But in five other directions also the frontiers were unregulated.
The German frontiers afford most evidence of its prosperity.
The emperor's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions.
Starting from Regensburg in May 1189, the German army marched quietly through Hungary; but difficulties arose, as they had arisen in 1147, as soon as the frontiers of the Eastern empire were reached.
But all round these, as far as the frontiers, the country is inhabited by the other races, which, as a rule, occupy it in large, compact and uniform ethnographical groups.
5 1918 invited Prof. Voldemar to form the first independent administration on non-party lines and reach an understanding with the national minorities resident within the still indeterminate frontiers, viz.
Even so she owes her natural frontiers in the Scandinavian peninsula to Charles X.
Also Lord Curzon's Oxford address on Frontiers (1907).
with the help of troops from Asia Minor and employed these to guard his eastern frontiers at Defneh.
In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.
After this, except some inroads on the frontiers, the only foreign invasion which Brazil had French to suffer was from France.
The next summer she fled across the frontiers into the Netherlands, and Richelieu was made a duke.
The former frontiers no longer exist."
As a precaution against Tatar invasions he founded fortified towns on his southern frontiers - Tambov, Kozlov, Penza and Simbirsk; but when the Don Cossacks offered him Azov, which they had captured from the Turks, and a National Assembly, convoked for the purpose of considering the question, were in favour of accepting it as a means of increasing Russian influence on the Black Sea, he decided that the town should be restored to the sultan, much to the disappointment of its captors.
But long before that date the Order had begun to find that its true work lay on the eastern frontiers of Germany.
But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labour to enlarge the frontiers of life."
This, with the exception of a brief tenure of Cremona (1499-1512), formed her permanent territory down to the fall of the republic. Her frontiers now ran from the seacoast near Monfalcone, following the line of the Carnic and Julian and Raetian Alps to the Adda, down the course of that river till it joins the Po, and thence along the line of the Po back to the sea.
The Caledon also, sweeping southward, unites with the Orange beyond the frontiers of Basutoland.
Petty wars are extremely common, not only along the Chinese frontiers, but between the neighbouring clans; and the heads of the slain are carefully preserved as trophies.
A farther line, from Serajevo to the frontiers of Servia and Novibazar, was undertaken in 1902, and by 1906 782 m.
At the time of his death the Turkish Empire extended from near the frontiers of Germany to the frontiers of Persia.
Information about the Russians was very indifferent; it was only known that Prince Bagration with about 33,000 men lay grouped about Wolkowysk; Barclay de Tolly with 40,000 about Vilna; and on the Austrian frontier lay a small corps under Tormassov in process of formation, while far away on the Turkish frontiers hostilities with the sultan retained Tschitschagov with 50,000 more.
Rectifications of the frontiers with Lithuania, with regard to the coast of Polangen and the zone near Illuxt, were still in process in 1921.
"He is above all," he added, "in our eyes the representative of those sentiments and those cosmopolitan principles before which national frontiers and rivalries disappear; whilst essentially of his country, he was still more of his time; he knew what mutual relations could accomplish in our day for the prosperity of peoples.
On the western border, where the natives were of less warlike character than those on their southern and northern frontiers, intrigues were already going on with petty tribal chiefs, and the Boers drove out a portion of the Barolongs from their lands, setting up the so-called republics of Stellaland and Goshen.
ELBE (the Albis of the Romans and the Labe of the Czechs), a river of Germany, which rises in Bohemia not far from the frontiers of Silesia, on the southern side of the Riesengebirge, at an altitude of about 4600 ft.
Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy.
This province, which skirts the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Euphrates to the frontiers of Oman, is low and hot; its shores are flat, and with the exception of Kuwet at the north-west corner of the gulf, it possesses no deep water port.
BAYAZID, or Bajazet, a border fortress of Asiatic Turkey, chief town of a sanjak of the Erzerum vilayet, situated close to the frontiers of Russia and Persia, and looking across a marshy plain to the great cone of Ararat, at a general altitude of 6000 ft.
South of that point the Saharan frontiers of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli remained undefined.
With the exception of parts of the Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia frontiers, all the boundary lines have been disputed and referred to arbitration - those with Colombia and Ecuador to the king of Spain, and that with Bolivia to the president of Argentina, on which a decision was rendered on the 9th of July 1909.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
On returning to France, to the bosom of the great, strong, magnificent, peaceful, and glorious fatherland, I should have proclaimed her frontiers immutable; all future wars purely defensive, all aggrandizement antinational.
1842 laid the foundation of the plan under which the railways have since been developed, and mapped out nine main lines, running from Paris to the frontiers and from the Mediterranean to the Rhine and to the Atlantic coast.
The service in the departments comprises brigades, which are actually engaged in guarding the frontiers, and a clerical staff (service de bureau) entrusted with the collection of the duties.
The exiles were settled by Sparta in Thyreatis, on the frontiers of Laconia and Argolis.
The claims made by Germany to large areas of the hinterland gave rise to considerable negotiation with France and Great Britain, and it was not until 1899 that the frontiers were fixed on all sides.
The army is organized in 12 army corps (each of 2 divisions), 6 of which are quartered on the plain of Lombardy and Venetia and on the frontiers, and 2 more in northern Central Italy.
Antoneili profited by the situation to obtain Mneleks signature to a treaty fixing the frontiers of the Italian colony and defining Italo-Abyssinian relations.
In Europe and Asia frontiers are usually strongly fortified and strictly watched in times of peace as well as during war.
of Cologne and contiguous to the Belgian and Dutch frontiers, to which its municipal boundaries extend.
13.3, 6), quoting from Nearchus, seems to include the Susians under the Elymaeans, whom he associates with the Uxii, and places on the frontiers of Persia and Susa; but Pliny more correctly makes the Eulaeus the boundary between Susiana and Elymais (N.H.
Turning our attention westwards, no advance in the progress of scientific geography is more remarkable than that recorded on the northern and north-western frontiers of India.
No longer do we regard the Kuen-lun mountains, which extend from the frontiers of Kashmir, north of Leh, almost due east to the Chinese province of Kansu, as the southern limit of the Gobi or Turkestan depression.
26), which were glad to have on their frontiers a protector so valiant as David, even at the expense of the blackmail which he levied in return.
His father, Ebenezer Webster (1739-1806), was a sturdy frontiers - man; when, in 1763, he built his log cabin in the town of Salis - bury there was no habitation between him and Canada.
When Robert died in 9 23, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, and not by his son Hugh, who is known in history as Hugh the Great, duke of France and Burgundy, and whose domain extended from the Loire to the frontiers of Picardy.
The founder of her town life and the creator of her army, he ruled in harmony with her nobles and secured her frontiers from attack.
He, however, failed to capture Naples in August and retired north, leaving garrisons along the frontiers of the Regno.
He alone during the whole retreat insisted that battles, which were useless then, should not be fought, and that a new war should not be begun nor the frontiers of Russia crossed.
This latter sense has been adapted and extended by modern historians concerned with the frontiers of the Roman Empire.
By the death of Harun in 809, Nicephorus was left free to deal with the Bulgarian king, Krum, who was harassing his northern frontiers.
The northern frontier is a line drawn between the northernmost points of the eastern and western frontiers.
Moreover the strategic geography of the country required the greater part of the army to be stationed permanently within reach of the north-eastern and north-western frontiers.
In addition there are 22 Alpini battalions and 15 mountain batteries stationed on the Alpine frontiers.
'This attempt of Russia to secure the sole prestige of liberating Greece was, however, frustrated by the action of the other Powers in putting forward the principle of the independence of the new Greek state, with a further extension of frontiers.
Here came under the protection of the peace of God the tribes and clans which otherwise lived apart from one another and only knew peace and security within their own frontiers."
Much of this art is Greek in origin, being derived from the Perso-Greek states on the north-west frontiers.
As for France, she received the Bourbons, along with the old frontiers.
But the central power remained weak, and the country possessed no strong natural frontiers.
On the 24th of April 1877 Russia declared war and her troops crossed the Turkish frontiers.
The northern boundary is the Swakop river; east and south there are no natural frontiers.
Delimitation of Frontiers.
The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and Sao Paulo decided the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; Brazil de- a force of 5000 troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps; and the irregulars integral of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops, were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the river Uruguay.
The bad impression made by the claims now submitted to the Supreme Council was only partially removed by a speech of Trumbic and by his proposal to leave the settlement of frontiers to a plebiscite (April 16).
Save on the south-west the frontiers, fbr the main part, are well defined natural features.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.
The change would certainly have created a demand for more legions, which the resources of the Romans were not sufficient to meet without danger to their possessions on other frontiers.
Part of the same field also lies within Russian territory (Poland) near the point where the frontiers of the three powers meet.
community, is also the common speech on the French and Belgian frontiers.
During the War of Independence, as a colonel in the British army, he incited his followers to attack the western frontiers of Georgia and the Carolinas.
On the 14th of May 1910 a protocol was signed defining the new frontier as follows: From the north end of Lake Kivu the Congo-German frontier turns east by north, traversing the volcanic region of Mfumbiro, and crosses the summit of Mt Karissimbi to the summit of Mt Sabyino, where the British, Belgian and German frontiers meet.
Thanks mainly to the support of the tsar and of England these schemes were foiled; and France emerged from her disasters with frontiers which were practically those of 1792.
Isaac's only military expedition was against the Hungarians and Petchenegs, who began to ravage the northern frontiers in 1059.
During his minority the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, who in spite of several defeats inflicted upon her generals maintained the frontiers against the Saracens of Bagdad and Crete.
At another intercolonial conference at Albany, called by Burnet, a line of trading posts along the northern and western frontiers was strongly recommended.
During the war New Yorkers served with the regular troops at Niagara, Plattsburg and other places on the western and northern frontiers of the state.
The Treaty provided for the cession by Turkey to the allied Balkan sovereigns of all European Turkey west of the line Enos - Midia, but excluding Albania; for the delimitation of Albania's frontiers by the Great Powers; for the cession of Crete to Greece; and for the destination of other;Turkish islands being left to the same Powers.
The Bulgarian armies were on the Greek and Serbian frontiers; the force left in Thrace was weak, and the Turkish Government saw their opportunity.
The frontiers of an Armenian state, so far as the state should include Turkish territory, were referred to the delimitation of President Wilson, whose decision the Treaty bound the Turks to accept.
Its frontiers have a circuit of 760 m.
He extended the Saxon frontier almost to the Oder, improved the Saxon forces by training and equipment, established new marks, and erected forts on the frontiers for which he provided regular garrisons.
Then he struck terror into the wild tribes on the eastern frontiers of the kingdom by a campaign which extended into the remotest parts of Media.
The early days of the war being unsuccessful, the proclamation of the duke of Brunswick excited all hearts; who could go to save France on the frontiers and leave Paris in the hands of his enemies?
In 1862 the Indians began a series of bloody massacres along the frontiers of Minnesota and Dakota.
The peaceful internal development of Siam seemed also likely to be favoured by the events that were taking place outside her frontiers.
The frontiers of Siam, both to the east and the west, had always been vague and ill-defined, as was natural in wild and unexplored regions inhabited by more or less barbarous tribes.
In 1895 lengthy negotiations took place between France and England concerning their respective eastern and western frontiers in Farther India.
The frontiers were fixed by the Peace Treaties of St.
The prevailing element is that of the Czechs (7 millions), with whom the Slovaks (22 millions) form one people; indeed as long ago as the 9th century the kingdom of Great Moravia, with frontiers roughly identical with the present boundaries of the Czechoslovak Republic, was the creation of the Slav people, who occupied in common a territory stretching from W.
frontiers of Bohemia and in 'Moravia and Silesia.
the historic frontiers of the Czechoslovak State it would indeed have been difficult, with justice, to deduce a right of self-determination, that is to say, the right, in this case, of retaining all the fruits of misused power.
To make any alteration in its frontiers a constitutional law is required - a law which, as opposed to an ordinary law, has to be passed by a three-fifths majority of Parliament.
Hunters and fishermen frequented its innumerable rivers, returning home laden with rich store of fish and pelts, while runaway serfs occasionally settled in small communities beneath the shelter of the fortresses built, from time to time, to guard the 'southern frontiers of Poland and Muscovy.
The Cossacks were supposed to be left alone as much as possible by the Polish government so long as they faithfully fulfilled their chief obligation of guarding the frontiers of the Republic from Tatar raids.
The signal for a widespread rising was the introduction of conscription acts for the recruiting of the depleted armies on the eastern frontiers.
C.) History From a geographical point of view Algeria, together with Morocco and Tunisia, from which it is separated only by artificial and purely political frontiers, forms a distinct country, Africa which it is convenient to designate by the name of Africa Minor.
The frontiers delimited in accordance with these awards have already been described.
Lack of time alone prevented him from carrying into effect such projects as the piercing of the Isthmus of Corinth, whose object was to promote trade and intercourse throughout the Roman dominions, and we are told that at the time of his death he was contemplating the extension of the empire to its natural frontiers, and was about to engage in a war with Parthia with the object of carrying Roman arms to the Euphrates.
9), they dwelt beyond the Danube, and their frontiers extended almost as far as the Eneti on the Adriatic. Their horses (or rather, ponies) were small, with shaggy long hair, not strong enough to carry men, but very speedy when driven in harness.
They can be traced to the neighbourhood of Kashgar, but not like the Yue-Chi to the frontiers of China.
By the Land Act of 1894 the state domains, except on the coasts and frontiers, were divided into lots for sale.
Of the total of tonnage entered in 1909, 30,443,695 tons represented seaport entries, the remainder entering across the land frontiers.
The main ridge approaches the western sea, and is continued from the lofty knot of mountains on the frontiers of Samnium, nearly due south to within a few miles of the Gulf of Policastro, and thenceforward is separated from the sea by only a narrow interval till it enters the district of the Bruttii.
The Ill valley is bounded south by the snowy chain of the Rhatikon (highest point, the Scesaplana, 9741 ft., a famous view-point), and of the Silvretta (highest point, Gross Piz Buin, 1 0,880 ft.), both dividing Vorarlberg from Switzerland; slightly to the north-east of Piz Buin is the Dreilanderspitze (10,539 ft.), where the Vorarlberg, Tirolese and Swiss frontiers unite.
Alp Arslan, the son of Chakir Beg, succeeded his uncle and extended the rule of his family beyond the former frontiers.
His son and successor, Kaikaus, made peace with Lascaris and extended his frontiers to the Black Sea by the conquest of Sinope (1214).
Notwithstanding all this, the strength and reputation of the empire were so great that the Mongols hesitated to invade it, although standing at its frontiers.
With regard to France he played a more patriotic part than Conde or Turenne, for he never treated with the Spaniards, and his letters show that in the midst of his difficulties he followed with intense eagerness every movement on the frontiers.
Different states had adjusted their frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an outstanding question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had removed time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in Canada others with the United States of America, and now the most difficult kind of international questions which can arise,.
The army which guarded or coerced the province consisted, from the time of Hadrian onwards, of (I) three legions, the Second at Isca Silurum (Caerleon-on-Usk, q.v.), the Ninth at Eburacum (q.v.; now York), the Twentieth at Deva (q.v.; now Chester), a total of some 15,000 heavy infantry; and (2) a large but uncertain number of auxiliaries, troops of the second grade, organized in infantry cohorts or cavalry alae, each 500 or 1000 strong, and posted in castella nearer the frontiers than the legions.
wall, straight and rigid, towering above all surrounding hills, from the mass of mountains which overlook Kabul on the south-east to the frontiers of India, and preserving a strike which - being more or less perpendicular to the border line - is in strange contrast to the usual conformation of frontier ridge and valley.
angle of the state, in the Rhatikon range, and is named to Naafkopf or the Rothe Wand (8445 ft.); on its summit the Swiss, Vorarlberg, and Liechtenstein frontiers join.
In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII., Gaston became lieutenantgeneral of the kingdom, and fought against Spain on the northern frontiers of France; but during the wars of the Fronde he passed with great facility from one party to the other.
Though the old military training and organization continued, the people proved unable to defend the frontiers, and the land became more than ever the "dancing-ground of Ares."
9) the Rhine and the Danube formed in general the frontiers of the empire.
The southern Suebic peoples, the Alamanni and Bavarians, extended their frontiers as far as the Alps probably about the same time.
This territory came to be known to Europeans as " Tibet " evidently because the great plateau with its uplands bordering the frontiers of China, Mongolia and Kashmir, through which travellers communicated with this country, is called by the natives T o-bhot (written stod-bod) or " High Bod" or " Tibet," which designation in the loose orthography of travellers assumed a variety of forms. Thus in Chinese annals are found T'u-bat (5th century, A.D.), Tu-po-te, Tie-bu-te, T'u-bo-te (loth and firth centuries) and at the present day T'u-fan (fan, as Bushell shows, being the same.
This was the opportunity for a series of valuable exploratory journeys through the Tibetan provinces adjoining the Indian and Nepalese frontiers, which added greatly to our stock of information about Lhasa and the districts surrounding that city.
Moscrop, The Kingdom Without Frontiers (1910); W.
Thus they won the duchy of Austria with Styria in 1282, Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, Tirol in 1363, and the Vorarlberg in bits from 1375 to 1523, not to speak of minor " rectifications " of frontiers on the northern slope of the Alps.
Its land frontiers measure 793 m., divided as follows: - with Holland 269 m., with Prussia 60 m., with the grand duchy 80 m.
Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganized justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.
In 1866, with the rank of colonel, he assisted Garibaldi in Tirol, in 1867 fought at Mentana, and in 1870 conducted the negotiations with Bismarck, during which the German chancellor is alleged to have promised Italy possession of Rome and of her natural frontiers if the Democratic party could prevent an alliance between Victor Emmanuel and Napoleon.
The total length of the frontiers is thus 4569 m.
The geographical limits of the German language thus do not quite coincide with the German frontiers.
Several corps possess an extra infantry brigade of two 2-battalion regiments, but these, unless stationed on the frontiers, are gradually absorbed into new divisions and army corps.
In the first period (roughly 1871-1899), which is characterized by the development of the offensive spirit, the fortresses, except on the French and Russian frontiers, were reduced to a minimum.
In the west the Alamanni and the descendants of the Marcomanni, now called Baiouarii (Bavarians), had broken through the frontiers of the Roman provinces of Vindelicia The Rurand Noricum at the beginning of the gth century, gundians while the Vandals together with some of the Suebi andother and the non-Teutonic Alani from tile east crossed tribes.
About the same time Sigeberht was defeated by the Avars, and though the latter soon withdrew from the Frankish frontiers, their course was followed by a movement of the Slays, who occupied the basin of the Elster and penetrated to that of the Main.
This came from the Mongols who ravaged the eastern frontiers of the country, but the peril was warded off by the efforts of Henry II., duke of Silesia, who lost his life in a fight against these foes near Liegnitz in April 1241, and of Wenceslaus I., king of Bohemia.
Of the 300 odd territorial sovereignties under the Holy Empire only 39 survived, and these were readjusted on the traditional principles of compensations, rectification of frontiers and balance of power.
~ a separate legal system, and the boundaries of these, .e?~rm districts seldom coincided with the frontiers of the states.
The progress of the Russo-Japanese War, however, soon relieved Germany of all anxiety as to the safety of her eastern frontiers, and produced a corresponding change in her attitude.
On the frontiers of what is now Ontario the.
The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified.
When the house of Babenberg became extinct in 1246, Austria, stretching from Passau almost to Pressburg, had the frontiers which it retains to-day, and this increase of territory had been accompanied by a corresponding increase in wealth and general prosperity.
Such was the second partition of Poland (January 23, 1793), which eliminated the " buffer state " on which Austrian statesmanship had hitherto laid such importance, and brought the Austrian and Russian frontiers into contact.
It was not, however, until the rulers of the XVIIIth dynasty carried their victorious arms beyond the Egyptian frontiers in every direction that Ammon began to assume the proportions of a universal god for the Egyptians, eclipsing all their other deities and asserting his power over the gods of all foreign lands.
The principal treaties relating to the German frontiers were negotiated in 1886 and 1893: the Anglo-French treaties were more numerous, those of 1890 and 1898, which laid down the main lines of division between French and British possessions on the northern and western frontiers of Nigeria, having been supplemented by many lesser rectifications of frontier.
The complications to which the pressure of foreign nations, and especially of France, on the frontiers of the territories gave rise, became at this period so acute that the resources of a private company were manifestly inadequate to meet the possible necessities of the to position, Relations with.
border became so strained that in 1897 Mr Chamberlain, who was then secretary of state for the colonies, thought it necessary to raise a local force, afterwards known as the West African Frontier Force, for the special defence of the frontiers of the West African dependencies.
Later the princes of Thebes asserted their independence and founded the XIth Dynasty, which pushed its frontiers northwards until finally it occupied the whole country.
Psammetichus guarded the frontiers of Egypt with three strong garrisons, placing the lonian and Carian mercenaries especially at the Pelusiac Daphnae in the N.E., from which q~1arter the most formidable enemy was likely to appear.
A cloud having arisen on the frontiers of Afghanistan, the withdrawal of the troops from the Sudan was ordered on the 11th of May.
Nay, more, Denmark's possession of the Scanian provinces deprived Sweden of her proper geographical frontiers.
The money needed for these, for his wars, and for buying off the barbarians who threatened the frontiers, had to be obtained by increasing the burdens of the people.
On the west or Hungarian side there are comparatively easy passes into the interior, but on the east and south frontiers the lofty mountains give Transylvania the aspect of a huge natural fortress.
Once more in Russia, far from the fascination of Metternich's personality, the immemorial spirit of his people drew him back into itself; and when, in the autumn of 1825, he took his dying empress for change of air to the south of Russia, in order - as all Europe supposed - to place himself at the head of the great army concentrated near the Ottoman frontiers, his language was no longer that of " the peace-maker of Europe," but of the Orthodox tsar determined to take the interests of his people and of his religion "into his own hands."
On the gulf of Glaucus, near the frontiers of Caria, stood Telmessus, an important place, while a short distance inland from it were the small towns of Daedala and Cadyanda.
In 1893 the question of Siam came near to causing serious trouble with France, but by the exercise of a combination of firmness and forbearance on Lord Rosebery's part the crisis was averted, and the lines were laid down for preserving Siam, if possible, as a buffer state between the English and French frontiers in Indo-China.
The English authorities instigated the Indians to make attacks upon the frontiers of the American colonies, and this led to one of the most important events in the history of the Illinois country, the capture of the British posts of Cahokia and Kaskaskia in 1778, and in the following year of Vincennes (Indiana), by George Rogers Clark, who acted under orders of Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia.
From 1877 onward Kruger's external policy was consistently anti-British, and on every side - in Bechuanaland, in Rhodesia, in Zululand - he attempted to enlarge the frontiers of the Transvaal at the expense of Great Britain.
But it was easy to reach most parts of Electoral Saxony without actually crossing the frontiers.
The Durand agreement of 1893 led to the partition of the Pathan tribes on the southern and eastern frontiers.
(1) Of the many routes which cross the frontiers of Afghanistan the most important commercially are those which connect the Oxus regions and the Central Asian khanates with Kabul, and those which lead from Kabul, Ghazni and Kandahar to the plains of India.
This unification was completed (except for Brittany) and the frontiers enlarged by the acquisition, upon the death of Rene of Anjou in 1480, of the duchies of Anjou and Bar, and in 1481 of Maine and Provence upon the death of Charles II., count of Maine.
The Himalayas not only form a double wall along the north of India, but at both their eastern and western extremities send out ranges to the south, which protect its north-eastern and northwestern frontiers.
One set of invaders after another has from prehistoric times entered by the passes at their eastern and north-western frontiers.
The earlier hymns exhibit the Aryans on the north-western frontiers of India just starting on their long journey.
In 1893 the frontiers of Afghanistan and British India were defined by a joint agreement between the two governments, known as the Durand agreement.
He was scarcely beyond the frontiers, however, before he repudiated his engagements, as exacted by force.
The frontiers were further defined by a French-Italian convention (24th of January 1900) fixing the frontier between French Somaliland and the Italian possessions at Raheita, and also by various agreements with Great Britain and Abyssinia.
The first is a new method for educating and reforming young offenders, already on the frontiers of habitual crime, no longer children, but at an age still susceptible of permanent improvement; the second is the legal acceptance of the principle of indefinite detention, the willingness to inflict an indeterminate sentence on those who have already forfeited the right to be at large.
Khiva), Ferghana and Shash (Tashkent), and even Kashgar on the frontiers of China.
He put the frontiers in a good state of defence; he filled the public treasury, and carried the splendour of the throne to the highest point.
In the depths of Asia a great conglomeration of east Turkish tribes (Tatars or Mongols), formed by a terrible warrior, known under his honorific title Jenghiz Khan, had conquered the northern provinces of China, and extended its power to the frontiers of the Transoxianian regions.
In the 11th century Korea was stripped of her territory west of the Yalu by a warlike horde of Tungus stock, since which time her frontiers have been stationary.
With their help he set himself to win the confidence of a public still inclined to distrust the author of the proscriptions of 43 B.C. Brigandage was suppressed in Italy, and the safety of the Italian frontiers secured against the raids of Alpine tribes on the northwest and of Illyrians on the east, while Rome was purified and beautified, largely with the help of Agrippa (aedile in 33 B.C.).
The defeat of Marcus Lollius, the legate commanding on the Rhine, by a horde of German invaders, seems to have determined Augustus to take in hand the whole question of the frontiers of the empire towards the north, and the effective protection of Gaul and Italy.
As the result of his steadiness of aim and patient sagacity, at the end of his reign the Crown was victorious over the feudal nobility and the royal domain extended to the frontiers along with royal authority.
Stratford Canning, who was at Constantinople for the purpose of superintending the negotiations for the delimitation of the frontiers of Greece, wrote home urging the government to accept, and suggesting a settlement of the Egyptian question which foreshadowed that of 1841.
The diplomacy of Guizot, backed now by Austria and Prussia, had succeeded in persuading Palmerston to concede the principle of allowing Mehemet Ali to receive, besides Egypt, the pashalik of Acre as far as the frontiers of Tripoli and Damascus (May 7).
The up-country party in Virginia, with their allies along the frontiers of the other states, was now in power, and the radical of 1776 shaped the policy of the nation during the next twenty-five years.
Elected as the tool of the bigoted orthodox party in the Church, Michael diligently persecuted the iconoclasts on the northern and eastern frontiers of the empire, but meanwhile allowed the Bulgarians to ravage a great part of Macedonia and Thrace; having at last taken the field in the spring of 813, he was defeated near Bersinikia, and Leo the Armenian was saluted emperor in his stead in the following summer.
On the frontiers, thanks chiefly to Corbulo's energy and skill, no disaster occurred serious enough to shake the general confidence, and even the murder of Britannicus seems to have been accepted as a necessary measure of selfdefence.
Destitution on the frontiers led the Triennial Convention to engage extensively in home mission work (1817 onward), and in 1832 the American Baptist Home Mission Society was constituted for the promotion of this work.
The hill and frontier tribes of Assam include the Nagas, Singphos, Daphlas, Miris, Khamtis, Mishmis, Abors, &c., nearly all of whom, excepting the Nagas, are found near the frontiers of Lakhimpur district.
In the early part of the 113th century the Ahoms or Ahams, from northern Burma and the Chinese frontiers, poured into the eastern districts of Assam, founded a kingdom, and held it firmly for several centuries.
Boundaries.The region of Ararat presents a good starting point for the definition of the western and northern frontiers of Persia.
For the provinces remaining tinsubdued on the extreme frontiers to the west, the north and the east are in their view almost negligible quantities.
remained as of old, the defence and, when possible, the expansion of the eastern and western frontiers.
of Diodotus in 250 B.C., had undergone enlirely Sassanid different vicissitudes from the rest of Iran, was ~ o~ once more united to an Iranian Empire, and the Sassanid dominions, for the first time, passed the frontiers of the Arsacids.
Its chief provisions, in regard to Persia, are as follows: (I) north of a line drawn from Kasr-iShirin, Isfahan, Yezd and Kakh to the junction of the Russian, Persian and Afghan frontiers Great Britain undertook to seek no political or commercial concession, and to refrain from opposing the acquisition of any such concession by Russia or Russian subjects; (2) Russia gave to Great Britain a like undertaking in respect of the territory south of a line extending from the Afghan frontier to Gazik, Birjend, Kerman and Bander Abbasi; (3) the territory between the lines above-mentioned was to be regarded as a neutral zone in which either country might obtain concessions; (4) all existing concessions in any part of Persia were to be respected; (5) should Persia fail to meet its liabilities in respect of loans contracted, before the signature of the Convention, with the Persian Banque dEscompte and de Prts, or with the Imperial Bank of Persia, Great Britain and Russia reserved the right to assume control over the Persian revenues payable within their respective spheres of influence.
At this time (c. 1815-1840) numbers of persons brought discredit on the missionary cause by their illiteracy, narrow-minded prejudices his advice it was decided to create a band of native states on the northern and eastern frontiers of the colony.
of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers.
The old amir called the British to his aid, and, putting himself at the head of his warriors, drove the enemy from his frontiers.
The land frontiers are to some extent defined by the course of the four principal rivers, the Minho and Douro in the north, the Tagus and Guadiana in the south; elsewhere, and especially in the north, they are marked by moun- Proetie P Y ?
His cabinet promised only slightly better terms to the foreign bondholders, but it relieved the financial tension in some degree; and by coming to an agreement with Germany in East Africa and with Great Britain in South Africa as to the delimitation of frontiers, he minimized the risks of conflict with either country.
The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers, the most important of these operations being directed to clearing Gaul of the Germans.
Public highways have been constructed between the large cities and to some points on the frontiers, and subsidized stage coaches are run on some of them.
It consists of a great plain extending eastward from the base of the Andes to the frontiers of Brazil, broken by occasional isolated hills, and in the N.E.
Almost equidistant from the remotest frontiers of Prussia, from north to south, and from east to west, 180 m.
Boleslav II., Bohemia extended its frontiers in several directions.
He henceforth took a large part in the politics of Germany, particularly after he had in 1547 concluded a treaty of peace with Turkey, which assured the safety of the eastern frontiers of his dominions.
They constitute ten separate voiskos, settled along the frontiers: Don, Kuban, Terek, Astrakhan, Ural, Orenburg, Siberian, Semiryechensk, Amur and Usuri.
The cause of this long interregnum was the disinclination of the Lithuanians to part with their prince till their outstanding differences with Poland, relating chiefly to the delimitation of the frontiers of the two states, had been settled.
It has been the policy of the British government in India to establish on the frontiers, as elsewhere, protectorates.
- Treaty for delimitation of the Lunda region, and convention of even date for the settlement of frontiers on lower Congo.
frontiers of Abyssinia (see Nile, Sobat and Sudan).
It was followed in 1908 by an agreement defining the frontiers concerned.
In their second year they were transferred to other garrisons in Attica, patrolled the frontiers, and on occasion took an active part in war.
The loss of the department of Panama left the republic with unsettled frontiers on every side, and some of the boundary disputes still unsolved in 1909 concern immense areas of territory.
Persia, and penetrated to the frontiers of China.
by which the frontiers of his duchy of Aquitaine were rectified, to some slight extent, in his favor.
He also made alliances with several of the dukes and counts of the Netherlands, and with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, obviously with the intention of raising trouble for France on her northern and eastern frontiers.
This passionate attachment to the Revolution, which in France displayed itself in a carnival of insane suspicion and cruelty, inspired on the frontiers an astonishing patriotic resistance.
But he found that the emperor had not much fancy for a struggle which would have restored Holstein to Denmark; and that, if he went to war at all, his chief object would be the liberation of Venice and the rectification of his own frontiers.
Dreams of conquests and extension had long been abandoned, and the pressing question of the time was how to repel the persistent assaults of Persia and the barbarians upon the frontiers of the realm, and so retain the dominion inherited from the valour of the past.
On the 9th of November the Assembly decreed that the émigrés assembled on the frontiers should be liable to the penalties of death and confiscation unless they returned to France by the ist of January following.
As the country was favourable to guerilla warfare, and the government could not spare regular troops from the frontiers, the rebels were usually successful, and by the end of May had almost expelled the Republicans from La Vendee.
The summerof 1794 saw France victorious on all her frontiers.
Thus threatened with invasion on her German and Italian frontiers, France was disabled by anarchy within.
In December of 1903 a disturbance resulting in the murder of the British resident led to the despatch of a military expedition, and as a result of the operations the frontiers of the districts under control were extended to the borders of the Munshi country in about 8° E.
Previous to 1852, when they were forbidden by imperial decree, they were wont in winter to move south across the Russian frontiers.
Various mountain ranges mark the frontiers of Bosnia, on the west, Turkey on the south-west and south, and Bulgaria on the south and south-east.
The danger increased when the Bulgarians came, towards the end of the 7th century, and formed a powerful kingdom on the eastern and south-eastern frontiers of the Serbs.
But the liberal revolution knew no frontiers.
The death of Boleslaus in 1025, and a cession of some lands north of the Eider to Canute, king of Denmark and England, secured the northern and eastern frontiers of Germany from attack, and the king's domestic enemies were soon crushed.
Austria has amongst all the great European countries the most continental character, in so far as its frontiers are mostly land-frontiers, only about one-tenth of them being coast-land.
But these ethnological names cover a very great variety of half-savage tribes, differing in speech and in institutions, each surrounded by frontiers of dense forests abounding in game.
This alteration came about more quickly in the north-east in the Rhine-land than in the west and the centre, owing to the near neighbsurhood of the legions on the frontiers.
Another kind of warfare was about to absorb their whole attention; the barbarians were attacking the frontiers of the Empire on every side, and their advent once again modified Gallo-Roman civilization.
The Romans had soon abandoned hope of conquering Germany, with its fluctuating frontiers and nomadic inhabitants.
Pippin it was who administered justice in Austrasia, appointed officials and distributed dukedoms; and it was Pippin, the ~ilitary leader, who defended the frontiers threatened by Frisians, Alamanni and Bavarians.
All nations from the Oder to the Elbe and from the Danube to the Atlantic were subject or tributary, and Charlemagnes power even crossed these frontiers.
turned his attention to the ancient appanage of Lothair, Alsace and Lorraine, those lands of the north and the east whose frontiers were constantly changing, and which seemed to invite aggression.
It was thus that the first of his wars for the extension of frontiers began, the War of Devolution.
By partitioning her in advance with the other strong powers, England and Holland, by means of the treaties of the Hague and of London (1698-1699),as he had formerly done with the emperor in 1668,he seemed at first to wish for a pacificsolutibn of the eternal conflict between-the Habsburgs and the Bourbons, and to restrict himself to, the perfecting of his natural frontiers; but on the death of Charles II.
The fall of the Gironde left the country disturbed by civil war, and the frontiers more seriously threatened than before Valmy.
His marching orders were: no more temporizing with the federalists or with generals who are afraid of conquering; war to the death with all Europe in the name of revolutionary propaganda and the monarchical tradition of natural frontiers; and fear, as a means of government.
Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.
As to foreign affairs, its aggressive policy imperilled the conquests that had been the glory of the Convention, and caused the frontiers of France, the defence of which had been a point of honor with the Republic, to be called in question.
England remaining invulnerable in her insular position despite Hoches attempt to land in Ireland m 1796, the Directory resumed the traditional policy against Austria of conquering the natural frontiers, Carnot furnishing the plans; hence the war in southern Germany, in which Jourdan and Moreau were repulsed by an inferior force under the archduke Charles, and Bonapartes triumphant Italian campaign.
First of all, Louis XV.s system of roads was improved and that of Louis XVI.s canals developed; then industry put its shoulder to the wheel; order and discipline were re-established everywhere, from the frontiers to the capital, and brigandage suppressed; and finally there- was Paris, the city of cities!
After the loss of Spain, ff15 reconquered by Wellington, the rising in Holland preliminary to the invasion and the manifesto of Frankfort which proclaimed it, he had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1795; and then later was driven yet farther back upon.
After Napoleons abdication, ~nd exile to the island of Elba, came the Revolutions abdication of her conquests: the first treaty of Paris (May 30th) confirmed Frances renunciation of Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, and her return within her pre-revolutionary frontiers, save for some slight rectifications.
frontiers of Sierra Leone and French Guinea, it traverses the interior plateaus in a vast curve, flowing N.E., E.
The work which had been begun by Cailliaud, Champollion, Lepsius and others was interrupted by the rise of the Mandist power; and with the frontiers of Egypt itself menaced by dervishes, the country south of Aswan (Assuan) was necessarily closed to the student of antiquity.
Moreover, he was doubtless well acquainted with a very ancient tradition, that heroes generally came from the northern frontiers of their native land, where they are hardened and tempered by the threefold struggle they wage with soil, climate and barbarian neighbours.
Having thus secured the Rhine and Danube frontiers, he turned his energies towards the east, and in 271 set out on his expedition against Zenobia, queen of Palmyra.
of the spot where the frontiers of Russia, Poland and Galicia meet and 300 m.
In 1778 a new fort was built and named Fort Lernault, and during the War of Independence the British sent forth from here several Indian expeditions to ravage the frontiers.
of coast-line, and the two sides by the frontiers of Sarawak.
Although the Franco-Sardinian forces were successful in the field, Napoleon, fearing an attack by Prussia and disliking the idea of a too powerful Italian kingdom on the frontiers of France, insisted on making peace with Austria, while Venetia still remained to be freed.
advanceis an on-going process and TTL prides itself on advancing the frontiers of science.
However this does not mean that we do not make calculated assisted assumptions to help enable us effectively explore new frontiers.
disavowed any intention of taking their struggle beyond these frontiers.
The Taliban have repeatedly disavowed any intention of taking their struggle beyond these frontiers.
frontiers of the physics and technology of nanometre-scale structures.
The initiative is already pushing forward the frontiers of basic science.
Her straddling frontiers run for thousands of miles through the flat European plain.
frontiers conquered through sharp-edged innovations and competition.
Understanding this, Napoleon was impelled to expand the land frontiers of his empire.
Margaret Thatcher did not roll back the frontiers of the State.
The EU's external frontiers are to be policed by EU frontier guards.
They share a dream - to collaborate across frontiers to establish a new creative homeland.
potpourri of races and kept within its frontiers.
pushing the frontiers of the arts forward.
readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
With this in mind, New Frontiers have hosted regular HR seminars on legal and recruitment topics since 1996.
Visualfx resins extend the esthetic frontiers of engineering thermoplastics beyond what was previously difficult to achieve.
The frontiers of the USSR are only the temporary front-line trenches of the class struggle.
The Latin noun limes denoted generally a path, sometimes a boundary path (possibly its original sense) or boundary, and hence it was utilized by Latin writers occasionally to denote frontiers definitely delimited and marked in some distinct fashion.
The claims made by Germany to large areas of the hinterland gave rise to considerable negotiation with France and Great Britain, and it was not until 1899 that the frontiers were fixed on all sides (see Africa, § 5).
The extreme north of Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country, covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up. In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna.
Nain Singh explored the sources of the Indus and of the Upper Brahmaputra in the years 1865-1867; and in 1874-1875 he followed a line from the eastern frontiers of Kashmir to the Tengri Nor lake and thence to Lhasa, in which city he remained for some months.
On the one hand, the government sent parties (1) of Cossacks to settle on the frontiers, (2) of peasants who were bound to settle at appointed places and maintain communication along the routes, (3) of stryeltsy (i.e.
At the end of the 2nd century each had advanced to the farthest limits of the empire, though the one possessed greatest strength on the frontiers of the Teutonic countries, along the Danube and the Rhine, while the other throve especially in Asia and Africa.
It concerned the southwestern frontiers of the Transvaal, and the award, which was against the Transvaal pretensions, had important effects on the history of South Africa (see Transvaal and South Africa).
Fiume, which from 1867 to 1918 had been an ti j Scale,1: 5,000,000 0 to = Frontier of' 1921 Yugoslavia N 5 e7 es of s,, G rmain,1® 1; Neuilly,Triano??,&RePallo Other International Frontiers 1921 International Frontiers 1914 Boundaries between Austria,Hungary, Croatia & Bosnia 1914
At this stage the Yugoslav delegation committed a grave tactical blunder, * Trumbic's views being overridden by the Balkan imperialistic aims of Pasic., While pleading for a plebiscite against Italy and doing lip service to an independent Albania within the frontiers of 1913, it added that in the event of any revision of those frontiers Yugoslavia would claim Skutari and all territory north of the river Drin (Drim).
After Giolitti's renunciation of a mandate in Albania the claim to Skutari became untenable, and at last in 1921 the Supreme Council sanctioned the frontiers assigned to Albania in 1913.
Assyria, therefore, was ill prepared to face the hordes of Scythians - or Manda, as they were called by the Babylonians - who now began to harass the frontiers.
The Tsarist policy was henceforth perfectly consistent in that it strove to make Lithuania a genuine part of Russia and sought to extirpate Polish culture beyond the frontiers of the kingdom.
The result of this conference was a secret session of the Transvaal volksraad and the proposition of a secret treaty with the Free State, by which each state should bind itself not to build railways to its frontier without the consent of the other, the eastern and northern frontiers of the Transvaal being excepted.
The Czechoslovak Republic was first and foremost concerned, while avoiding all that may smack of chauvinism or imperialism, to maintain its integrity within the frontiers assigned to it by the Peace Conference.
The central position of Boeotia between two seas, the strategic strength of its frontiers and the ease of communication within its extensive area were calculated to enhance its political importance.
At the same time the frontiers of Servia and Montenegro were enlarged so as to become almost contiguous, and Montenegro received the ports of Antivari and Dulcigno on the Adriatic. From a strategical point of view the Bulgaria of the San Stefano treaty threatened Salonica, Adrianople and Constantinople itself; and the great powers, anticipating that the new state would become a Russian dependency, refused their sanction to its provisions.
The outward frontiers of both were the sea; no difficult physical barriers divided the two territories; the majority of Scots spoke an intelligible form of English, differing from northern English more in spelling and pronunciation than in idiom and vocabulary; and after the Reformation the State religion in both countries was Protestant.
He secured its frontiers by inviting Slavonic settlers into the depopulated districts and by restoring the army to efficiency; when the Arabs renewed their invasions in 726 and 739 they were decisively beaten.
International procedure is supposed to be regulated by the Venice convention of 1897 (see Quarantine), but that instrument contains an optional clause, which allows countries to do as they please with their own frontiers.
This treaty was ratified, and followed by other treaties and agreements defining the Eritrean-Abyssinian and the AbyssinianItalian Somaliland frontiers (see Italy, History, and Somaliland, Italian).
On the 9th of November the Assembly decreed that the Ã©migrÃ©s assembled on the frontiers should be liable to the penalties of death and confiscation unless they returned to France by the ist of January following.
In December of 1903 a disturbance resulting in the murder of the British resident led to the despatch of a military expedition, and as a result of the operations the frontiers of the districts under control were extended to the borders of the Munshi country in about 8Ã‚° E.
Pushed back, as he had been in Spain, from bastion to bastion, after the action on the Beresina, Napoleon had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1809, and thenhaving refused the peace offered him by Austria at the congress of Prague, from a dread of losing Italy, where each of his victories had marked a stage in the accomplishment of his dreamon those of 1805, despite Lfltzen and Bautzen, and on those of 1802 after his defeat at Leipzig, where Bernadotte turned upon him, Moreau figured among the Allies, and the Saxons and Bavarians forsook him.
Momentum Arts will continue to test exciting ways of delivering projects and research new ways of pushing the frontiers of the arts forward.
A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
The Pacific Northwest is perhaps one of the last frontiers left in the world, and this 3-night cruise leaving from Seattle will allow you to catch all the wildlife and scenery you can take in.
Alaska is home to some of America's most unspoiled frontiers.
While traditional viruses are most common on PCs and are often sent in emails or transmitted via file downloads, virus propagators are expanding their horizons and looking for new frontiers for their malfeasance.
Frontiers in Bioscience 5 (March 1, 2001): 298-306.
Expanding technological frontiers has made it possible for engineers to devise miniature yet useful products like small clock radios or stereos.
But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.