P. Leroux discovered that iodine vapour refracted the red rays more than the violet, the intermediate colours not being transmitted; and in 1870 Christiansen found that an alcoholic solution of fuchsine refracted the violet less than the red, the order of the successive colours being violet, red, orange, yellow; the green being absorbed and a dark interval occurring between the violet and red.
FUCHSINE, or Magenta, a red dyestuff consisting of a mixture of the hydrochlorides or acetates of pararosaniline and rosaniline.
An aqueous solu tion of fuchsine is decolorized on the addition of sulphurous acid, the easily soluble fuchsine sulphurous acid being formed.
The constitution of the fuchsine bases (pararosaniline and rosaniline) was determined by E.
Hofmann having previously shown that oxidation of pure aniline alone or of pure toluidine yielded no fuchsine, whilst oxidation of a mixture of aniline and para-toluidine gave rise to the fine red dyestuff para-fuchsine (pararosaniline hydrochloride) CH 3 C 6 H 4 NH 2 +2C 6 H 5 NH 2 +30 = HOC(C 6 H 4 NH 2) 3 +2H20.
It occasionally acts as an oxidizing agent, as in the preparation of quinoline and fuchsine.
Reference should be made to the articles Dyeing, Fuchsine, Safranine, Indulines, for more details On this subject.
In commerce three brands of aniline are distinguished - aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of equimolecular quantities of aniline and orthoand para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (echappes) of the fuchsine fusion.
Aldehydes are characterized by the reddish-violet colour which they give with a solution of fuchsine that has been decolorized by sulphurous acid (H.
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