductive organs and generally the main constituent.

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  • It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees.

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  • In a fresh state it is poisonous and fatal to vegetation, and is often used for this reason to dress land infested with wireworms, grubs, club-root fungus, &c.

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  • A widespread disease known as pocket-plums or bladderplums is due to an ascomycetous fungus, Exoascus pruni, the mycelium of which lives parasitically in the tissues of the host plant, passes into the ovary of the flower and causes the characteristic malformation of the fruit which becomes a deformed, sometimes curved or flattened, wrinkled dry structure, with a hollow occupying the place of the stone; the bladder plums are yellow at first, subsequently dingy red.

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  • Plum-leaf blister is caused by Polystigma rubrum, a pyrenomycetous fungus which forms thick fleshy reddish patches on the leaves.

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  • CHANTARELLE, an edible fungus, known botanically as Cantharellus cibarius, found in woods in summer.

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  • The substance of the fungus is dry and opaque with a peculiar smell suggesting ripe apricots or plums. The flesh is whitish tinged with yellow.

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  • No fungus requires more careful preparation.

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  • fungus, a mushroom), the botanical name covering in the broad sense all the lower cellular Cryptogams devoid of chlorophyll, which arise from spores, and the thallus of which is either unicellular or composed of branched or unbranched tubes or cell-filaments (hyphae) with apical growth, or of more or less complex wefted sheets or tissue-like masses of such (mycelium).

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  • Allowing for these and for the cases, undoubtedly not few, where one and the same fungus has been described under different names, we obtain Schroeter's estimate (in 1892) of 20,000 species.

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  • In other cases the strands undergo differentiation into an outer layer with blackened, hardened cell-walls and a core of ordinary hyphae, and are then termed rhizomorphs (Armillaria mellea), capable not only of extending the fungus in the soil, like roots, but also of lying dormant, protected by the outer casing.

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  • The functions of mycelial strands, rhizomorphs and sclerotia are not only to collect and store materials, but also to extend the fungus, and in many cases similar strands act as organs of attack.

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  • Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.

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  • That such enzymes are formed in the protoplasm is evident from the behaviour of hyphae, which have been observed to pierce cell-membranes, the chitinous coats of insects, artificial collodion films and layers of wax, &c. That a fungus can secrete more than one enzyme, according to the materials its hyphae have to attack, has been shown by the extraction of diastase, inulase, trehalase, invertase, maltase, raffinase, malizitase, emulsin, trypsin and lipase from Aspergillus by Bourquelot, and similar events occur in other fungi.

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  • Although many fungi have been regarded as devoid of nuclei, and all have not as yet been proved to contain them, the numerous investigations of recent years have revealed them in the cells of all forms thoroughly examined, and we are justified in concluding that the nucleus is as essential to the cell of a fungus as to that of other organisms. The hyphae of many contain numerous, even hundreds of nuclei (Phycomycetes); those of others have several (Aspergillus) in each segment, or only two (Exoascus) or one (Erysiphe) in each cell.

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  • Physiologically, any cell or group of cells separated off from a hypha or unicellular fungus, and capable of itself growing out - germinating - to reproduce the fungus, is a spore; but it is evident that so wide a definition does not exclude the ordinary vegetative cells of sprouting fungi, such as yeasts, or small sclerotium like cell-aggregates of forms like Coniothecium.

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  • In addition to these accidental modes of dispersal, however, there is a series of interesting adaptations on the part of the fungus itself.

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  • Pythium is a semiaquatic form attacking seedlings which are too plentifully supplied with water; its hyphae penetrate the cell-walls and rapidly destroy the watery tissues of the living plant; then the fungus lives in the dead remains.

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  • Fungus of Potato Disease.

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  • After absorbing the cell-contents of the latter, which it does in a few hours or days, the fungus puts out a sporangium, the contents of which break up into numerous minute swarm-spores, usually one-ciliate, rarely two-ciliate.

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  • In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.

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  • On germination, however, the fungus behaves in the same way as one which has entered in the seedling stage.

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  • At the same time there are strong grounds for insisting on the resemblances between Endomyces, a hyphal fungus bearing yeast-like asci, and such a form as Saccharomyces anomalus.

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  • the dependence of the fungus on two distinct host-plants for the completion of the life-history.

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  • / mans is the well-known zv " dry rot" fungus.

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  • Nectria, Dasyscypha, &c.), or the enfeeblement of the tissues of the host, or invigoration of the fungus, the mycelium of which then becomes strong enough to overcome the host's resistance (Botrytis).

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  • An epiphytic fungus is not necessarily a parasite, however, as many saprophytes (moulds, &c.) germinate and develop a loose mycelium on living leaves, but only enter and destroy the tissues after the leaf has fallen; in some cases, however, these saprophytic epiphytes can do harm by intercepting light and air from the leaf (Fumago, &c.), and such cases make it difficult to draw the line between saprophytism and parasitism.

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  • Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis).

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  • Destructive parasites rapidly ruin the whole plant-body (Pythium), whereas restrained parasites only tax the host slightly, and ill effects may not be visible for a long time, or only when the fungus is epidemic (Rhytisma).

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  • On each of these host-plants the fungus has become specialized so that the form on barley cannot infect the other three cereals or the wild grasses and so on.

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  • This dualism, where the one constituent (alga) furnishes carbohydrates, and the other (fungus) ensures a supply of mineral matters, shade and moisture, has been termed symbiosis.

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  • Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, &c. Recent experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus, which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately it emerges from the seed.

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  • The role of the fungus appears to be to supply materials from the leaf-mould around, in forms which ordinary root-hairs are incapable of providing for the plant; in return the latter supports the fungus at slight expense from its abundant stores of reserve materials.

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  • 12 (1883); Ward, "Onygena equina, a horn-destroying fungus," Phil.

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  • 20 (1906); Ward, "The Brooms and their Rust Fungus," Ann.

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  • A strong growth of the fungus gives the appearance of mildew on the wood, and produces an unpleasant musty smell.

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  • The spores of the fungus will find a way through brickwork, concrete and similar material, in order to reach woodwork that may be on the other side.

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  • Dampness and a close atmosphere are essential to the growth of dry rot, and it is under these conditions that it spreads most quickly, the fungus soon dying when exposed to the fresh air.

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  • Plagues of locusts occasionally, during a drought, ruin growing crops; in damp wet weather these insects are destroyed by a fungus growth (Empusa gryllae) within their bodies.

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  • Their presence is due to lateral outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite, or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its habitat Mucor stalactitis.

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  • A peculiar vegetable product of this inclement region is a small globular fungus growing on the bark of the beech, which is a staple article of food among the Fuegians - probably the only instance where a fungus is the bread of a people.

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  • Trametes radiciperda attacks the roots and penetrates to the stem, causing rotting of the wood; the disease is difficult to eradicate, as the mycelium of the fungus travels from root to root in the soil.

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  • The determining cause of the formation of the tubers is not certainly known, but Professor Bernard has suggested that it is the presence of a fungus, Fusarium solani, which, growing in the underground shoots, irritates them and causes the swelling; the result is that an efficient method of propagation is secured independently of the seed.

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  • This phenomenon follows injury to the phloem in the lower parts of the stem, preventing the downward flow of elaborated sap. The injury may be due to gnawing insects, and particularly to the fungus Corticium vagum, var.

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  • Those intended for storing should be dug up as soon as they are fairly ripe, unless they are attacked by the disease, in which case they must be taken up as soon as the murrain is observed; or if they are then sufficiently developed to be worth preserving, but not fully ripe, the haulms or shaws should be pulled out, to prevent the fungus passing down them into the tubers; this may be done without disturbing the tubers, which can be dug afterwards.

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  • The best-known disease of potatoes is caused by the growth of a fungus named Phytophihora infestans, within the tissues of the host plant, and this fungus has the peculiar property of piercing and breaking up the cellular tissues and setting up putrescence in the course of its growth.

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  • The fungus, which is chiefly within the leaves and stems, seldom emerges through the firm upper surface of the leaf; it commonly appears as a white bloom or mildew on the circumference of the diseasepatches on the under surface.

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  • As the patches extend in size by the growth of the fungus they at length become confluent, and so the leaves are destroyed and an end is put to one of the chief vital functions of the host plant.

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  • On the destruction of the leaves the fungus either descends the stem by the interior or the spores are washed by the rain to the tubers in the ground.

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  • In either case the tubers are reached by the fungus or its spores, and so become diseased.

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  • The fungus is very small in size, and under the microscope appears slightly whitish or colourless.

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  • The accompanying illustration shows the habit and structure of the fungus.

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  • the better to exhibit the nature of the fungus growths.

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  • Amongst the loose tissue of the leaf numerous transparent threads are shown; these are the mycelial threads or spawn of the fungus; wherever they touch the leaf-cells they pierce or break down the tissue, and so set up decomposition, as indicated by the darker shading.

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  • Out of these small openings the fungus threads emerge, as shown at D, D, D.

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  • The last measure prevents the germination of the spores of the fungus on the leaves, and is a most useful mode of checking the spread of the disease; to be successful in its use, however, entails care in the preparation of the spray and thoroughness in its application.

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  • It is possible that the hybridizing of the potato with one or other of the wild types of tuberous Solanums may give rise to a variety which shall be immune, though unfortunately most are themselves liable to the attacks of the fungus, and one of the few crosses so made between the common potato and Solanum Maglia has exhibited the same undesirable trait.

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  • The fungus passes the winter on pieces of leaf, &c., left on the ground.

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  • A third fungus, Cercospora concors, also forms spots on the leaves and may be kept in check by the same means.

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  • I and 2, Tubers deformed by the fungus.

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  • Excess of lime in the soil is said to favour the development of the fungus.

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  • Similar spots are produced on potatoes in America by the fungus Oospora scabies, and in both cases, if affected "seed" potatoes are steeped in a solution of 2 pint formalin in 15 gallons of water for two hours before planting, the attack on the resulting crop is materially lessened.

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  • The fungus, Oedomyces leproides, produces large, blackish, irregular warts which sometimes involve the whole surface of the tuber.

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  • The spores of the fungus pass the winter in the soil and the delicate mycelium attacks the young shoots in the summer.

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  • The rotting of tubers after lifting may be due to various causes, but the infection of the tubers by the Phytophthora already mentioned is a frequent source of this trouble, while "Winter Rot" is due to the fungus Nectria Solani.

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  • This fungus finds conditions suitable for growth when the potatoes are stored in a damp condition; rotting from this cause rarely occurs when they are dried before being placed in heaps.

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  • The first signs of this fungus is the appearance of small white tufts of mycelium bursting through the skin of the tuber, the spores of the fungus being carried at the tips of the threads forming these tufts.

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  • Saprophytic bacteria can readily make their way down the dead hypha of an invading fungus, or into the punctures made by insects, and Aphides have been credited with the bacterial infection of carnations, though more recent researches by Woods go to show the correctness of his conclusion that Aphides alone are responsible for the carnation disease.

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  • JEW'S EARS, the popular name of a fungus, known botanically as Hirneola auricula-judae, so called from its shape, which somewhat resembles a human ear.

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  • seigle ergote), consisting of the sclerotium (or hard resting condition) of a fungus, Claviceps purpurea, parasitic on the pistils of many members of the Grass family, but obtained almost exclusively from rye, Secale cereale.

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  • The ear loses its starch, and ceases to grow, and its ovaries become penetrated with the white spongy tissue of the mycelium of the fungus which towards the end of the season forms the sclerotium, in which state the fungus lies dormant through the winter.

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  • As it is practically impossible to reproduce the symptoms of ergotism nowadays, whether experimentally in the lower animals, or when the drug is being administered to a human being for some therapeutic purpose, it is believed that the symptoms of ergotism were rendered possible only by the semi-starvation which must have ensued from the use of such rye-bread; for the grain disappears as the fungus develops.

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  • When the ovaries of the plant become affected with a peculiar fungus (Claviceps purpurea) they become blackened and distorted, constituting ergot.

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  • In both Psilotum and Tmesipteris the functions of the root-system, which is completely absent, are performed by leafless rhizomes bearing absorbent hairs and inhabited by an endophytic fungus.

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  • All the saprophytic prothalli contain an endophytic fungus in definite layers of their tissue.

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  • In the roots of Ophioglossum and Botrychium and in the first formed roots of Helminthostachys an endophytic fungus is present, forming a mycorhiza - the stele in the larger roots has the usual radial arrangement of xylem and phloem; monarch roots occur in Ophioglossum.

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  • pedunculosum, as observed by Mettenius, subsequently reached the surface and produced green lobes; those of the other species known are wholly saprophytic, and contain an endophytic fungus.

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  • The rust fungus, Puccinia graminis, is a Uredine belonging to the heteroecious group, that is, one that passes from one host to another at different stages of its life-history.

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  • The fine thread-like filaments composing the mycelium of the fungus are embedded in the tissue underneath and around the uredo-sorus, and draw from the host the nourishment required.

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  • In due time the fungus, known as Aecidium Berberidis, appears on the barberry leaves in the form of small cluster-cups on aecidia, each of which is filled with chains of orange-coloured aecidiospores.

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  • Fungus spores will not germinate without moisture, and attention to drainage helps to keep down this and other fungus pests.

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  • The developing seed thus encloses fungal hyphae, which remain dormant within the seed and in spring develop symbiotically with the growth of the wheat plant, doing no apparent injury until the time of fruiting is reached, when the fungus takes complete possession and fills the new seed with a mass of darkcoloured spores.

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  • The spores of the fungus remain in the soil or in manure-heaps until spring, when they germinate and attack the first green leaves of the host plant.

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  • The after development is similar to that of smut, and the seed grain becomes a mere mass of fungus spores.

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  • Erysiple graminis, a mildew of grasses, has caused great loss in various countries; Dilophia graminis sometimes causes deformities of the leaves and inflorescence; another somewhat similar fungus, Ophiobolus graminis, attacks the leaves and stalks near the ground, completely destroying the plants.

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  • Fungus parasites have been used with some, but on the whole rather slight, success, and mechanical appliances with perhaps greater success, in combating these pests.

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  • An endophytic Fungus referred to the latter group (Peronosporites antiquarius, W.

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  • A minute Fungus bearing sporangia, found by Renault in the wood of a Lepidodendron, and named by him Oiichytrium Lepidodendri, is referred with much probability to the Chytridineae.

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  • Conceptacles contaning Spores, and strongly suggesting the Chytridineous Fungus Urophlyetis, have recently been found, in petrified material, on the leaves of an Alethopteris, which appears to have undergone decay before fossilization set in.

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  • The fungus which produces aflatoxin grows on crops like maize and peanuts when they are stored for long periods in hot climates.

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  • anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

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  • A natural fungus that grows on and kills Russian wheat aphid is winding its way toward commercial application.

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  • ascomycete fungus that grows on apple.

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  • These apothecia produce ascospores - the sexual spores of the fungus.

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  • The first of these forms of asthma is bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, a serious allergy to a common fungus which can grow inside the lungs.

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  • The soil and plants inside your house and outside are a source of the fungus aspergillus which grows in decaying vegetation.

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  • basidiomycete fungus.

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  • beefsteak fungus and Chicken of the woods can all be found in the area.

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  • blight fungus.

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  • blight of potatoes by the fungus Phytophthora infestans.

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  • The M. graminicola fungus causes the septoria tritici leaf blotch disease, the primary threat to wheat cultivation in Europe.

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  • A. borealis is a northern and boreal species of Honey Fungus, parasitic and saprotrophic on various trees but often on Birch.

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  • bracket fungus on trees is more visible at this time of year.

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  • bracket fungus on tree trunks, logs, and stumps.

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  • brome grass clones selected using conventional breeding showed that reduced lignin was associated with severe rust fungus disease [23] .

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  • This hard, woody, perennial, bracket fungus is very common in Scottish birch woods, where it causes a brown rot.

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  • The major, and most painful conditions include bunions, blisters and sores, ingrown toenails, cracks and fungus.

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  • Candida, a yeast-like fungus, has become a major cause of the life-threatening infection called invasive candidiasis.

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  • The fungus infects young canes through wounds which are initially caused by raspberry cane midge attack, late spring frosts or pruning.

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  • canker fungus to gain entrance.

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  • A fungus was isolated from the leaf lesions and stem and stolon cankers.

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  • This curious plant has no chlorophyll, growing with the aid of a fungus feeding off dead wood.

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  • compounds isolated from the fungus may prove to be useful treatments for certain types of cancer.

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  • conidial chains of a powdery mildew fungus covering the spots.

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  • conidial stage and teleomorph, the fungus was identified as Podosphaera phaseoli (syn.

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  • conidiumduces conidia, which is the form the fungus disperses through air.

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  • The introduced American signal crayfish has decimated our native population due to a fungus which it carries.

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  • Recent research has shown that a fungus that occurs naturally on everyone's scalp causes dandruff.

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  • elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

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  • ergot fungus, methysergide (Alliance ), has some use in migraine prevention.

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  • Another lupine connection is the fungus ergot, which is particularly associated with rye.

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  • eyespot fungus, Tapesia, forms specialized infection plaques in the tight spaces between leaf sheaths at the base of the plant.

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  • The cereal eyespot fungus, Tapesia, forms specialized infection plaques in the tight spaces between leaf sheaths at the base of the plant.

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  • fend off a fungus attack?

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  • filtrates of the fungus were toxic to cells of several plant species but the most sensitive were chickpea and potato.

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  • On PDA, the fungus quickly formed a dense white mycelium, which later became fluffy.

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  • Athlete's Foot is caused by a fungus that attacks the sole of the foot or the skin between the toes.

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  • Nizoral works by destroying the fungus that causes the infection.

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  • In orchid seeds, the nutrients required for germination are provided by a mycorrhizal fungus with which it forms an association.

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  • fungus aspergillus which grows in decaying vegetation.

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  • fungus gnats.

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  • fungus Phytophthora infestans - appeared in the United Kingdom causing great hardship for many people.

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  • fungus Fusarium solani.

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  • Fig 9.11 A wheat root at different magnifications, infected by the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis.

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  • Get rid of unsightly toenail fungus by soaking your toes in Listerine mouthwash.

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  • Treatment There are no chemical cures for honey fungus.

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  • Growth: 40 ft in 20 years Can be very susceptible to dry rot fungus.

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  • fungus, vastly increasing my knowledge of edible woodland fungi!

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  • fungus of fungi as a carbon resource cycling: wood-rotting fungi.

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  • Two species of rust fungus occur on juniper, and these induce galls to form on the stems and twigs.

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  • gall midges, honey fungus, rust and powdery mildew may give problems.

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