So were early autumn frosts and late spring freezes.
Coccinea, often confounded with the red oak, but with larger leaves, with long lobes ending in several acute points; they change to a brilliant scarlet with the first October frosts, giving one of the most striking of the various glowing tints that render the American forests so beautiful in autumn.
It does not, however, prevail for long, and in the first half of September frosts begin on the middle Urals.
At the head of the Humboldt river frosts are of almost nightly occurrence, and in the Carson Valley damaging frosts often occur in June.
The climate of this part of the valley is, of course, continental - frosts of - 22° F.
From it in the fertile valley of Avellino, of no great elevation, but encircled by high mountains, light frosts are not uncommon as late as June; and 18 m.
High districts covered with oaks and chestnuts succeed to this almost tropical vegetation; a little higher up and we reach the elevated regions of the Pollino and the Sila, covered with firs and pines, and affording rich pastures even in the midst of summer, when heavy dews and light frosts succeed each other in July and August, and snow begins to appear at the end of September or early in October.
Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!
The young trees require protection from storms and late frosts even more than in England; the red pine of the north-eastern states, Pinus resinosa, answers well as a nurse, but the pitch pine and other species may be employed.
Throughout the region north of the Apennines no plants will thrive which cannot stand occasional severe frosts in winter, so that not only oranges and lemons but even the olive tree cannot be grown, except in specially favoured situations.
The extreme frosts and heats of the English climate are unknown, but occasional heavy snow-falls occur, and the sea in shallow inlets is covered with a thin coating of ice.
Even in summer cold and thick fogs are often seen hanging over the rivers, and clinging to the lower parts of the hills, and hoar-frosts are by no means unknown even in June and July.
In the tropics the essential requirements are very similar, but there the dry season checks production in much the same way as do the frosts in temperate climates.
On the plains bordering the Rio Grande frosts are frequent.
Frosts of - 13° to - 18° F.
More dreaded than the frosts are the terrible burans or snowstorms, which occur in early spring and destroy thousands of horses and cattle that have been grazing on the steppes throughout the winter.
Still, at many places night frosts set in as early as the second half of July.
On the lower plateau, in Transbaikalia, grain is successfully raised in the Nerchinsk region, with serious risks, however, from early frosts in the valleys.
There are occasional frosts, but snow is never seen.
Coffee naturally occupies first place, and is grown wherever frosts are not severe from the Amazon south to Parana.
The midday temperatures recorded by Huber at Hail during January and the first half of February average about 65° F., and water froze on several nights; at Medina the winters are cold and night frosts of frequent occurrence, and these conditions prevail over all the western part of the Nejd plateau.
Autumn begins in Sept., light frosts occurring at its close.
Both of these plains are so level, and have so fertile a soil that they are the seats of extensive agriculture, especially fruit raising, which is further encouraged by the influence of the large bodies of lake water that moderate the heat of summer and the cold of winter, and tend to check the late frosts of spring and the early frosts of autumn.
In most of the state frosts begin from September 1st to October 1st, and end from April 1st to May 1st.
Along the whole west coast the climate resembles nothing in the British Islands so much as Cork and Kerry, for there are the same wet gales from a western ocean, the same clouds gathering on the dripping sides of wild mountains, an equal absence of severe frosts and hot sunshine, and a rich and evergreen vegetation.
The climate indeed is noted for its healthiness, the chief drawback being dust-storms. The average temperature for the four winter months - May-August - is 49° F.; hard frosts at night are then common.
Killing frosts often occur in June and return again early in September.
The galls are gathered before the frosts set in, and are exposed to steam to kill the insects."
Frosts are frequent, but snow rarely falls.
Above this is the tierra fria, which ranges from 5577 to 8200 ft., and includes all the higher portions of the Mexican plateau, and which corresponds to the temperate regions of Central United States where frosts are very rarely experienced.
The cultivation of osiers is attended with many disturbing causes - winter floods, spring frosts, ground vermin and insect pests of various kinds, sometimes working great havoc to the crop.
The olive has been known to survive severe cold when of short duration, but it cannot be cultivated with success where frosts are prolonged, or where the mean winter temperature falls below 42° F.; and to produce fruit it requires a heat of at least 75° F.
The protection afforded by winter snow enables the plant to resist severe and prolonged frosts, such as would be fatal in more exposed situations.
Scions from a tree which is weakly, or liable to injury by frosts, are strengthened by engrafting on robust stocks.
Wide, and should be put on during spring before the blossom buds begin to expand; they should have attached to them scrim cloth (a sort of thin canvas), which admits light pretty freely, yet is sufficient to ward off ordinary frosts; this canvas is to be let down towards evening and drawn up again in the morning.
Spectabilis, 2 to 3 ft., has paeony-like foliage, and gracefully drooping spikes of heart-shaped pink flowers, about May, but it should have a sheltered place, as it suffers from spring frosts and winds; D.
The common sort is C. nivalis, which blossoms on the first break of the winter frosts; C. Imperoti, G.
They should be protected from frosts by a covering of ashes over the crown during winter.
Prune fruit trees in mild weather or in moderate frosts, nailing only in fine weather.
Protect stage auriculas and hyacinths from extremes of every description of weather; and tulips from hoar-frosts and heavy rains.
Keep up moderate temperatures in the stove, and merely repel frosts in the greenhouse, guarding against damp, by ventilation and by the cautious use of water.
The borders must be covered sufficiently deep with leaves or manure to prevent the soil from freezing, as it would be destruction to the vines to start the shoots if the roots were frozen; hence, when forcing is begun in January, the covering should be put on in November, before severe frosts begin.
Still, frosts of - 4° to - 22° Fahr.
The growth is less checked by early frosts; and whatever advantages to the vegetation may accrue by occasional excessive warmth in the atmosphere in the early months of the year are experienced more by the irrigated than by the ordinary meadow grasses by reason of the abundant development of roots which the water has encouraged.
At this period the nights are cold, and in the north January and February are cold even in the day-time, while frosts are experienced in the neighbourhood of Lake Chad.
On neighbouring ranges, summer temperatures seldom rise above 90°, and frosts may occur at any time.
On the south coast the winter is mild, with occasional frosts and heavy rain; the summer heat is very great.
Killing frosts do not occur before the middle of October, nor later than the last part of April.
Killing frosts may occur as early as the first of October and as late as the last of May.
Everywhere, and especially in the interior, the winter lasts very long, and early frosts (June 12-14 in 1892) often destroy the crops.
In Italy, as long as orange trees were propagated by grafts, they were tender; but after many of the trees were destroyed by the severe frosts of 1709 and 1763, plants were raised from seed, and these were found to be hardier and more productive than the former kinds.
At Karesuando the last frost of spring occurs on an average on the 15th of June, and the first of autumn on the 27th of August, though night frosts may occur earlier; while at Stockholm 41 months are free of frost.
Frosts are infrequent, and snow does not lie long.
Coca, one of the most important plants of the country, is cultivated on the eastern slopes of the Andes at an altitude of 5000 to 6000 ft., where the temperature is uniform and frosts are unknown.
The date palm fruits well; figs grow luxuriantly, though requiring much irrigation; almonds do well if protected from spring frosts; seaisland cotton grows in the finest grades, but is not of commercial importance.
The crop is very uncertain owing to droughts; spring frosts and locusts, and, ' in order to avoid a total failure and to allow time for collecting the produce, there are three sowings at intervals from October to March - the crops thus coming to perfection in succession.
But the Alaska summer is the uncertain season; at times the nights are cold into July, at times snow falls and there are frosts in mid-August; sometimes rain is heavy, or again there is a veritable drought.
The grasses are killed by the frosts in September.
The summers are short, there being only about 41 months between frosts even in the southern sections, and the mean summer temperature is about 62° F.
Killing frosts occur early in September and as late as the last of May, and in the higher valleys they may occur at any time.
In the protected valleys between the high plateaus alluvial soils are cultivated; but the plateau summits are relatively inaccessible, and, being subject to summer frosts, are not cultivated.
The frosts are severe, the Danube being often icebound for three months.
While flowers bloom throughout the year at Portland, frosts have occurred in every month of the year at Lakeview, in the Great Basin.
But above all harvest as early as possible, if you would escape frosts and have a fair and salable crop; you may save much loss by this means.
But suddenly instead of those chances and that genius which hitherto had so consistently led him by an uninterrupted series of successes to the predestined goal, an innumerable sequence of inverse chances occur--from the cold in his head at Borodino to the sparks which set Moscow on fire, and the frosts--and instead of genius, stupidity and immeasurable baseness become evident.
On the plains slight frosts occur occasionally, and ice is sometimes seen on the.
The weather was already growing wintry and morning frosts congealed an earth saturated by autumn rains.