The quiet, uneventful scene on the frontier appeared.
It was originally built in 1781 as a frontier fortress of the Turks against Russia.
JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD (1831-1881), twentieth president of the United States, was born on the 19th of November 1831 in a log cabin in the little frontier town of Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio.
I hung about the dangerous frontier of "guess," avoiding with infinite trouble to myself and others the broad valley of reason.
This is the frontier which is now visible and visited by the curious.
Yesterday I learned that, despite the loyalty with which I have kept my engagements with Your Majesty, your troops have crossed the Russian frontier, and I have this moment received from Petersburg a note, in which Count Lauriston informs me, as a reason for this aggression, that Your Majesty has considered yourself to be in a state of war with me from the time Prince Kuragin asked for his passports.
We do not, however, know its date, save that, if not Domitian's work, it was carried out soon after his death, and the whole frontier thus constituted was reorganized, probably by Hadrian, with a continuous wooden palisade reaching from Rhine to Danube.
The town is neatly built in the Dutch style, lying on three small hills in a fertile district near the frontier of Holland, about 2 m.
It was for some while the frontier of the Roman territory and was often in the hands of Veii.
The very day that Napoleon issued the order to cross the Niemen, and his vanguard, driving off the Cossacks, crossed the Russian frontier, Alexander spent the evening at the entertainment given by his aides-de- camp at Bennigsen's country house.
On the twelfth of June, 1812, the forces of Western Europe crossed the Russian frontier and war began, that is, an event took place opposed to human reason and to human nature.
The same day King Michael died and Sobieski, determined to secure the throne for himself, hastened to the capital, though Tatar bands were swarming over the frontier and the whole situation was acutely perilous.
On the south-eastern frontier the French Alps, which include Mont Blanc (15,800 ft.), and, more to the south, other summits over 11,000 ft.
Nests of this species were found in 1821 by Johana Wilhelm Zetterstedt near Juckasj,rwi in Swedish Lapland, but little was known concerning its nidification until 1855, when John Wolley, after two years' ineffectual search, succeeded in obtaining near the Finnish village Muonioniska, on the Swedish frontier, well-authenticated specimens with the eggs, both of which are like exaggerated bullfinches'.
AISNE, a frontier department in the north-east of France, formed in 1790 from portions of the old provinces of Ile-de-France and Picardy.
It is a clear case of an ancient frontier laid out in American fashion.
He pushed out from Moguntiacum, extended the Roman territory east of it and enclosed the whole within a systematically delimited and defended frontier with numerous blockhouses along it and larger forts in the rear.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
He seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with France over the Burgundian frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII.
By the close of the 17th century there were three frontier "generalates" - Carlstadt, Warasdin and Petrinia.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
Already in 1884 a protocol had been signed between the contending parties, by which it was agreed that the frontier should follow the line where " the highest peaks of the Andine ranges divide the watershed."
With the exception of a narrow strip along the Canadian frontier, thunderstorm frequency is fairly high over the whole of the United States to the east of the tooth meridian.
Just as in 335 he had crossed the Danube, so he now made one raid across the frontier river, the Jaxartes (Sir Dania), to teach the fear of his name to the outlying peoples of the steppe (summer 328).
In particular the remarkable frontier lines which bounded the Roman provinces of Upper (southern) Germany and Raetia, and which at their greatest development stretched from near Bonn on the Rhine to near Regensburg on the Danube, are often called the Limes Germanicus.
The national lines extend from Buenos Aires north to La Quiaca on the Bolivian frontier (1180 m.), and south to Cape Virgenes (1926 m.), at the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
The frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory - the modern Baden and Wurttemberg.
This advance necessitated a third movement, the construction of a frontier connecting the annexations of A.D.
Concessions have been obtained by the French government to build a line of railway from the Tongking frontier at the town of Laokay via Mengtsze to Yunnan-fu.
With the emperor in their camp, the Mahrattas were threatening the province of Oudh, and causing a large British force to be cantoned along the frontier for its defence.
Watch-towers with wooden clappers and the beacons which flashed the alarm along the whole frontier in a few hours are still features in the landscape.
On the Italian frontier the numerous forts darrt in the mountains are strongly supported by the entrenched camps of Besanon, Grenoble and Nice.
On the side of Belgium the danger of irruption through neutral territory, which has for many years been foreseen, is provided against by the fortresses of Lille, Valenciennes and Maubeuge, but (with a view to tempting the Germans to attack through Luxemburg, as is stated by German authorities) the frontier between Maubeuge and Verdun is left practically undefended.
von Rosen, Archaeological' Researches on the Frontier of Argentina and Bolivia 1901-1902 (Stockholm, 1904); Arturo B.
Recrossing the Italian frontier, he was arrested at Figline and taken back to Caprera, where he eked out his slender resources by writing several romances.
On the outbreak of war in 1859 he was placed in command of the Alpine infantry, defeating the Austrians at Casale on the 8th of May, crossing the Ticino on the 23rd of May, and, after a series of victorious fights, liberating Alpine territory as far as the frontier of Tirol.
70 Rome accepted as her German frontier the water-boundary of the Rhine and upper Danube.
We cannot even be absolutely certain when the frontier laid out by Pius was equipped with the Pfahlgraben and Teufelsmauer.
We know the line of this frontier which ran from the Main across the upland Odenwald to the upper waters of the Neckar and was defended by a chain of forts.
Except along part of the north-west frontier, where the canal of VinhThe divides it from Cambodia, its land-limits are conventional.
Not only has scientific study advanced at the university of Buenos Aires, but scientific research is promoting the development of the country; examples are the geographical explorations of the Andean frontier, and especially of the Patagonian Andes, by Francisco P. Moreno.
Aguilar "of the Frontier" was so named in the middle ages from its position on the border of the Moorish territories, which were defended by the castle of Anzur, now a ruin; but the spacious squares and modern houses of the existing town retain few vestiges of Moorish dominion.
long, runs inland to Rooikop on the German frontier.
In 1872 the Banat regiments followed suit; and in 1873 the old military organization was abolished in the rest of the frontier.
Young crossed the frontier from Canada and raided the town of St Albans.
above the Brazilian frontier and 2653 m.
A solitary fugitive, he crossed the Turkish frontier.
on the Chilean frontier.
The line of fortresses protecting Austria from Italy lies in some places well back from the political boundary, but just inside the linguistic frontier, so as to separate the German and Italian races occupying Austrian territory.
or so in width, and separating the two fertile but otherwise insignificant islands of Bali and Lombok, makes such a frontier as can hardly be shown to exist elsewhere.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
Their great hulking forms and throaty grunts enhanced the theme of western frontier.
On the S., Albanian territory was curtailed owing to the acquisition of the Arta district by Greece (May 1881), the river Arta now forming the frontier.
It is situated between the Fischa and the Leitha and is close to the Hungarian frontier.
Hayes in 1878, forms the boundary between Argentina and Paraguay from the Paraguay river north-west to the Bolivian frontier.
Several species of monkeys inhabit the forests from the Parana, to the Bolivian frontier.
In the Chaco the tapir or anta (Tapir americanus) still finds a safe retreat, and the peccary (Dycotyles torquatus) ranges from Cordoba north to the Bolivian frontier.
The defences, of the Spanish frontier consist of the entrenched camps of Bayonne and Perpignan and the various small forts darrt of the Pyrenees.
from the Persian frontier, at an elevation of 2895 ft.
But Augustus, who was the first to give to Italy a definite political organization, carried the frontier to the river Varus or Var, a few miles west of Nice, and this river continued in modern times to be generally recognized as the boundary between France and Italy.
But in 1860 the annexation Nice and the adjoining territory to France brought the political frontier farther east, to a point between Mentone and Ventimiglia which constitutes no natural limit.
The only other part of the northern frontier of Italy where the boundary is not clearly marked by nature is Tirol or the valley of the Adige.
Here the main chain of the Alps (as marked by watershed) recedes so far to the north that it has never constituted the frontier.
At the present day the frontier between Austria and the kingdom of Italy crosses the Adige about 30 m.
The northern part of Tuscany is indeed occupied to a considerable extent by the underfalls and offshoots of the Apennines, which, besides the slopes and spurs of the main range that constitutes its northern frontier towards the plain of the Po, throw off several outlying ranges or groups.
South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes (the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano).
The Roman district, the largest of the four, extends from the hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, and from the lower slopes of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The extent of the northern frontier is 450 m.
It was balanced perilously between a small town that lacked only a sheriff, and a booming frontier town.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
Rashki), a river which rises south of Erzerum, in the Bingeul-dagh, and flows east through the province of Erzerum, across the Pasin plateau, and then through Russian Armenia, passing between Mount Ararat and Erivan, and forming the Russo-Persian frontier.
Frontier Province, called after its founder, Sir James Abbott, who settled this wild district after the annexation of the Punjab.
Under Augustus, 15 B.C., the relations conquered territory was formed into an imperial with the province, Gallia Belgica, and the frontier line, the Romans.
The peoples within the frontier had been transformed into Romanized provincials; outside, the various tribes had become merged in the common appellation of Frisians.
across the French frontier through lack of resources, and were disbanded.
Here he was shut in by a superior force of Spaniards, and made preparations to defend himself until relieved by the army which Orange was collecting on the eastern frontier.
Crowds of fugitives crossed the frontier to seek refuge in Germany and England.
War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful and gained a small rectification of frontier; then a few months later Crete was taken over "en depot" by the Four Powers - Germany and Austria not participating, - and Prince George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.
DANNEWERK, or Danewerk (Danish, Dannevirke or Danevirke, " Danes' rampart"), the ancient frontier rampart of the Danes against the Germans, extending 102 m.
Towards the Black Sea, the less elevated Istranja Dagh stretches from north-west to south-east; and the entire south coast, which includes the promontory of Gallipoli and the western shore of the Dardanelles, is everywhere hilly or mountainous, except near the estuaries of the Maritza, and of the Mesta, a western frontier stream.
From this point the frontier follows a north-easterly course to 11° 8' N., leaving the town of Yendi and the Chakosi territory on the German side of the boundary line.
The northern frontier is a line drawn between the northernmost points of the eastern and western frontiers.
The capital and chief port is Lome (pop. about 5000), near the western frontier.
Then Louis, in company with his brothers William and Henry, made his way across the French frontier to the camp of the Huguenot leader, Admiral Coligny.
In the hope of drawing away the Spaniards from the siege of Leiden by a diversion in the south, Louis, with his brothers John and Henry, at the head of a force of mixed nationalities and little discipline, crossed the frontier near Maastricht, and advanced as far as the Mookerheide near Nijmv,-egen.
The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.
Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.
BADAJOZ, the capital of the Spanish province described above; situated close to the Portugue.se frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway.
As a frontier fortress it underwent many sieges.
Being built midway between the Sierra de Priego and Sierra Parapanda, and commanding the open valley between these ranges, it became one of the chief frontier fortresses of the Moors in the 15th century.
The Apulian volcanic formation consists of the great mass of Monte Volture, which rises at the west end of the plains of Apulia, on the frontier of Basilicata, and is surrounded by the Apennines on its south-west and north-west sides.
The northern frontier is crossed by the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia by the Col di Tenda, the Mont Cenis line from Turin to Modane (the tunnel is 7 m.
The Alpine frontier is fortified strongly, although the condition of the works was in many cases considered unsatisfactory by the 1907 Commission.
The most important of the local dues is the gate tax, or dazio di consumo, which may be either a surtax upon commodities (such as alcoholic drinks or meat), having already paid customs duty at the frontier, in which case the local surtax may not exceed 50% of the frontier duty, or an exclusively communal duty limited to 10% on flour, bread and farinaceous products,2 and to 20% upon other commodities.
The Neapolitans were ignominiously beaten in May and retired to the frontier; on the 1st of June Oudinot declared that he would attack Rome on the 4th, but by beginning operations on the 3rd, when no attack was expected, he captured an important position in the Pamphili gardens.
~ the 11th of September a Piedmontese army of 35,000 men of ~ ssed the frontier at La Cattolica,; on the 18th the pontifical Th ny was crushed at Castelfidardo; and when, on the 29th, sep coria fell, TJmbria and the Marches were in the power of we!
The Garibaldians, mowed down by the new French chassept rifles, fought until their last cartridges were exhausted, and retreated the next day towards the Italian frontier, leaving 800 prisoners.
Depretis, anxious only to avoid a policy of adventure, let slip whatever opportunity may have presented itself, and neglected even to deal energetically with the impotent but mischievous Italian agitation for a rectification of the Italo-Austrian frontier.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
The Italian General Staff is said to have undertaken, in the event of war against France, to operate with two armies on the north-western frontier against the French arme des Alpes, of which the war strength is about 250,000 men.
On the 28th of October 1890 Count Antonelli, negotiator of the treaty, was despatched to settle the controversy, but on arriving at Adis Ababa, the new residence of the negus, found agreement impossible either with regard to the frontier or the protectorate.
On the 10th of April 1891, Menelek communicated to the powers his views with regard to the Italian frontier, and announced his intention of re-establishing the ancient boundaries of Ethiopia as far as Khartum to the north-west and Victoria Nyanza to the south.
of the frontier on the 29th of February 1888.
Under the arrangement concluded in 1891 by Rudini with native chiefs in regard to the Italo-Abyssinian frontier districts, relations with Abyssinia had remained comparatively satisfactory.
On the 29th of October, however, Austria abandoned her military posts in the sandjak of Novibazar, and the frontier between Austria and Turkey, formerly an uncertain one, which left Austria a half-open back door to the Aegean, was now a distinct line of demarcation.
On the Bosnian frontier, 15 m.
He became principal of the government college at Lahore in 1864, and there originated the term "Dardistan" for a portion of the mountains on the north-west frontier, which was subsequently recognized to be a purely artificial distinction.
from the frontier of Luxemburg and 69 m.
The Strelitz were gradually drawn to the western frontier of Russia, and in 1698 they rose in mutiny for the last time.
south-west of Lucknow, and formed from early times a frontier outpost of the people of Oudh and Bengal against their northern neighbours.
In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier station.
But by the time of the Mutiny the frontier had left it behind, and it was denuded of troops.
The fort has been dismantled; and in trade the town is outstripped by Astara, the customs station on the Persian frontier.
AIN, a department on the eastern frontier of France, formed in 1790 from Bresse, the Pays de Gex, Bugey, Dombes and Valromey, districts of Burgundy.
The chief mineral product is the asphalt of the mines of Seyssel on the eastern frontier, besides which potter's clay, building stone, hydraulic lime and cement are produced in the department.
Bellegarde on the eastern frontier is an industrial centre; it has a manufactory of wood-pulp, and saw and flour mills, power for which is obtained from the waters of the Rhone.
He failed to make head against the Assyrians; the frontier cities were taken by Sargon and Merodach-baladan was left to his fate.
In the time of Aurangzeb the Ahom kings held sway over the entire Brahmaputra valley from Sadiya to near Goalpara, and from the skirts of the southern hills to the Bhutia frontier on the north.
A day's journey beyond this, on the Syrian side, stand the remains of ancient Sura, a frontier fortress of the Romans against the Parthians; 20 m.
A little below Deir the river is joined by the Khabur (Khaboras, Biblical Khabor), the frontier of the Roman empire from Diocletian's time, which rises in the Karaja Dagh, and, with its tributary, the Jaghijagh (Mygdonius; Arab.
Hirmas) flows south through the land of Gozan in which Sargon settled the deported Israelites in 721 B.C. At the mouth of the Khabur stood the Roman frontier fortress of Circesium (Assyrian, Sirki; Arab.
(v.) The fifth division of Gaul was the Rhenish military frontier.
Instead, his successor Tiberius organized the Rhine frontier in two military districts.
from the Bohemian frontier, 182 m.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.
Fauna.-Among wild animals the tiger or ounce-called in the Guarani language the ja-gud or "big dog"-and the puma are found on the frontier of Brazil and on the wooded islets and banks of the larger rivers.
During the Crimean War he commanded the troops on the Greek frontier and distinguished himself by his bravery.
The Liberia-Sierra Leone boundary was determined by a frontier commission in 1903.
The Liberian frontier with the adjacent French possessions was defined by the Franco-Liberian treaty of 1892, but as the definition therein given was found to be very difficult of reconciliation with geographical features (for in 1892 the whole of the Liberian interior was unmapped) further negotiations were set on foot.
In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N.
But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.
From this point the frontier shall leave the line of the Makona and be carried in a south-easterly direction to the source of the most north-westerly affluent of the Nuon river or Western Cavalla.
between the Po hills and the British frontier.
In a general way it is supposed that the lands lying between the lower St Paul's river and the Sierra Leone frontier are not much mineralized, except that in the vicinity of river mouths there are indications of bitumen.
The Sierra Leone-Liberia frontier was demarcated in 1903; then followed the negotiations with France for the exact delimitation of the Ivory Coast-Liberia frontier, with the result that Liberia lost part of the hinterland she had claimed.
There are three custom-houses, or ports of entry on the Sierra Leone land frontier between the Moa river on the north and the Mano on the south, and nine ports of entry along the coast.
It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
in 987; between 1018 and 1186, under Byzantine rule, it served as a frontier fortress.
extremities reach 38° 50' in Armenia, 35° on the Afghan frontier, and 42° 30' on the coasts of the Pacific. To the W.
The Baltic, with the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, limits it on the N.W.; and two sinuous lines of land frontier separate it respectively from Sweden and Norway on the N.W.
the frontier has changed frequently according to the expansion and contraction of the empire under the pressure of political exigency and expedience.
frontier touches the Danube for some 120 m.; on the E.
The total length of the frontier line of the Russian empire by land is 2800 m.
frontier of Poland to Ovrutch, Uman, Kremenchug, Poltava and Razdornaya (50° N.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
frontier by fortresses and railways; and (4) increasing the artillery, siege and train reserves.
The Pruth rises in Austrian Bukovina, and separates Russia from Rumania; it enters the Danube, which flows along the Russian frontier for 100 m.
The Ural, in its lower part, constitutes the frontier between European Russia and the Kirghiz steppe; it receives the Sakmara on the right and the Ilek on the left.
The Russian princes first heard of them from the wild nomadic Polovtsi, who usually pillaged the Russian settlers on the frontier but who now preferred - friendship and said: " These terrible strangers have taken our country, and to-morrow they will take yours if you do not come and help us."
So long as a great horde of nomads was encamped on the frontier the country was liable to be invaded by an overwhelming force of ruthless marauders.
There was no longer within the Russian land any independent principality in which an asylum could be found, and emigration to a principality beyond the frontier, such as Lithuania, was regarded as treason, for which the property of the fugitive would be confiscated and his family might be punished.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
and a few months later he crossed the frontier with a large force of Poles, Russian exiles, German mercenaries and Cossacks from the Dnieper and the Don.
In foreign affairs Catherine devoted her attention mainly to pushing forward the Russian frontier westwards and south- Foreign wards, and as France was the traditional ally of policy of Sweden, Poland and Turkey, she adopted at first Cath- the so-called systeme du Nord, that is to say, a close erine.
Akerman, by which the autonomy of Moldavia,Walachia and Servia was confirmed, free passage of the straits was secured for merchant ships and disputed territory on the Asiatic frontier was annexed, and in July 1827 he signed with England and France the treaty of London for the solution of the Greek question by the mediation of the Powers.
Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
Nicholas immediately sent his Black Sea fleet into the Bosphorus, landed on the Asiatic shore a force of 10,000 men, and advanced another large force towards the Turkish frontier in Bessarabia.
2 9 a of Alexander II.'s reign her domination had been firmly established throughout nearly the whole of the vast expanse of territory lying between Siberia on the north and Persia and Afghanistan on the south, and stretching without interruption from the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Chinese frontier.
Even in European Russia the regions near the frontier contain a great variety of nationalities, languages and religions.
The non-Russian frontier provinces (okrainas) had even before been under-represented (one member for every 350,000 inhabitants, as against one for every 250,000 in the central provinces); the members returned by Poland, the Caucasus and Siberia were now reduced from 89 to 39, those from the Central Asian steppes (23) were swept away altogether; the total number of deputies was reduced from 524 to 442.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
The object of certain sacrifices is to provide a tutelary deity of a house, town or frontier.
Between this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of Marmarice, noted in modern times as one of the finest harbours of the Mediterranean.
There is a sandy belt along the coast, and the western frontier is slightly mountainous.
Carniola derives its modern name from the Slavonic word Krajina (frontier).
His defeat left the resources of his kingdom exhausted and its extent diminished; and so the Jews became important to his successors for the sake of their wealth and their position on the frontier.
The Lerma, on the northern frontier, and the Balsas on the southern, are the only rivers of importance of the state, their tributaries within its boundaries being small and swift-flowing.
of the western frontier of the Transvaal and 15 m.
The principal mountain ranges are the Serra da Mantiqueira on its southern frontier and its N.
Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.
On the western frontier a northern extension of the great central chain of Goyaz forms the water-parting between the drainage basins of the Sao Francisco and Tocantins, and is known at different points as the Serra do Paranan, Serra de Sao Domingos and Serra das Divisoes.
From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.
The more northern parts of Mongolia are between 4000 and 6000 ft., and no portion of the route across the desert between the Chinese frontier and Kiakhta is below 3000 ft.
The astronomical observatory at Tashkent is adopted for the initial starting-point of the trans-Caspian triangulation of Russia; the triangulation ranks as second-class only, and now extends to the Pamir frontier beyond Osh.
The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.
Now they form an official province of British Baluchistan within the Baluchistan Agency; and the agency extends from the Gomal to the Arabian Sea and the Persian frontier.
Durand, The Making of a Frontier (London, 1899); R.
The Zancara rises near the source of the Jucar, in the east of the tableland of La Mancha; thence it flows westward, assuming the name of Guadiana near Ciudad Real, and reaching the Portuguese frontier 6 m.
At Pomarao it again becomes a frontier stream and forms a broad estuary 25 m.
Unsuccessful in his attempt, he invited the Teutonic Order to come to the rescue, and bestowed on the Order Kuim and some of the frontier towns in his territory, with such lands as it should conquer (1228).
Thus the Order took its place as the founder of one of the marks on the eastern frontier of Germany, and began to play its part in that Drang nach Osten, which is perhaps the vitally important thing in the history of Germany from the 12th to the 14th century.
Again, with the accession of large territories, the Order became a governing aristocracy; the original care for the sick, and even the later crusading zeal of the period of conquest, gave way, when conquests were gained and administration was needed, to the problem, half military, half political, of governing a frontier state.
This depression is supposed to be a relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system.
In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
In 1645 Fort Charles was erected at the falls of the James as a frontier defence.
War did not materially change the outlines of the two kingdoms, though frontier cities like Damascus and the coast districts of Asia Minor might change hands.
Jerusalem, near the Egyptian frontier, was an important point, and in one of its internal revolutions Antiochus saw, perhaps not without reason, a defection to the Egyptian side.
Thence he went to Kohistan, where the governor, Nasir Lek, was his intimate and devoted friend, and received him with great ceremony upon the frontier.
to the eastern frontier at midsummer.
The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
Napoleon, on the other hand, had utterly failed in his Spanish enterprise; and the tsar felt sure that his rival must soon withdraw French garrisons from the fortresses of the Oder to the frontier of Spain.
On the morrow (12th of June) he set out for the northern frontier.
He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456).
The greatest of all the hero's achievements was the defence of the frontier of Ulster against the forces of Medb, queen of Connaught, who had come to carry off the famous Brown Bull of Cualnge (Cooley).
On arrival at the supreme Mongol court - either that on the Imyl river (near Lake Ala-kul and the present Russo-Chinese frontier in the Altai), or more probably at or near Karakorum itself, south-west of Lake Baikal - Andrew found Kuyuk Khan dead, poisoned, as the envoy supposed, by Batu's agents.
Frontier Province of India, commanding the S.
When Lord Curzon reorganized the frontier in 1900, British garrisons were withdrawn from the Samana forts, which are now held by a corps of tribal police 450 strong, called the Samana Rifles.
Hitherto Venice had enjoyed the advantages of isolation; the lagoons were virtually impregnable; she had no land frontier to defend.
But when she touched the mainland she at once became possessed of a frontier which could be attacked, and found herself compelled either to expand in self-defence or to lose the territory she had acquired.
This expansion of mainland territory was followed in 1420 by the acquisition of Friuli after a successful war with the emperor Sigismund, thus bringing the possessions of the republic up to the Carnic and Julian Alps, their natural frontier on the north-east.
Venice was soon made to feel the consequences of having become a mainland power, the difficulties entailed by holding possessions which others coveted, and the weakness of a land frontier.
Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality.
The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
Between this central barrier and the northern frontier range of Cnemis (3000 ft.) is the narrow but fertile valley of the Cephissus, along which most of the Phocian townships were scattered.
From the scanty notices of Greek legend it may be gathered that an influx of tribes from the north contributed largely to its population, which was reckoned as Aeolic. It is probable that the country was originally of greater extent, for there was a tradition that the Phocians once owned a strip of land round Daphnus on the sea opposite Euboea, and carried their frontier to Thermopylae; in addition, in early days they controlled the great sanctuary of Delphi.
The place figured frequently as a frontier fortress in the wars of the Romans and the Parthians, its brick walls being unusually thick and its citadel very strong.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
In 1749 the settlement was revived, but the settlers did not bring their families to the frontier until 1752.
A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
The Ya-lu rises in Korea, and is the frontier river of that country.
Gold mines are worked at several places in the northern part of Manchuria, of which the principal are on the Muho river, an affluent of the Amur, and near the Russian frontier.
Mines are also worked at Kwanyin-shan, opposite the Russian frontier town of Radevska, and at Chia-pi-kou, on an affluent of the upper Sungari.
the main line continues in the same general direction to the eastern frontier of Manchuria, and so to Vladivostok.
Assuming that, as the Chinese say, the Khitans were Manchus, the first appearance of the Manchus, as a people, in China dates from the beginning of the 10th century, when the Khitans, having first conquered the kingdom of Pohai, crossed the frontier into China 3 and established the Liao or Iron dynasty in the northern portion of the empire.
Zbtieir frontier obliquely from the Gulf of Akeba to Rakka (Raqqa) on Euphrates, and thus placed the Hamad in Arabia.
(6) The sixth district was the military frontier (awasim) bordering upon the Byzantine dominions in Asia Minor.
The frontier line follows the crest of the mountains, three peaks some io,000 or more ft.
near the Cape frontier, is a thriving agricultural centre, as is Butha Buthe in the N.E.
This act provided for the disarmament of natives, and had The already been put in force successfully among some "Sun" of the Kaffir tribes on the Cape eastern frontier.
The provinces were unsettled, the barbarians on the borders restless and menacing, and Hadrian wisely judged that the old limits of Augustus afforded the most defensible frontier.
The department of Cajamarca lies between the Western and Central Cordilleras and extends from the frontier of Ecuador S.
Built on the left bank of the Adige, in the widest portion of the Val Lagarina (the name given to the Adige valley from Acquaviva, above Rovereto, to the Italian frontier), it is divided into two parts by the Leno torrent.
As the eastern frontier of Palestine, Gilead bore the first brunt of Syrian and Assyrian attacks.
NEUQUEN, an inland territory of Argentina on the Chilean frontier, between the Colorado and Limay rivers, with the province of Mendoza on the N.
Gallatin engaged in land speculations, and tried to lay the foundation of his fortune in a frontier farm.
The solitary and desolate frontier life became now more dreary than ever; he flung himself into politics the only outside resource open to him, and his long and eventful public career began.
It lies on the Uska-Nepal road at mile 19.75; and about half a mile south of the boundary pillar numbered 44 on the frontier line between British and Nepalese 1 A surname given to Pippin III.
The rapid loss of the new conquests after 447 proved that Athens lacked a sufficient land-army to defend permanently so extensive a frontier.
Its territory is said to have stretched from the Tyne northwards, ultimately reaching the Forth, while its western frontier was gradually extended at the expense of the Welsh.
Athanasy began his public career in 1642 as one of the delineators of the new Russo-Swedish frontier after the peace of Stolbova.
from the French frontier.
There are also eleven very small exclaves, mostly grouped about Homburg to the south-west of Oberhessen; but the largest is Wimpfen on the north-west frontier of Wurttemberg.
Rheinhessen is separated from Starkenburg by the Rhine, and has that river as its northern as well as its eastern frontier, though it extends across it at the north-east corner, where the Rhine, on receiving the Main, changes its course abruptly from south to west.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
Except indeed for Egypt and Palestine under Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus now divided the empire between them, with the Taurus in Asia Minor for their frontier.
Fons Rapidus), a town of northern Spain, in the province of Guipuzcoa; on the San Sebastian-Bayonne railway; near the Bay of Biscay and on the French frontier.
KACHIN HILLS, a mountainous tract in Upper Burma, inhabited by the Kachin or Chingpaw, who are known on the Assam frontier as Singphos.
Now the Kachins are on both sides of the border of Upper Burma, and are a force to be reckoned with by frontier administrators.
On the British side of the border the chief objects have been the disarmament of the tribes and the construction of frontier and internal roads.
Even Strabo (c. 30 B.C.) adopted its main features, but while he improved the European frontier, he rejected the valuable information secured by Pytheas and retained the connexion between the Caspian and the outer ocean.
In addition to these the survey for the Trans-Siberian railway has been published on a scale of 1:630,000, as also maps of the Russo-Chinese frontier districts, 1:210,000 and 1:1,168,000.
McCarthy (1881-1883), a former official of the Indian survey, which did good work in connexion with the determination of the FrancoSiamese frontier (1906).
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.
Close to the French frontier stands the seaport of Zaila (q.v.).
The sea frontier extends from Ras Dumeira on the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, a little north of Perim Island, to Ras Gurmarle, a few miles south of the Gulf of Tajura.
The country consists chiefly of slightly elevated arid plains, largely waterless save along the southern frontier.
The frontier towards Abyssinia was fixed by a convention of March 1897 with the Negus Menelik.
After the treaty of Adis Adowa, recognizing the independence of Abyssinia, had been concluded in 1896, negotiations were opened for defining the Italian-Abyssinian frontier in the Somali regions.
In 1897 an agreement was come to that from the point on the British Somaliland frontier where 47° E.
the frontier line should be drawn, at a distance of about 180 m.
From Dolo the frontier goes east to the Webi Shebeli, whence the 1897 line is followed to the British-Abyssinian frontier.
ACRE, or AQUIRY, a river of Brazil and principal tributary of the Purus, rising on the Bolivian frontier and flowing easterly and northerly to a junction with the Purus at 8° 45' S.
situated in the direction of Atropatene, and consequently Airyanem Vaejo is for the most part identified with the district of Arran on the river Aras (Araxes), close by the north-western frontier of Media.
The existence, a few miles beyond the Nepalese frontier, of an inscribed pillar had been known for some years when, in 1895, the discovery of another inscribed pillar at Nigliva, near by, led to the belief that this other, hitherto neglected, one must also be an Asoka pillar, and very probably the one mentioned by Hsuan Tsang.
north of Bhagwanpur, the chief town of a district of the same name in the extreme south of Nepal, just over the frontier dividing Nepal from the district of Basti in British territory.
recognized the papal authority over the whole tract from Radicofani in Tuscany to the pass of Ceperano on the Neapolitan frontier - the exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, the March of Ancona, the bishopric of Spoleto, Matilda's personal estates, and the countship of Brittenoro; but a good deal of the territory thus described remained for centuries an object of ambition only on the part of the popes.
The river, from its mouth to the confluence of the Daua and Ganale, forms the frontier between the British East Africa protectorate and Italian Somaliland; and from that point to about 4° 20' N.
Opposite to the promontory of Sabbioncello, and at the entrance to the Bocche di Cattaro, the frontier of Herzegovina comes down to the Adriatic; but these two strips of coast do not contain any good harbour, and extend only for a total distance of 141 m.
Bosnia belongs wholly to the watershed of the Save, and its rivers to the Danubian system, no large stream finding a way to the Adriatic. The Save flows eastward along the northern frontier for 237 m.
The Drina is formed on the Montenegrin frontier by the united streams of the Tara and Piva; curving north-eastwards past Visegrad, it marches for 102 m.
The Una rises on the Croatian border, and, after skirting the Pljesevica Planina, in Croatia, turns sharply to the north-east; serving as a frontier stream for 37 m.
Along the west frontier there appear broad and strongly marked zones of Cretaceous limestone, alternating with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by a strip of Palaeozoic formations running from the north-west corner of Bosnia.
- Under Roman rule Bosnia had no separate name or history, and until the great Slavonic immigration of 636 it remained an undifferentiated part of Illyria stations are Bjelina, Zvornik, Visegrad, Gorazda, Foea, Bilek, Avtovac and Trebinje, along the eastern frontier; Mostar and Stolac in the south; Livno in the west; and Bihac in the north.
Finally, in 1791, the treaty of Sistova again fixed the line of the Save and Una as the Bosnian frontier.
Towards Egypt the frontier is a line drawn from Akaba at the head of the Gulf of Akaba north-westwards to the little port of El Arish on the Mediterranean.
Allowing for certain battalions unformed, there are altogether 309 nizam battalions; 20 separate chasseur battalions, of four companies each; 4 special chasseur battalions stationed on the Bulgarian frontier - total, 333 battalions in the first line.
On the northern frontier border raids on a large scale were frequent.
There were also bostanjis, or forest-guards, numbering about 5000, besides local troops in distant and frontier provinces, and about 20,000 akinjis, or light troops, in Europe, who carried out forays in the enemies' country.
The peace concluded in 1568 arfd thrice renewed (in 1 573, 1 57 6 and 1584) had not prevented the continuance of raids and forays, from either side of the frontier, that at times assumed the dimensions of regular campaigns.
Peace was made in 1639,- leaving the Turco-Persian frontier practically as it now stands.
These were: the cession to Turkey of Azov with all its guns and munitions, the razing of all the forts recently built on the frontier by Russia, the renunciation by the tsar of all claim to interfere with the Tatars under the dominion of the Crimea or Poland, or to maintain a representative at Constantinople, and Russia's consent to Charles's return to Sweden.'
Russia having thus lost all the advantage gained by the peace of Karlowitz, Venice was next taken in hand, she having invaded the Bosnian frontier and incited the Montenegrins to revolt, besides capturing Turkish ships in the Mediterranean.
In November the conferences broke up; in the spring of the following year Austrian divisions advanced simultaneously into Bosnia, Servia and Walachia; and in July the main army, under the prince of Lorraine, crossed the frontier and captured Nish.
The Tatars Treaty of from the frontier of Poland to the shores of the Kuchuk Caspian, including those of the Crimea and Kuban, were declared independent under their own khan 1774' of the race of Jenghiz, saving only the religious rights of the sultan as caliph of Islam.
After yielding to these hard conditions, Turkey took advantage of her respite to strengthen the frontier defences and to put down the rebellions in Syria and Egypt; some effort was also expended on the hopeless task of reforming the Janissaries.
9, 1792) by which the Crimea and Ochakov were left to Russia, the Dniester was made the frontier in Europe, and the Asiatic frontier remained unchanged.
The British diplomatist secured his first triumph in the signature of the treaty of Bucharest (May 28, 1812) whereby Khotin, Bender, Kilia and Akkerman were left to Russia; the frontier was fixed at the Pruth; the Asiatic boundary was slightly modified.
On the 16th of November a protocol of the London conference placed the Morea, with the neighbouring islands and the Cyclades, under the guarantee of the powers; and on the 22nd of March 1829 another protocol extended the frontier thus guaranteed to the line Arta-Volo and included the island of Euboea.
It cannot indeed be said that complete tranquillity prevailed throughout the country meanwhile; disturbances in the principalities and in the Lebanon gave serious trouble, while in 1842 the unsettled state of the Turco-Persian frontier nearly led to war.
By the mediation of England and Russia the Treaty of Erzerum was signed (1847) and a frontier commission was appointed.
But as the frontier was not definitely demarcated the door was left open for controversies which have occurred frequently up to the present day.
island; Y 97 from the Piraeus with an armed force, intending to proclaim the annexation of Crete to Greece, and Greek troops were massed on the Thessalian frontier.
The resistance offered by Greece was feeble in the extreme: Europe was obliged to intervene, and Turkey gained a rectification of frontier and a war indemnity of £4,000,000, besides the curtailment by the treaty eventually signed of many privileges hitherto enjoyed by Hellenic subjects in Turkey.
encroachments on the hinterland of Aden brought about a dangerous state of tension between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its parallel in 1906 in similar trespasses by the Ottoman authorities on the Egyptian land frontier near Akaba.
The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
On the 3rd of February 1910 the Porte accepted a Bulgarian proposal for a mixed commission to delimit disputed sections of the Turco-Bulgarian frontier, and in March King Ferdinand visited Constantinople.
To meet the impending blow the Prussians had been extended in a cordon along the great road leading from Mainz to Dresden, Blucher was at Erfurt, Riichel at Gotha, Hohenlohe at Weimar, Saxons in Dresden, with outposts along the frontier.
Information about the Russians was very indifferent; it was only known that Prince Bagration with about 33,000 men lay grouped about Wolkowysk; Barclay de Tolly with 40,000 about Vilna; and on the Austrian frontier lay a small corps under Tormassov in process of formation, while far away on the Turkish frontiers hostilities with the sultan retained Tschitschagov with 50,000 more.
Cyr, who had relieved Macdonald on his extreme left, had only 17,000 men left under arms against upwards of 40,000 Russians under Witgenstein; and to the south Tschitschagov's army, being no longer detained on the Turkish frontier, peace having been made, was marching to join Tormassov about Brest-Litewski with forces which would bring the total of the two well over ioo,000 men.
Meanwhile on the extreme French right Schwarzenberg and his Austrians had drifted away towards their own frontier,.
To meet these forces the emperor could not collect men in all, of whom upwards of 10o,000 were held by Wellington on the Spanish frontier, and more were required to watch the debouches from the Alps.
Hence less than 80,000 remained available for the east and north-eastern frontier.
There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Galicia, she at last escaped from the dungeon of Napoleonic Europe.
The lower portion of the Moroccan Atlas (sometimes called the Middle Atlas), extending north - east and east from an undefined point to the north of the Great Atlas to near the frontier of Algeria, is crossed by the pass from Fez to Tafilalt.
of Sardinia from the Austrian alliance, but was not permitted to cross the Sardinian frontier.
as far as their confluence near Kiakhta, on the frontier of Mongolia and Siberia, at the eastern extremity of the Sayan Mountains.
The delimitation of the southern frontier was in 1909 referred to the king of Spain as arbitrator between Great Britain and Germany.
Suddenly towards the end of August, as if by previous understanding (although nothing of the sort was ever proved), small bands of Sioux scattered along the frontier for 200 m.
Flandreau, The History of Minnesota and Tales of the Frontier (St Paul, 1901).
During February and March 1808 the frontier fortresses of Pampeluna, St Sebastian, Barcelona and Figueras were treacherously occupied and Spain lay at the feet of Napoleon.
ENSCHEDE, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, near the Prussian frontier, and a junction station 5 m.
His subjects at length grew weary of the heavy expense of maintaining a large military force on the Belgian frontier and in 1839 the king gave way.
On the 1st of August 1431 a large army of crusaders, under Frederick, margrave of Brandenburg, whom Cardinal Cesarini accompanied as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian frontier; on the 14th of August it reached the town of Domazlice (Tauss); but on the arrival of the Hussite army under Prokop the crusaders immediately took to flight, almost without offering resistance.
by a line running from the sources of the river Ural to the Tarbagatai range (thus separating the steppes of the Irtysh basin from those of the Aral and Balkash basins), thence along the Chinese frontier as far as the S.E.
corner of Transbaikalia, and then along the rivers Argun, Amur and Usuri to the frontier of Korea.
Another great lake, Lake Kossogol, on the Mongolian frontier, is 120 m.
The principal centre for the remainder (textiles and petroleum), conveyed by land, is Kiakhta on the Mongolian frontier.
BEARN, formerly a small frontier province in the south of France, now included within the department of Basses-Pyrenees.
the river of the same name, which forms the frontier between.
AKA HILLS, a tract of country on the north-east frontier of India, occupied by an independent tribe called the Akas.
37 Caligula deprived the proconsul of his military powers and gave them to the imperial legate (legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Africae), who was nominated directly by the emperor, and whose special duty it was to guard the frontier zone (Tacitus, Hist.
The military posts were drawn up in echelon along the frontier of the desert, especially along the southern slopes of the Aures, as far as Ad Majores (Besseriani), and on the Tripolitan frontier as far as Cydamus (Ghadames), forming an immense arc extending from Cyrenaica to Mauretania.
A network of military routes, constructed and kept in repair by the soldiers, led from Lambaesa in all directions, and stretched along the frontier as far as Leptis Magna, passing Theveste (Tebessa), Thenae and Tacape (Gabes).
Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously (1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick III.
A chain of forts to the eastward is designed to facilitate the deployment of an army, concentrated within the fortified region, towards the Belgian frontier.
The king's representatives were unable to draw the frontier line by reason of the imperfection of the maps then in existence, and he therefore directed a further survey.
Under the provisions of the Anglo-French agreement of January 1896, from the Chinese frontier southwards to the mouth of the Nam Hok the Mekong forms the frontier between the British Shan States on the west and the territories acquired from Siam by France in 1893.
it is also the frontier between French Indo-China and Siam, and a zone extended 25 kilometres inland from the right bank, within which the Siamese government agreed not to construct any fortified port or maintain any armed force.
275, when Dacia was lost to the empire, and the invasions of the northern peoples resulted in the destruction of temples along a great stretch of frontier, the natural stronghold of the cult.
from Olinda (Ponta de Pedra, 8° o' 57" S., 34° so' W.) due west to the Peruvian frontier (about 73° 50' W.).
The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
The ranges gradually diminish in elevation towards the east, the highest point of the Tumuc-Humac range, on the frontier of French Guiana, being about 2600 ft.
Its semi-arid character is due to the mountain ranges on its northern frontier, which extract the moisture from the north-east trades and leave the Brazilian plateau behind them with a very limited rainfall, except near the Atlantic coast.
A thick sandstone sheet once covered the greater part if not all of it, remains of which are found on the elevated chapadas of the interior and on isolated elevations extending across the republic toward its western frontier.
Its rivers flow easterly into the Atlantic and drain a triangular-shaped area of the plateau lying between the northern frontier and the southern and western watersheds of the Araguary, whose extreme limits are about o° 30' N.
It lies in the north-east trade winds belt, but the mountain chain on its northern frontier robs these winds of their moisture and leaves the greater part of the Brazilian plateau rainless.
A still more interesting boundary dispute was that between Great Britain and Brazil, as to the southern frontier line of British Guiana.
The result was of importance, as it was known that Brazil was on friendly terms with Chile, and this interchange of courtesies had some effect in bringing about a settlement of the controversy between Chile and Argentina over the Andean frontier question without recourse to hostilities.
Edinburgh was long an exposed frontier town within a territory only ceded to Malcolm II.
of Tarracina, and the Via Appia then traversed the pass of Lautulae, between the mountains and the Lake of Fondi, where the Samnites defeated the Romans with loss in 315 B.C. This pass, the frontier between the Papal States and the kingdom of Naples, was also fortified in modern days.
The most important towns, besides Sparta and Gythium, were Bryseae, Amyclae and Pharis in the Eurotas plain, Pellana and Belbina on the upper Eurotas, Sellasia on the Oenus, Caryae on the Arcadian frontier, Prasiae, Zarax and Epidaurus Limera on the east coast, Geronthrae on the slopes of Parnon, Boeae, Asopus, Helos, Las and Teuthrone on the Laconian Gulf, and Hippola, Messa and Oetylus on the Messenian Gulf.
of the frontier of the Italian colony of Eritrea.
Kassala was founded by the Egyptians in 1840 as a fortified post from which to control their newly conquered territory near the Abyssinian frontier.
This acquisition brought the Norman frontier almost to the Loire and isolated Brittany, long coveted by the Norman dukes, from the rest of France.
Before long the reciprocal need of fresh territory and frontier disputes, especially concerning Poggibonsi and Montepulciano, led to an outbreak of hostilities between Florence and Siena.
In the latter part of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th it was constantly the scene of bloody dissensions between two rival parties, one led by the local janissaries, the other by the sherifs (religious); and the Ottoman governors took the side, now of one, now of the other, in order to plunder a distracted city, too far removed from the centre to be controlled by the sultans, and too near the rebellious pashalik of Acre and the unsettled district of Lebanon not to be affected by the disorders natural to a frontier province.
It extends from the mouth of the Umtamvuna river (31° 4' S., 30° 12' E.), which separates Natal from the Cape, to the mouth of the Tugela (29° 15' S., 31° 30' E.), which marks the frontier between Natal and Zululand.
to Bushman's Nek in the S.W., form the frontier of the province, the crest of the range being generally within Natal.
from Majuba to the Lebombo Mountains, coincides roughly with the northern frontier of Natal.
Below the junction the Umzimkulu forms for some distance the frontier between Natal and the Griqualand East division of the Cape.
of Wakkerstroom and flows E., forming, for the greater part of its course, the northern frontier of the province.
beyond Charlestown reaches the Transvaal frontier at mile 307.
The first emigrant Boers to enter the country were led by Pieter Retief (c. 1780-1838), a man of Huguenot descent and of marked ability, who had formerly lived on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony and had suffered severely in the Kaffir wars.
This feeling was, however, changed by what Sir George (and many of the Dutch in Natal also) thought a wilful and unjustifiable attack (December 1840) on a tribe of Kaffirs on the southern, or Cape Colony, frontier by a commando under Andries Pretorius, which set out, nominally, to recover stolen cattle.
C. Smith with a force of 263 men left his camp at the Umgazi,on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony, and marching overland reached Durban without opposition, and encamped, on the 4th of May, at the base of the Berea hills.
Hitherto the Tugela from source to mouth had been the recognized frontier between Natal and Zululand.
In a dispute between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State he decided (February 1870) that the Klip river and not the upper Vaal was the frontier stream.
In this year (1886) the railway reached Ladysmith, and in 18 9 1 it was completed to the Transvaal frontier at Charlestown, the section from Ladysmith northward opening up the Dundee and Newcastle coalfields.
In July the Natal ministry J Y Y learnt that it was not the intention of the Imperial government to endeavour to hold the frontier in case hostilities arose, but that a line of defence considerably south of the frontier would be taken up. This led to a request on their part that if the Imperial government had any reason to anticipate the breakdown of negotiations, " such steps may be at once taken as may be necessary for the effectual defence of the whole colony."
it is bounded by the frontier of Russia, beginning at Mount Kalas or Kanas (49° 5' N., 87° 40' E.) in the Altai, and running to the S.E.
From Manchuria and China it is separated by the border ridge of the plateau - the Great Khingan, while in the south-west it runs up to the foot of the high northern border ridges of the Tibetan plateau - an artificial frontier separating it from east Turkestan and Dzungaria.
Kosogol (Khubsu-gul), which lies at an altitude of 5320 ft., close to the Russian frontier, at the foot of the snow-clad Munku-sardyk..
This portion of Mongolia is also much better watered, namely, by the Khatsyr, the Lao-ho and the Shara-muren, all flowing from the Khingan Mountains eastwards, and the last making the frontier between Mongolia and the Chinese province of Chihli.
In 14 other counties, on the linguistic frontier, they are either in a small majority or a considerable minority (61.6% in Szatmar, 18.9% in Torontal).
The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.
The Sla y s, the most numerous race after the Magyars, are divided into several groups: the Slovaks, mainly massed in the mountainous districts of northern Hungary; the Ruthenians, established mainly on the slopes of the Carpathians between Poprad and Maramaros Sziget; the Serbs, settled in the south of Hungary from the bend of the Danube eastwards across the Theiss into the Banat; the Croats, overwhelmingly preponderant in Croatia-Slavonia, with outlying settlements in the counties of Zala, Vas and Sopron along the Croatian and Styrian frontier.
In 1873 part of the " Military Frontier " was united with Hungary proper and part with CroatiaSlavonia.
The Arpad kings had succeeded in encircling their whole southern frontier with half a dozen military colonies or banates, comprising, roughly speaking, Little Walachia, 2 and the northern parts of Bulgaria, Servia and Bosnia.
Moreover, river fleets, built by Genoese masters and manned by Servians, were constructed to patrol and defend the great rivers of Hungary, especially on the Turkish frontier.
Under the circumstances, we cannot wonder if the frontier fortresses fell to pieces, and the border troops, unpaid for years, took to brigandage.
The truce of Adrianople in 1568, nominally for eight years, but prolonged from time to time till 1593, finally suspended regular hostilities, and introduced the epoch known as " The Long Peace," though, throughout these twenty-five years, the guerilla warfare on the frontier never ceased for more than a few months at a time, and the relations between the Habsburgs and Transylvania were persistently hostile.
The border counties, now formed into a military zone, were planted exclusively with Croatian colonists as being more trustworthy defenders of the Hungarian frontier than the Hungarians themselves.
BADAKSHAN, including Wakhan, a province on the northeast frontier of Afghanistan, adjoining Russian territory.
COAHUILA, a northern frontier state of Mexico, bounded N.
During the spring of 1915 the official organ at Sarajevo published list after list of Bosnian-Serb families who were thus declared to have forfeited their citizenship: and many thousands of women and children were driven across the Montenegrin frontier, often with only the clothes in which they stood.
The frontier was to follow the watershed of the Julian Alps from Tarvis as far east as the Snjeznik (Schneeberg) and to reach the sea just east of Volosca, Fiume being expressly reserved to Croatia.
It accepted the Brenner as a fair strategic line on the north, but argued that the Treaty of London was no longer applicable in respect of Italy's eastern frontier, since the line which it traced was designed to secure Italy against future Austro-Hungarian aggression, and AustriaHungary had by now ceased to exist.
12 1920) Italy acquired a frontier considerably farther east than the Wilson Line, and including the quicksilver mines of Istria, the watershed of the Julian Alps as far as Snjeznik (Monte Nevoso), almost all Istria with Abbazia and Volosca, and a narrow strip of shore connecting it with Fiume.
The regulation of the new Yugoslav frontier with Austria proved very thorny.
Against Bulgaria the Yugoslav delegation claimed considerable frontier rectifications - (a) the Strumnica salient, which threatened the Vardar railway from the east, (b) the district of Kochana (Tocana) and the Bregalnitsa (Bregalnica), (c) a strip of territory running parallel with the old Serbo-Bulgarian frontier the whole way from Zajecar to Kyustendil, and (d) the town of Vidin on the Danube and the salient between it and the Timok.
The frontier w ith Hungary was the last to be regulated.
So long as vital frontier disputes were unregulated, the central Government in Belgrade held that elections could not be held, and governed for the first two years through a provisional Parliament, for which no one could claim a really representative character.
About the same time similar peoples harassed the northern frontier of Iran, where they were called Saka (Sacae), and in later times Saka and Scyths, whether they were originally the same or not, were regarded as synonymous.
It seems best to believe that Darius made an incursion in order to secure the frontier of the Danube, suffered serious reverses and retired with loss, and that this offered too good a chance to be missed for a moral tale about the discomfiture of the Great King by a few poor savages.
For a few miles on the Natal-Transvaal frontier the Drakensberg run east and west and here is the pass of Laing's Nek.
This eastern edge forms the frontier between Transvaal and Portuguese territory.
Of these the Komati (q.v.) and its affluents, and the Pongola and its affluents rise in the high veld and flowing eastward to the Indian Ocean drain but a comparatively small area of the province, of which the Pongola forms for some distance the south-eastern frontier.
To preserve the native fauna the low country on the Portuguese frontier has been made a game reserve.
Other auriferous reefs are found all along the eastern escarpment of the Drakensberg and are worked in the De Kaap (Barberton) district, on the Swaziland frontier, in the Lydenburg district, in the Murchison Range and in other places in the Zoutpansberg.
Goldfields also exist in the Waterberg and on the western frontier in the Marico district (the Malmani fields).
Sir George Colley, with about 1400 men, marched towards the Transvaal frontier, but before reaching it he found, on the 24th of January 1881, that the Boers had already invaded Natal and occupied Laing's Nek.
In the meantime, while the British general was making a treaty under the instructions of British ministers on the frontier, the beleaguered garrisons of Pretoria, Potchefstroom, and other smaller towns were gallantly holding their own.
In the articles of the new convention the boundaries were once more defined, concessions being made to the Transvaal on the Bechuanaland frontier, and to them the republic was bound to " strictly adhere."
east of the Swazi frontier.
On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.
In Natal practically the whole of the available defence force was swallowed up by the steady success of the invasion; on the western frontier two British towns were isolated and besieged; and Boer commandos were on the point of invading Cape Colony, where the Dutch population seemed on the verge of rebellion.
Before this Lord Roberts had initiated a movement from Pretoria to sweep down to Komati Poort on the Portuguese frontier, in which Buller, advancing across country from the south, was to co-operate.
by a mountain range of medium height, which unites the Pyrenees with the southern Cevennes; and its northern frontier is occupied by the Montagne Noire, the most westerly portion of the Cevennes.
The empress Theodora (842-857) hung, crucified, beheaded or drowned some Ioo,000 of them, and drove yet more over the frontier, where from Argaeum, Amara, Tephrike and other strongholds their generals Karbeas and Chrysocheir harried the empire, until 873, when the emperor Basil slew Chrysocheir and took Tephrike.
Perceiving, however, that she was not able unaided to avert the invasions which threatened the eastern frontier of the empire, she revoked her oath, married Romanus, and with his assistance dispelled the impending danger.
Along the Brazilian frontier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the eastern slops of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes broken with grassy campos.
This region, together with that of the Guiana frontier, is heavily forested.
the surface again rises into mountain ranges, which include the Parima and Pacaraima sierras on and adjacent to the Brazilian frontier, with a number of short spurs reaching northward toward the Orinoco, such as the Mapichi, Maraguaca, Maigualida, Matos, Rincote and Usupamo.
Whilst this frontier difficulty was still simmering, an insurrection against General Crespo was fomented by Dr J.
In 1898 General Crespo was succeeded as president by Senor Andrade, who had represented Venezuela in Washington during the most acute stage of the frontier question.
CHIAPAS, a Pacific coast state of southern Mexico on the Guatemalan frontier, bounded by the states of Tabasco on the N.
The Sierra Madre crosses the southern part of the state parallel with the coast, separating the low, humid, forested districts on the frontier of Tabasco from the hot, drier, coastal plain on the Pacific. The mountain region includes a plateau of great fertility and temperate climate, which is one of the best parts of Mexico and contains the larger part of the population of the state.
The extension of the Pan-American railway across the state, from San Geronimo, on the Tehuantepec National line, to the Guatemalan frontier, is calculated to improve the industrial and social conditions of the people.
from the Guatemalan frontier, is a rising commercial town of the new coffee district.
Shortly after crossing the Bohemian-Saxon frontier, and whilst still struggling through the sandstone defiles, the stream assumes a north-westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right away to the North Sea.
8 in., whilst from the Bohemian frontier down to Magdeburg the minimum depth is 3 ft., and from Magdeburg to Hamburg, 3 ft.
6 weight of the rafts passing the station of Schandau on the Saxon Bohemian frontier amounting in 1901 to 333,000 tons.
The passenger traffic, which is in the hands of the Sachsisch-Bohmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony, and on the average 12 million passengers are conveyed.
Still further relief was afforded in 1844 and in 1850, on the latter occasion by the abolition of all tolls between Melnik and the Saxon frontier.
Miihlberg, just outside the Saxon frontier, is the place where Charles V.
It is customary to ascribe their successes to the power of the breech-loader, but there were actions in which it played no part, cavalry versus cavalry encounters, and isolated duels between batteries which gave the Prussian gunners a confidence they had not felt when first crossing the frontier.
Their railway communication ended abruptly at the Austrian frontier; the roads were few and bad, the country sparsely cultivated and inhospitable, and the troops suffered severely.
The battle of Langensalza (June 27th) showed that the risks Moltke deliberately accepted when he transferred so many of the western troops to the Bohemian frontier were by no means imaginary, for v.
BAHADUR KHEL, an Indian salt-mine in the Kohat district of the North-West Frontier Province, in the range of hills south of the village of Bahadur Khel between Kohat and Bannu.
Consumption of Kohat salt is restricted, on account of its paying less duty, to the tracts lying to the north of the Indus and to the frontier tribes.
The term, in Hungarian, means generally a frontier province governed by a ban and is equivalent to the German term Mark.
in breadth on the eastern frontier of Bavaria which grew into the duchy of Austria.
murabit, " one who pickets his horse on a hostile frontier"; cf.
The word is derived from ribat, a fortified frontier station.
The lack of transportation facilities has been partly relieved by the construction of a branch of the Southern Pacific (American) from Nogales southward to Guaymas and the Sinaloa frontier, from which it has been extended to Mazatlan.
Still lower down, but before the Dutch frontier is reached, come the Ruhr and the Lippe on the right, and the Erft on the left.
The amount of traffic which passed the town of Emmerich near the Dutch frontier, both ways, increased from an annual average of about 6 million tons in 1881-85 to over 214 million tons in 1899.
from Rotterdam to the German frontier, and To ft.
For nearly eight hundred years it continued in this position, the frontier of the German empire coinciding more or less with the line of the Rhone.
The congress of Vienna (1815) restored the lower part of the Rhenish valley to Germany, but it was not till the war of 1870-71 that the recovery of Alsace and Lorraine made the Rhine once more "Germany's river, not Germany's frontier."
He was soon again in trouble, this time for the poem of Le Mondain, and he at once crossed the frontier and then made for Brussels.
IRUN, a frontier town of northern Spain, in the province of Guipuzcoa, on the left bank of the river Bidassoa, opposite the French village of Hendaye.
frontier, are Isandhlwana and the Nqutu hills.
(1800 to 2000 ft.), which separate the coast plains from the interior, mark the frontier between Swaziland and Zululand.
Its point of confluence with the Maputa (which empties into Delagoa Bay) marks the parallel along which the frontier between Zululand and Portuguese East Africa is drawn.
The Zulu force did not come into contact with the British troops guarding the Cape frontier, but much alarm was caused by the invasion.
With the Boers who had settled in the Transvaal, however, he was involved in various frontier disputes.
The frontier disputes between the Zulu and the Transvaal Boers ultimately involved the British government and were one of the causes of the war which broke out in 1879.
In 1861 Umtonga, a brother of Cetywayo, fled to the Utrecht district, and Cetywayo assembled an army on that frontier.
Lord Chelmsford had under him a force of 650o Europeans and 8200 natives; 3000 of the latter were employed in guarding the frontier of Natal; another force of 1400 Europeans and 400 natives were stationed in the Utrecht district.
The frontier tribes on the Dera Ghazi Khan border include the Kasranis, Bozdars, Khosas, Lagharis, Khetvans, Gurchanis, Mazaris, Mariris and Bugtis.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
Proc., 1892; Colonel Durand, Making a Frontier (London, 1899); Sir G.
The chief towns on the coast are: Olbia, the first town in Pamphylia, near the Lycian frontier; Attalia; and Side (q.v.).
In 1795 the Burmese were involved in a dispute with the British in India, in consequence of their troops, to the amount of 5000 men, entering the district of Chittagong in pursuit of three robbers who had fled from justice across the frontier.