Fuel Sentence Examples
The fuel used is fir-wood.
Natural gas is extensively used for fuel and for lighting.
Peat is largely used as fuel, coal being obtained only at a cost of £3 a ton.
Ample mention was made of alcohol as the fuel for the engine of lust.
The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.Advertisement
Eventually the tree is destroyed, and the wood rendered worthless for timber, and of little value even for fuel.
The value of fresh bagasse, or as it is often called " green " bagasse, as fuel varies with the kind of canes from which it comes, with their treatment in the mill, and with the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that I lb of fresh bagasse will produce from I a lb to 24 lb of steam, according to the conditions.
Iron ores are found in Piura, the Huaylas valley, Aya, and some other places, but the deposits have not been worked through lack of fuel.
The surplus brine of Berchtesgaden is conducted to Reichenhall, and thence, in increased volume, to Traunstein and Rosenheim, which possess larger supplies of timber for use as fuel in the process of boiling.
Tolerable hostelries now came into existence, but they furnished only shelter, fuel and the coarsest kind of food.Advertisement
This fuel, he believes, will be vastly better than anything we currently produce.
The timber, however, is small, and is of little value except as fuel.
Furnaces are constructed according to many different patterns with varying degrees of complexity in arrangement; but all may be considered as combining three essential parts, namely, the fire-place in which the fuel is consumed, the heated chamber, laboratory, hearth or working bed, as it is variously called, where the heat is applied to the special work for which the furnace is designed, and the apparatus for producing rapid combustion by the supply of air under pressure to the fire.
A gust of pine and jet fuel scented wind whipped by her.
Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.Advertisement
A flue should in all cases be provided to carry off the fumes of the fuel.
The Australian states have been bountifully supplied with mineral fuel.
He retired to the island of Sardinia, while the French despoiled Piedmont, thereby adding fuel to the resentment rapidly growing against them in every part of Europe.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.Advertisement
Therefore, roughly speaking, one ton of beetroot may be considered 'to-day as of the same value as one ton of canes; the value of the refuse chips in one case, as food for cattle, being put against the value of the refuse bagasse, as fuel, in the other.
When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.
The primary advantages of gasfiring are that less fuel is required, that there is better control of the heat in the furnace, and that larger and more accessible furnaces can be built.
One man who understands the use of gaseous fuel can regulate the heat of a thousand or more retorts.
When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.Advertisement
But in some cases in which the current is used for electrolysis and for the production of extremely high temperatures, for which the calorific intensity of ordinary fuel is insufficient, the electric furnace is employed with advantage.
There are also two kinds of shrubby plants, a thorny Composita called " ccanlli " and another, called " tola," which is a resinous Baccharis and is used for fuel.
The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.
Some of the mountains are almost entirely composed of naked calcareous rock, but most of them wereformerly covered to their summits with forests of oaks, chestnuts, or pine trees, now destroyed to provide fuel.
In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
It must be borne in mind that the signification now attached to the word coal is different from that which formerly obtained when wood was the only fuel in general use.
This, although of very small value as fuel, commands a specially high price for gas-making.
Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.
Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.
The term is more customarily given to productions of flame such as we have in the burning of oils, gas, fuel, &c., but it is conveniently extended to other cases of oxidation, such as are met with when metals are heated for a long time in air or oxygen.
In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
The first competition in connexion with alcohol as a fuel for motor vehicles took place in France in 1901, followed in the next year by German investigations, but its employment for this purpose did not make much headway.
In the event of its production being a commercial possibility it should, therefore, form a valuable addition to the liquid-fuel resources of the world (see Fuel) .
It would appear, however, that the production of power alcohol within the British Empire from waste materials, which can be collected and treated at low cost, offers the best chance of the solution of the problem of the supply to the United Kingdom of an alternative liquid fuel for internal-combustion engines.
The German production of alcohol had fallen off very much since the war, and little if any was being used for motors, benzol being the fuel principally employed.
Various machines have been constructed to perform this operation, some of them specially designed for the use of troops in the field; those in which economy of fuel is studied have an exchange-heater, by means of which the incoming cold water receives heat from the outgoing hot water, which thus arrives at the point of outflow at a temperature nearly as low as that of the supply.
The cold sometimes is severely felt by the poor classes owing to want of proper fuel, for which a great part of the population has no substitute except dried cowdung.
Gradually, from dealing in coal, he became himself the owner of several mines and extended his business to the manufacture of different kinds of fuel such as briquettes.
Gas is used as fuel for the melting furnaces at Philadelphia.
At Denver and Ottawa the fuel used is " first distillate " oil, which is found to be cheaper than either naphtha or gas.
At the Denver mint the crucibles are used for from twelve to fifteen meltings with oil fuel, whereas they were soon destroyed when gas was employed.
Excluding Coal for Fuel by Ocean Steamers.
Valuable timber was afforded by the vast forest of the Weald, but the restrictions imposed on the felling of wood for fuel did serious detriment to the iron-trade, and after the statute of 1558 forbidding the felling of timber for iron-smelting within fourteen miles of the coast the industry steadily declined.
Natural gas derived from the Kansas fields became available for lighting and heating, and crude oil for fuel, in 1906.
Both green and dry it forms excellent fuel.
Reverberatory roasting does not admit of the utilization of the waste gases, and requires fine ores and much labour and fuel; it has, however, the advantage of being rapid.
A terrible lore that allows spell casters, both Arcane and Divine to rape the land of its very life to fuel their magic.
The coal is all in the form of brown lignite and is not very valuable as a fuel, as it soon crumbles into a fine powder on being exposed to air.
It is dried, and sold to the common people as fuel.
Sarzana has one of the most important glass-bottle factories in Italy, also brick-works and a patent fuel factory.
Charcoal is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes.
An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.
Many of the Mexican railways are using these fuel oils, which are superseding imported coal.
The coal, however, is not mined, and much of the destruction of timber in southern Bechuanaland was caused by the demand for fuel for Kimberley.
But it is to be remembered that the amount and the fuel value of both the lignite and, to a lesser degree, the sub-bituminjus coals, is uncertain to a high degree.
Coal of a bituminous and also semi-anthracite kind is produced, the best mined on the Pacific slope of the continent, the coking coals of the Fernie region supplying the fuel of the great metal mining districts of the Kootenays in British Columbia, and of Montana and other states to the south.
Fuel is imported, chiefly from the United Kingdom.
When these fires occur while the trees are full of sap, a curious mucilaginous matter is exuded from the half-burnt stems; when dry it is of pale reddish colour, like some of the coarser kinds of gum-arabic, and is soluble in water, the solution resembling gumwater, in place of which it is sometimes used; considerable quantities are collected and sold as " Orenburg gum "; in Siberia and Russia it is occasionally employed as a semi-medicinal food, being esteemed an antiscorbutic. For burning in close stoves and furnaces, larch makes tolerably good fuel, its value being estimated by Hartig as only one-fifth less than that of beech; the charcoal is compact, and is in demand for iron-smelting and other metallurgic uses in some parts of Europe.
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
After suffering dreadfully from want of wafer and fuel they entered Kansu, having recrossed the flooded Hwang-ho, but it was not till January 1845 that they reached Tang-Kiul on the boundary.
In drilling for some of the first oil wells gas escaped, and in a few instances this was used as a fuel for generating steam in the boilers of the drilling-engines.
A little later, about 1868, successful experiments were made with gas as a manufacturing fuel, and in 1872 the gas industry was fairly well established near Titusville by drilling a well and piping the gas for consumption both as fuel and light.
The state ranks second to New York in the value of its manufactures, which increased from $155,044,910 in 1850 to $1,955,551,332 (factory products alone) in 1905, a growth which has been promoted by an abundance of fuel, by a good port on the Atlantic seaboard, by a network of eanals which in the early years was of much importance in connecting the port with the Mississippi river system, by its frontage on Lake Erie which makes the ores of the Lake Superior region easily accessible, and by a great railway system which has been built to meet the demands arising from the natural resources.
Wood fuel is scarce, the present supply being from the Tortum district, whence surface coal and lignite are also brought; but the usual fuel is tezek or dried cow-dung.
Some of the coal and lignite mines in Tortum have been recently worked to supply fuel for Erzerum.
By 1888 Hall was at work on a commercial scale at Pittsburg, reducing German alumina; in 1891 the plant was removed to New Kensington for economy in fuel, and was gradually enlarged to 150o h.p.; in 1894 a factory driven by water was erected at Niagara Falls, and subsequently works were established at Shawenegan in Canada and at Massena in the United States.
The bath is heated internally with the current rather than by means of external fuel, because this arrangement permits the vessel itself to be kept comparatively cool; if it were fired from without, it would be hotter than the electrolyte, and no material suitable for the construction of the cell is competent to withstand the attack of nascent aluminium at high temperatures.
This access is especially desirable as regards the store-yards and framing ground, where fermenting manures and tree leaves for making up hot beds, coals or wood for fuel and ingredients for composts, together with flower-pots and the many necessaries of garden culture, have to be accommodated.
Care should be taken to allow sufficient room to properly manipulate the fires and to store fuel.
It is important that the ventilation should be as efficient as practicable, especially where coke fuel is to be used.
Foremost among these elements is carbon, which iron inevitably absorbs from the fuel used in extracting it from its ores.
Moreover, this same carburizing action of the fuel would at times go so far as to turn part of the metal into a true cast iron, so brittle that it could not be worked at all.
It is of the familiar type of the replacing of the simple but wasteful by the complex and economical, and it was begun unintentionally in the attempt to save fuel and labour, by increasing the size and especially the height of the forge, and by driving the bellows by means of water-power.
Indeed it was the use of water-power that gave the smith pressure strong enough to force his blast up through a longer column of ore and fuel, and thus enabled him to increase the height of his forge, enlarge the scale of his operations, and in turn save fuel and labour.
And it was the lengthen ing of the forge, and the length and intimacy of contact between ore and fuel to which it led, that carburized the metal and turned it into cast iron.
The impetus which the indirect process and the acceleration of civilization in the 15th and 16th centuries gave to the iron industry was so great that the demands of the iron masters for fuel made serious inroads on the forests, and in 1558 an act of Queen Elizabeth's forbade the cutting of timber in certain parts of the country for iron-making.
In 1625 Stradda's attempts in Hainaut had no better success, and it was not till more than a century later that ironsmelting with mineral fuel was at last fully successful.
These two things are done simultaneously by heating and melting the ore in contact with coke, charcoal or anthracite, in the iron blast furnace, from which issue intermittently two molten streams, the iron now deoxidized and incidentally carburized by the fuel with which it has been in contact, and the mineral matter, now called " slag."
Part of the resultant carbonic acid is again deoxidized to carbonic oxide by the surrounding fuel, CO 2 + C = 2C03 and the carbonic oxide thus formed deoxidizes more iron oxide, &c. As indicated in fig.
In its slow descent the deoxidized iron nearly saturates itself with carbon, of which it usually contains between 3.5 and 4%, taking it in part from the fuel with which it is in such intimate contact, and in part from the finely divided carbon deposited within the very lumps of ore, by the reaction 2C0 C+C02.
The fuel has, in addition to its duties of deoxidizing and carburizing the iron and yielding the heat needed for melting both the iron and slag, the further task of desulphurizing the iron, probably by the reaction FeS+CaO+C=Fe+CaS+CO.
The duty of the limestone (CaCO 3) is to furnish enough lime to form with the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel a lime silicate or slag of such a composition (1) that it will melt at the temperature which it reaches at about level A, of fig.
Of these the silica and alumina are chiefly those which the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel introduce, whereas the lime is that added intentionally to form with these others a slag of the needed physical properties.
These steps lead to a saving of fuel so great as to be astonishing at first sight - indeed in case of Gayley's blast-drying process incredible to most writers, who proved easily and promptly to their own satisfaction that the actual saving was impossible.
These large charges are puddled by two gangs of four men each, and a great saving in fuel and labour is effected.
The steel dissolves the carbon of this fuel even more quickly than water would dissolve salt under like conditions.
Compared with the Bessemer process, which converts a charge of even as much as 20 tons of pig iron into steel in a few minutes, and the open-hearth process which easily treats charges of 75 tons, the crucible process is, of course, a most expensive one, with its little 80-lb charges, melted with great consumption of fuel because the heat is kept away from the metal by the walls of the crucible, themselves excellent heat insulators.
Of the two the cupola is very much the more economical of fuel, thanks to the direct transfer of„ heat from the burning coke to the pig iron with which it is in contact.
Because this pipe is due to the difference in the rates of contraction of interior and exterior, it may be lessened by retarding the cooling of the mass as a whole, and it may be prevented from stretching down deep by retarding the solidification of the upper part of the ingot, as, for instance, by preheating the top of the mould, or by covering the ingot with a mass of burning fuel or of molten slag.
In the absence of fuel the industry is necessarily a small one.
And Russia draws her own supplies of petroleum, both for lighting and for use as liquid fuel, by the sea route from Baku.
In north Germany peat is also of importance as a fuel; the area of the peat moors in Prussia is estimated at 8000 sq.
This added fresh fuel to the public excitement, and when Thompson came over in the next spring, the hostility to the cause began to manifest itself in mobs organized to suppress the discussion of the slavery question.
It is used in the building of the houses of the fellahin, as fuel, and, when green, as food for cattle.
Some of them keep small shops, and all fetch water, make fuel, and cook for their households.
The woods consist mostly of beech, which is principally used for fuel, but pines were extensively planted during the 19th century.
By this method grinding the hard limestone is avoided, but there is an extra expenditure of fuel in the double burning.
Another form is the Hoffmann or ring kiln, made up of a number of compartments arranged in a ring and connected with a central chimney; in these compartments rough brick-shaped masses of the raw materials are stacked, and between these bricks fuel is sprinkled.
In the early days of rotatory kilns producer gas was used as a fuel, but with little success; about 1895 petroleum was used in the United States with complete success, but at a relatively heavy cost.
On its way down the cylinders the clinker meets a current of cold air and is cooled, the air being correspondingly warmed and passing on to aid in the combustion of the fuel used in heating the kiln.
Keene's cement and its congeners are made in fixed kilns so constructed that only the gaseous products of combustion come into contact with the gypsum to be burnt, in order to avoid contamination with the ash of the fuel.
The latter was formerly often constructed as a reverberatory furnace, which is easy to build and to work, but the hydrochloric acid given off here, being mixed with the products of the combustion of the fuel, cannot be condensed to strong acid and is partly, if not entirely, wasted.
This requires more time and fuel than the work in " open " furnaces, but in the muffles the gaseous hydrochloric acid is separated from the fire-gases, just like that evolved in the pot, and can therefore be condensed into strong hydrochloric acid, like the pot-acid.
The sulphuric acid, of which 6 or 7 parts are used to one of impure liquid hydrochloric acid, is always reserved for usein the same process, by driving off the excess of water in a lead pan, fired from the top, so that the principal expense of the process is that of the fuel required for the last operation.
The most efficient evaporating apparatus, as far as economy of fuel is concerned, is the vacuum-pan, of which from two to five are combined to form a set, but it has the drawback that the removal of the salts is much more difficult than with the ?,,..
By this means the latent heat of the steam, issuing from all pans but the last, is utilized for evaporating purposes, and from half to three-fourths of the fuel is saved.
The fuel required is less than half the amount used in the Leblanc process.
This coal-field, now largely worked, is the property of the East Indian railway, which is thus supplied with fuel at a cheaper rate than any other railway in the world.
The real difficulty in India is to find the ore, the fuel, and the flux in sufficiently close proximity to yield a profit.
But as the pressure of population on the soil became more dense, and the construction of railways increased the demand for fuel, the question of forest conservation forced itself into notice.
The Famine Commission of 1878 urged the importance of forest conservancy as a safeguard to agriculture, pointing out that a supply of wood for fuel was necessary if cattle manure was to be used to any extent for the fields, and also that forest growth served to retain the moisture in the subsoil.
In these forests every reasonable facility is afforded to the people concerned for the full and easy satisfaction of their needs, which are generally for small timber for building or fuel, fodder and grazing for their cattle, and edible products for themselves; and considerations of forest income are subordinated to those purposes.
These are managed mainly in the interests of the surrounding population, and supply grazing or fuel to them at moderate rates, higher charges being levied on consumers who are not inhabitants of the locality.
The immediate cause of collapse seems to have been cold, due to the deficiency of oil fuel in the Mount Hooper depot, the reason for which was stated to be evaporation through defective stoppers.
The continuous flow method is specially applicable to the important case of calorific value of gaseous fuel, where a large quantity of heat is continuously generated at a nearly uniform rate by combustion.
Aspen wood makes but indifferent fuel, but charcoal prepared from it is light and friable, and has been employed in gunpowder manufacture.
The wood is soft and neither strong nor durable; it burns better in the green state than that of most trees, and is often used by the hunters of the North-West as fuel; split into thin layers, it was formerly employed in the United States for bonnet and hat making.
This objection to the air-engine arises from the fact that the heat comes to it from external combustion; it disappears when internal combustion is resorted to; that is to say, when the heat is generated within the envelope containing the working air, by the combustion there of gaseous or other fuel.
The Popo Agie and Lander fields produce the largest quantities of oil, the wells being partly gushers from which a heavy fuel oil is obtained.
The Hartville iron deposits are worked by the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, which ships large quantities of ore to its furnaces at Pueblo, Colorado.
The upper stratum is struck at a depth of 600 to 700 ft., and yields a natural liquid fuel of heavy specific gravity.
Rule Ix.-Cargo, Ship'S Materials, And Stores Burnt For Fuel Cargo, ship's materials and stores, or any of them, necessarily burnt for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be admitted as G.A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel had been provided; but the estimated quantity of coals that would have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship's last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged to the shipowner and credited to the G.A.
It is estimated, however, that the domestic use of wood (especially for fuel) represents nearly five times as many cubic feet as the wood used for export in different shapes.
Many of the steamers use as fuel mazut or petroleum refuse.
Stall and heap roasting require considerable time, and can only be economically employed when the loss of the sulphur is of no consequence; they also occupy much space, but they have the advantage of requiring little fuel and handling.
They involve high cost in fuel and labour, but permit the utilization of the waste gases.
Furnaces with rotating working chambers admit of continuous working; the fuel and labour costs are both low.
The M`Dougall-Herreshoff, working on ores of over 30% of sulphur, requires no fuel; but in furnaces of the reverberatory type fuel must be used, as an excess of air enters through the slotted sides and the hinged doors which open and shut frequently to permit of the passage of the rakes.
The consumption of fuel, however, does not exceed i of coal to io of ore.
In reverberatory furnaces it is smelted by fuel in a fireplace, separate from the ore, and in cupolas the fuel, generally coke, is in direct contact with the ore.
To-day more than eight-tenths of the copper ores of the world are reduced to impure copper bars or to fine copper at the mines; and where the character of the ore permits, the cupola furnace is found more economical in both fuel and labour than the reverberatory.
At Tilt Cove, Newfoundland, the Cape Copper Company smelted copper ore, with just the proper proportion of sulphur, iron and silica, successfully without any fuel, when once the initial charge had been fused with coke.
When, however, a hot blast is used on highly sulphuretted copper ores, a concentration of 8 of ore into i of matte is obtained, with a consumption of less than one-third the fuel which would be consumed in smelting the charge had the ore been previously calcined.
Austin, of Denver, Colorado, and both at Leadville and Silverton raw ores are successfully smelted with as low a fuel consumption as 3 of coke to zoo of charge.
The largest establishment in which advantage is taken of the self-contained fuel is at the smelting works of the Mt.
According to Herbert Lang, its most prominent chance of success is in localities where fuel is dear, and the ores contain precious metals and sufficient sulphides and arsenides to render profitable dressing unnecessary.
The dry way is best; the wet way is only employed when fuel is very dear, or when it is absolutely necessary that no noxious vapours should escape into the atmosphere.
The wood is very hard and abounds with resin, but on swampy land is of inferior quality and of little value except for fuel, for which the pitch-pine is highly prized; on drier ground the grain is fine from the numerous knots.
The richest deposits of nickel, cobalt and antimony ores are also situated in localities where there is little water and the nearest useful fuel some hundred miles away.
The tctal absence of easy means of communication, the high rates of transport, and the scarcity of fuel and water in the mineral districts made profitable operations impossible, and the corporation liquidated in f 894, after having expended a large sum of money.
The wood is excellent fuel, and makes the best charcoal.
It is much prized for bedsteads, writing-desks, shoe-lasts, &c. The wood forms excellent fuel and charcoal, while the ashes are rich in alkaline principles, furnishing a large proportion of the potash exported from Boston and New York.
The wood is inferior to that of the preceding species in strength and as fuel.
The city's industrial history dates from 18 20, when a small factory for the manufacture of scythes and sickles was set up. Natural gas, piped from Butler county, was early used here as a fuel in the iron mills.
The Swansea Valley canal has a connecting lock with this dock, and on the island between the dock and the New Cut are patent fuel works, copper ore yards and other mineral sheds and large grain stores and flour mills.
The total exports (foreign and coastwise) from Swansea during 1907 amounted to 4,825,898 tons, of which coal and coke made up 3, 6 55, 0 5 0 tons; patent fuel, 679,002 tons; tin, terne and black plates, 348,240 tons; liron and steel and their manufactures, 38,438 tons; various chemicals (mostly the by-products of the metal industries), 37,100 tons; copper, zinc and silver, 22,633 tons.
The town (which is often called "the metallurgical capital of Wales") is the chief seat of the copper, spelter, tin-plate and patent fuel industries, and has within a compass of 4 m.
The wood of the horse-chestnut is soft, and serves only for the making of water-pipes, for turner's work and common carpentry, as a source of charcoal for gunpowder, and as fuel.
The glass industry was introduced from Venice in the 13th century and soon attained a vast importance; the factories are in the neighbourhood of the mountains, where minerals, and especially silica and fuel, are plentiful.
Finding that the bad quality of the steel then available for his products seriously hampered him, he began to experiment in steel-manufacture, first at Doncaster, and subsequently at Handsworth, near Sheffield, whither he removed in 1740 to secure cheaper fuel for his furnaces.
The process is suited to easy ores and a region where the climate is warm and dry, and horseor mule-power, labour and quicksilver are cheaper than fuel and water.
The fuel used was refined gasoline, and the extreme end of the tail of the fish was utilized for a storage tank with a capacity of one quart.
The fuel was naphtha or gasoline.
Several small coal-fields rise through the Red rocks - the largest, between Stafford and Birmingham, forms the famous " Black Country," with Wolverhampton and Dudley as centres, where the manufacture of iron has preserved a historic continuity, for the great Forest of Arden supplied charcoal until the new fuel from the pits took its place.
The latter furnishes fuel to the river steamboats, and it is hoped may eventually supply the surrounding mining region.
A considerable amount of personal property, including apparel, household furniture not exceeding $ioo in value, a library not exceeding $150 in value, interest in a pew in a meeting-house, and a specified amount of fuel, provisions, tools or farming implements, and domestic animals, and one fishing boat, is also exempt from attachment.
About 1400 ships, of nearly i,000,000 tons, enter the port every year, bringing fuel and timber, and taking cargoes of iron, lead, esparto and fruit.
In 1797 glassworks which were the first to use coal as a fuel in making glass were built here; later Pittsburg profited greatly by the use of its great store of natural gas in the manufacture of glass.
The absence of large towns in Abyssinia proper is due to the provinces into which the country is divided having been for centuries in a state of almost continual warfare, and to the frequent change of the royal residences on the exhaustion of fuel supplies.
Natural gas is largely used as a fuel.
Lignite is used as fuel on the railways.
They received in return a plot of ground proportionate to the number of animals they owned, and had also rights of grazing and of collecting fuel in the forests.
The territory was once densely wooded, and is said to derive its name from the Moorish Aldarra, " the place thick with trees"; but almost all the forests have been destroyed for fuel.
They till the soil and bring rice, fuel, timber, grass-cloth, &c., to the Chinese markets.
The roasting of pyrites always takes place without using any extraneous fuel, the heat given off by the oxidation of the sulphur and the iron being quite sufficient to carry on the process.
The highest strength of sulphuric acid practically attainable by boiling down is 98% H 2 SO 4, and this is only exceptionally reached, since it involves much expenditure of fuel, loss of acid and wear and tear of apparatus.
As the Badische process effects this prevention by cooling the contact apparatus by means of the gaseous mixture to be later submitted to the catalytic action, the mixture is at the time heated up to the requisite temperature, and a considerable saving of fuel is the consequence.
The growth in the preceding decade of the iron and steel industry, the products of which increased in value from $4,742,760 in 1890 to $19,338,481 in 1900 (307.7%), and of the manufacture of glass, the value of which increased from $2,995,409 in 1890 to $ 1 4,757, 88 3 in 1900 (392.7%), is directly attributable to the development of natural gas as fuel; the decrease in the value of the products of these same industries in1900-1905is partly due to the growing scarcity of the natural gas supply.
The lignite found near the Colorado line makes a valuable domestic fuel.
The furnace A is built of fire-brick, coke is charged at the top through the iron door B, and near the bottom are placed fire bars C, upon which the fuel lies.
In all the attempts to make water gas, up to that date, the incandescence of the fuel had been obtained by" blowing "so deep a bed of fuel that carbon monoxide and the residual nitrogen of the air formed the chief products, this mixture being known as" producer "gas.
Under these conditions producer gas ceases to exist as a by-product, and the gases of the blow consist merely of the incombustible products of com plete combustion, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the result being that more than three times / the heat is developed for the combustion of the same amount of fuel, and nearly double the quantity of water gas can be made per pound of fuel than was before possible.
The fuel employed should be non-bituminous coal anthracite or coke, or at least so much of these materials should be mixed with ordinary coal that no semi-solid cakes of the kind just described are formed.
Such slags act very prejudicially by impeding the up-draught of the air and the sinking of the fuel; nor can they FIG.
The grate b retains any small pieces of fuel, but allows the liquid cinder to pass through.
This is done, without interfering with the blast, in order to keep the fuel at the proper level in L, according to the indications of the burning zone, as shown through the peep-holes B 1 to B4.
Below K the fuel is lying in a conical heap, leaving the ring channel A free.
G is the pipe through which the blowing-up gas (Siemens gas) is carried away, either into the open air (where it is at once burned) or into a pre-heater for the blast, or into some place where it can be utilized as fuel.
Much wood is exported for building and other purposes, and in the Harz itself is used as fuel.
Other imports are fuel, iron and groceries.
They have a habit of depositing their droppings during successive days on the same spot - a habit appreciated by the Peruvian Indians, who use those deposits for fuel.
Silver, lead and iron ores occur in several localities; but the want of fuel is an obstacle to their exploitation.
Locke's Vindication, followed by a Second Vindication in 1697, added fuel to this fire.
A little of it is used for fuel for the engines and for bedding the stock; but the bulk of it is dragged away from the threshing machine by machinery, and left lying in great heaps until an opportunity is afforded for burning it up. This is usually done immediately before the ploughing in the autumn.
The only seaport of importance in the county, it has a considerable export trade in peat fuel, extensive fisheries, and flagstone quarries; while general fairs, horse fairs and annual agricultural shows are held.
A succession of wet summers told against all farmers, and in mountainous districts it was difficult to dry the turf on which the people depended for fuel.
In 1830 an attempt, finally unsuccessful mainly owing to the lack of fuel, was made to smelt iron from the ores found in the vicinity.
But the blowing up of the American cruiser Maine in the port of Havana added fuel to the agitation in the United States against Spanish rule in Cuba.
A violent clerical agitaticn, encouraged by the Vatican, was started, 72 Spanish archbishops and bishops presenting a joint protest to the government; Fuel was added to the fire by the introduction of a billknown as the Cadenas billforbidding the settlement of further congregations in Spain until the negotiations with the Vatican should have been completed.
The bee-keeper, therefore, by the judicious application of a little smoke from smouldering fuel, blown into the hive by means of an appliance known as a beesmoker, alarms the bees and is thus able to manipulate the frames of comb with ease and almost no disturbance.
The wood of the sunt tree is used largely for boatbuilding and for fuel, and the mahogany tree yields excellent timber.
There are about 50o coke ovens in operation at Fernie, which supply most of the smelting plants in southern British Columbia with fuel.
In the simplest cases the functions of two or more of these parts may be combined into one, as in the smith's forge, where the fire-place and heating chamber are united, the iron being placed among the coals, only the air for burning being supplied under pressure from a blowing engine by a second special contrivance, the tuyere, tuiron, twyer or blast-pipe; but in the more refined modern furnaces, where great economy of fuel is an object, the different functions are distributed over separate and distinct apparatus, the fuel being converted into gas in one, dried in another, and heated in a third, before arriving at the point of combustion in the working chamber of the furnace proper.
The essential difference in construction is that in the first class the substances heated do not come into contact with either the fuel or the furnace gases, whereas in the second they do.
In this article the general principles of metallurgical furnaces will be treated; the subject of gasand oil-heated furnaces is treated in the article Fuel, and of the electric furnace in the article Electrometallurgy.
In iron-smelting the ore is laid in a heap upon the fuel (charcoal) filling up the hearth, and is gradually brought to the metallic state by the reducing action of the carbon monoxide formed at the tuyere.
The metal sinks through the ignited fuel, forming, in the hearth, a spongy mass or ball, which is lifted out by the smelters at the end of each operation, and carried to the forge hammer.
By continuing the walls of the hearth above the tuyere, into a shaft or stack either of the same or some other section, we obtain a furnace of increased capacity, but with no greater power of consuming fuel, in which the material to be treated can be heated up gradually by loading it into the stack, alternately with layers of fuel, the charge descending regularly to the point of combustion, and absorbing a proportion of the heat of the flame that went to waste in the open fire.
The consuming power of the furnace or the rate at which it can burn the fuel supplied is measured by the number of tuyeres and their section.
Blast furnaces are, from the intimate contact between the burden to be smelted and the fuel, the least wasteful of heat; but their use supposes the possibility of obtaining fuel of good quality and free from sulphur or other substances likely to deteriorate the metal produced.
In all cases, therefore, where it is desired to do the work out of contact with the solid fuel, the operation of burning or heat-producing must be performed in a special fire-place or combustion chamber, the body of flame and heated gas being afterwards made to act upon the surface of the material exposed in a broad thin layer in the working bed or laboratory of the furnace by reverberation from the low vaulted roof covering the bed.
A third class of furnaces is so arranged that the work is done by indirect heating; that is, the material under treatment, whether subjected to calcination, fusion or any other process, is not brought in contact either with fuel or flame, but is raised to the proper temperature by exposure in a chamber heated externally by the products of combustion.
The former are used principally as casing, walls, pillars or other supporting parts of the structure, and includes ordinary red or yellow bricks, clay-slate, granite and most building stones; the latter are reserved for the parts immediately in contact with the fuel and flame, such as the lining of the fire-place, the arches, roof and flues, the lower part if not the whole of the chimney lining in reverberatory furnaces, and the whole of the internal walls of blast furnaces.
The introduction and withdrawal of the charges in fusion furnaces is effected by gravitation, the solid masses of raw ore, fuel and flux being thrown in at the top, and flowing out of the furnace at the taphole or slag run at the bottom.
Even under the most advantageous application, that of evaporation of water in a steam boiler where the gases of the fire have to travel through a great length of flues bounded by thin iron surfaces of great heat-absorbing capacity, the temperature of the current at the chimney is generally much above that required to maintain an active draught in the fireplace; and other tubes containing water, often in considerable numbers, forming the so-called fuel economizers, may often be interposed between the boiler and the chimney with marked advantage as regards saving of fuel.
In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
Charcoal is the fuel used, and the crucibles stand upon the bottom of the clay lining.
When a large body of fuel is required, the cylinder can be lengthened by an iron hoop which fits over the top ring.
This will certainly add fuel to the arguments for an academic boycott.
You should never suffer the inconvenience of running out of fuel away from home.
It's also helping them meet a congressional mandate to the military to reduce their fuel use by 20 percent.
Most others are either retired, outside mainstream academia or tied to the fossil fuel industry.
All of a sudden there is no fuel to maintain the same level of intensity or to handle adversity.
About a quarter of the world's jet fuel is used by military aircraft.
This fuel network supplied all the major bomber airfields during the cold war.
Fuel oils are characterized by the presence of an identifiable homologous series of normal alkanes.
For example, pulverized fuel ash from power generation is widely used today.
Fuel nozzle -- device to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray.
As this embargo also concerned fuel, the UBAF found it increasingly difficult in obtaining avgas for its piston-engined aircraft and helicopters.
Fuel and oil prices BP supplied 100LL avgas is currently available at £ 1.32 per liter incl VAT.
Biomass products can be modified (e g. sugar cane bagasse is used as fuel, in the construction and paper industries ).
We have an iron bedstead each, there is a stove for which fuel is supplied.
Direct electricity is the most environmentally benign fuel known to man.
It covers your current fuel use and also pays off a certain amount of your unpaid bill each week.
Mrs Green's fuel bills are £ 12.50 per week.
Some machines have an instrument binnacle mounted on the fuel tank with the filler cap or caps offset to one or both sides.
Thirdly we expect that synthetic fuel would be made from other sources of energy, including bioengineering.
The clean biogas is then stored at pressure for use in the fuel cell.
This year the IRL is running a 90 percent methanol, 10 percent ethanol fuel blend in its cars.
The skins of the seals and the caribou were used for clothing and tents, while seal blubber was used for fuel and light.
At the moment leisure boaters in the UK fill up with red diesel, a fuel taxed at a lower rate than roadside diesel.
Trouble is, you have to maintain the water at a rolling boil for 5 minutes - an extra burden on your fuel supplies.
Automated pellet boilers make wood fuel almost as convenient as gas.
Programs like this fuel the misplaced bravado of the sort of idiots shown, arguably persuading more of them to go next time.
The herring industry used large quantities of fuel, as did baking, brewing and simply keeping warm.
In 1848 the GLCC supplied tar to the Wylan Patent fuel Co, Greenwich, for making fuel briquettes with coal dust.
True, he did refer to the high cost of fuel which make transport costs particularly burdensome.
Between them, belching and biomass burning make the second largest contribution to global warming after fossil fuel burning.
Reay brings up the old canard about the total fuel cycle costs for nuclear energy.
The DPRK will resume canning of remaining spent fuel rods starting in mid-September.
Run the stove (which most cant by emptying the boiler) and rely on your ducting and burn less fuel.
However my 45 liter fuel tank capacity will easily take me to the capitol from the border at Kariba.
These ensure that manufacturers can enjoy the advantages of lower fuel bills and reduced environmental emissions without having to make any large-scale capital expenditure.
For live aboard's the use of a solid fuel cabin heater should be treated with caution as all wood smoke contains carbon monoxide.
The oxygen needed by a fuel cell is usually simply obtained from air.
Modified deep V hull with reverse chines to give soft dry ride, maximum speed, with minimum fuel consumption.
Sastak has chippers and shredders to convert this to wood fuel, mulch etc.
The airbox cover features an inset chrome console holding an LED display for the fuel gage, indicator lights and a clock.
Try using manual circuit breakers to cut power to the fuel flow.
The Green Party's proposed taxes would very neatly circumvent the international ban on aviation fuel tax.
Advanced gas cooled reactor A development of the Magnox reactor, using enriched uranium oxide fuel in stainless steel cladding.
The U.S. Government owns and operates 30 fuel cell cogeneration units, the world's largest fleet of fuel cells.
These parameters are tested in both liquid and gaseous fuel combustions.
The number of cloud droplets is found to be higher in regions of fossil fuel combustion.
It is produced by incomplete, or inefficient, combustion of fuel including ' cold ' or badly tuned engines.
Fuel cells will have to be much cheaper to become commercial in vehicles.
The dried residue largely comprised of olive colored concretion in which bone was rare to occasional, charcoal occasional and vitrified fuel ash rare.
It is not always easy to locate individuals who are experiencing fuel poverty because of their cold, damp living conditions.
The renovation or of a rural dwelling or barn conversion is yelling out for a solid fuel burning range cooker.
Usually, the fuel is heated by the engine coolant or by the exhaust or electrical system.
All vehicles replaced by hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with zero CO 2 emissions, powered by renewable, short-rotation coppice produced fuel.
Trees were free fuel for poor cottagers, every one of whom had an ax.
A brazil nut mercy dash was agreed but a lack of fuel meant the plan couldn't go ahead.
Who can forget the fuel tax debacle last autumn?
The consequent decrease in the cost of producing electricity, reduced specific fuel consumption and reduced environmental pollution promises great benefit to the community.
In conclusion, perhaps the scale of global warming has been overstated by omitting to take into account fossil fuel depletion.
It seems that large rocket fuel depository was directly shot.
In terms of helping the fuel poor this has an obvious detriment.
Honda's 140PS 2.2-litre i-CTDi diesel continues; but as aerodynamic efficiency is improved by 12 per cent, fuel economy should improve.
Big silence on the big freeze Labor's failure to introduce winter fuel payments for severely disabled adults has been a blow to many.
Arlington virginia released a fuel card measure pressure ditto miles gets great.
A carefully constructed mound of dried dung provides fuel that would also once have come at the expense of local trees.
A ban on the import of foreign radioactive waste and spent fuel 3.4 Britain must stop being a nuclear dustbin for other countries.
Her bonus DVD extra was that her car burst a fuel pipe during the jam.
All others have been found not to increase fuel economy.
Improved fuel efficiency would also help to reduce his transport footprint.
The answer to these problems lies in better fuel efficiency.
Low temperature cells The proton exchange membrane (a.k.a. polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell uses a polymeric electrolyte.
The chemical engineer said " Obviously, some constituent of the fuel has caused this failure to occur.
The annual fuel escalator was set in 1993 at 3% above the rate of inflation.
It also suggests a return to the fuel tax escalator.
Related fiscal policies The political problems with environmental taxation are further exemplified by the story of the road fuel duty escalator.
The main sources of sugar required to produce ethanol come from fuel or energy crops.
Instead, ethanol producers are looking to supply a much larger fuel market with a much weaker ethanol blend.
The question must be addressed as to what extent we need to reprocess fuel.
This will lead to a discussion on the options for managing spent fuel within the next one or two years.
It is possible to run unleaded fuel in your engine Ian.
All company vehicles use modern efficient engine types and are being converted to use diesel fuel.
Encourage the take up of these with big grants, paid for out of fuel duty on aviation fuel.
About 3,000 tons of spent light water reactor fuel have been reprocessed at THORP since 1994.
If just 20 percent of cars used fuel cells, we could cut oil imports by 1.5 million barrels every day.
A small fraction of that amount could fully commercialize fuel cells within five years and create tens of thousands of jobs.
Oxygen (or air) enters the fuel cell through the cathode.
Frequently Asked Questions about fuel cells Where did fuel cells come from?
The title of my thesis was The modeling of solid oxide fuel cells for power generation, ' writes Ben Todd.
The first fuel cell was built in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist.
The U.S. Government owns and operates 30 fuel cell cogeneration units, the world's largest fleet of fuel cell cogeneration units, the world's largest fleet of fuel cells.
The micro fuel cell is a standalone device shaped like a cradle for recharging handsets.
Ignition is controlled by the same integrated engine management system that also controls fuel injection.
Engine Engine is the 454 cu. in. unblown Chevrolet, using fuel injection with Hilborn injector.
The Keihin sequential fuel injection features two throttle butterflies per cylinder.
Local authorities control the sulfur content of heavy fuel oils used in such applications.
Surely it is important to have a gage which accurately show the correct amount of fuel left in the tank for safety reasons?
This way the body stores up energy and with breakfast the following morning, biker's fuel gages should be on almost full.
The center will explore and develop direct and indirect liquefaction technologies to produce gasoline & diesel fuel.
It is wasteful - producing glycerol as a non fuel by product.
It would not help hauliers where their fuel prices are directly passed on to customers.
With Indirect gas or fuel oil the burner fires into a semi-sealed stainless steel heat exchanger over which the recirculating hot air passes.
How to make your own fuel How to make a simple heat exchanger Can I burn straight vegetable fat in my diesel engine?
Your relating hexagram is 30, fire, which holds tightly to the fuel that creates light in you.
In Scotland, 58% of pensioner households live in fuel poverty.
It is the x rays which cause the implosion of the fuel capsule.
Without fuel for energy a country, however powerful is rendered impotent.
Under pressure Tires inflated to the correct level can save up to 10% on fuel costs.
Rough running is caused by a failed airflow sensor in the fuel injection.
The CFD solution shown in the images is a three-dimensional solution, including fuel injectors.
Upgrading to larger Fuel injectors allow more adequate fueling to be provided with reduced duty cycles.
A dripping leaking fuel injector would do the same.
Fuel poverty can only be cured if households live in adequately insulated dwellings that can both retain heat and be heated at modest cost.
With British support, and media self-censorship, the US continues to fuel the insurgency with its racist brutality.
What is not clear is what will happen to the HEU fuel and the ' targets ' once irradiated.
This one adds kerosene, gasoline and aviation fuel to the list, and it produces an impressive boil time.
You lose fat because of a process called ketosis - the transformation of fat into fuel.
You see, muscle cells - especially ' slow-twitch ' muscle cells - actually use lactate as an important fuel.
Paul from Foxton Boats came to fix the oil leak, which turned out to be a fuel leak.
The major question is why the pilots did not detect the fuel leak earlier than they did.
The brake lines, fuel lines and wiring looms were installed while the vehicle was upside down.
To help combat the thieving lowlifes that would stoop to stealing fuel, Mike Hurley has developed a locking gasoline cap for his TVR.