The Hausa system of government and taxation was adopted by the Fula when in the early part of the 19th century that Mahommedan people overran the Hausa states.
It has been erroneously stated that the Fula imposed Mahommedanism on the Hausa states.
The palace of the emir, in front of which is a large open space, is in the Fula quarter in the south-east of the city.
The Fula form the aristocratic class.
Barth, however, concluded that the present town does not date earlier than the second half of the 1 6th century, and that before the rise of the Fula power (c. 1800) scarcely any great Arab merchant ever visited Kano.
Kano submitted to the Fula without much resistance, and under them in the first half of the 19th century flourished greatly.
In the closing years of the century, Kano became the centre of resistance to British influence, and the emir, Alieu, was the most inveterate of Fula slave raiders.
The inhabitants are mostly Fula, though the trade is largely in the hands of Mandingos.
After purchasing the site, and concluding a treaty with the Fula emir of Nupe, he proceeded to clear the ground, build houses, form enclosures and pave the way for a future city.
Fula) Languages was privately printed in 1861, and his translation of the Psalms into Hausa was published by the Bible Society in 1881.
The north of Cameroon is inhabited by Fula and Hausa and allied tribes, the south by Bantuspeaking races.
The Fula, as also most of the Hausa, are Moslems, the other tribes are pagans.
NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e.
At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa territories were conquered by another dominant Mahommedan race, the Fula (q.v.), who form a separate caste of cattle-rearers.
Sokoto is the religious and political centre of the Fula.
These states were regarded as the stronghold of Fula supremacy.
FULA (FULBE, FELLATAH or Peuls), a numerous and powerful African people, spread over an immense region from Senegal nearly to Darfur.
The districts within the great bend of the Niger have a large Fula population.
East of that river Sokoto and its tributary emirates are ruled by Fula princes, subject to the control of the British Nigerian administration.
Fula are settled in Bornu, Bagirmi, Wadai and the upper Nile Valley,' but have no political power in those countries.
In this vast region of distribution the Fula populations are most dense towards the west and north, most scattered towards the east and south.
Like most conquering races the Fula are, however, not of uniform physique, in many districts approximating to the local type.
The ruling caste of the Fula differs widely in character from the herdsmen of the western Sudan.
Love of luxury, pomp and finery is their chief characteristic. Taken as a whole, the Fula race is distinguished by great intelligence, frankness of disposition and strength of character.
Tradition says that of old every Fula boy and girl was a scholar; but during the decadence of their power towards the close of the 19th century education was not highly valued.
The Fula language has as yet found no place in any African linguistic family.
Fulbe or Fula (sing.
They subdued the Fula and Arabs already settled in the district, and after being converted to Islam under Abdullah, their fourth king (about 1600), they extended their authority over a large number of tribes living to the south and east.
Futa Jallon is peopled principally by Fula, and the rest of the country by Malinke and other tribes of Mandingo.
The Fula, however, maintained the Yoruba system of government, which places the chief power in a council of elders.
It was founded in 1859 when Fula rule was established in Nupe, is walled and of considerable size.
In 1897 there was a two-days' fight outside the walls of Bida between the forces of the emir of Nupe and those of the Royal Niger Company, ending in the defeat of the Fula army (mostly cavalry).
Falaba was founded towards the end of the 18th century by the Sulima who revolted from the Muslim Fula, and its normadic inhabitants soon attained supremacy over the neighbouring villages and country.
The upper classes are Fula, and there are some Hausa and Kanuri (Bornuese), but the bulk of the people are pagan tribes in a very low state of civilization.
The Foot pagans of the plains were brought under the Fula yoke in the beginning of the 19th century and have never cast it off.
The province of Bauchi was conquered by the Fula at the beginning of the 19th century, and furnished them with a valuable slave preserve.
Mahommedanism was partly adopted by the upper classes in the 18th century, if not earlier, and the son of a Mahommedan native ruler, educated at Sokoto, accepted the flag of Dan Fodio and conquered the country for the Fula.
The town of Bauchi and capital of the province was founded by Yakoba in the year 1809, and the emirate remained under Fula rule until the year 1902.
The slave-trade was immediately abolished, and the slave-market which was held at Bauchi, as in all Fula centres, was closed.
The Fula portion of this province, held like the other Hausa states under a feudal system of large landowners or fief-holders, has been organized and assessed for taxation on the system accepted by the emirs throughout the protectorate, and the populations are working harmoniously under British rule.
The emirate of Gombe, which is included in the first division of the Bauchi province, is a Fula emirate independent of the emirs of Bauchi.
Adamawa is named after a Fula Emir Adama, who in the early years of the 19th century conquered the country.
The Fula, who first came into the country about the 15th century as nomad herdsmen, are found chiefly in the valleys, the pagan tribes holding the mountainous districts.
The emir of Yola, in the period of Fula lordship, claimed rights of suzerainty over the whole of Adamawa, but the country, since the subjection of the Fula (c. 1900), has consisted of a number of small states under the control of the British and Germans.
Numbers of Fula are also settled in the country.
Large herds of cattle are kept by the Fula, and in cattle rich natives usually invest their wealth.
In the northern zone this check is absent, and the number of more essentially pastoral peoples, such as the eastern Hamites, Masai, Dinka, Fula, &c., correspondingly greater.
Where the forest thins to the savanna and steppe, and communication is easier, are found the larger kingdoms and " empires " such as, in the north those established by the Songhai, Hausa, Fula, Bagirmi, Ba-Hima, &c., and in the south the states of Lunda, Kazembe, the Ba-Rotse, &c.
It would appear that either Libyan (Fula) or, less probably, Hamitic, blood enters into the composition of the Zandeh peoples on the Nile-Congo watershed.
Such are the Mandingo, the Songhai, the Fula, Hausa, Kanuri, Bagirmi, Kanembu, and the peoples of Wadai and Darfur; the few aborigines who persist, on the southern fringe of the Chad basin, are imperfectly known.
In the early years of the 19th century Borgu was invaded by the Fula, but the Bariba (as the people are called collectively) maintained their independence.
The population was entirely independent, and resisted with success not only the Fula from the north but also the armies of Dahomey and Mossi from the south and west.
In the north there are some pastoral settlements of Fula.
SOKOTO, an important Fula state of west central Sudan, now a province of the British protectorate of Nigeria.
These states and Sokoto itself, known variously as the Sokoto or Fula empire and Hausaland, came (c. 1900-1903) under direct British control, but the native governments are maintained.
The Sokoto or Fula empire was founded at the beginning of the 19th century.
The country over which the Fula ruled has, however, a history going back to the middle ages.
Dwelling among the Hausa were a number of Fula, mostly herdsmen, and these were devout Mahommedans.
He incurred the wrath of that king, who, angered at some act of defiance, ordered the massacre of every Fula in his dominions.
The Fula flocked to Fodio's aid, and in the battle of Koto or Rugga Fakko (1804) the king of Gobir was utterly defeated.
In a few years the Fula had subdued most of the Hausa states, some, like Kano, yielding easily in order to preserve their trade, others, like Katsena, offering a stubborn resistance.
The Fula were also defeated in their attack on Bornu.
All the other Fula emirs were dependent on these two sultanates.
The Fula power proved, before many years had gone by, in many respects harmful to the country.
Soon after the Fula had established themselves Europeans began to visit the country.
The over-seas traffic in slaves did not continue long after the date (1851) to which Barth referred, but slave-raiding by the Fula went on unchecked up to the moment of the British occupation of the country.
From that day British authority was substituted for Fula authority throughout the protectorate.
Except the last-named paper most of these authorities deal with many other subjects besides the Fula.
By contrast, the pastoral Fula are Pulaar Burrure, " bush Fula ", imagined to lead ruder and less 87 sophisticated lives.
He was a " pure Fula " after all, he decided, but at school.
Negroid peoples predominate, but there are many pastoral Fula and Arabs.
A slight qualification of the last statement is necessary, in so far as, among the Fula in the western Sudan, and the Ba-Hima, &c., of the Victoria Nyanza, Libyan and Hamitic elements are respectively stronger than the Negroid.
(See also NIGERIA; FULA; and HAUSA.) See the Travels of Dr Barth (London 1857); Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905); P. L.
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