Fungus sentence example
Grapes attacked by the fungus; the fruit becomes black, hard and shrivelled.
The fungus assails all the green parts of the vine, and injures the leaves and young shoots as much as it does the grape itself.
Oranges and pears are seriously damaged by insect and fungus pests.
Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.
The fungus is cut into slices and then steeped in a solution of nitre.Advertisement
The fungus thus clearly takes the upper hand in the association.
This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.
Amadou is prepared on the continent of Europe, chiefly in Germany, but the fungus is a native of Britain.
Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.
They are branches in which a perennial Fungus (Aecidium, Exoascus, &c.) has obtained a hold.Advertisement
The insects cultivate their fungus, weeding out.
When the fungus is grown elsewhere than in the ants' nest it produces gonidia instead of the white masses on which the ants feed, hence it seems that these masses are indeed produced as the result of some unknown cultural process.
The complete life-history of this form is at present unknown; and information as to where the fungus passes the winter, and in what form, would probably afford some useful indications as to the method that should be adopted to combat the disease.
The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.
The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.Advertisement
In Australia Tryon published a work on the Insect and Fungus Enemies of Queensland in 1889.
In " Root rot," as the name implies, the roots are attacked, the fungus being a species of Ozonium, which envelops the roots in a white covering of mould or mycelium.
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
The most serious trouble has been occasioned in the Malay States by a white thread-like fungus (Fomes semitostus) which attacks the roots of the Hevea tree and eventually kills it.
The development of this fungus is greatly promoted by the presence of decaying stumps and wood in the plantation.Advertisement
In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites.
The mildew is in its turn attacked by a fungus of the same tribe, Cicinnobolus Cesatii, which lives parasitically within the hyphae of its host, and at times even succeeds in destroying it.
Another fungus which at tacks vines, especially those of America, is Plasmopara viticola, which has also been introduced from America to Europe.
A similar disease which of late has frequently been found in England, and which is ascribed to the fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum, is very similar to it.
Fructification of the fungus, entire and in section; the latter shows the asci containing ascospores, much enlarged.Advertisement
The fungus is most conspicuous on the grapes, but the leaves and stems From Hartig's Lehrbuch der Pfanzenkrankheiten, by permission of Julius Springer.
The latter is the more serious, as in addition to the actual damage done by the beetle the holes afford entrance to fungus spores, &c. Under the name " horn worms " are included the larvae or caterpillars of species of Protoparce.
The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.
The fungus attacks injured roots.
A fungus was isolated from the leaf lesions and stem and stolon cankers.
These investigators regarded yeast as a plant, and Meyer gave to the germs the systematic name of "Saccharomyces" (sugar fungus).
If the attack of a parasite is met by the formation of some substance in the protoplasm which is chemo- tactically repulsive to the invader, it may be totally incapable of penetrating the cell, even though equipped with a whole armoury of cytases, diastatic and other enzymes, and poisons which would easily overcome the more passive resistances offered by mere cell-walls and cell-contents of other plants, the protoplasm of which forms bodies chemotactically attractive to the Fungus.
The exports are copra, fungus and straw hats, which the women plait very cleverly.
They mark the area of growth of some fungus, starting from a centre of one or more plants.
The mycelium produced from the spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new growth round the circle.
The fungus was never found growing within the circle during the time the ring was under observation, the decaying vegetation necessary for its growth having become exhausted.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.
The fungus hibernates in the soil and enters through broken or injured roots, hence care should be taken when removing the bulbs that the roots are injured as little as possible.
This prevents infection from outside and also destroys any spores or fungus mycelium that may have been packed away along with the bulbs.
There is also an American beetle, the Ambrosia beetle, belonging to the family of Swlytidae, which derives its name from its curious cultivation of a succulent fungus, called ambrosia.
Ambrosia beetles bore deep though minute galleries into trees and timber, and the wood-dust provides a bed for the growth of the fungus, on which the insects and larvae feed.
An interesting species of the last is the leaf-cutting ant (Eciton) which lives in large underground colonies and feeds upon a fungus produced by leaf-cuttings stored in subterranean passages to promote fermentation.
In Germany a fungus (Polyporus Laricis) grows on the roots and stems of decaying larches, which was formerly in esteem as a drastic purgative.
Among the most fatal and disastrous of these diseases with which the cultivator had long to grapple was " muscardine," a malady due to the development of a fungus, Botrytis bassiana, in the body of the caterpillar.
Turning now to instances of the opposite kind, it is known that silkworms which spin colourless cocoons are more resistant to the attacks of a certain deadly fungus than are those which spin the yellow ones.
The fungal part of the organism nearly always consists of a number of the Discomycetes or Pyrenomycetes, while the algal portion is a member of the Schizophyceae (Cyanophyceae or Blue-green Algae) or of the Green Algae; only in a very few cases is the fungus a member of the Basidiomycetes.
Owing to their peculiar dual nature, lichens are able to live in situations where neither the alga nor fungus could exist alone.
The enclosed alga is protected by the threads (hyphae) of the fungus, and supplied with water and salts and, possibly, organic nitrogenous substances; in its turn the alga by means of its green or blue-green colouring matter and the sun's energy manufactures carbohydrates which are used in part by the fungus.
He investigated the exact relation of fungus and alga and showed that the same alga is able to combine with a number of different fungi to form lichens; thus Chroolepns umbrinus is found as the gonidia of 13 different lichen genera.
We find two chief types of fruit bodies in the lichens, the perithecium and apothecium; the first when the fungal element is a member of the Pyrenomycetes division of the Ascomycetes, the second when the fungus belongs to the Discomycetes division.
As is clear from the above, nearly all the lichens are produced by the association of an ascomycetous fungus with algae.
When the fungus predominates in the thallus it has a bracket-like mode of growth and is found projecting from the branches of trees with the hymenium on the under side.
It is said that the fungus of Cora pavonia and of Dictyonema is identical, the difference being in the nature of the alga.
On a bare rocky surface a fungus would die from want of organic substance and an alga from drought and want of mineral substances.
The algal cells are usually controlled in their growth by the hyphae and are prevented from forming zoospores, and in some cases, as already described, the algal cells are killed sooner or later by the fungus.
The lichen algae are not alone in their specializa tion to the symbiotic (or parasitic) mode of life, for, as stated earlier, the fungus appear in the majority of cases to have completely lost the power of independent development since with very rare exceptions they are not found alone.
The wall of the hyphae of the fungus give in the young state the ordinary reactions of cellulose but older material shows somewhat different reactions, similar to those of the so-called fungus-cellulose.
Theoretically the lichens may be classified on the basis of their algal constituent, on the basis of their fungal constituent, or they may be classified as if they were homogeneous organisms. The first of these systems is impracticable owing to the absence of algal reproductive organs and the similarity of the algal cells (gonidia) in a large number of different forms. The second system is the most obvious one, since the fungus is the dominant partner and produces reproductive organs.
In actual practice the difference between the second and third methods is not very great since the fungus is the producer of the reproductive organs and generally the main constituent.
It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees.
In a fresh state it is poisonous and fatal to vegetation, and is often used for this reason to dress land infested with wireworms, grubs, club-root fungus, &c.
A widespread disease known as pocket-plums or bladderplums is due to an ascomycetous fungus, Exoascus pruni, the mycelium of which lives parasitically in the tissues of the host plant, passes into the ovary of the flower and causes the characteristic malformation of the fruit which becomes a deformed, sometimes curved or flattened, wrinkled dry structure, with a hollow occupying the place of the stone; the bladder plums are yellow at first, subsequently dingy red.
Plum-leaf blister is caused by Polystigma rubrum, a pyrenomycetous fungus which forms thick fleshy reddish patches on the leaves.
The substance of the fungus is dry and opaque with a peculiar smell suggesting ripe apricots or plums. The flesh is whitish tinged with yellow.
No fungus requires more careful preparation.
Allowing for these and for the cases, undoubtedly not few, where one and the same fungus has been described under different names, we obtain Schroeter's estimate (in 1892) of 20,000 species.
In other cases the strands undergo differentiation into an outer layer with blackened, hardened cell-walls and a core of ordinary hyphae, and are then termed rhizomorphs (Armillaria mellea), capable not only of extending the fungus in the soil, like roots, but also of lying dormant, protected by the outer casing.
The functions of mycelial strands, rhizomorphs and sclerotia are not only to collect and store materials, but also to extend the fungus, and in many cases similar strands act as organs of attack.
Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.
That such enzymes are formed in the protoplasm is evident from the behaviour of hyphae, which have been observed to pierce cell-membranes, the chitinous coats of insects, artificial collodion films and layers of wax, &c. That a fungus can secrete more than one enzyme, according to the materials its hyphae have to attack, has been shown by the extraction of diastase, inulase, trehalase, invertase, maltase, raffinase, malizitase, emulsin, trypsin and lipase from Aspergillus by Bourquelot, and similar events occur in other fungi.
Although many fungi have been regarded as devoid of nuclei, and all have not as yet been proved to contain them, the numerous investigations of recent years have revealed them in the cells of all forms thoroughly examined, and we are justified in concluding that the nucleus is as essential to the cell of a fungus as to that of other organisms. The hyphae of many contain numerous, even hundreds of nuclei (Phycomycetes); those of others have several (Aspergillus) in each segment, or only two (Exoascus) or one (Erysiphe) in each cell.
Physiologically, any cell or group of cells separated off from a hypha or unicellular fungus, and capable of itself growing out - germinating - to reproduce the fungus, is a spore; but it is evident that so wide a definition does not exclude the ordinary vegetative cells of sprouting fungi, such as yeasts, or small sclerotium like cell-aggregates of forms like Coniothecium.
In addition to these accidental modes of dispersal, however, there is a series of interesting adaptations on the part of the fungus itself.
Pythium is a semiaquatic form attacking seedlings which are too plentifully supplied with water; its hyphae penetrate the cell-walls and rapidly destroy the watery tissues of the living plant; then the fungus lives in the dead remains.
After absorbing the cell-contents of the latter, which it does in a few hours or days, the fungus puts out a sporangium, the contents of which break up into numerous minute swarm-spores, usually one-ciliate, rarely two-ciliate.
In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.
On germination, however, the fungus behaves in the same way as one which has entered in the seedling stage.
At the same time there are strong grounds for insisting on the resemblances between Endomyces, a hyphal fungus bearing yeast-like asci, and such a form as Saccharomyces anomalus.
An epiphytic fungus is not necessarily a parasite, however, as many saprophytes (moulds, &c.) germinate and develop a loose mycelium on living leaves, but only enter and destroy the tissues after the leaf has fallen; in some cases, however, these saprophytic epiphytes can do harm by intercepting light and air from the leaf (Fumago, &c.), and such cases make it difficult to draw the line between saprophytism and parasitism.
Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis).
Destructive parasites rapidly ruin the whole plant-body (Pythium), whereas restrained parasites only tax the host slightly, and ill effects may not be visible for a long time, or only when the fungus is epidemic (Rhytisma).
On each of these host-plants the fungus has become specialized so that the form on barley cannot infect the other three cereals or the wild grasses and so on.
This dualism, where the one constituent (alga) furnishes carbohydrates, and the other (fungus) ensures a supply of mineral matters, shade and moisture, has been termed symbiosis.
Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, &c. Recent experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus, which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately it emerges from the seed.
The role of the fungus appears to be to supply materials from the leaf-mould around, in forms which ordinary root-hairs are incapable of providing for the plant; in return the latter supports the fungus at slight expense from its abundant stores of reserve materials.
A strong growth of the fungus gives the appearance of mildew on the wood, and produces an unpleasant musty smell.
The spores of the fungus will find a way through brickwork, concrete and similar material, in order to reach woodwork that may be on the other side.
Dampness and a close atmosphere are essential to the growth of dry rot, and it is under these conditions that it spreads most quickly, the fungus soon dying when exposed to the fresh air.
Plagues of locusts occasionally, during a drought, ruin growing crops; in damp wet weather these insects are destroyed by a fungus growth (Empusa gryllae) within their bodies.
Their presence is due to lateral outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite, or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its habitat Mucor stalactitis.
A peculiar vegetable product of this inclement region is a small globular fungus growing on the bark of the beech, which is a staple article of food among the Fuegians - probably the only instance where a fungus is the bread of a people.
Trametes radiciperda attacks the roots and penetrates to the stem, causing rotting of the wood; the disease is difficult to eradicate, as the mycelium of the fungus travels from root to root in the soil.
The determining cause of the formation of the tubers is not certainly known, but Professor Bernard has suggested that it is the presence of a fungus, Fusarium solani, which, growing in the underground shoots, irritates them and causes the swelling; the result is that an efficient method of propagation is secured independently of the seed.
This phenomenon follows injury to the phloem in the lower parts of the stem, preventing the downward flow of elaborated sap. The injury may be due to gnawing insects, and particularly to the fungus Corticium vagum, var.
Those intended for storing should be dug up as soon as they are fairly ripe, unless they are attacked by the disease, in which case they must be taken up as soon as the murrain is observed; or if they are then sufficiently developed to be worth preserving, but not fully ripe, the haulms or shaws should be pulled out, to prevent the fungus passing down them into the tubers; this may be done without disturbing the tubers, which can be dug afterwards.
The best-known disease of potatoes is caused by the growth of a fungus named Phytophihora infestans, within the tissues of the host plant, and this fungus has the peculiar property of piercing and breaking up the cellular tissues and setting up putrescence in the course of its growth.
The fungus, which is chiefly within the leaves and stems, seldom emerges through the firm upper surface of the leaf; it commonly appears as a white bloom or mildew on the circumference of the diseasepatches on the under surface.
As the patches extend in size by the growth of the fungus they at length become confluent, and so the leaves are destroyed and an end is put to one of the chief vital functions of the host plant.
On the destruction of the leaves the fungus either descends the stem by the interior or the spores are washed by the rain to the tubers in the ground.
In either case the tubers are reached by the fungus or its spores, and so become diseased.
The fungus is very small in size, and under the microscope appears slightly whitish or colourless.
The accompanying illustration shows the habit and structure of the fungus.
Amongst the loose tissue of the leaf numerous transparent threads are shown; these are the mycelial threads or spawn of the fungus; wherever they touch the leaf-cells they pierce or break down the tissue, and so set up decomposition, as indicated by the darker shading.
The last measure prevents the germination of the spores of the fungus on the leaves, and is a most useful mode of checking the spread of the disease; to be successful in its use, however, entails care in the preparation of the spray and thoroughness in its application.
It is possible that the hybridizing of the potato with one or other of the wild types of tuberous Solanums may give rise to a variety which shall be immune, though unfortunately most are themselves liable to the attacks of the fungus, and one of the few crosses so made between the common potato and Solanum Maglia has exhibited the same undesirable trait.
The fungus passes the winter on pieces of leaf, &c., left on the ground.
A third fungus, Cercospora concors, also forms spots on the leaves and may be kept in check by the same means.
I and 2, Tubers deformed by the fungus.
Excess of lime in the soil is said to favour the development of the fungus.
Similar spots are produced on potatoes in America by the fungus Oospora scabies, and in both cases, if affected "seed" potatoes are steeped in a solution of 2 pint formalin in 15 gallons of water for two hours before planting, the attack on the resulting crop is materially lessened.
The fungus, Oedomyces leproides, produces large, blackish, irregular warts which sometimes involve the whole surface of the tuber.
The spores of the fungus pass the winter in the soil and the delicate mycelium attacks the young shoots in the summer.
The rotting of tubers after lifting may be due to various causes, but the infection of the tubers by the Phytophthora already mentioned is a frequent source of this trouble, while "Winter Rot" is due to the fungus Nectria Solani.
This fungus finds conditions suitable for growth when the potatoes are stored in a damp condition; rotting from this cause rarely occurs when they are dried before being placed in heaps.
The first signs of this fungus is the appearance of small white tufts of mycelium bursting through the skin of the tuber, the spores of the fungus being carried at the tips of the threads forming these tufts.
Saprophytic bacteria can readily make their way down the dead hypha of an invading fungus, or into the punctures made by insects, and Aphides have been credited with the bacterial infection of carnations, though more recent researches by Woods go to show the correctness of his conclusion that Aphides alone are responsible for the carnation disease.
The ear loses its starch, and ceases to grow, and its ovaries become penetrated with the white spongy tissue of the mycelium of the fungus which towards the end of the season forms the sclerotium, in which state the fungus lies dormant through the winter.
As it is practically impossible to reproduce the symptoms of ergotism nowadays, whether experimentally in the lower animals, or when the drug is being administered to a human being for some therapeutic purpose, it is believed that the symptoms of ergotism were rendered possible only by the semi-starvation which must have ensued from the use of such rye-bread; for the grain disappears as the fungus develops.
When the ovaries of the plant become affected with a peculiar fungus (Claviceps purpurea) they become blackened and distorted, constituting ergot.
In both Psilotum and Tmesipteris the functions of the root-system, which is completely absent, are performed by leafless rhizomes bearing absorbent hairs and inhabited by an endophytic fungus.
All the saprophytic prothalli contain an endophytic fungus in definite layers of their tissue.
In the roots of Ophioglossum and Botrychium and in the first formed roots of Helminthostachys an endophytic fungus is present, forming a mycorhiza - the stele in the larger roots has the usual radial arrangement of xylem and phloem; monarch roots occur in Ophioglossum.
The rust fungus, Puccinia graminis, is a Uredine belonging to the heteroecious group, that is, one that passes from one host to another at different stages of its life-history.
The fine thread-like filaments composing the mycelium of the fungus are embedded in the tissue underneath and around the uredo-sorus, and draw from the host the nourishment required.
In due time the fungus, known as Aecidium Berberidis, appears on the barberry leaves in the form of small cluster-cups on aecidia, each of which is filled with chains of orange-coloured aecidiospores.
Fungus spores will not germinate without moisture, and attention to drainage helps to keep down this and other fungus pests.
The developing seed thus encloses fungal hyphae, which remain dormant within the seed and in spring develop symbiotically with the growth of the wheat plant, doing no apparent injury until the time of fruiting is reached, when the fungus takes complete possession and fills the new seed with a mass of darkcoloured spores.
The spores of the fungus remain in the soil or in manure-heaps until spring, when they germinate and attack the first green leaves of the host plant.
The after development is similar to that of smut, and the seed grain becomes a mere mass of fungus spores.
Erysiple graminis, a mildew of grasses, has caused great loss in various countries; Dilophia graminis sometimes causes deformities of the leaves and inflorescence; another somewhat similar fungus, Ophiobolus graminis, attacks the leaves and stalks near the ground, completely destroying the plants.
Fungus parasites have been used with some, but on the whole rather slight, success, and mechanical appliances with perhaps greater success, in combating these pests.
A minute Fungus bearing sporangia, found by Renault in the wood of a Lepidodendron, and named by him Oiichytrium Lepidodendri, is referred with much probability to the Chytridineae.
Conceptacles contaning Spores, and strongly suggesting the Chytridineous Fungus Urophlyetis, have recently been found, in petrified material, on the leaves of an Alethopteris, which appears to have undergone decay before fossilization set in.
The fungus which produces aflatoxin grows on crops like maize and peanuts when they are stored for long periods in hot climates.
A natural fungus that grows on and kills Russian wheat aphid is winding its way toward commercial application.
These apothecia produce ascospores - the sexual spores of the fungus.
The first of these forms of asthma is bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, a serious allergy to a common fungus which can grow inside the lungs.
The soil and plants inside your house and outside are a source of the fungus aspergillus which grows in decaying vegetation.
The M. graminicola fungus causes the septoria tritici leaf blotch disease, the primary threat to wheat cultivation in Europe.
A. borealis is a northern and boreal species of Honey Fungus, parasitic and saprotrophic on various trees but often on Birch.
This curious plant has no chlorophyll, growing with the aid of a fungus feeding off dead wood.
The introduced American signal crayfish has decimated our native population due to a fungus which it carries.
Recent research has shown that a fungus that occurs naturally on everyone's scalp causes dandruff.
Another lupine connection is the fungus ergot, which is particularly associated with rye.
The cereal eyespot fungus, Tapesia, forms specialized infection plaques in the tight spaces between leaf sheaths at the base of the plant.
On PDA, the fungus quickly formed a dense white mycelium, which later became fluffy.
Athlete's Foot is caused by a fungus that attacks the sole of the foot or the skin between the toes.
Nizoral works by destroying the fungus that causes the infection.
In orchid seeds, the nutrients required for germination are provided by a mycorrhizal fungus with which it forms an association.
Fig 9.11 A wheat root at different magnifications, infected by the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis.
Get rid of unsightly toenail fungus by soaking your toes in Listerine mouthwash.
Treatment There are no chemical cures for honey fungus.
Two species of rust fungus occur on juniper, and these induce galls to form on the stems and twigs.
Honey fungus and coral spot may affect the plant, but occasional leaf gall is not a major problem.
The presence of fungus gnats is a warning sign.
This means that the fungus rapidly spreads and changes its appearance, known as tinea incognito.
Furthermore, smooth brome grass clones selected using conventional breeding showed that reduced lignin was associated with severe rust fungus disease  .
Prior to the new migrations of the fungus from Mexico, a clonal lineage, US1, predominated throughout the world.
The main problem is fireblight, but caterpillars, aphids, gall midges, honey fungus, rust and powdery mildew may give problems.
This type of fungus includes our familiar edible mushroom.
Each fungus will have vast numbers of these hyphae, all intertwining to make up a tangled web called the mycelium.
The fungus receives sugar and plant hormones from the plant, and the plant is supplied with water and dissolved nutrients from the fungus.
The antibiotic penicillin was the first to be isolated from the fungus penicillium notatum.
The algae part of the lichen provides food to the fungus using photosynthesis.
The method used was to make spore suspensions and lawns of the fungus on agar plates.
Fungus Nutrition The first method of obtaining food is called ' saprophytic ' and the fungi that use this method are called saprophytes ' .
Ringworm is a skin infection caused by fungus that can affect the scalp, skin, fingers, toenails, or feet.
His studies of the life cycle of the rust fungus convinced him that the germinating spores represented a vulnerable stage for attack.
A wild mushroom stroganoff, of ceps and cauliflower fungus, follows.
A conidial suspension of the fungus (1x 10 6 conidia per ml) was sprayed on young hazelnut and walnut twigs.
In autumn you may see toadstools growing in the leaf litter or bracket fungus growing on tree stumps.
This fungus produces white toadstools in clusters, normally high up on the stem.
There is also a fungus named Xylaria vaporaria, which sometimes fixes itself on mushroombeds and produces such an enormous quantity of string-like spawn that the entire destruction of the bed results.
The group has until recent years been regarded as comprising three classes distinguished by well-marked physiological featuresthe Algae (including the Seaweeds) which contain chlorophyll, the Fungi which have no chlorophyll and therefore lead a saprophytic or parasitic mode of life, and the Lichens which are composite organisms consisting of an alga and a fungus living together in a mutual parasitism (symbiosis); Bacteria were regarded as a section of Fungi.
Owing to the similarity of structure and mode of life it is convenient to treat the Lichens (q.v.) as a distinct class, while recognizing that the component fungus and alga are representatives of their own classes.
This peculiar relationship suggests at once a symbiosis, the Fungus gaining its nutriment mainly or entirely from the green plant, while the latter in some way or other is able to utilize the free nitrogen of;he air.
Instances of what we may term tolerated parasitism, where the host plant seems to accommodate itself very well to the presence of the Fungus, paying the tax it extorts and nevertheless not succumbing but managing to provide itself with sufficient material to go on with, are not rare; and these seem to lead to those cases where the mutual accommodation between host and guest has been carried so far that each derives some benefit from the associationsymbiosis (see FUNGI).
The injury which initiates them may be very slight in the first placea mere abrasion, puncture or Fungus infectionbut the minute wound or other disturbance, instead of healing over normally, is frequently maintained as a perennial source of irritation, and the regenerative tissues grow on month after month or year after year, resulting in extraordinary outgrowths often of large size and remarkable shape.
This Fungus stimulates the main twig to shoot out more twigs than usual; the mycelium then enters each incipient twig and stimulates it to a repetition of the process, and so in the course of years large broom-like tufts result, often markedly different from the normal.
There is a revenue of about L21,000 annually derived chiefly from a poll-tax, leases and customs. The principal exports are copra, bananas, oranges and fungus, and the annual values of exports and imports are £80,000 and 70,000 respectively on an average, though both fluctuate considerably.
Schdnlein's positive contributions to medical science were not large; but he made in 1839 one discovery, apparently small, but in reality most suggestive, namely, that the contagious disease of the head called favus is produced by the growth in the hair of a parasitic fungus.
The plant, on the other hand, if it be a green plant, containing chlorophyll, is capable, in the presence of light, of building up both carbohydrate material and proteid material from inorganic salts; if it be a fungus, devoid of chlorophyll, whilst it is dependent on pre-existing carbohydrate material and is capable of absorbing, like an animal, proteid material as such, it is able to build up its proteid food from material chemically simpler than proteid.
Among the land plants may be noted the blue anemone; the ranunculus along the road-sides, with a strong perfume of violets; the Malta heath, which flowers at all seasons; Cynomorium coccineum, the curious " Malta fungus," formerly so valued for medicinal purposes that a guard was set for its preservation under the rule of the Knights; the pheasant's-eye; three species of mallow and geranium; Oxalis cernua, a very troublesome imported weed; Lotus edulis; Scorpiurus subvillosa, wild and cultivated as forage; two species of the horseshoe-vetch; the opium poppy; the yellow and claret-coloured poppy; wild rose; Cartaegus azarolus, of which the fruit is delicious preserved; the ice-plant; squirting cucumber; many species of Umbelliferae; Labiatae, to which the spicy flavour of the honey (equal to that of Mt Hymettus) is ascribed; snapdragons; broom-rape; glass-wort; Salsola soda, which produces when burnt a considerable amount of alkali; there are fifteen species of orchids; the gladiolus and iris are also found; Urginia scilla, the medicinal squill, abounds with its large bulbous roots near the sea; seventeen species of sedges and seventy-seven grasses have been recorded.
The disease is peculiarly contagious and infectious, owing to the development of the fungus through the skin, whence spores are freed, which, coming in contact with healthy caterpillars, fasten on them and germinate inwards, giving off corpuscles within the body of the insect.
An association of two organisms to their mutual advantage is known as symbiosis, and the lichen in botanical language is described as a symbiotic union of an alga and a fungus.
Collemaceae); in these the algae are Chroococcaceae and Nostocaceae, and the fungus makes its way into the gelatinous membranes of the algal cells and ramifies there (fig.
The best-known species is Cora pavonia, which is found in tropical regions growing on the bare earth and on trees; the gonidia belong to the genus Chroococcus while the fungus belongs, apparently, to the Thelephoreae (see Fungi).
The lichen, however, is able to grow as the alga supplies organic food material and the fungus has developed a battery of acids (see below) which enable it actually to dissolve the most resistant rocks.
The relation of the fungus to the alga, though it may be described in general terms as one of symbiosis, partakes also somewhat of the nature of parasitism.
The fungus seems, on the other hand, to stimulate the algal cells to special development, for those in the lichen are larger than those in the free state, but this is not necessarily adverse to the idea of parasitism, for it is well known that an increase in the size of the cells of the host is often the result of the attacks of parasitic fungi.
The remarkable case of life in common first observed in lichens, where a fungus and an alga unite to form a compound organism - the lichen - totally different from either, has now been proved to be universal in these plants, and lichens are in all cases merely algae enmeshed in the interwoven hyphae of fungi (see Lichens).
In view of the fact that Biffen has proved that immunity from the attacks of a certain fungus in wheat is a transmissible recessive character reappearing in some of the individuals of the second generation, it would appear that there is great hope of securing an immune variety with the aid of this form.
The fungus, Sorosporium scabies, which is the cause of the scab, does not penetrate into the flesh of the tuber, nor detract from its edible properties.
A mild acidulent, usually vinegar, may be added and a culture containing the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus is then mixed in.
Female rotifer trapped by the fungus The rotifer is being viewed from ' above ' and her tail is pointing into the screen.
Fungus Nutrition The first method of obtaining food is called ' saprophytic ' and the fungi that use this method are called saprophytes '.
It provides information on Armillaria root rot, also know as shoestring root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Armillaria mellea.
Sooty mold - Black fungus on foliage caused by sticky secretions from aphids.
My husband has suffered for years with toenail fungus and would not go to see his doctor.
Yeast diaper rashes are skin infections that occur due to an overgrowth of fungus that is normally found in the gastrointestinal tract.
The most common type of fungus that causes yeast diaper rashes is known as Candida albicans.
They can be caused by situations that lead to the overgrowth of the yeast fungus on the skin.
Yeast, as a fungus, thrives in a warm, moist environment.
Sterifab Bed Bug Spray is very unique as it kills fungus and bacteria, and also effectively inhibits their growth when they die.
Burl wood is found on trees that have an abnormal growth caused by environmental stress, fungus or insects.
Other fungal infections that respond well to tea tree oil include fingernail or toenail fungus infections.
Many health food stores carry tea tree oil preparations to cure nail fungus.
If you have a nail fungus, it can be frustrating to try to get rid of it.
Always wash your hands well afterwards because fungus can spread very easily.
Place ginger into warm water and soak feet (or other area where fungus is located).
Reishi mushrooms are a fan shaped fungus.
The acidity will kill the fungus and leave your hair shiny and healthy looking.
By the way, white fungus, also known as tremella, is a rubbery, jelly-like mushroom whose common name is Brown Witch's Butter.
You can also remove the garlic from a garlic capsule o two and sprinkle it in your shoes to help prevent athlete's foot fungus.
Your dog might have some sort of skin infection, either caused by parasites or a fungus.
A case of canine nail fungus can produce a very incomfortable infection.
The most common cause of nail fungus in dogs is an infection from a microorganism called Blastomyces dermatitidis.
When the fungus is present, dogs may exhibit anything from general to severe irritation on their feet, and most will lick and chew around their toes in an attempt to soothe the itch.
If your dog's nails tend to break or flake easily and are discolored, a visit to your veterinarian can confirm whether this is due to the presence of a canine nail fungus.
Maintaining a healthy living environment is the most important step to ensuring your dog does not contract canine nail fungus.
Removing these havens for disease will reduce the chance of seeing blight, mildew, gray mold fungus, root rot, and wilt in next year's garden.How much plant material should you remove?
Another common problem among pinks is mildew or fungus.
Like anthracnose, phyllosticta is caused by a fungus.
It's caused by a fungus called Rhystima acerinum.
The fungus is able to take hold when there are prolonged periods of wet weather that prevent the leaves from drying off.
This fungus harms the vascular system of the plant or the tubes that move fluid up and down the plant.
It's caused by a fungus that thrives in cool, rainy weather.
This may lead to diseases such as dampening-off, a fungus that kills emerging seedlings.
If moisture affects an air duct system, mold spores or fungus can develop and affect the health of the home's residents.
Researchers don't know what causes the swirls and eyes that are part of this patterned maple, but they do know that it is not the result of a fungus or related in any way to birds.
It includes microbial flora, which enter your soil and improve it while destroying nematodes and fungus.
Some seeds are treated with herbicides, pesticides, and substances to deter fungus growth.
They think that the dampness caused by babies sweating, spitting up, and wet diapers soaks into the mattress and creates a fungus called Scopulariopsis brevicaulis.
The chemicals present in the mattress react with the fungus and produces phosphine, arsine, and stibine.
Resveratrol protects grapes and grape vines from fungus and bacteria growth.
Candidiasis is an infection caused by a species of the yeast Candida, usually the Candida albicans fungus.
Candidiasis is caused by a species of the yeast Candida, usually the Candida albicans fungus.
The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus may infect older children and adults.
Microorganism-An organism that is too small to be seen with the naked eye, such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus.
A person must be susceptible to exhibit this overgrowth of fungus on the skin.
Dermatophyte-A type of fungus that causes diseases of the skin, including tinea or ringworm.
Antifungal drug therapy may be administered to treat fungus infections.
Pneumocystis carinii-A parasite transitional between a fungus and protozoan, frequently occurring as aggregate forms existing within rounded cystlike structures.
Once cut, the farmer applies wax over the severed area to prevent disease such as fungus and mildew.
Candida is the medical name for a type of fungus which can infect the skin.
It's normal to have some of this fungus on our bodies, and most of the time it doesn't bother us, but if the conditions are right, it can overgrow and cause itching or pain.
Many pools and beaches offer facilities to change, shower, and use the restroom, and though they are convenient, these places are great harbingers for bacteria and fungus.
Athlete's foot is the most common fungus found in shower areas, and it is highly transferable, easily surviving on damp surfaces until the next host comes along.
Once you contract this fungus, it's difficult to get rid of, and the itching, burning, and peeling can drive a person crazy.
According to the inventor of this product, this mixture is capable of killing virtually every pathogen in the human body, including viruses, bacteria, molds, yeasts, and fungus.
Many people also use coconut oil in skin and hair preparations for softening, fungus control and moisturizing.
Probiotics found in supplements and fermented dairy products like soy and kefir reintroduce healthy flora to the gut, allowing the bacteria to recolonize and regain control from harmful bacteria and fungus.
It can also cause fungus or mildew to grow which cause health problems over time.
Wearing something on your feet in public showers can prevent the spread of foot fungus and other types of bacteria.
Some researchers believe that the presence of a yeast-like fungus, known as Candida, can exacerbate many autism symptoms.
Researchers also recognize that poor bowel function can increase the growth of this fungus.
The antifungal treatment emerged as a way to deal with the growth of the fungus candida in the body, which some autism research suggests may be linked to digestive and behavior problems.
There is also the possibility that the ducts may accumulate insects, rodents, and may even grow mold and fungus.
This fungus is present in the vast majority of peoples' intestinal tracts.
Yeast is a relatively simple fungus, thriving off starch (sugar) in a dark, moist place like your gut.
It can produce a round, circular rash on the skin, caused by a fungus and is typically itchy.
Concentrated tea tree oil can help to heal canker and cold sores, nail fungus, blisters, and ringworm.
Nail fungus is a common toenail problem.
Yellowing, pain, flaking, and odor are all signs of nail fungus.
Cutting skin creates a way for infection, including nail fungus, to get in.
The American Podiatric Medical Association states that this is the only way to be sure the tools are not carrying bacteria or fungus from another customer.
Toe nail fungus is very common in adults.
In the U.S., as many as 90% of elderly people have toe nail fungus, also called onychomycosis.
People with diabetes or circulation problems are especially prone to toe nail fungus.
Toe nail fungus doesn't always hurt, but it can be painful.
Toe nail fungus can be transmitted from person to person through shared towels, wet locker room floors, common shower stalls, and so on.
The fungus also likes to grow in warm, damp places.
By preventing air from circulating around the nail, polish can encourage fungus to grow.
These powders, available at the drugstore, don't cure the fungus, but they may help prevent it.
Nail fungus can be very difficult to cure.
Most doctors will tell you that you'll need prescription medicine to make the fungus go away.
Creams designed to treat athlete's foot will sometimes help with nail fungus.
Removal of the nail, with treatment of the nail bed, can get rid of stubborn toe nail fungus and allow new, healthy nail to grow in.
There are many known cures for toenail problems, such as a vinegar treatment for toenail fungus.
Preventing toenail fungus is the most important step in treatment.
If you wish to use a vinegar treatment for toenail fungus, know ahead of time that results may vary.
For those with the beginning stages of nail fungus, white vinegar has proven to be effective.
Continue the home treatment daily until the nail has grown out and the fungus can be cut off.
This can take weeks or months, depending on the length of the affected nail and the advancement of the fungus in the toenail bed.
For those seeking home treatment of toenail fungus, a simple pantry staple may serve as the cure.
Just like mold is known to grow in dark, moist and warm places, fungus is able to grow in the same conditions under the nail bed.
Mold and yeasts can be the cause of nail fungus infections, but most often the group of fungi known to cause these conditions is known as dermatophytes.
Toenails are more likely to succumb to fungus rather than fingernails because they are confined to the dark, moist crevices of shoes and socks.
As people age, fungus thrives in this exact environment, which is why the elderly are more likely to experience nail fungus infections.
Although not entirely common, nail fungus is still a fingernail problem that should be prevented, or identified and treated early.
Nail fungus infections normally begin as a small spot on one nail and quickly spread as mold/fungi spores multiply.
Without proper treatment, fungus infections advance and often recur.
Nail fungus, also known as onychomycosis, can be spotted once you know what to look for when analyzing the nail bed.
Although most people should seek medical attention when treating fungus symptoms, vinegar is known as an effective home treatment of toenail fungus.
If the fungus is in the beginning stages of infection, vinegar may be worth a try.
Most often, toenail fungus begins with a small yellow or white spot on the nail bed.
Continue treatment until fungus has grown out on the nail bed, and clip off remaining nail.
Treatment may take weeks or months, depending on the location of the fungus on the nail bed and the advancement of the fungus.
Once the infected nail has been removed, it is important to practice basic nail fungus prevention to avoid a recurrent infection.
Although vinegar is the only home treatment for toenail fungus, there are many ways to prevent such infection in the first place.
Individuals who have dealt with uncomfortable toenail infections for a while may wonder, will vinegar treat toenail fungus?
A toenail fungus is certainly unpleasant, but it can be treated.
The microscopic fungi responsible for toenail fungus are found, not surprisingly, in damp areas like shower stalls, public gyms and swimming pools.
Individuals with compromised immune systems may also be susceptible to toenail fungus.
Ranging from yellowing and dullness to thickening and crumbling, the signs of toenail fungus are not pretty and can be quite uncomfortable, too.
Individuals are advised to seek treatment for toenail fungus at the first sign of symptoms.
As with many other medical conditions, toenail fungus may be possible to cure with a variety of home remedies.
Perhaps you've heard about this interesting treatment and asked yourself, will vinegar treat toenail fungus?
The type of vinegar you use is not necessarily important - there are many different types available on the market, but the most common types used in toenail fungus treatment are typically regular malt vinegar and apple cider vinegar.
Remember that you're attacking the toenail fungus with its worst enemy - acid!
Onychomycosis, also known as Tinea Unguium or Ringworm of the nail is a nail fungus that contributes to nearly 50 percent of all diagnosed nail disorders or disease.
Because nail fungus is difficult to treat, sufferers may need to approach different methods until relief and a cure is found, with full recovery taking nearly one year from the initial nail ring outbreak.
Deeply embedded fungus underneath the nail bed poses many treatment challenges, which is why recovery is extensive.
The first step in treating a fungus includes an office appointment with a family physician or dermatologist who will assess the condition and prescribe suitable treatment.
Preventing nail rings is much easier than treating the fungus once you have a full blown outbreak.
The best cure for toe nail fungus involves a regimen of proper washing, soaking and keeping the foot dry so that the fungus can heal effectively.
Toe nail fungus is a common ailment that most often occurs in people who have a difficult time grooming themselves and practicing proper hygeine.
The elderly are amongst the group of individuals most likely to experience the fungus, medically known as Onychomycosis.
Whether you're dealing with a sudden or chronic case of fungus, you'll need to rely on the best cure for toe nail fungus to completely rid yourself of the ailment.
Learn about the symptoms of the fungus and treatment suggestions for the best results.
Toe nail fungus is caused by trapped moisture underneath the nail bed that breeds with other bacteria until a fungi is born.
The dark crevice beneath the nail bed is a moist, wet environment, and is an ideal spot for fungus to grow.
Many people are unaware they have a fungus until they're informed at a pedicure appointment, while others deal with the fungus daily and are constantly seeking new treatments and cures.
Once you've ruled out any underlying conditions causing your toe nail fungus, you can begin treatment.
Any of these treatment options will immediately go to work to treat and rid you of your fungus.
While a proper medical diagnosis and treatment is recommended if you suspect toe nail fungus, there are instances where you may treat fungus at home.
A wart remover such as Compound W may help fight the fungus.
While toe nail fungus can be an embarrassment, rest assured it is a very common ailment.
To prevent fungus in the future, make sure the foot bed is always kept dry and avoid wearing socks, slippers or shoes on damp feet.
With time and proper treatment, the fungus is likely to go away quickly.
Often times fungus can be caused by a combination of medications.
Your toe nail fungus treatment may not seem to be working, but it actually may take months to completely clear up an infection.
Toe nail fungus may manifest as a yellowing of the nails, or your nails may turn green or black.
This kind of fungus thrives in damp, dark areas where feet commonly travel.
Prevention is easier than clearing up fungus, but with the proper treatments you will have success.
Toe nail fungus is not life threatening, but it may spread to your other nails and cause them to crack, break or crumble.