According to Grand' Eury, the Palaeostachya fructification was most commonly associated with Asterophyllites foliage.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
The fructification appears in March and April, terminating in short unbranched stems. It is said to produce diarrhoea in such cattle as eat it.
The fructification in this species is cylindrical, and in that of E.
In this species the fructification is conical or lanceolate, and is found in April on short, stout, unbranched stems which have large loose sheaths.
Portions of the fructification may be preserved in small envelopes attached to the sheets.
Fructification of the fungus, entire and in section; the latter shows the asci containing ascospores, much enlarged.
Portion of vine root, showing masses of fructification (perithecia) of the fungus (reduced).
Their formation from buds which normally would have yielded leaves and shoots is explained by Parfitt as the outcome of an effort at fructification induced by oviposition, such as has been found to result in several plants from injury by insect-agency or otherwise.
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
In the two genera of lichens - the Basidiolichens - i n which the fungus is a member of the Basidiomycetes, we have the fructification characteristic of that class of fungi: these are dealt with separately.
Most systems agree in deriving the major divisions from the characters of the reproductive organs (perithecia, apothecia, or basidiospore bearing fructification), while the characters of the algal cells and those of the thallus generally are used for the minor divisions.
Any sudden decrease of warmth would be very prejudicial to the progress of vegetation through the successive stages of foliation, inflorescence and fructification.
The same functions of storage in advance of fructification are also exercised by the stromata so common in Ascomycetes.
In such examples as the above we may regard the hymenium (Solenia, Cyphella), zygospores, or asci as truly invested by later growth, but in the vast majority of cases the processes which result in the enclosure of the spores, asci, &c., in a "fructification" are much more involved, inasmuch as the latter is developed in the interior of hyphal tissues, which are by no means obviously homologous with a stroma.
Whether a true sexual process precedes these processes or not does not affect the present question, the point being that the resulting spheroidal "fructification" (cleistocarp, perithecium) has a definite wall of its own not directly comparable with a stroma.
Diagrammatic section of the fructification.
These three elements - trichogyne, trichophoric cell, and carpogenic cell - are regarded as the procarp. The spermatia have been shown by Thaxter to fuse with the trichogyne, after which the axial cell below (carpogenic cell) undergoes divisions, and ultimately forms asci containing ascospores, while cells investing this form a perithecium, the whole structure reminding us essentially of the fructification of a Pyrenomycete.
The two species cultivated for jute fibre are in all respects very similar to each other, except in their fructification and the relatively greater size attained by C. capsularis.
Myxococcus digelatus,bright red fructification occurring on dung (X 120).
Polyangium primigenum, red fructification on dog's dung (X40) C. Chondromyces apiculatus, orange fructification on antelope's dung.
Young fructification (X45) E.
Abnormal specimens of Equisetum in which the strobilus is interrupted by whorls of leaves are of interest for comparison with the fructification of Phyllotheca.
When the survey is extended to the extinct Ferns of which the fructification is known, many of those from the more ancient rocks are found to group themselves with the existing sub-orders with large sporangia, such as the Marattiaceae, Gleicheniaceae and Schizaeaceae; the Polypodiaceae, on the other hand, do not appear until much later.
If sporangia and spores are present they also may persist in a perfectly recognizable form, and in fact much of our knowledge of the fructification of fossil Ferns and similar plants has been derived from specimens of this kind.
It was once regarded as connected with Nematophycus (with which it sometimes occurs in association), possibly as its fructification.
This form of fructification appears, from Zeiller's researches, to have been common to several species of Sphenophyllum, but others show important differences.
Thus Bowmanites Romeri, a fructification fully investigated by Solms-Laubach, differs from S.
- The family Cheirostrobeae is only known from the petrified fructification (Cheirostrobus pettycurensis) derived from the Lower Carboniferous of Burntisland in Scotland.
Williamson thoroughly worked out, in petrified specimens, the organization of a cone which he named Bowmanites Dawsoni; it was subsequently demonstrated by Zeiller that this fructification belonged to a Sphenophyllum, the cones of the well known species S.
The type of fructification described by Williamson and now named Sphenophyllum Dawsoni consists of long cylindrical cones, in external habit not unlike those of some Calamarieae.
The characters of Sphenophyllum are known with some completeness, while our knowledge of Cheirostrobus confined to the fructification; the former therefore be described first.
The great length and slender proportions of the segments give the cone a peculiar character, but the relations of position appear to leave no doubt as to the homologies with the fructification of Sphenophylleae; as regards the sporangiophores, Bowmanites Romeri occupies exactly the middle place between S.
The fructification consists of long, lax spikes, with whorled sporophylls; indications of megaspores have been detected in the sporangia.
The female fructification is in the form of a rather lax strobilus.
The nature of the fructification of Sigillaria was first satisfactorily determined in 1884 by Zeiller, who found the characteristic Sigillarian leaf-scars on the peduncles of certain large strobili (Sigillariostrobus).
The discovery of Sigillariostrobus, which was the fructification of Subsigillariae as well as of the ribbed species, has finally determined the question of the affinities of the genus, once keenly discussed; Sigillaria is now clearly proved to have been a genus of heterosporous Lycopods, with the closest affinities to Lepidodendron.
The genus Selaginellites, Zeiller, is now used to include those forms in which the fructification has proved to be heterosporous.
Of the above, A, D, E, G and H, probably belong to true Ferns; F is the male fructification of a Pteridosperm (Lyginodendron); the rest are of doubtful nature.
15, B); the foliage of Sphenopteris, one of the most extensive of Palaeozoic frond-genera, with many different types of fructification, resembled that of various species of Asplenium or Davallia.
The magnificent Devonian Fern Archaeopteris hibernica, with a somewhat Adiantiform habit, bore special fertile pinnae; the fructification is still imperfectly understood, but the presence of stipules, observed by Kidston, has been adduced in support of Marattiaceous affinities.
The genus Diplolabis of Renault, shows much in common with Zygopteris as regards anatomical structure, but resembles Corynepteris in possessing a synangic fructification.
A number of genera of Palaeozoic " fern-fronds " have been described, of the fructification of which nothing is known.
They are of the type known as Crossotheca, formerly regarded as a Marattiaceous fructification.
It is probable that these stems belonged to plants with the fructification and foliage of Cycads, taking that group in the widest sense.
- Crossotheca Honing- fact, the leaves generally, like hausi, the male fructification of those of Stangeria at the present Lyginodendron.
Another form of fructification, compared to the sori of Dicksonia, appears to represent the male organs.
In any case the morphology of the male Cordaitean fructification is clearly very remote from that of any of the Cycads or P P (All after Renault.) Fin.
The male sporophylls are similar in form to the vegetative leaves, but smaller; sunk in their parenchyma are numerous tubular loculi, containing large pollen-grains, which are pluricellular like those of Cordaites; the female fructification had not yet been identified with certainty.
A fructification from the Permian of Autun, named Cycadospadix milleryensis by Renault, appears to belong to this family.
Some shoots are sterile while others are fertile, bearing at the apex the so-called fructification - a dense oval, oblong conical or cylindrical spike, consisting of a number of shortly-stalked peltate scales, each of which has attached to its under surface a circle of spore-cases (sporangia) which open by a longitudinal slit on their inner side.
Calamarian fructification (fig.
In this fructification the organization is at first altogether that of a Lepidostrobus; in each megasporangium, however, only a single megaspore came to maturity, occupying almost the whole of the sporangial cavity (see fig.
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