The fuel used is fir-wood.
Ample mention was made of alcohol as the fuel for the engine of lust.
Peat is largely used as fuel, coal being obtained only at a cost of £3 a ton.
A gust of pine and jet fuel scented wind whipped by her.
The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.
For Fuel and Power).
In Roman times, and until 1900, however, owing to lack of fuel, the smelting was done on the mainland.
He retired to the island of Sardinia, while the French despoiled Piedmont, thereby adding fuel to the resentment rapidly growing against them in every part of Europe.
I got out several cords of stumps in plowing, which supplied me with fuel for a long time, and left small circles of virgin mould, easily distinguishable through the summer by the greater luxuriance of the beans there.
These are generally tank engines, carrying their fuel and water on the engine proper.
She stared into her cup, not wanting to say anything that would add fuel to the torch she suspected he was carrying for her.
According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.
This fuel, he believes, will be vastly better than anything we currently produce.
Pig iron is manufactured cheaply because of the low price of fuel; in 1907 the value of pig iron manufactured in the state was $6,454,000.
She rearranged the fuel and added some pine needles and leaves.
- The maximum power which can be developed by a locomotive depends upon the maximum rate of fuel combustion which can be maintained per square foot of grate.
The gas is excellent, is used for lighting the town, supplies light and fuel for the people, and a number of industries are using the gas for manufacturing.
- The resistance against which a train is moved along a railway is overcome by means of energy obtained from the combustion of fuel, or in some few cases by energy obtained from a waterfall.
Its trunk furnishes timber for house-building and furniture; the leaves supply thatch; their footstalks are used as fuel, and also yield a fibre from which cordage is spun.
Out of the windows of the Senate House the soldiers threw chairs into the Square for fuel and kindled fires there.
Petroleum has been used to some extent both as a fuel and as an illuminant.
She tossed the fuel in and slammed the door before sparks could hop out on the stove pad.
For a long time these shells or hulls, as they are called, were burned at oil mills for fuel, 22 tons being held equal to a cord of wood, and 43 tons to a ton of coal.
Fuel oil is submitted to certain of the foregoing tests and in addition the calorimetric value is determined.
There are also in the city several large grain mills and breweries, a biscuit factory, wire and hemp roperies, fuel works, general foundries and engineering works.
The destination of the path remained a burning mystery, but Tammy innocently tossed fuel on the flames with a chance comment one day while they were watching television.
An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.
As my driver prophesied when I was plowing, they warmed me twice--once while I was splitting them, and again when they were on the fire, so that no fuel could give out more heat.
The country to the east and south-east of the Aravallis affords a striking contrast to the sandy plains on the north-west of the range, and is blessed with fertile lands, hill-ranges and long stretches of forest, where fuel and fodder are abundant.
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
Venter's plan is to use bacteria to brew fuel, much like we brew beer today.
Holden developed the use of liquid fuel on the Great Eastern railway to a point beyond the experimental stage, and used it instead of coal with the engines running the heavy express traffic of the line, its continued use depending merely upon the relative market price of coal and oil.
The glass industry began in Wheeling in 1821, and there a process was discovered by which in 1864 for soda ash bicarbonate of lime was substituted, and a lime glass was made which was as fine as lead glass; other factors contributing to the localization of the manufacture of glass here are the fine glass sand obtained in the state and the plentiful supply of natural gas for fuel Transportation and Commerce.
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
As a fuel it is excellent; and its charcoal is much esteemed for making gunpowder.
Here was material enough for an explosion, even if personal misunderstandings and aggravations, adding fuel to the fire, had not naturally occurred (or even been deliberately plotted) during the negotiations.
A quantity of it is really brushwood, used for the manufacture of charcoal and for fuel, coal being little used except for manufacturing purposes.
That vigorous chemical action is accompanied by a brisk evolution of heat is evident from such familiar examples as the combustion of fuel or the explosion of gunpowder.
Besides the petroleum refineries the town possesses oil-works (for fuel), flour-mills, sulphuric acid works and tobacco factories.
For heating purposes, the stoves employed are practically kerosene lamps of suitable construction, though gasoline is used as a domestic fuel in the United States.
A genetically engineered tree that converts sunlight into fuel and then pumps the fuel through its roots to where it is needed.
Although the route was relatively flat by Colorado standards, Dean learned that a body unaccustomed to elevation in the 7,000foot range needed more oxygen to fuel its muscles.
At the same time large quantities of petroleum refuse are used as fuel in the railways of S.E.
Even if the sun were made of one mass of fuel as efficient as coal, that mass must be entirely expended in a few thousand years if the present rate of radiation was to be sustained.
Michaux, more than thirty years ago, says that the price of wood for fuel in New York and Philadelphia "nearly equals, and sometimes exceeds, that of the best wood in Paris, though this immense capital annually requires more than three hundred thousand cords, and is surrounded to the distance of three hundred miles by cultivated plains."
The typically industrial region of France is the department of Nord, the seat of the woollen industry, but also prominently concerned in other textile industries, in metal working, and in a variety of other manufactures, fuel for which is supplied by its coal-fields.
It was about a foot in diameter at the big end, and he had expected to get a good saw-log, but it was so rotten as to be fit only for fuel, if for that.
Jn 1841 natural gas was found with salt brine in a well on the Kanawha, and was used as a fuel to evaporate the salt water.
The system is economical in fuel, but needs skilled attendance to keep the appliances and fittings in order.
The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast.
Attempts have frequently been made to use the mineral for ordinary fuel purposes, but its inferior quality has prevented its general use.
The cotton-wood timber, though soft and perishable, is of value in its prairie habitats, where it is frequently the only available wood either for carpentry or fuel; it has been planted to a considerable extent in some parts of Europe, but in England a form of this species known as P. monilifera is generally preferred from its larger and more rapid growth.
Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers.
Coal takes, however, an altogether secondary place as a fuel in Russia; wood is much more extensively used, not only for domestic, but also for industrial purposes.
The wood is burned for fuel, its heat-giving power being reckoned in Germany about one-fourth less than that of beech.
(Fuel.) (WinterCotton seed yellow stearin.) (Cattle food) with the meal.
from tip to tip, twice sustained itself in the air for 12 minutes (the full time for which it was supplied with fuel and water), and traversed on each occasion a distance of over half a mile, falling gently into the water when the engines stopped.
heat; hence it receives considerable application as a fuel.
The timber, however, is small, and is of little value except as fuel.
Many of the richer deposits have never been developed because of a lack of fuel and limestone.
With closed stoves much less heat is wasted, and consequ;ntly less fuel is burned, than with open grates, but they often cause an unpleasant sensation of dryness in the air, and the products of combustion also escape to some extent, rendering this method of heating not only unpleasant but sometimes even dangerous.
In the choice of a boiler of this description it should be remembered that rapid heating, economical combustion of fuel, and facilities for cleaning, are requisites, the absence of any of which considerably lowers the efficiency of the apparatus.
Much of the natural gas is piped out of the state into Ohio (even into the northern parts), Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland; within the state gas has been utilized as a fuel in carbon black and glass factories.
The surplus brine of Berchtesgaden is conducted to Reichenhall, and thence, in increased volume, to Traunstein and Rosenheim, which possess larger supplies of timber for use as fuel in the process of boiling.
Tolerable hostelries now came into existence, but they furnished only shelter, fuel and the coarsest kind of food.
Natural gas is extensively used for fuel and for lighting.
Furnaces are constructed according to many different patterns with varying degrees of complexity in arrangement; but all may be considered as combining three essential parts, namely, the fire-place in which the fuel is consumed, the heated chamber, laboratory, hearth or working bed, as it is variously called, where the heat is applied to the special work for which the furnace is designed, and the apparatus for producing rapid combustion by the supply of air under pressure to the fire.
Trek offer 4 excellent groups of full suspension - the fuel, Fuel EX, Fuel OCLV and the Remedy.
Portions at this cafe are plentiful and are sure to fuel you up for your next mountain hiking adventure.
The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.
A flue should in all cases be provided to carry off the fumes of the fuel.
The Australian states have been bountifully supplied with mineral fuel.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
The refined oil is exported as kerosene or petroleum, the heavier refuse (mazut) is used as fuel.
Eventually the tree is destroyed, and the wood rendered worthless for timber, and of little value even for fuel.
He opposed the suggested Federal control of food and fuel.
Of the head nothing could be made but garlands for the shrines of the gods; but the wood of the root was employed in the manufacture of different utensils as well as for fuel.
Brown coal has been discovered in Courland, while peat is already a valuable fuel.
The furnace consists of a shaft, circular (or more rarely rectangular) in plan, into which alternate layers of fuel and ore are charged, an air blast being generally injected near to the bottom of the furnace through one or more tuyeres.
There has been some development in the manufacture of agricultural machinery and implements, vehicles, pianos and furniture, and some older industries, such as tanning leather and the manufacture of saddles and harness, the milling of wheat and Indian corn, distilling, soap-making, &c. At Guanta there is a factory for the manufacture of patent fuel from Naricual coal and asphalt.
These same parts, properly dried, are also employed as fuel in the desolate steppes of the Icy Sea."
This left the Ems after special preparation for the long voyage, on April 25, and reached Cattaro with only half a ton of fuel left on May 13.
The Nile supplied a waterway for the conveyance of fuel and for the distribution of the finished wares.
65), assigns the discovery of glass to Syria, and the geographical position of that country, its forests as a source of fuel, and its deposits of sand add probability to the tradition.
The scene of the discovery of glass is placed by Pliny on the banks of the little river Belus, under the heights of Mount Carmel, where sand suitable for glass-making exists and wood for fuel is abundant.
The positions of the factories were determined by the supply of wood for fuel, and subsequently, when the craft of glass-cutting was introduced, by the accessibility of water-power.
Beginning in Sussex, Surrey and Kent, where wood for fuel was plentiful, the foreign glass-workers and their descendants migrated from place to place, always driven by the fuel-hunger of their furnaces.
In 1615 all patents for glass-making were revoked and a new patent issued for making glass with coal as fuel, in the names of Mansel, Zouch, Thelwall, Kellaway and Percival.
In 1911-3 a pipe-line was laid from Matadi, on the Congo estuary, to Stanley Pool to supply the river steamers with petroleum for fuel and reservoirs capable of holding 8,000 tons of oil were built.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
a ton, and where steam is raised by coal, as in a beetroot factory, it might pay to adopt a quintuple-effect apparatus, but on a cane-sugar estate, where the steam necessary for the evaporator is raised by burning the megass as fuel, and is first used in the engines workifig the mills, the exhaust alone passing to the evaporator, there would be very little, if any, advantage in employing a quadruple effect instead of a triple effect, and practically none at all in having a quintuple-effect apparatus, for the interest and sinking fund on the extra cost would more than counterbalance the saving in fuel.
canes ground, without the aid of other fuel.
The value of fresh bagasse, or as it is often called " green " bagasse, as fuel varies with the kind of canes from which it comes, with their treatment in the mill, and with the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that I lb of fresh bagasse will produce from I a lb to 24 lb of steam, according to the conditions.
Therefore, roughly speaking, one ton of beetroot may be considered 'to-day as of the same value as one ton of canes; the value of the refuse chips in one case, as food for cattle, being put against the value of the refuse bagasse, as fuel, in the other.
When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.
(a) The gas is made from the fuel in a detached fireplace and conducted while hot into the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the air for complete combustion is heated by the products of combustion on their way to the chimney.
The primary advantages of gasfiring are that less fuel is required, that there is better control of the heat in the furnace, and that larger and more accessible furnaces can be built.
One man who understands the use of gaseous fuel can regulate the heat of a thousand or more retorts.
When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.
But in some cases in which the current is used for electrolysis and for the production of extremely high temperatures, for which the calorific intensity of ordinary fuel is insufficient, the electric furnace is employed with advantage.
There are also two kinds of shrubby plants, a thorny Composita called " ccanlli " and another, called " tola," which is a resinous Baccharis and is used for fuel.
The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.
Iron ores are found in Piura, the Huaylas valley, Aya, and some other places, but the deposits have not been worked through lack of fuel.
Some of the mountains are almost entirely composed of naked calcareous rock, but most of them wereformerly covered to their summits with forests of oaks, chestnuts, or pine trees, now destroyed to provide fuel.
In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
It must be borne in mind that the signification now attached to the word coal is different from that which formerly obtained when wood was the only fuel in general use.
This, although of very small value as fuel, commands a specially high price for gas-making.
Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.
Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.
The term is more customarily given to productions of flame such as we have in the burning of oils, gas, fuel, &c., but it is conveniently extended to other cases of oxidation, such as are met with when metals are heated for a long time in air or oxygen.
In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
of the city and wells throughout the city; petroleum is largely employed as fuel in factories.
The first competition in connexion with alcohol as a fuel for motor vehicles took place in France in 1901, followed in the next year by German investigations, but its employment for this purpose did not make much headway.
In the event of its production being a commercial possibility it should, therefore, form a valuable addition to the liquid-fuel resources of the world (see Fuel) .
Alcohol and Petrol as Fuel.
It would appear, however, that the production of power alcohol within the British Empire from waste materials, which can be collected and treated at low cost, offers the best chance of the solution of the problem of the supply to the United Kingdom of an alternative liquid fuel for internal-combustion engines.
The German production of alcohol had fallen off very much since the war, and little if any was being used for motors, benzol being the fuel principally employed.
in varnish manufacture; it is also used for a fuel; a purer product is extensively used in the colour and fine chemical industries.
Various machines have been constructed to perform this operation, some of them specially designed for the use of troops in the field; those in which economy of fuel is studied have an exchange-heater, by means of which the incoming cold water receives heat from the outgoing hot water, which thus arrives at the point of outflow at a temperature nearly as low as that of the supply.
The cold sometimes is severely felt by the poor classes owing to want of proper fuel, for which a great part of the population has no substitute except dried cowdung.
Gradually, from dealing in coal, he became himself the owner of several mines and extended his business to the manufacture of different kinds of fuel such as briquettes.
Gas is used as fuel for the melting furnaces at Philadelphia.
At Denver and Ottawa the fuel used is " first distillate " oil, which is found to be cheaper than either naphtha or gas.
At the Denver mint the crucibles are used for from twelve to fifteen meltings with oil fuel, whereas they were soon destroyed when gas was employed.
Excluding Coal for Fuel by Ocean Steamers.
and Mrs Fitzherbert; and this incident, trumpery as it was, added fuel to the disloyal flame then raging.
Valuable timber was afforded by the vast forest of the Weald, but the restrictions imposed on the felling of wood for fuel did serious detriment to the iron-trade, and after the statute of 1558 forbidding the felling of timber for iron-smelting within fourteen miles of the coast the industry steadily declined.
Natural gas derived from the Kansas fields became available for lighting and heating, and crude oil for fuel, in 1906.
The coal is all in the form of brown lignite and is not very valuable as a fuel, as it soon crumbles into a fine powder on being exposed to air.
It is dried, and sold to the common people as fuel.
Sarzana has one of the most important glass-bottle factories in Italy, also brick-works and a patent fuel factory.
Charcoal is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes.
An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.
Many of the Mexican railways are using these fuel oils, which are superseding imported coal.
The coal, however, is not mined, and much of the destruction of timber in southern Bechuanaland was caused by the demand for fuel for Kimberley.
It makes good fuel for clay-burning.
But it is to be remembered that the amount and the fuel value of both the lignite and, to a lesser degree, the sub-bituminjus coals, is uncertain to a high degree.
Coal of a bituminous and also semi-anthracite kind is produced, the best mined on the Pacific slope of the continent, the coking coals of the Fernie region supplying the fuel of the great metal mining districts of the Kootenays in British Columbia, and of Montana and other states to the south.
Fuel is imported, chiefly from the United Kingdom.
When these fires occur while the trees are full of sap, a curious mucilaginous matter is exuded from the half-burnt stems; when dry it is of pale reddish colour, like some of the coarser kinds of gum-arabic, and is soluble in water, the solution resembling gumwater, in place of which it is sometimes used; considerable quantities are collected and sold as " Orenburg gum "; in Siberia and Russia it is occasionally employed as a semi-medicinal food, being esteemed an antiscorbutic. For burning in close stoves and furnaces, larch makes tolerably good fuel, its value being estimated by Hartig as only one-fifth less than that of beech; the charcoal is compact, and is in demand for iron-smelting and other metallurgic uses in some parts of Europe.
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
in height, is predominant, and on account of the dense undergrowth chiefly of ferns and climbing vines, forms the most impenetrable of the forests; its hard wood is used chiefly for fuel.
After suffering dreadfully from want of wafer and fuel they entered Kansu, having recrossed the flooded Hwang-ho, but it was not till January 1845 that they reached Tang-Kiul on the boundary.
In drilling for some of the first oil wells gas escaped, and in a few instances this was used as a fuel for generating steam in the boilers of the drilling-engines.
A little later, about 1868, successful experiments were made with gas as a manufacturing fuel, and in 1872 the gas industry was fairly well established near Titusville by drilling a well and piping the gas for consumption both as fuel and light.
The state ranks second to New York in the value of its manufactures, which increased from $155,044,910 in 1850 to $1,955,551,332 (factory products alone) in 1905, a growth which has been promoted by an abundance of fuel, by a good port on the Atlantic seaboard, by a network of eanals which in the early years was of much importance in connecting the port with the Mississippi river system, by its frontage on Lake Erie which makes the ores of the Lake Superior region easily accessible, and by a great railway system which has been built to meet the demands arising from the natural resources.
(In this outer court, in all the earlier foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and inner courts are connected by a long passage (F), wide enough to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the cells of the brethren with fuel.
Wood fuel is scarce, the present supply being from the Tortum district, whence surface coal and lignite are also brought; but the usual fuel is tezek or dried cow-dung.
Some of the coal and lignite mines in Tortum have been recently worked to supply fuel for Erzerum.
By 1888 Hall was at work on a commercial scale at Pittsburg, reducing German alumina; in 1891 the plant was removed to New Kensington for economy in fuel, and was gradually enlarged to 150o h.p.; in 1894 a factory driven by water was erected at Niagara Falls, and subsequently works were established at Shawenegan in Canada and at Massena in the United States.
The bath is heated internally with the current rather than by means of external fuel, because this arrangement permits the vessel itself to be kept comparatively cool; if it were fired from without, it would be hotter than the electrolyte, and no material suitable for the construction of the cell is competent to withstand the attack of nascent aluminium at high temperatures.
This access is especially desirable as regards the store-yards and framing ground, where fermenting manures and tree leaves for making up hot beds, coals or wood for fuel and ingredients for composts, together with flower-pots and the many necessaries of garden culture, have to be accommodated.
Care should be taken to allow sufficient room to properly manipulate the fires and to store fuel.
It is important that the ventilation should be as efficient as practicable, especially where coke fuel is to be used.
This is owing to various causes: the amount of hilly and mountainous country, the thinness of the population and the necessity of keeping a given extent of ground under wood for the supply of fuel.
Foremost among these elements is carbon, which iron inevitably absorbs from the fuel used in extracting it from its ores.
But in spite of the activity of the iron manufacture in many of the Roman provinces, especially England, France, Spain, Carinthia and near the Rhine, the little forges in which iron was extracted from the ore remained, until the 14th century, very crude and wasteful of labour, fuel, and iron itself: indeed probably not very different from those of a thousand years before.
Moreover, this same carburizing action of the fuel would at times go so far as to turn part of the metal into a true cast iron, so brittle that it could not be worked at all.
It is of the familiar type of the replacing of the simple but wasteful by the complex and economical, and it was begun unintentionally in the attempt to save fuel and labour, by increasing the size and especially the height of the forge, and by driving the bellows by means of water-power.
Indeed it was the use of water-power that gave the smith pressure strong enough to force his blast up through a longer column of ore and fuel, and thus enabled him to increase the height of his forge, enlarge the scale of his operations, and in turn save fuel and labour.
And it was the lengthen ing of the forge, and the length and intimacy of contact between ore and fuel to which it led, that carburized the metal and turned it into cast iron.
The impetus which the indirect process and the acceleration of civilization in the 15th and 16th centuries gave to the iron industry was so great that the demands of the iron masters for fuel made serious inroads on the forests, and in 1558 an act of Queen Elizabeth's forbade the cutting of timber in certain parts of the country for iron-making.
This increasing scarcity of wood was probably one of the chief causes of the attempts which the iron masters then made to replace charcoal with mineral fuel.
In 1625 Stradda's attempts in Hainaut had no better success, and it was not till more than a century later that ironsmelting with mineral fuel was at last fully successful.
14 below), in which the iron lies in a chamber apart from the fire-place, and is thus protected from the carburizing action of the fuel, though heated by the flame which that fuel gives out.
These two things are done simultaneously by heating and melting the ore in contact with coke, charcoal or anthracite, in the iron blast furnace, from which issue intermittently two molten streams, the iron now deoxidized and incidentally carburized by the fuel with which it has been in contact, and the mineral matter, now called " slag."
7 and 8, of a solid column of lumps of fuel, ore and limestone, which are charged through a hopper at the top, and descend slowly as the lower end of the column is eaten off through the burning away of its coke by means of very hot air or " blast " blown through '?
lime of the limestone and the ash of the fuel to form a complex molten silicate called the " cinder " or " slag."
Part of the resultant carbonic acid is again deoxidized to carbonic oxide by the surrounding fuel, CO 2 + C = 2C03 and the carbonic oxide thus formed deoxidizes more iron oxide, &c. As indicated in fig.
7) the solid matter has become so hot that the now deoxidized iron melts, as does the slag as fast as it is formed by the union of its three constituents, the gangue, the lime resulting from the decomposition of the limestone and the ash of the fuel.
In its slow descent the deoxidized iron nearly saturates itself with carbon, of which it usually contains between 3.5 and 4%, taking it in part from the fuel with which it is in such intimate contact, and in part from the finely divided carbon deposited within the very lumps of ore, by the reaction 2C0 C+C02.
The fuel has, in addition to its duties of deoxidizing and carburizing the iron and yielding the heat needed for melting both the iron and slag, the further task of desulphurizing the iron, probably by the reaction FeS+CaO+C=Fe+CaS+CO.
The duty of the limestone (CaCO 3) is to furnish enough lime to form with the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel a lime silicate or slag of such a composition (1) that it will melt at the temperature which it reaches at about level A, of fig.
Of these the silica and alumina are chiefly those which the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel introduce, whereas the lime is that added intentionally to form with these others a slag of the needed physical properties.
The furnace is made rather narrow at the top or " stock line," in order that the entering ore, fuel and flux may readily be distributed evenly.
the air forced in for the purpose of burning the fuel, is usually pre-heated, and in some of the most progressive works is dried by Gayley's refrigerating process.
These steps lead to a saving of fuel so great as to be astonishing at first sight - indeed in case of Gayley's blast-drying process incredible to most writers, who proved easily and promptly to their own satisfaction that the actual saving was impossible.
it still necessarily contains so much carbonic oxide, usually between 20 and, 26% by weight, that it is a very valuable fuel,.
- The combined fluxing and abrading action of the descending charge tends to wear away the lining of the furnace where it is hottest, which of course is near its lower end, thus changing its shape materially, lessening its efficiency, and in particular increasing its consumption of fuel.
These large charges are puddled by two gangs of four men each, and a great saving in fuel and labour is effected.
The steel dissolves the carbon of this fuel even more quickly than water would dissolve salt under like conditions.
Compared with the Bessemer process, which converts a charge of even as much as 20 tons of pig iron into steel in a few minutes, and the open-hearth process which easily treats charges of 75 tons, the crucible process is, of course, a most expensive one, with its little 80-lb charges, melted with great consumption of fuel because the heat is kept away from the metal by the walls of the crucible, themselves excellent heat insulators.
Of the two the cupola is very much the more economical of fuel, thanks to the direct transfer of„ heat from the burning coke to the pig iron with which it is in contact.
Because this pipe is due to the difference in the rates of contraction of interior and exterior, it may be lessened by retarding the cooling of the mass as a whole, and it may be prevented from stretching down deep by retarding the solidification of the upper part of the ingot, as, for instance, by preheating the top of the mould, or by covering the ingot with a mass of burning fuel or of molten slag.
31, has three advantages - (1) that the temperature is adjusted with absolutely no consumption of fuel; (2) that the waste of iron due to the oxidation of the outer crust of the ingot is very slight, because the little atmospheric oxygen initially in the pit is not renewed, whereas in a common heating furnace the flame brings a constant fresh supply of oxygen; and (3) that the ingot remains upright during solidification, so that its pipe is concentrated at one end and is thus removable.
flexibility thus gained outweighs the cost of the fuel used and the increased loss of iron by oxidation by the Siemens gas flame.
In the absence of fuel the industry is necessarily a small one.
And Russia draws her own supplies of petroleum, both for lighting and for use as liquid fuel, by the sea route from Baku.
In north Germany peat is also of importance as a fuel; the area of the peat moors in Prussia is estimated at 8000 sq.
This added fresh fuel to the public excitement, and when Thompson came over in the next spring, the hostility to the cause began to manifest itself in mobs organized to suppress the discussion of the slavery question.
It is used in the building of the houses of the fellahin, as fuel, and, when green, as food for cattle.
Some of them keep small shops, and all fetch water, make fuel, and cook for their households.
peat bogs which supply a large proportion of the fuel locally used.
The woods consist mostly of beech, which is principally used for fuel, but pines were extensively planted during the 19th century.
By this method grinding the hard limestone is avoided, but there is an extra expenditure of fuel in the double burning.
Another form is the Hoffmann or ring kiln, made up of a number of compartments arranged in a ring and connected with a central chimney; in these compartments rough brick-shaped masses of the raw materials are stacked, and between these bricks fuel is sprinkled.
(It may be noted that here and generally in this article "burn" is used in the technical sense; it is technically correct to speak of cement clinker Surninq being "burned," although it is not a fuel; in accurate terms it is the fuel which is burned, and it is the heat it generates which raises the clinker to a high temperature, i.e.
technically "burns" it.) By this de vice a great part of the heat is regenerated and a saving of fuel is effected.
In the early days of rotatory kilns producer gas was used as a fuel, but with little success; about 1895 petroleum was used in the United States with complete success, but at a relatively heavy cost.
On its way down the cylinders the clinker meets a current of cold air and is cooled, the air being correspondingly warmed and passing on to aid in the combustion of the fuel used in heating the kiln.
rotatory cement plant on the Hurry & Seaman system, which was one of the first to make cement by the rotatory process successfully on a large scale, using powdered coal as fuel.
_?: of whatever type is apt to contain a certain amount (5 Medway: its setting time is calcium sulphate, naturally formed from the sulphur in the raw materials or fuel, or intentionally added to the finished cement as gypsum or plaster of Paris.
Keene's cement and its congeners are made in fixed kilns so constructed that only the gaseous products of combustion come into contact with the gypsum to be burnt, in order to avoid contamination with the ash of the fuel.
Both green and dry it forms excellent fuel.
The latter was formerly often constructed as a reverberatory furnace, which is easy to build and to work, but the hydrochloric acid given off here, being mixed with the products of the combustion of the fuel, cannot be condensed to strong acid and is partly, if not entirely, wasted.
This requires more time and fuel than the work in " open " furnaces, but in the muffles the gaseous hydrochloric acid is separated from the fire-gases, just like that evolved in the pot, and can therefore be condensed into strong hydrochloric acid, like the pot-acid.
The sulphuric acid, of which 6 or 7 parts are used to one of impure liquid hydrochloric acid, is always reserved for usein the same process, by driving off the excess of water in a lead pan, fired from the top, so that the principal expense of the process is that of the fuel required for the last operation.
The most efficient evaporating apparatus, as far as economy of fuel is concerned, is the vacuum-pan, of which from two to five are combined to form a set, but it has the drawback that the removal of the salts is much more difficult than with the ?,,..
By this means the latent heat of the steam, issuing from all pans but the last, is utilized for evaporating purposes, and from half to three-fourths of the fuel is saved.
The fuel required is less than half the amount used in the Leblanc process.
This coal-field, now largely worked, is the property of the East Indian railway, which is thus supplied with fuel at a cheaper rate than any other railway in the world.
The real difficulty in India is to find the ore, the fuel, and the flux in sufficiently close proximity to yield a profit.
But as the pressure of population on the soil became more dense, and the construction of railways increased the demand for fuel, the question of forest conservation forced itself into notice.
The Famine Commission of 1878 urged the importance of forest conservancy as a safeguard to agriculture, pointing out that a supply of wood for fuel was necessary if cattle manure was to be used to any extent for the fields, and also that forest growth served to retain the moisture in the subsoil.
In these forests every reasonable facility is afforded to the people concerned for the full and easy satisfaction of their needs, which are generally for small timber for building or fuel, fodder and grazing for their cattle, and edible products for themselves; and considerations of forest income are subordinated to those purposes.
These are managed mainly in the interests of the surrounding population, and supply grazing or fuel to them at moderate rates, higher charges being levied on consumers who are not inhabitants of the locality.
The immediate cause of collapse seems to have been cold, due to the deficiency of oil fuel in the Mount Hooper depot, the reason for which was stated to be evaporation through defective stoppers.
The continuous flow method is specially applicable to the important case of calorific value of gaseous fuel, where a large quantity of heat is continuously generated at a nearly uniform rate by combustion.
Aspen wood makes but indifferent fuel, but charcoal prepared from it is light and friable, and has been employed in gunpowder manufacture.
The wood is soft and neither strong nor durable; it burns better in the green state than that of most trees, and is often used by the hunters of the North-West as fuel; split into thin layers, it was formerly employed in the United States for bonnet and hat making.
This objection to the air-engine arises from the fact that the heat comes to it from external combustion; it disappears when internal combustion is resorted to; that is to say, when the heat is generated within the envelope containing the working air, by the combustion there of gaseous or other fuel.
The Popo Agie and Lander fields produce the largest quantities of oil, the wells being partly gushers from which a heavy fuel oil is obtained.
The Hartville iron deposits are worked by the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, which ships large quantities of ore to its furnaces at Pueblo, Colorado.
The upper stratum is struck at a depth of 600 to 700 ft., and yields a natural liquid fuel of heavy specific gravity.
Rule Ix.-Cargo, Ship'S Materials, And Stores Burnt For Fuel Cargo, ship's materials and stores, or any of them, necessarily burnt for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be admitted as G.A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel had been provided; but the estimated quantity of coals that would have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship's last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged to the shipowner and credited to the G.A.
It is estimated, however, that the domestic use of wood (especially for fuel) represents nearly five times as many cubic feet as the wood used for export in different shapes.
Many of the steamers use as fuel mazut or petroleum refuse.
Stall and heap roasting require considerable time, and can only be economically employed when the loss of the sulphur is of no consequence; they also occupy much space, but they have the advantage of requiring little fuel and handling.
Reverberatory roasting does not admit of the utilization of the waste gases, and requires fine ores and much labour and fuel; it has, however, the advantage of being rapid.
They involve high cost in fuel and labour, but permit the utilization of the waste gases.
Furnaces with rotating working chambers admit of continuous working; the fuel and labour costs are both low.
The M`Dougall-Herreshoff, working on ores of over 30% of sulphur, requires no fuel; but in furnaces of the reverberatory type fuel must be used, as an excess of air enters through the slotted sides and the hinged doors which open and shut frequently to permit of the passage of the rakes.
The consumption of fuel, however, does not exceed i of coal to io of ore.
In reverberatory furnaces it is smelted by fuel in a fireplace, separate from the ore, and in cupolas the fuel, generally coke, is in direct contact with the ore.
To-day more than eight-tenths of the copper ores of the world are reduced to impure copper bars or to fine copper at the mines; and where the character of the ore permits, the cupola furnace is found more economical in both fuel and labour than the reverberatory.
At Tilt Cove, Newfoundland, the Cape Copper Company smelted copper ore, with just the proper proportion of sulphur, iron and silica, successfully without any fuel, when once the initial charge had been fused with coke.
When, however, a hot blast is used on highly sulphuretted copper ores, a concentration of 8 of ore into i of matte is obtained, with a consumption of less than one-third the fuel which would be consumed in smelting the charge had the ore been previously calcined.
Austin, of Denver, Colorado, and both at Leadville and Silverton raw ores are successfully smelted with as low a fuel consumption as 3 of coke to zoo of charge.
Two types of pyritic smelting may be distinguished: one, in which the operation is solely sustained by the combustion of the sulphur in the ores, without the assistance of fuel or a hot blast; the other in which the operation is accelerated by fuel, or a hot blast, or both.
The largest establishment in which advantage is taken of the self-contained fuel is at the smelting works of the Mt.
in stoves heated by extraneous fuel, and the raw ore smelted with only 3% of coke.
According to Herbert Lang, its most prominent chance of success is in localities where fuel is dear, and the ores contain precious metals and sufficient sulphides and arsenides to render profitable dressing unnecessary.
The dry way is best; the wet way is only employed when fuel is very dear, or when it is absolutely necessary that no noxious vapours should escape into the atmosphere.
The tonnage of coke and patent fuel is included in the totals: The chief receiving countries are, in order, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russian Empire, Denmark, Egypt, Holland, Argentina, Norway and Brazil.
The wood is very hard and abounds with resin, but on swampy land is of inferior quality and of little value except for fuel, for which the pitch-pine is highly prized; on drier ground the grain is fine from the numerous knots.
The richest deposits of nickel, cobalt and antimony ores are also situated in localities where there is little water and the nearest useful fuel some hundred miles away.
The tctal absence of easy means of communication, the high rates of transport, and the scarcity of fuel and water in the mineral districts made profitable operations impossible, and the corporation liquidated in f 894, after having expended a large sum of money.
The wood is excellent fuel, and makes the best charcoal.
It is much prized for bedsteads, writing-desks, shoe-lasts, &c. The wood forms excellent fuel and charcoal, while the ashes are rich in alkaline principles, furnishing a large proportion of the potash exported from Boston and New York.
The wood is inferior to that of the preceding species in strength and as fuel.
The city's industrial history dates from 18 20, when a small factory for the manufacture of scythes and sickles was set up. Natural gas, piped from Butler county, was early used here as a fuel in the iron mills.
The Swansea Valley canal has a connecting lock with this dock, and on the island between the dock and the New Cut are patent fuel works, copper ore yards and other mineral sheds and large grain stores and flour mills.
The total exports (foreign and coastwise) from Swansea during 1907 amounted to 4,825,898 tons, of which coal and coke made up 3, 6 55, 0 5 0 tons; patent fuel, 679,002 tons; tin, terne and black plates, 348,240 tons; liron and steel and their manufactures, 38,438 tons; various chemicals (mostly the by-products of the metal industries), 37,100 tons; copper, zinc and silver, 22,633 tons.
The town (which is often called "the metallurgical capital of Wales") is the chief seat of the copper, spelter, tin-plate and patent fuel industries, and has within a compass of 4 m.
gold, silver, lead, sulphate of copper, spelter, tinplates, steel and iron, nickel and cobalt, yellow metal, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, creosote, alkali, galvanized sheets, patent fuel as well as engineering works, iron foundries, large flour and provender mills, fuse works and brick works.
patent fuel is largely sent to South America, whence return cargoes of mineral ores and grain are obtained, while Germany, France, Italy, Rumania, the United States and the Far East are the chief customers for tinplates.
The wood of the horse-chestnut is soft, and serves only for the making of water-pipes, for turner's work and common carpentry, as a source of charcoal for gunpowder, and as fuel.
The glass industry was introduced from Venice in the 13th century and soon attained a vast importance; the factories are in the neighbourhood of the mountains, where minerals, and especially silica and fuel, are plentiful.
Apart from hermits there are (r) Kocvo(3caKoi, monks who possess nothing, live and eat together, and have definite tasks given them by their superiors; (2) i&copvOpaKOl, monks who live apart from each other, each receiving from the monastery fuel, vegetables, cheese, wine and a little money.
Finding that the bad quality of the steel then available for his products seriously hampered him, he began to experiment in steel-manufacture, first at Doncaster, and subsequently at Handsworth, near Sheffield, whither he removed in 1740 to secure cheaper fuel for his furnaces.
The process is suited to easy ores and a region where the climate is warm and dry, and horseor mule-power, labour and quicksilver are cheaper than fuel and water.
The total value of the articles produced in manufactories, and the increased value of materials after undergoing treatment, was £30,028,000 in 1905, of which £17,500,000 represented value of materials used and 600,000 the value of fuel: the total wages paid was £5,200,000.
The editor of Newton's Journal of Arts and Sciences speaks of it thus: - " The apparatus consists of a car containing the goods, passengers, engines, fuel, &c., to which a rectangular frame, made of wood or bamboo cane, and covered with canvas or oiled silk, is attached.
Its engine represented a third of a horse power, and the weight of the whole (engine, boiler, water, fuel, superimposed aeroplanes and ' " On Aerial Locomotion," Aeronautical Society's Report for 186.7.
The fuel used was refined gasoline, and the extreme end of the tail of the fish was utilized for a storage tank with a capacity of one quart.
The fuel was naphtha or gasoline.
Several small coal-fields rise through the Red rocks - the largest, between Stafford and Birmingham, forms the famous " Black Country," with Wolverhampton and Dudley as centres, where the manufacture of iron has preserved a historic continuity, for the great Forest of Arden supplied charcoal until the new fuel from the pits took its place.
The latter furnishes fuel to the river steamboats, and it is hoped may eventually supply the surrounding mining region.
A considerable amount of personal property, including apparel, household furniture not exceeding $ioo in value, a library not exceeding $150 in value, interest in a pew in a meeting-house, and a specified amount of fuel, provisions, tools or farming implements, and domestic animals, and one fishing boat, is also exempt from attachment.
About 1400 ships, of nearly i,000,000 tons, enter the port every year, bringing fuel and timber, and taking cargoes of iron, lead, esparto and fruit.
In 1797 glassworks which were the first to use coal as a fuel in making glass were built here; later Pittsburg profited greatly by the use of its great store of natural gas in the manufacture of glass.
The absence of large towns in Abyssinia proper is due to the provinces into which the country is divided having been for centuries in a state of almost continual warfare, and to the frequent change of the royal residences on the exhaustion of fuel supplies.
Natural gas is largely used as a fuel.
Lignite is used as fuel on the railways.
They received in return a plot of ground proportionate to the number of animals they owned, and had also rights of grazing and of collecting fuel in the forests.
The territory was once densely wooded, and is said to derive its name from the Moorish Aldarra, " the place thick with trees"; but almost all the forests have been destroyed for fuel.
They till the soil and bring rice, fuel, timber, grass-cloth, &c., to the Chinese markets.
The roasting of pyrites always takes place without using any extraneous fuel, the heat given off by the oxidation of the sulphur and the iron being quite sufficient to carry on the process.
The highest strength of sulphuric acid practically attainable by boiling down is 98% H 2 SO 4, and this is only exceptionally reached, since it involves much expenditure of fuel, loss of acid and wear and tear of apparatus.
As the Badische process effects this prevention by cooling the contact apparatus by means of the gaseous mixture to be later submitted to the catalytic action, the mixture is at the time heated up to the requisite temperature, and a considerable saving of fuel is the consequence.
The growth in the preceding decade of the iron and steel industry, the products of which increased in value from $4,742,760 in 1890 to $19,338,481 in 1900 (307.7%), and of the manufacture of glass, the value of which increased from $2,995,409 in 1890 to $ 1 4,757, 88 3 in 1900 (392.7%), is directly attributable to the development of natural gas as fuel; the decrease in the value of the products of these same industries in1900-1905is partly due to the growing scarcity of the natural gas supply.
The lignite found near the Colorado line makes a valuable domestic fuel.
The furnace A is built of fire-brick, coke is charged at the top through the iron door B, and near the bottom are placed fire bars C, upon which the fuel lies.
In all the attempts to make water gas, up to that date, the incandescence of the fuel had been obtained by" blowing "so deep a bed of fuel that carbon monoxide and the residual nitrogen of the air formed the chief products, this mixture being known as" producer "gas.
Under these conditions producer gas ceases to exist as a by-product, and the gases of the blow consist merely of the incombustible products of com plete combustion, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the result being that more than three times / the heat is developed for the combustion of the same amount of fuel, and nearly double the quantity of water gas can be made per pound of fuel than was before possible.
Gas for Fuel and Power.
The fuel employed should be non-bituminous coal anthracite or coke, or at least so much of these materials should be mixed with ordinary coal that no semi-solid cakes of the kind just described are formed.
14 and 15 show Liegel's producer, the special object of which is to deal with any fuel (coal or coke) giving a tough, pasty slag on combustion.
Such slags act very prejudicially by impeding the up-draught of the air and the sinking of the fuel; nor can they FIG.
The grate b retains any small pieces of fuel, but allows the liquid cinder to pass through.
This is done, without interfering with the blast, in order to keep the fuel at the proper level in L, according to the indications of the burning zone, as shown through the peep-holes B 1 to B4.
Below K the fuel is lying in a conical heap, leaving the ring channel A free.
G is the pipe through which the blowing-up gas (Siemens gas) is carried away, either into the open air (where it is at once burned) or into a pre-heater for the blast, or into some place where it can be utilized as fuel.
See Mills and Rowan, Fuel and its Application (London, 1889); Samuel S.
Much wood is exported for building and other purposes, and in the Harz itself is used as fuel.
Other imports are fuel, iron and groceries.
They have a habit of depositing their droppings during successive days on the same spot - a habit appreciated by the Peruvian Indians, who use those deposits for fuel.
Silver, lead and iron ores occur in several localities; but the want of fuel is an obstacle to their exploitation.
Locke's Vindication, followed by a Second Vindication in 1697, added fuel to this fire.
A little of it is used for fuel for the engines and for bedding the stock; but the bulk of it is dragged away from the threshing machine by machinery, and left lying in great heaps until an opportunity is afforded for burning it up. This is usually done immediately before the ploughing in the autumn.
The only seaport of importance in the county, it has a considerable export trade in peat fuel, extensive fisheries, and flagstone quarries; while general fairs, horse fairs and annual agricultural shows are held.
A succession of wet summers told against all farmers, and in mountainous districts it was difficult to dry the turf on which the people depended for fuel.
In 1830 an attempt, finally unsuccessful mainly owing to the lack of fuel, was made to smelt iron from the ores found in the vicinity.
But the blowing up of the American cruiser Maine in the port of Havana added fuel to the agitation in the United States against Spanish rule in Cuba.
A violent clerical agitaticn, encouraged by the Vatican, was started, 72 Spanish archbishops and bishops presenting a joint protest to the government; Fuel was added to the fire by the introduction of a billknown as the Cadenas billforbidding the settlement of further congregations in Spain until the negotiations with the Vatican should have been completed.
The bee-keeper, therefore, by the judicious application of a little smoke from smouldering fuel, blown into the hive by means of an appliance known as a beesmoker, alarms the bees and is thus able to manipulate the frames of comb with ease and almost no disturbance.
The wood of the sunt tree is used largely for boatbuilding and for fuel, and the mahogany tree yields excellent timber.
There are about 50o coke ovens in operation at Fernie, which supply most of the smelting plants in southern British Columbia with fuel.
Small surfaces reduce first cost, but involve higher working expenses by decreasing the value of T i /(T 2 - TO, and thus demanding more energy, and consequently more fuel, to effect the given result than if larger surfaces were employed.
FURNACE, a contrivance for the production and utilization of heat by the combustion of fuel.
In the simplest cases the functions of two or more of these parts may be combined into one, as in the smith's forge, where the fire-place and heating chamber are united, the iron being placed among the coals, only the air for burning being supplied under pressure from a blowing engine by a second special contrivance, the tuyere, tuiron, twyer or blast-pipe; but in the more refined modern furnaces, where great economy of fuel is an object, the different functions are distributed over separate and distinct apparatus, the fuel being converted into gas in one, dried in another, and heated in a third, before arriving at the point of combustion in the working chamber of the furnace proper.
The essential difference in construction is that in the first class the substances heated do not come into contact with either the fuel or the furnace gases, whereas in the second they do.
The following is a detailed subdivision: (1) Fuel and substance in contact.
(3) Substance is not directly heated by the fuel or by the products of combustion.
In this article the general principles of metallurgical furnaces will be treated; the subject of gasand oil-heated furnaces is treated in the article Fuel, and of the electric furnace in the article Electrometallurgy.
deep, usually somewhat larger above than below, with a tuyere or blast-pipe of copper penetrating one of the walls near the top, with a considerable downward inclination, so that the air meets the fuel some way down.
In iron-smelting the ore is laid in a heap upon the fuel (charcoal) filling up the hearth, and is gradually brought to the metallic state by the reducing action of the carbon monoxide formed at the tuyere.
The metal sinks through the ignited fuel, forming, in the hearth, a spongy mass or ball, which is lifted out by the smelters at the end of each operation, and carried to the forge hammer.
By continuing the walls of the hearth above the tuyere, into a shaft or stack either of the same or some other section, we obtain a furnace of increased capacity, but with no greater power of consuming fuel, in which the material to be treated can be heated up gradually by loading it into the stack, alternately with layers of fuel, the charge descending regularly to the point of combustion, and absorbing a proportion of the heat of the flame that went to waste in the open fire.
The consuming power of the furnace or the rate at which it can burn the fuel supplied is measured by the number of tuyeres and their section.
Blast furnaces are, from the intimate contact between the burden to be smelted and the fuel, the least wasteful of heat; but their use supposes the possibility of obtaining fuel of good quality and free from sulphur or other substances likely to deteriorate the metal produced.
In all cases, therefore, where it is desired to do the work out of contact with the solid fuel, the operation of burning or heat-producing must be performed in a special fire-place or combustion chamber, the body of flame and heated gas being afterwards made to act upon the surface of the material exposed in a broad thin layer in the working bed or laboratory of the furnace by reverberation from the low vaulted roof covering the bed.
A third class of furnaces is so arranged that the work is done by indirect heating; that is, the material under treatment, whether subjected to calcination, fusion or any other process, is not brought in contact either with fuel or flame, but is raised to the proper temperature by exposure in a chamber heated externally by the products of combustion.
The former are used principally as casing, walls, pillars or other supporting parts of the structure, and includes ordinary red or yellow bricks, clay-slate, granite and most building stones; the latter are reserved for the parts immediately in contact with the fuel and flame, such as the lining of the fire-place, the arches, roof and flues, the lower part if not the whole of the chimney lining in reverberatory furnaces, and the whole of the internal walls of blast furnaces.
The introduction and withdrawal of the charges in fusion furnaces is effected by gravitation, the solid masses of raw ore, fuel and flux being thrown in at the top, and flowing out of the furnace at the taphole or slag run at the bottom.
- The calorific intensity of fuel is found to be very considerably enhanced, if the combustion be effected with air previously heated to any temperature between that of boiling water and a dull red heat, the same effect being observed both with solid and gaseous fuel.
Even under the most advantageous application, that of evaporation of water in a steam boiler where the gases of the fire have to travel through a great length of flues bounded by thin iron surfaces of great heat-absorbing capacity, the temperature of the current at the chimney is generally much above that required to maintain an active draught in the fireplace; and other tubes containing water, often in considerable numbers, forming the so-called fuel economizers, may often be interposed between the boiler and the chimney with marked advantage as regards saving of fuel.
In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
1 2 a In iron-smelting blast furnaces the waste gases are of considerable fuel value, and may render important services if properly applied.
Charcoal is the fuel used, and the crucibles stand upon the bottom of the clay lining.
When a large body of fuel is required, the cylinder can be lengthened by an iron hoop which fits over the top ring.
This will certainly add fuel to the arguments for an academic boycott.
You should never suffer the inconvenience of running out of fuel away from home.
It's also helping them meet a congressional mandate to the military to reduce their fuel use by 20 percent.
Most others are either retired, outside mainstream academia or tied to the fossil fuel industry.
Flammable liquids such as fuel, thinner, solvent, acetone.
All of a sudden there is no fuel to maintain the same level of intensity or to handle adversity.
aged partnership has been working to highlight the problems of fuel poverty and isolation.
About a quarter of the world's jet fuel is used by military aircraft.
This fuel network supplied all the major bomber airfields during the cold war.
Electronic fuel injection with 57 mm throttle bodies, one injector per cylinder, and an 'Air Runner ' ram air scoop.
Fuel oils are characterized by the presence of an identifiable homologous series of normal alkanes.
For example, pulverized fuel ash from power generation is widely used today.
Fuel nozzle -- device to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray.
As this embargo also concerned fuel, the UBAF found it increasingly difficult in obtaining avgas for its piston-engined aircraft and helicopters.
Fuel and oil prices BP supplied 100LL avgas is currently available at £ 1.32 per liter incl VAT.
aviation fuel is like the aroma of sweetly scented roses to you.
Biomass products can be modified (e g. sugar cane bagasse is used as fuel, in the construction and paper industries ).
ballast tank is adjacent to the fuel oil bunker tank.
bankrolling Colombian paramilitary death squads, backing the environmental disaster that is Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and of course expanding fossil fuel production.
bauxite used will have to be shipped from overseas, causing extra fossil fuel emissions.
We have an iron bedstead each, there is a stove for which fuel is supplied.
Direct electricity is the most environmentally benign fuel known to man.
It covers your current fuel use and also pays off a certain amount of your unpaid bill each week.
Mrs Green's fuel bills are £ 12.50 per week.
Some machines have an instrument binnacle mounted on the fuel tank with the filler cap or caps offset to one or both sides.
bio fuel in my own car!
Thirdly we expect that synthetic fuel would be made from other sources of energy, including bioengineering.
biofuel industries require about 100 times more workers per unit of energy produced than the fossil fuel industry.
The clean biogas is then stored at pressure for use in the fuel cell.
blacktop burnout Saturday night, someone cut both his fuel lines, The '32 burst into flames.
This year the IRL is running a 90 percent methanol, 10 percent ethanol fuel blend in its cars.
The skins of the seals and the caribou were used for clothing and tents, while seal blubber was used for fuel and light.
At the moment leisure boaters in the UK fill up with red diesel, a fuel taxed at a lower rate than roadside diesel.
Trouble is, you have to maintain the water at a rolling boil for 5 minutes - an extra burden on your fuel supplies.
Automated pellet boilers make wood fuel almost as convenient as gas.
Programs like this fuel the misplaced bravado of the sort of idiots shown, arguably persuading more of them to go next time.
The herring industry used large quantities of fuel, as did baking, brewing and simply keeping warm.
In 1848 the GLCC supplied tar to the Wylan Patent fuel Co, Greenwich, for making fuel briquettes with coal dust.
True, he did refer to the high cost of fuel which make transport costs particularly burdensome.
Between them, belching and biomass burning make the second largest contribution to global warming after fossil fuel burning.
calorific value of the fuel is needed to convert to energy units.
Reay brings up the old canard about the total fuel cycle costs for nuclear energy.
The DPRK will resume canning of remaining spent fuel rods starting in mid-September.
Run the stove (which most cant by emptying the boiler) and rely on your ducting and burn less fuel.
However my 45 liter fuel tank capacity will easily take me to the capitol from the border at Kariba.
These ensure that manufacturers can enjoy the advantages of lower fuel bills and reduced environmental emissions without having to make any large-scale capital expenditure.
For live aboard's the use of a solid fuel cabin heater should be treated with caution as all wood smoke contains carbon monoxide.
cause fuel oil on the surface of the water was causing terrible problems for men waiting to be rescued.
The oxygen needed by a fuel cell is usually simply obtained from air.
cerium oxide electrolyte fuel cells.
Modified deep V hull with reverse chines to give soft dry ride, maximum speed, with minimum fuel consumption.
Sastak has chippers and shredders to convert this to wood fuel, mulch etc.
The airbox cover features an inset chrome console holding an LED display for the fuel gage, indicator lights and a clock.
Try using manual circuit breakers to cut power to the fuel flow.
circumvent the international ban on aviation fuel tax.
The Green Party's proposed taxes would very neatly circumvent the international ban on aviation fuel tax.
Advanced gas cooled reactor A development of the Magnox reactor, using enriched uranium oxide fuel in stainless steel cladding.
cockpit of aircraft is full of sensors; altimeters to measure the altitude, fuel levels are shown on gages.
The U.S. Government owns and operates 30 fuel cell cogeneration units, the world's largest fleet of fuel cells.
colorless, odorless gas, leaking from fuel burning appliances.
combustion of fossil fuel.
CO is produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel.
These parameters are tested in both liquid and gaseous fuel combustions.
The number of cloud droplets is found to be higher in regions of fossil fuel combustion.
It is produced by incomplete, or inefficient, combustion of fuel including ' cold ' or badly tuned engines.
commercial vehicles can easily dispense millions of liters of fuel per year.
Fuel cells will have to be much cheaper to become commercial in vehicles.
concessionary fare reimbursement and ' subsidy ' includes revenue support and fuel duty rebate.
conciliatory noises from Tory spokesmen, there has been no commitment to lowering the tax on fuel.
The dried residue largely comprised of olive colored concretion in which bone was rare to occasional, charcoal occasional and vitrified fuel ash rare.
It is not always easy to locate individuals who are experiencing fuel poverty because of their cold, damp living conditions.
fuel consumption is amazing, 4 hour flights become a true reality.
continuation of the freeze in all road fuel duties, in response to the continued volatility in oil prices.
The renovation or of a rural dwelling or barn conversion is yelling out for a solid fuel burning range cooker.