The hinge was oiled and didn't squeak because the friction had been reduced.
Betsy sensed that there was friction between them.
When the English colonies of the Carolinas and Georgia were founded, there was constant friction with Florida.
I slid the book towards her, but it did not reach its destination, due to its friction against the carpet.
The receiver was based on the change of friction produced by the passage of an electric current through the point of contact of certain substances in relative motion.
This argument has caused a considerable amount of friction between us.
For example, does the heat generated by friction vary as the friction and the time during which it acts, or is it proportional to the friction and the distance through which the rubbing bodies are displaced - that is, to the work done against friction - or does it involve any other conditions?
For many years the mills were successfully conducted, but friction ultimately arose and Owen retired in 1828.
In all cases there is a general tendency for other forms of energy to be transformed into heat on account of the friction of rough surfaces, the resistance of conductors, or similar causes, and thus to lose availability.
When the current passed, the friction was felt to increase, and the effect of sending a rapidly undulating current through the arrangement was to produce a sound.
Barrel cranes are usually fitted with band brakes, consisting of a brake rim with a friction band placed round it, the band being tightened as required.
Zach was beginning to feel weary from the constant friction between him and his coworkers.
Fourteen years of friction and struggle followed.
Laura sensed the friction between her friends as soon as she walked in the room.
Finally, Rumford reviewed all the sources from which the heat might have been supposed to be derived, and concluded that it was simply produced by the friction, and that the supply was inexhaustible.
The relational friction between my father and I has reached an unbearable point.
Many swimmers shave their legs to reduce friction against the water so that they are able to swim faster.
Money can be a great cause of friction between spouses.
The close agreement between the results at least indicates that "the amount of heat produced by friction is proportional to the work done and independent of the nature of the rubbing surfaces."
These events and the friction caused by mutual complaints of infringements of the treaty stirred up public opinion in Turkey, and the British ambassador lent his support to the war party.
Use a mouse mat to reduce friction on the desk top.
Betsy sensed friction between them.
second-degree burns caused by friction.
The skin friction of the missile at those speeds at those altitudes would melt any metals or nonmetals available.
Friction was increased by a whole series of incidents along the coast, by the deportation of prominent Yugosla y s to Italy and by the entry of Italian troops into Fiume, despite the protests of the Yugoslav civil and military authorities (Nov.
friction burns to their feet.
It contains friction modifier which is recommended for limited-slip units.
The pistons are also coated with titanium nitride to reduce friction with the seals.
Immediate feedback is encouraged, however, so that interpersonal friction does not become obstructive in the work of the group.
The " glue " keeping the skin together present in normal births is missing causing severe blistering either spontaneously or at the slightest friction.
The doctrinal differences came to a head in the trials of George Duffield (1832), Lyman Beecher (1835) and Albert Barnes (1836) which, however, resulted in the acquittal of the accused, but which increased friction and ill feeling.
friction modifier which is recommended for limited-slip units.
Other triggers cab be changes in host defenses e.g. friction during sexual intercourse inflaming the mucous membranes.
The density of solid sulphur is 2 062 to 2'070, and the specific heat 0.1712; it is a bad conductor of electricity and becomes negatively electrified on friction.
This is due to friction, inertia and other blah.
Due to their more organized nature, laminar boundary layers produce much less skin friction drag than turbulent boundary layers.
This often led to friction between the free burghers and the tenants of the Bishop.
The coefficient of friction is a variable quantity depending upon the state of the rails, but is usually taken to be This is the fundamental equation between the forces acting, however the torque may be applied.
A side wind causes excessive flange friction on the leeward side of the train, and increases the tractive resistances therefore very considerably, even though its velocity be relatively moderate.
A second advantage of the vestibule developed in use, for it was found that the lateral swaying of the cars was diminished by the friction between the vestibule frames.
of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.
(4) The necessary rites included (a) the establishment of the fires, friction being.
The government was administered under this treaty, but with considerable friction, until the end of 1898, when, upon the death of Malietoa, two rival candidates for the throne again appeared, and the chief justice selected by the three powers decided against the claims of Mataafa, and in favour of a boy, Malietoa Tanu, a relative of the deceased Malietoa.
Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician.
But, in fact, it failed; and the friction engendered between the First Lord and the First Sea Lord was one of the causes which drove Mr. Asquith to invite the Unionists in May to join in a Coalition Government.
The band-wheel communicates motion to the walking-beam, while drilling is in progress, through the crank and a connectingrod known as the pitman; to the bull-wheels, while the tools are being raised, by the bull-rope; and to the sand-pump reel, by a friction pulley, while the sand-pump is being used.
The sarong is of Celebes manufacture and made of cotton, to the surface of which a high polish is imparted by friction with a shell.
25, p. 613), but both modifications may exist in metastable forms at higher and lower temperatures respectively; the rhombic form may be cooled down to ordinary temperature without changing, the transformation, however, being readily induced by a trace of the red modification, or by friction.
These laws strictly defined the powers of the president; more clearly separated the executive departments, so as to lessen friction and jealousies; reformed the courts; reformed administrative routine; and increased the strength of the provinces at the expense of the municipalities.
In spite of frequent causes of friction, good relations were maintained with Venice, through the influence of the sultana Safie, and the capitulations with the republic of St Mark were renewed in 1589.
To obtain the support of the capitalists, Gaius Gracchus conceived the plan of creating friction between them and the senate, which he carried out by handing over to them the control (a) of the jury-courts, and (b) of the revenues of Asia.
Much of the blame falls upon the Supreme Council, which shrank from the only effective means of allaying friction - immediate Allied occupation of the disputed zone, pending the decision of the Peace Conference.
After some years of friction " National Scouts " were however readmitted, on terms, to their former membership.
Local hypertrophy may also be due to stimulation resulting from friction or intermittent pressure, as one may see in the thickenings on the skin of the artisan's hands.
In geared hoists the drums. are on a separate shaft, driven from the crank-shaft by tooth or friction gearing, and make one revolution for, say, 4 or 5 double strokes.
Independent drums, on the contrary, are loose upon their shaft, and are thrown on or off by tooth or friction clutches.
multiplied by the total rubbing or friction surface of the air-ways in square feet and by the coefficient of friction.
This smooth surface is then brilliantly polished by the aid of friction with a rubbing tool covered with a soft substance like leather or felt and fed with a polishing material, such as rouge.
the resistance of a metal to abrasion by friction.
The French philosopher, therefore, regarded these obstructions as the effects of friction.
The effects of friction and viscosity in diminishing the velocity of running water were noticed in the Principia of Sir Isaac Newton, who threw much light upon several branches of hydromechanics.
Taking advantage of these results, Henri Pitot (1695-1771) afterwards showed that the retardations arising from friction are inversely as the diameters of the pipes in which the fluid moves.
But as the motion of rivers is not continually accelerated,and soon arrives at a state of uniformity,it is evident that the viscosity of the water, and the friction of the channel in which it descends, must equal the accelerating force.
The friction of water, investigated for slow speeds by Coulomb, was measured for higher speeds by William Froude (1810-1879), whose work is of great value in the theory of ship resistance (Brit.
In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.
There was at no time a general struggle in England between the gild merchant and the craft gilds, though in a few towns there seems to have been some friction between merchants and artisans.
Nowadays the mould-board is of steel with a chilled and polished surface to give greater wearing qualities and to reduce friction.
In the wheeled plough some of the weight and downward pull due to its action on the ground is taken by the wheels; the sliding friction is thus to some extent converted into a rolling friction, and the draught is correspondingly diminished.
The mind will pursue knowledge without the wasteful jar and friction of conflicting methods and mutually hostile conceptions; education will be regenerated; and society will reorganize itself on the only possible solid base - a homogeneous philosophy.
This is the key to the regeneration of social existence, as it is the key to that unity of individual life which makes all our energies converge freely and without wasteful friction towards a common end.
There was much friction between Sherman and the war secretary, Stanton, before the terms were ratified, but with their signature the Civil War came to an end.
This shows that some bodies are conductors and others non-conductors or insulators of electricity, and that bodies can be electrified by friction and impart their electric charge to other bodies.
If mechanical work or kinetic energy is directly converted into heat by friction, reversal of the motion does not restore the energy so converted.
Even if the expansion is adiabatic, in the sense that it takes place inside a non-conducting enclosure and no heat is supplied from external sources, it will not be isentropic, since the heat supplied by internal friction must be included in reckoning the change of entropy.
In 395 the domineering attitude of Sparta impelled the Corinthians to conclude an alliance with Argos which they had previously contemplated on occasions of friction with the former city, as well as with Thebes and with Athens, whose commercial rivalry they no longer dreaded.
He is a god who lives among men, miraculously reborn each day by the fire-drill, by the friction of the two sticks which are regarded as his parents; he is the supreme director of religious ceremonies and duties,and even has the power of influencing the lot of man in the future world.
His cult survived the metamorphosis of the ancient Vedic nature-worship into modern Hinduism, and there still are in India fire-priests (agnihotri) whose duty is to superintend his worship. The sacred fire-drill for procuring the temple-fire by friction - symbolic of Agni's daily miraculous birth - is still used.
Friction soon arose.
When the rays of the sun or a candle, or dark radiation from a warm body, are incident on the vanes, the dark side of each vane is repelled more than the bright side, and thus the vanes are set into rotation with accelerated speed, which becomes uniform when the forces produced by the radiation are balanced by the friction of the pivot and of the residual air in the globe.
If the light exerted direct impulsion on the vanes, their motion would gradually drag the case round after them, by reason of the friction of the residual air in the bulb and of the pivot.
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
friction clutch acting directly on the spindle.
friction stay hinges.
In 1798 he presented to the Royal Society his "Enquiry concerning the Source of Heat which is excited by Friction," in which he combated the current view that heat was a material substance, and regarded it as a mode of motion.
P. Joule with the perforated piston and with the friction of water and mercury.
Friction had soon arisen with New Netherland, although, owing to their common dislike of the English, the Swedes and the Dutch had maintained a formal friendship. In 1651, however, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, and more aggressive than his predecessors, built Fort Casimir, near what is now New Castle.
This ring runs between friction wheels and is provided with teeth on its inner periphery, and these teeth transmit motion to a pinion on a spindle having at its other end another pinion which, through an intermediate wheel, rotates the heliometer tube.
A simpler form of collector, now almost universally used, is a plain brass tube which is driven into the bottom of the sea by the weight of the sounding lead, and in which the deposit may be retained by a valve or other contrivance, though in many cases friction alone suffices to hold the punched-out core.
The internal friction or viscosity of seawater has also been shown by E.
When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, with the amount of work to be done with one fixing of the machinery; where it is likely to be used for a considerable time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over friction rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to prevent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground.
The maintenance of the conditions of steadiness implied in equation (I) depends upon the constancy of F, and therefore of the coefficient of friction µ between the rubbing surfaces.
The ratio p is given by e"` e, where e= 2.718; µ is the coefficient of friction and 0 the angle, measured in radians,, subtended by the arc of contact between the rope and the wheel.
Neglecting friction, the ' H.
If the angle 0 1 =0 2 =120 0, Q = (P - p) neglecting friction.
A torque applied to the shaft A can be transmitted to D, neglecting friction, without change only if the central pulley K is held from turning; the torque required to do this is twice the torque transmitted.
Beaumont, " Dynamometers and Friction Brakes," Proc. Inst.C.E.
Under the Territorial government when first organized the governor was given an extensive appointing power, as well as the right of an absolute veto on all legislation, but this speedily resulted in such friction between him and the legislature that Congress was petitioned for his removal, with the outcome that the office has since been much restricted in its appointing power, and the veto has been subjected to the ordinary United States limit, i.e.
In this we see the explanation of the phenomenon of the generation of heat by friction.
He overthrew entirely the " friction " theory of electricity and conceived the idea of plus and minus charges (1753); he thought the sea the source of electricity.
The chief sources of friction between Church and State were four in number.
The reduction of friction by improved mechanical arrangements, and the introduction of electric firing, enabled the layer not only to train and elevate the gun himself, but also to fire it the moment it was truly " on " the target.
During 1911 various matters had created friction between the two countries and caused the exchange of bitter articles in the press, but war had appeared unlikely.
But there is always leakage of energy either through friction or through wave-emission, so that the vibration only increases up to the point at which the leakage of energy balances the energy put in by the applied force.
When a system is set vibrating and left to itself, the vibration gradually dies away as the energy leaks out either in the waves formed or through friction.
Hence the stream of air does work during half the vibration and this is not abstracted during the other half, and so it goes on increasing the motion until the supply of energy in blowing is equal to the loss by friction and sound.
(5) The longitudinal drag due to the friction of a train when braked, about one-seventh of the weight of the train.
Enrolment in the army proceeded everywhere without friction, and much more expeditiously than the military authorities had expected.
The friction between uncle and nephew became more acute in the following year.
Largely owing to friction between himself and the president, Bristow resigned his portfolio in June 1876; as secretary of the treasury he advocated the resumption of specie payments and at least a partial retirement of "greenbacks"; and he was also an advocate of civil service reform.
But he disliked the friction with his family circle which this policy produced.
The principle of the meter is to make the breaking and driving action so strong that the friction of the train becomes immaterial in comparison.
In order to overcome the friction of the train the field-coils are wound with an auxiliary shunt coil which supplies a driving force sufficient to overcome the friction of the counting train.
On the proclamation of the French empire (May 1804) the friction became acute.
What hopes of success there were in such a struggle Germain and the North cabinet dissipated by their misunderstanding of the situation and their friction with the generals and the army in the theatre of war.
After a certain discount for friction and the recoil of the gun, the net work realized by the powder-gas as the shot advances AM is represented by the area Acpm, and this is equated to the kinetic energy e of the shot, in foot-tons, (I) e d2 I + p, a in which the factor 4(k 2 /d 2)tan 2 S represents the fraction due to the rotation of the shot, of diameter d and axial radius of gyration k, and S represents the angle of the rifling; this factor may be ignored in the subsequent calculations as small, less than I %.
This muzzle velocity is about 5% greater than the 2150 f/s of the range table, so on these considerations we may suppose about 10% of work is lost by friction in the bore; this is expressed by saying that the factor of effect is f =0.9.
The partition of the Pacific islands never led to any serious friction between the powers, though the acquisition of Hawaii was attempted by Britain, France and Japan before the United States annexed the group, and the negotiations as to Samoa threatened trouble for a while.
Again in 1907 there was some friction owing to the murder of a Guatemalan ex-president by a compatriot in Mexico: later in the year, however, the Mexican government was active in stopping a war between its Central American neighbours.
This is accounted for partly by the strong civic feeling which formed a bond of unity stronger than most sources of friction, and partly to the general prosperity of the towns, which removed any acute discontent.
The aim of those who framed the Constitution was to avoid friction between the state governments and the Federal government by rendering their respective spheres of action as separate and distinct as possible.
This sort of dual control works with less friction and delay than might have been expected, but better appointments would probably be secured if responsibility were more fully and more clearly fixed on the president alone, though there would no doubt be a risk that the president might make a serious error.
The business of fur-seal catching is carried on to some extent in the North Pacific and in Bering Sea by sealers from Victoria, but the returns show it to be a decreasing industry, as well as one causing friction with the United States.
Recent friction with that country made this route objected to by the imperial and many Canadian authorities.
American fishermen, however, showed so little inclination to give up what they had enjoyed so long, that it was found necessary to take vigorous steps to protect Canadian fishing rights, and frequent causes of friction consequently arose.
First of these was the friction involved in the case, before the Supreme Court of the United States, of Chisolm v.
This decision greatly irritated the political leaders of Georgia, and the question of extinguishing the Indian titles, on which there had long been a disagreement, caused further and even more serious friction between the Federal and state authorities.
In 1699 he published some investigations on friction, and in 1702-1703 two noteworthy papers on thermometry.
Such conventions obviously remove occasions for friction and are therefore among the most effective agencies contributing to the preservation of peace among civilized peoples.
(I) those which, without having peace for their direct object, promote friendship among men of different races and nationalities; (2) those which directly address themselves to the promoting of friendship and goodwill among peoples; (3) those which regarding peace as the immediate object of their efforts, endeavour to educate democracy in this sense; (4) those which endeavour to remove the causes of international friction by the codification of international law and the promotion of the international regulation of common interests.
First among the bodies which try to remove the causes of international friction is the Institute of International Law.
Great steadiness of card under severe shocks and vibrations, combined with a minimum of friction in the cap and pivot, is obtained with this compass.
But these lay officials could not long be content with a subordinate position, and hence arose incessant friction, which called for constant intervention on the part of the Frankish sovereigns.
The era of good feeling was, however, soon ended by friction, which arose at a number of points.
The glass is excited positively by friction with the rubbers, and the charge is drawn off by the action of the points which, when acted upon inductively, discharge negative electricity against it.
Trans., 1788, p. 403) of "an instrument which by turning a winch produced the two states of electricity without friction or communication with the earth."
Meanwhile, in 1685 the British had acquired a footing in Benkulen, and between them and the Dutch there was always much jealousy and friction until in 1824 a treaty was made under which the British vacated Sumatra in favour of the Dutch, who reciprocated by giving up Malacca.
Friction and disputes had frequently arisen between the Dutch and the English English traders in different parts of the world, and especially in the East Indies, culminating in the so-called Massacre of Amboyna "; and the strained relations between the two nations would, but for the civil discords in England, have probably led to active hostilities during the reign of Charles I.
Between the States of Holland and the States-General there was constant jealousy and friction.
of retaining its hardness and hence its power of cutting iron and other hard substances, even when it is heated to dull redness, say 600° C. (1112° F.) by the friction of the work which it is doing.
Municipal ownership does not prevail to any extent, and in the larger cities the powers of certain great corporations have tended to cause friction, but such matters as the provision of electric power and light are gradually being taken in hand both by the municipalities and by the province, and a railway and municipal board appointed by the local legislature has certain powers over the railways and electric tramlines.
The cause of this is to be sought rather in the daily friction of a system which had ceased to be efficient and only succeeded in irritating the public opinion it was powerless to curb.
The absorption of South Germany in the German empire took away the chief cause for friction; and from that time warm friendship, based on the maintenance of the established order, has existed between the two empires.
C. t has for its subject pavements and roads, their construction, mosaic floors; c. 2 is on white stucco for walls (opus albarium); c. 3 on concrete vaults, gypsum mouldings, stucco prepared for painting; c. 4 on building of hollow walls to keep out the damp, wall decoration by various processes; c. 5 on methods and styles of wall painting, the debased taste of his time; c. 6 on fine stucco made of pounded marble - three coats to receive wall paintings; c. 7 on colours used for mural decoration; c. 8 on red lead (minium) and mercury, and how to use the latter to extract the gold from wornout pieces of stuff or embroidery; c. 9 on the preparation of red lead and the method of encaustic painting with hot wax, finished by friction; cc. to-14 on artificial colours - black, blue, purple;, c. to white lead and ostrum, i.e.
If we wish to obtain mechanical registration from a horizontal pendulum of the above type, we may minimize the effect of the friction of the writing index - say a glass fibre touching the smoked surface of moderately smooth paper - by using a considerable weight and placing it near to the outer end of the boom.
If that principle had been firmly laid down and clearly understood at the beginning, a good deal ofneedless friction would have been avoided.
With this compromise the friction between the khedive and Sir Evelyn Baring, who had now become Lord Cromer, did not end.
After his reinstatement the AngloEgyptian condominium worked without serious friction.
In his administration of the war office Stanton was vigorous, rigid, and often harsh, and his peremptory manner, in speech and correspondence, was the cause of considerable friction between the war department and the generals, one of the last and most conspicuous instances being his controversy with General Sherman over the terms of surrender granted to J.
The Union was at first rich in causes of friction, and in nothing else; even as late as 1745 it was most unpopular, but Scotland had no choice.
Friction about matters of trade was the instant sequel of the Union: so much ill-feeling was provoked that, in the general opinion, had King James VIII.
In pursuance of this policy he effected an understanding with Russia, by which neither power was to exert any separate influence in the Balkan peninsula, and thus removed a long-standing cause of friction.
This bill passed both houses, but was vetoed in February 1859 by President Buchanan on the ground that it would cause friction between the states, that it would be uneconomical, that it might encourage fraudulent speculation, that it would injure existing institutions, and that it was unconstitutional.
The capacity for hardening is an invaluable property not only in regard to cutting-tools, but also in prolonging the life of parts subjected to severe friction.
The friction between him and General d'Aurelle de Paladines resulted in the loss of the advantage temporarily gained at Orleans, and he was responsible for the campaign in the east, which ended in the destruction of Bourbaki's army.
These furnaces possess a large cylindrical shell (e), lined with fire-bricks, and made to revolve round its horizontal axis by means of a toothed wheel fixed on its exterior; (if) are tire-seats holding tires (gg), which work in friction rollers (h).
The mode of relieving the friction of the declination axis is similar to that employed in the Melbourne telescope and in the account of the Vienna telescope published by Grubb.
The end friction of the polar axis is relieved by a ring of conical rollers shown in section beside the principal figure.
There is in this instrument a remarkably elegant method of relieving the friction of the polar axis.
If now a wheel W is forced up against q with a pressure equal to the weight of the moving part of the instrument, the whole weight of the moving part would rest upon W in unstable equilibrium; or if a pressure R, less than W, is employed, we have the end friction on the lower bearing removed to an extent = R sin 4),4), and the friction on the bearings of the upper pivot removed to the extent of F cos 4), - where 4 is the latitude of the place.
The Repsolds find it unnecessary to relieve the friction of the declination axis.
the diameter of the tube) and of the lower pivot (which must be perforated by a hole at least equal in diameter to the photographic field of the telescope), conditions which involve very refined arrangements for relief of friction, and (2)ythe less comfortable attitude of looking upward instead of downward.
The difficulties of relief friction could probably be best overcome by a large hollow cylinder concentric with the polar axis fixed near the centre of gravity of the whole instrument and floated in mercury, on the plan adopted in the Mount Wilson 60-in.
Ever since the War of Independence there had been friction between Great Britain and the United States.
By their friction on each other the leaves give rise to a rustling sound.
Soon after this event some friction arose between Robert and his royal uncle.
These inevitable consequences came to be perceived in course of time and occasioned a backward tendency towards services in kind which could not prevail against the general movement from natural economy to money dealings, but was strong enough to produce social friction and grave disturbances.
He was kept many months waiting trial, there being considerable friction between the colonial government and the British government over the incident.
The fire of Hestia was always kept burning, and, if by any accident it became extinct, only sacred fire produced by friction, or by burning glasses drawing fire from the sun, might be used to rekindle it.
Gilbert employed it to prove that numerous other bodies besides amber are susceptible of being electrified by friction.
lhe usual empirical law of sliding friction is that the mutual action between two plane surfaces in contact, or between a particle and a curve or surface, cannot make with the normal an angle exceeding a certain limit X called the angle of friction.
Next suppose that the curve is rough; and let Fas be the tangential force of friction on s.
We assume that in limiting equilibrium we have F tsR, everywhere, where u is the coefficient of friction.
It is only when we come to consider such delicate questions as the influence of tidal friction that other standards become necessary.
The constant -r is called the modulus of decay of the oscillations; if it is large compared with 2irfa the effect of friction on the period is of the second order of small quantities and may in general be ignored.
If the friction be comparatively slight the amplitude is greatest when the imposed period coincides with the free period, being then equal to f/kei, and therefore very great compnred with that due to a slowly varying force of the same average intensity.
The abnormal amplitude is greater, and is restricted to a narrower range of frequency, the smaller the friction.
in the case of the flywheel of a gyroscope if we neglect the friction at the bearings.
If the friction be relatively small, all the normal modes are of this character, and unless two or more values of ~ are nearly equal the elliptic orbits are very elongated.
The effect of friction on the period is moreover of the second order.
If the friction be small the amplitude becomes relatively very great if the imposed period approximate to a free period.
Those pieces are connected at theii joints or surfaces of mutual contact, either by simple pressure and friction (as in masonry with moist mortar or without mortar), by pressure and adhesion (as in masonry with cement or with hardened mortar, and timber with glue), or by the resistance of fastenings of different kinds, whether made by means of the form of the joint (as dovetails, notches, mortices and tenons) or by separate fastening pieces (as trenails, pins, spikes, nails, holdfasts, screws, bolts, rivets, hoops, straps and sockets.
Safety against displacement by turning is called stability of position; safety against displacement by sliding, stability of friction.
In other cases the safety of the joint against displacement by sliding depends on its power of exerting friction, and that power depends on the law, known by experiment, that the friction between two surfaces bears a constant ratio, depending on the nature 01 the surfaces, to the force by which they are pressed together.
The condition of stability of friction is that the tangential component CQ of the resistance required shall not exceed the friction due to the normal component; that is, that CQ~f.CP,
denotes the coefficient of friction for the surfaces in question.
The angle whose tangent is the coefficient of friction is called thf angle of repose, and is expressed symbolically by 4) tan_if.
consequently the condition of stability of friction is fulfilled if tht angle PCR is not greater than ~ that is to say, if the obliquity o~ the resistance required at the joint does not exceed the angle of repose and this condition ought to be fulfilled under all possible variation~ of the load.
It is chiefly in masonry and earthwork that stability of friction i~ relied on.
The moment of friction of this pivot is at first almost C, inappreciable from the extreme smallness of the T radius of the circles of contact of the ball and cups, but, as they wear, that radius and the moment of friction increase.
Fourteen years of friction and struggle followed, and if there came after them a period of comparative triumph and repose for the great reformer it must still be remembered that he was never able to have his ideal ecclesiastical organization fully realized in the city of his adoption.
Too much friction from an inappropriately sized collar can cause chafing, sores, and general discomfort, making the animal more resistant to wearing it.
This is because during the process of a steel-ground flour, the friction of the steel rollers generates and retains more heat than when ground with a stone.
One of the arguments against stone-ground flour is that the friction of the two stones rubbing against each other chip off minute particles of stone that falls into the flour.
The friction causes lead dust, which when inhaled can cause elevated levels of lead in the bloodstream.
Science Games: Science-oriented games focus on the detailed engineering necessary to create a successful roller coaster and also serve as educational tools about the properties and influences of friction, gravity, speed, and other factors.
Players can manipulate physics concepts such as speed, gravity, friction, mass, and hill height to control their coaster car, and the goal is to successfully navigate through a loop without the car rolling back or careening off the track.
In the early history of roller coasters, the maximum speed of the ride was determined by the height and length of the track as well as its conditions - how much friction there was on the track.
In the body, bursae are located at places where friction might otherwise develop.
Abrasions. Also called scrapes, they occur when the skin is rubbed away by friction against another rough surface (e.g. rope burns and skinned knees).
The rubbing away of the skin surface by friction against another rough surface.
Often the trauma is caused by traction resulting from, for example, tight braids, ponytails, or by friction (hats, hair bands, or rubbing against a bed).
Diaper dermatitis results from prolonged contact with irritants such as moisture, chemical substances, and friction.
Frequently a flat, red rash resulting from chafing of the diaper against tender skin causes friction rash.
Washing with plain water and drying with air is soothing to sore skin; it speeds healing by decreasing friction on the area.
However, cornstarch reduces friction and may prevent future rashes.
However, it creates friction with older siblings that often degenerates into kicking, hitting, punching, pinching, and even biting.
Deep tissue massage is used to release chronic patterns of muscular tension using slow strokes, direct pressure, or friction directed across the grain of the muscles.
Friction. Rubbing the skin vigorously or exposure to constant friction from backpacks or tight collars can worsen acne.
Burns are injuries to tissues that are caused by heat, friction, electricity, radiation, or chemicals.
The source of this heat may be the sun (causing a sunburn), hot liquids, steam, fire, electricity, friction (causing rug burns and rope burns), and chemicals (causing caustic burn upon contact).
If the skin of the burned area is unbroken and it is not likely to be further irritated by pressure or friction, the burn should be left exposed to the air to promote healing.
L., et al. "Home treadmill friction injuries: a five-year review."
The friction from the doo rag helps develop the waves while men are sleeping.
It was a moment prefaced with the palpable friction between the idol judge and Katrina Darrell, aka, the "Bikini Girl".
This creates durable, comfortable seams that won't leave indentations on your body or cause additional friction.
Competitive swimmers also use caps to reduce the friction and drag of the water, enabling swimmers to cut through the pool more quickly.
It provides a UPF of 50 and uses flat-seam construction to reduce friction.
Both plastic and metal fasteners for women's swimsuits can break, even without a lot of friction.
The blades use centrifugal force to cause friction with then causes heat to warm up the soup.
Centrifugal friction You can cook soups and other foods right in the unit, using the heat generated from the blending action.
This increased motion or vibration creates friction, which in turn generates heat.
If there is a dispute about the ring's ownership in the future, reusing the ring could cause friction and tension in a new relationship.
Also keep in mind that for purses used only occasionally, hanging them by the strap for long periods of time can cause excess friction and wear on the strap, so it may be best to store rarely used bags on a shelf instead.
However, they are "better" than the oppositions in some respect because they cause friction and tension that, in turn, spur you to make necessary changes.
Red is the densest of the colors and can therefore create friction or heat.
The short answer on leather is, leather has the perfect coefficient of friction, and can achieve a very good balance between flex and protection.
There's sometimes friction between you and the players or the fans.
Pop an adhesive pad into the back of your shoe to avoid unnecessary friction.
Rub Vaseline on the spot that gets friction burns or blisters.
Consider shoe pads or sole inserts: shoe pads and gel or other comfort sole inserts can help reduce friction and make shoes more comfortable.
A source of enormous friction exists between Jack and Victor that dates back to the time that Victor dated Jack's sister Ashley and his takeover of the Jabot business interests.
Eric's fascination with Sookie and her abilities is a source of friction with Bill Comptom, Sookie's vampire lover, who cannot deny Eric his wishes.
Addison begins dating Pete, causing friction with Violet, who decides to take him to court to pursue joint custody.
This method of scarification is done by using friction to remove enough layers of skin in order to create a scar.
Next came the addition of jewels as bearings in watches to prevent friction and wear between metal parts.
The co-axial escapement uses a low friction system and doesn't require lubrication, which has always posed difficulties in watch designs.
The energy this constant winding produces works with the precision craftsmanship of many friction free moving parts inside the device and allows the clock to keep accurate time for as many as 600 years under the proper conditions.
If you decide this is the right mat for you, be sure that it will still be sticky enough to keep a safe level of friction between your skin and the surface in order to prevent slipping.
It should have appropriate grip, creating just enough friction to keep you grounded in your practice.
Carnauba wax almost feels as if you are forcing it into the paint with the friction created while rubbing.
This is when the friction between the pistons and the cylinders of your engine overheat so much that the engine completely breaks down and will require a complete rebuild to get it running again.
Felting is a process that uses heat, moisture, and friction or, in the case of needle felting, just friction, to open the scales so that they will interlock and act as barbs, making felt.
The double-layered fabric reduces instances of friction and makes for a more attractive bra.
Some stories say he was too popular with fans, causing friction with the other band members.
Baya was raised by her hippie grandparents as a non-Mormon, which created some friction with her peers in a predominantly Mormon city.
Oftentimes the parents are over-protective of their children, causing some friction.
He both admires and resents the Vulcans, a combination that leads to friction with his ship's XO Sub-Commander T'Pol (Jolene Blalock).
A rash is a change in the color and texture of the skin, usually caused by an allergy, friction, exposure to excessive heat or moisture or irritation to anything from rough fabric to chemicals.
Band Aid Friction Block, also sometimes referred to as blister block, is a useful product for both athletes and people who wear sandals or formal shoes that consistently rub on their feet.
Friction Block is one of Band Aid's newer products, developed in the late 2000s.
Friction Block is a solid lubricant that comes in a stick dispenser, similar to the one used for stick deodorants.
Band Aid Friction Block is easy to find, both online and in most chain grocery stores and drug stores.
Amazon.com - Amazon sells Friction Block in a pack of three sticks through a third-party seller.
People with skin allergies should use caution when trying Friction Block, applying it first to an area of the skin smaller than the size of a dime to test for reactions.
Additionally, body rashes can be caused by friction from clothing or shoes and even from acne or other skin conditions.
Clothing over the rash will cause friction, increasing the severity of the condition.
The steel gray color metal buckle has a friction closure with a fleur-de-lis design cutout.
The method of counting the total number of revolutions gives more friction and is less convenient than Repsolds', and no provision seems to be made for illuminating the micrometer head in the practical and convenient plan adopted by Repsolds.
As the small filings produced by friction seek to pass through the interstices between the rapidly revolving spherical particles in the vortex, they are detained and become twisted and channelled in their passage, and when they reach the edge of the inner ocean of solar dust they settle upon it as the froth and foam produced by the agitation of water gathers upon its surface.
Friction was increased by a contest between Gilbert Tennent and his friends, who favoured Whitefield and his revival measures, and Robert Cross (1689-1766), pastor at Jamaica in 1723-1758, and his friends.
Causes of friction still remained, but they did not develop into open quarrels, for Mitre was content to leave Urquiza in his province of Entre Rios, and the other administrators (caudillos) in their several governments, a large measure of autonomy, trusting that the position and growing commercial importance of Buenos Aires would inevitably tend to make the federal capital the real centre of power of the republic. In 1865 the Argentines were forced into war with Paraguay through the overbearing attitude of the president Francisco Solano Lopez.
The difference in level between the outcrop of the assumed eastern intake and of the wells is often so small, in comparison with their distance apart, that the friction would completely sop up the whole of the available hydrostatic head.
The smoother we make the pulley the more nearly does the amount of useful work which the weight is capable of doing approach ro foot-pounds, and if we take into account the work done against the friction of the pulley, we may say that the work done by the descending weight is ro foot-pounds, and hence when the weight is in its elevated position we have at disposal r o foot-pounds more energy than when it is in the lower position.
Thus in Italy the universal service system, though probably the best organization both for the army and the nation, works with a maximum of friction.
The first of the three fires laid down is the garhapatya, or householder's fire, so called because, though not taken from his ordinary house-fire, but as a rule specially produced by friction, it serves for cooking the sacrificial food, and thus, as it were, represents the domestic fire.
Owing to the increased friction produced by a rotator making approximately 900 revolutions per mile, towed at the end of a line varying from 40 fathoms for a 12 -knot FIG.
Constant use, increased friction (m o r e especially at high speeds), and damage to the rotator will alter an ascertained log error; head or following seas, strong winds, currents and tidal streams also FIG.
This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).
This explanation was not accepted by Wiedemann,' who thought that the effect was accounted for by molecular friction.
In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.
The murder of Essad Pasha (June 1920) deprived the Serbs of their chief supporter in Albania: and friction was increased by the bad administration in the Sanjak and Macedonia, by the inability of the Durazzo Government to prevent continual armed raids against Serbian territory, and by the encouragement given from some Serbian quarters to the Mirdite rising in the summer of 1921.
In this way the medium velocity of the current may be diminished, and consequently the quantity of water discharged in a given time must, from the effects of friction, be considerably less than that which is computed from theory.
Galileo proceeded to measure the motion of a body on a smooth, fixed, inclined plane, and found that the law of constant acceleration along the line of slope of the plane still held, the acceleration decreasing in magnitude as the angle of inclination was reduced; and he inferred that a body, moving on a smooth horizontal plane, would move with uniform velocity in a straight line if the resistance of the air, and friction due to contact with the plane, could be eliminated.
The energy of a system is the measure of its capacity for doing work, on the assumption of suitable connexions with other systems. When the motion of a body is checked by a spring, its kinetic energy being destroyed, the spring, if perfectly elastic, is capable of restoring the motion; but if it is checked by friction no such restoration can be immediately effected.
It has, however, been shown that, just as the compressed spring has a capacity for doing work by virtue of its configuration, so in the case of the friction there is a physical effect produced - namely, the raising of the temperature of the bodies in contact, which is the mark of a capacity for doing the same amount of work.
The affairs of Armenia continued to be the source of friction between Parthia and Rome, and Nisibis changed hands several times.
As an example, let us take the following investigation: An engine cylinder may be imagined to possess a semi-permeable bottom and to work without friction.
Constitutional restrictions were intolerable to him; and the consequent friction with the diet was aggravated when, in 1832, Hassenpflug (q.v.) was placed at the head of the administration.
Friction between Jesuits and Dominicans led to the proscription of Christianity by the emperor in 1724,.
It consisted of a globe of sulphur fixed on an axis and rotated by a winch, and it was electrically excited by the friction of warm hands held against it.
Hence a machinist can cut steel or iron nearly six times as fast with a lathe tool of this steel as with one of carbon steel, because with the latter the cutting speed must be so slow that the cutting tool is not heated by the friction above say 250° C. (482° F.), lest it be unduly softened or " tempered " (§ 29).
high, may be that this frictional resistance becomes so great as actually to interrupt the even descent of the charge, parts of which are at times suspended like a ball in the rising jet of a fountain, to fall perhaps with destructive violence when some shifting condition momentarily lessens the friction.
Here BB is a large fixed iron cylinder, corrugated within, and C an excentric cylinder, also corrugated, which, in turning to the right, by the friction of its corrugated surface rotates the puddled ball D which has just entered at A, so that, turning around its own axis, it travels to the right and is gradually changed from a ball into a bloom, a rough cylindrical mass of white hot iron, still dripping with cinder.
The skin of the object, D, which is undergoing rolling, technically called " the piece," is drawn forward powerfully by the friction of the revolving.
- Rolling uses very much less power than drawing, because the friction against the fixed die in the latter process is very great.
This in turn is because the direct pull of the pincers on the protruding end of the wire is much stronger than the forward-drawing pull due to the friction of the cold rolls on the wire, which is necessarily cold because of its small section.
Although in colour, weight and warmth they are excellent, the fur is apt to become loose and to fall off with friction of wear.
The best of the lighter weights are frequently insufficiently strong in the hair to stand the friction of wear in a coat lining.
Below the piston of the upper cylinder is an annular space E (surrounding the common piston rod) with a capacity equal to the maximum displacement of the liftram, while the corresponding annular area C of the piston of the lower cylinder is just large enough when subjected to the working water pressure to enable the work of lifting the net load to be done and any friction to be overcome.
Diamond differs from graphite in being a bad conductor of electricity: it becomes positively electrified by friction.
The phosphorescence produced by friction has been known since the time of Robert Boyle (1663); the diamond becomes luminous in a dark room after exposure to sunlight or in the presence of radium; and many stones phosphoresce beautifully (generally with a pale green light) when subjected to the electric discharge in a vacuum tube.
On the kinetic theory the molecules of a gas are relatively far apart and there is nothing analogous to friction between two adjacent layers A and B moving with different velocities.
"If the war continues long," he said, "as it must if the object be not sooner attained, the institution in your states will be extinguished by mere friction and abrasion - by the mere incidents of the war.
That this system works without friction is due to the German habit of discipline; that it is, on the whole, singularly effective is a result of the peculiarly enlightened and progressive views of the German bureaucracy.
To the other causes of friction between them had been Austria added, just before the war, a renewed quarrel as to Prussia Austrias relation to the Zoilverein.
In addition to the political strife and anxiety due to this fundamental cleavage within the nation, Germany was troubled during the first decade of the 20th century by friction and jealousies arising out of the federal constitution Prussia of the Empire and the preponderant place in it of Prussia.
Stability of Friction in Earth.The grains of a mass of loosi earth are to be regarded as so many separate pieces abutting agains each other at joints in all possible positions, and depending for thei stability on friction.
If the first structure have stability of friction, the second structure will have stability of friction also, so long as the effect of the - projection is not to increase the obliquity of the resistance at an~ joint beyond the angle of repose.
Sliding Contact (circular): Grooved Wheels.As the adhesion or friction between a pair of smooth wheels is seldom sufficient to prevent their slipping on each other, contrivances are ~ised tc increase their mutual hold.
so as to avoid the friction which - - arises from the use of straight guides - for that purpose.
A lateral pressure may increase resistance by causing friction; the friction so caused acts against the motion, and is a resistance, but the lateral pressure causing it is not a resistance.
The relation between the effort and the resistance may be found by means of this principle for all kinds of mechanisms, when the friction produced by the components of the forces across the direction of motion of the two points is neglected.
The relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine to include the effect of friction at the joints has been investigated in a paper by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, On the application of graphrc methods to the determination of the efficiency of machinery (Trans.
Unguents.The most important kind of resistance in machines is the friction or rubbing resistance of surfaces which slide over each other.
The direction of the resistance of friction is opposite to that in which the sliding takes place.
Its magnitude is the product of the normal pressure or force which presses the rubbing surfaces together in~ a direction perpendicular to themselves into a specific constant already mentioned in 14, as the coefficient of friction, which depends on the nature and condition of the surfaces of the unguent, if any, with which they are covered.
The total pressure exerted between the rubbing surfaces is the resultant of the normal pressure and of the friction, and its obliquity, or inclination to the common perpendicular of the surfaces, is the angle of repose formerly mentioned in 14, whose tangent is the coefficient of friction.
Thus, let N be the normal pressure, R the friction, T the total pressure, f the coefficient of friction, and 4, the angle of repose; then f=tan4, ~8
Experiments on friction have been made by Coulomb, Samuel Vince, John Rennie, James Wood, D.
The experiments of Beauchamp Tower (Report of Friction Experiments, Proc. Inst.
Eng., 1883) showed that when oil is supplied to a journal by means of an oil bath the coefficient of friction varies nearly inversely as the load on the bearing, thus making the product of the load on the bearing and the coefficient of friction a constant.
The more recent experiments of Lasche (Zeitsch, Verein Deutsche Ingen., 1902, 46, 1881) show that the product of the coefficient of friction, the load on the bearing, and the temperature is approximately constant.
Work of Friction.
Moment of Friction.The work performed in a unit of time in overcoming the friction of a pair of surfaces is the product of the friction by the velocity of sliding of the surfaces over each other, if that is the same throughout the whole extent of the rubbing surfaces.
If that velocity is different for different portions of the rubbing surfaces, the velocity of each portion is to be multiplied by the friction of that portion, and the results summed or integrated.
When the relative motion of the rubbing surfaces is one of rotation, the work of friction in a unit of time, for a portion of the rubbing surfaces at a given distance from the axis of rotation, may be found by multiplying together the friction of that portion, its distance from the axis, and the angular velocity.
The product of the force of friction by the distance at which it acts from the axis of rotation is called the moment of friction.
The total moment of friction of a pair of rotating rubbing surfaces is the sum or integral of the moments of friction of their several portions.
To express this symbolically, let dii represent the area of a portion of a pair of rubbing surfaces at a distance r from the axis of their relative rotation; p the intensity of the normal pressure at du per unit of area; and f the coefficient of friction.
Then the moment of friction of dii is fprdu the total moment of friction is f f pr.
du and the work performed in a unit cf time in overcoming friction, when the angular velocity is a, is af f pr.
It is evident that the moment of friction, and the work lost b~ being performed in overcoming friction, are less in a rotating pieci as the bearings are of smaller radius.
The angle of repose ~, corresponding to the friction of the journal on the bearing.
The work lost in overcoming the friction of the bearing is the same as that which would be performed in overcoming at the circumference of the small circle BB a resistance equal to the whole pressure between the journal and bearing.
Friction of Pivots and Collars.When a shaft is acted upon b a force tending toshift it lengthways, that force must be balanced by the reaction of a bearing against a pivot at the end of the shaft; or, if that be impossible, against one or more collars, or rings projecting from the body of the shaft.
and, introducing this value into equation 59, the moment of friction of tile flat pivot is found to be affNr (61)
The friction of a conical pivot exceeds that of a flat pivot of the same radius, and under the same pressure, in the proportion of the side of the cone to the radius of its base.
The moment of friction of a collar is given by the formula 3/4fN ~ (62)
the friction and to the velocity jointly, or nearly so.
The moment of friction of Schieles anti-friction pivot, as it is called, is equal to that of a cylindrical journal of the radius OR=PT the constant tangent, under the same pressure.
Records of experiments on the friction of a pivot bearing will be found in the Proc. Inst.
(1891), and on the friction of a collar bearing ib.
Friction of Teeth.Let N be the normal pressure exerted between a pair of teeth of a pair of wheels; s the total distance through which they slide upon each other; n the number Of pairs of teeth which pass the plane of axis in a unit of time; then nf NI (63)
is the work lost in unity of time by tOe friction of the teeth.
which, substituted in equation (63), gives the work lost in a unit of time by th~ friction of involute teeth.
Friction of Cords and Belts.A flexible band, such as a cord, rope, belt or strap, may be used either to exert an effort or a resistance upon a pulley round which it wraps.
In either case the tangential force, whether effort or resistance, exerted between the band and the pulley is their mutual friction, caused by and proportional to the normal pressure between them.
Let Ti be the tension of the free part of the band at that side towards which it tends to draw the pulley, or from which the pulley tends to draw it; 1, the tension of the free part at the other side; T the tension of the band at any intermediate point of its arc of contact with the pulley; 0 the ratio of the length of that arc to the radius of the pulley; do the ratio of an indefinitely small element of that arc to the radius; F=TiT2 the total friction between the band and the pulley; dF the elementary portion of that friction due to the elementary arc do; f the coefficient of friction between the materials of the band and pulley.
Then, according to a well-known principle in statics, the normal pressure at the elementary arc do is TdO, T being the mean tension of the band at that elementary arc; consequently the friction on that arc is dF =JTdo.
Now that friction is also the difference between the tensions of the band at the two ends of the elementary arc, or dT =dF =fTdO; which equation, being integrated throughout the entire arc of contact, gives the following formulae:
Stiffness of Ropes.Ropes offer a resistance to being bent, and, when bent, to being straightened again, which arises from the mutual friction of their fibres.
When the cones are pressed together or engaged, their friction causes the pulley to rotate along with the shaft; when they are disengaged, the pulley is free to stand still.
When the clutch is moved towards the hoop, its arms catch those of the hoop, and cause the hoop to rotate and to communicate its rotation to the pulley by friction.
Heat of Friction: Unguents.The work lost in friction is employed in producing heat.
The heat produced by friction, when moderate in amount, is useful in softening and liquefying thick unguents; but when excessive it is prejudicial, by decomposing the unguents, and sometimes even by softening the metal of the bearings, and raising their temperature so high as to set fire to neighboring combustible matters.
The elevation of temperature produced by the friction of a journal is sometimes used as an experimental test of the quality of unguents.
Rolling Resistance.By the rolling of two surfaces over each other without sliding a resistance is caused which is called sometimes rolling friction, but more correctly rolling resistance.
Hence, unless there be some reason to the contrary, each piece of a machine should be balanced on its axis of rotation; otherwise the centrifugal force will cause strains, vibration and increased friction, and a tendency of the shafts to jump out of their bearings.
It is essential to the steady motion of every rapidly rotating piece in a machine that its axis of rotation should not merely traverse its centre of gravity, but should be a permanent axis; for otherwise the centrifugal couples will increass friction, produce oscillation of the shaft and tend to make it leave its bearings.
For tools performing useful work at intervals, and having only their own friction to overcome during the intermediate intervals, e should be assumed equal to the whole work performed at each separate operation.
Brakes.A brake is an apparatus for stopping and diminishing the velocity of a machine by friction, such as the friction-strap already referred to in 103.
To find the distance s through which a brake, exerting the friction F, must rub in order to stop a machine having the total actual energy E at the moment when the brake begins to act, reduce, by the principles of 96, the various efforts and other resistances of the machine which act at the same time with the friction of the brake to the rubbing surface of the brake, and let R be their resultantpositive if resistance, negative if effort preponderates.
of the energy exerted by the powder in exploding will be employed in propelling the ball, and ih in producing the recoil of the gun, provided the gun up to the instant of the balls quitting the muzzle meets with no resistance to its recoil except the friction of the ball.
Their privileged position, moreover, leads everywhere to a certain amount of friction between them and the secular clergy.
In 1908-10 friction with Russia was again renewed.
Repudiation of the tie by fervent women, betrothed or already wives, occasioned much domestic friction and popular persecution.
Stephen Gray (1696-1736) noticed in 1720 that electricity could be excited by the friction of hair, silk, wool, paper and other bodies.
Trans., 1733, 38, p. 263), the first being produced when glass, crystal, &c. are rubbed with silk, and the second when resin, amber, silk or paper, &c. are excited by friction with flannel.
He showed that all substances could be electrified by friction, but that to electrify conductors they must be insulated or supported on non-conductors.
He argued that electricity is not created by friction, but merely collected from its state of diffusion through other matter by which it is attracted.
He asserted that the glass globe, when rubbed, attracted the electrical fire, and took it from the rubber, the same globe being disposed, when the friction ceases, to give out its electricity to any body which has less.
John Canton (1718-1772) made the important contribution to knowledge that electricity of either sign could be produced on nearly any body by friction with appropriate substances, and that a rod of glass roughened on one half was excited negatively in the rough part and positively in the smooth part by friction with the same rubber.
1763) showed that quite small differences determined the sign of the electrification that was generated by the friction of two bodies one against the other.
This cabinet, however, was of short duration, and resigned when the ministers understood the full amount of friction between the president and congress.
1 In a minute dated the 28th of November 1906 the Cape ministry declared its belief that the questions which were causing so much friction should be capable of solution " by some duly constituted South African authority responsible to all parties in the country," and it appealed to Lord Selborne, as high commissioner, to review the situation in such a manner that the people of South Africa might form a competent judgment on the question.
As to Natal and Zululand, there was a disposition to leave to the new government the task of dealing with the natives there but both the Transvaal and Natal adopted an Asiatic exclusion policy which gave rise to much friction.
Whether the residuary disturbances are of external origin, or are due to friction, or to some peculiarity of the fluid motion within the reservoir, has not been satisfactorily determined.
29 1912, set up at once an atmosphere of friction which was not likely to help her in her claims to the doubtful districts of Macedonia.
Philip Carteret reassumed the duties of his office, but his administration, now that Andros was no longer feared, was again marked by much friction with the assembly.
The next four decades were years of development disturbed, however, by friction between the assembly and the royal governors, and by bitter disputes, accompanied by much rioting, with the proprietors concerning land-titles (1744-1749) Independence of the absentee landlords was again claimed by virtue of the grants made by Nicolls nearly a century before.
But both imply a desire to carry out changes without friction and not to break up ancient forms; both proceed on the plan of securing to the stronger state the substance of power while allowing the weaker state a semblance of its old constitution.
Thus the modern Hindu, though using civilized means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage " fire-drill " for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he considers pure or sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial purposes; while in Europe into modern times the same primitive process has been kept up in producing the sacred and magical " need-fire," which was lighted to deliver cattle from a murrain.
That the men of the Quaternary period knew the savage art of producing fire by friction, and roasted the flesh on which they mainly subsisted, is proved by the fragments of charcoal found in the cave deposits, where also occur bone awls and needles, which indicate the wearing of skin clothing, like that of the modern Australians and Fuegians.
With every effort after equality he must fail to satisfy all, but friction may be diminished and the ` work of carrying on government quietly and steadily facilitated.
These extensions of his power were not made without friction, and his abortive contest in 1901 with James J.
During the rest of this Vicksburg campaign there was much friction between McClernand and his colleagues; he undoubtedly intrigued for the removal of Grant; it was Grant's opinion that at Champion's Hill (May 16) he was dilatory; and because a congratulatory order to his corps was published in the press (contrary to an order of the department and another of Grant) he was relieved of his command on the, 8th of June, and was replaced by General E.
Now if this state be supposed established in a frictionless fluid, the con sideration of internal friction would simply extend the char acteristics found at any spot to the neighbourhood, and there fore if the boundary were a sphere and so for a frictionless fluid an exception, it would cease to be an exception when we allow for viscosity.
Friction matches are made from the vegetable wax extracted from the Ceroxylon palm, and are generally used throughout the interior.
In this case there is no friction and no sensible wear, so that very great perman - ency of condition and constancy of action might be expected.
As will be readily understood from the construction of the machines, there is more friction in counter machines than in scale-beams. The "sensitiveness " error allowed by the Board of Trade for counter machines is five times as great as that allowed for scale-beams.
If now a small weight, as a penny, be passed through the slot, H, it falls into the small box, I, and causes the lever, J, to turn; the lever, J, which turns in friction wheels at K, and is counterbalanced at 0, carries a toothed segment, L, which actuates a small pinion on the same axle as F, and is free to turn on that axle by a sleeve.
Since so small a weight as a penny has to move the lever, J, together with the dial finger, &c., it is evident that the workmanship must be good and the friction kept very low by means of friction wheels.
For the sake of compactness and convenience of reading the extension of the springs, and consequently the load, is frequently indicated on a dial, by means of a small rack and pinion, which give motion to a finger on the dial-plate, but the regularity and correctness of the indications of the finger will depend upon the condition of the rackwork and upon the friction, and these will vary with the wear of the machine.
Of course the introduction of automatic mechanism introduces friction and other complications, and it is difficult to construct automatic machines that shall be as accurate in their weighing as the simpler weighing machines, but in many weighing operations a moderate degree of accuracy will suffice, and speed is of great importance.
The drum-shaft is connected by a friction clutch with a shaft in the same line, on which are keyed a sprocket wheel and a ratchet wheel.
When the poise is at the zero end, and there is no load on the platform, the end of the steelyard is down, and has locked the ratchet wheel by means of the pawl; the shaft being thus locked, the sprocket wheels are stopped, the drum-shaft runs free by the friction clutch, and the two pulleys which are connected by the crossed band are running idle.
When the load to be weighed comes upon the platform, the end of the steelyard rises and unlocks the ratchet wheel through the pawl; the sprocket gearing is driven by the friction clutch, and drives the axle of the left-hand small pulley.
The rims of pulleys for hemp or other ropes or cords are grooved, and the sides are usually either inclined at 45° or curved to give a sharper angle at the outside than at the bottom of the groove; in the latter case, as the rope wears it engages in a groove of greater angle and less effective grip. Wire ropes are injured by the lateral crushing of the material, and in this case the grooves are wide enough to allow the rope to rest on the rounded bottom, which is lined with leather or wood to diminish the wear and increase the friction.
Pulleys may be detachably connected to a shaft by friction clutches, so that they may be thrown in and out of engagement at will.
Neglecting quantities of the second order, the pressure on the pulley is TdO, and the friction is MTd9 where p, is the coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley.
as the lower block carrying the weight, and in the absence of friction and other resistances the mechanical advantage will be in the same ratio of the effort to the resistance.
In practice the full advantage of this or any other similar combination is not realized, because of the friction of the sheaves against the pin or shaft, and more important still is the stiffness of the rope, which requires work to be done upon it to bend it round the sheave and straighten it again.
The effect of pin friction is equivalent to diminishing the radius of the effort and increasing that of the resistance.
For a single pulley of diameter D, turning on a fixed pin of diameter d, the relation of the effort E to the load W, where f is the coefficient of friction, is expressed by E/W = (D-pfd)/(D - fd) _ 1 +2fd/D approximately.
The conditions which enable a pulley tackle to sustain a weight when the effort is removed may be examined, to a first approximation, if we assume that the internal friction acts in such a way as virtually to diminish FIG.
Hence, neglecting friction, E7rD = 2 R7r(D - d), i.e.
The worm is of great pitch, so that if the effort were removed the weight would descend, did not the axial end thrust of the worm shaft throw into action a friction brake H, the resistance of which prevents motion downwards.
The frictional grip between the two surfaces prevents return motion of the worm shaft and the load remains suspended, but it may be lowered by turning the hand-wheel so as to overcome the friction brake.
Various other arrangements of friction brakes have been devised to give a resistance proportional to the load.
The worm-wheel shaft then sometimes carries a spur-pinion gear ing with a spur-wheel on the lifting shaft, whereby a much greater mechanical advantage is obtained with a small loss by friction of the spur gearing.
The operation of every legal process calculated to occasion friction, such as seizure of property, was suspended during the time the assemblies lasted.
It is, therefore, natural that we should trace the stages of development through the friction they caused.
Hence Edwards accession took place without any friction.
The friction and hatred thus caused were bitter and long enduring.
But there was also much friction between the crown and its subjects.
Fortunately the pope interfered for a moment to lighten the friction; being threatened with a new invasion by the emperor Frederick, he suspended the sentences and sent legates to patch up a peace.
When the electors disregarded it, as was sometimes the case, there was friction; a weak king was sometimes overruled; a strong one generally got his way in the end.
He would have liked to make parliament, no doubt, a mere meeting for the voting of taxation with the smallest possible friction.
Friction had begun the moment that Edward returned to his kingdom from the crusade.
Before Baliol bad been many months on the throne there was grave friction on the question of legal appeals.
Grave friction had already begun when external events precipitated an open rupture between the king of England and his new vassal.
Thirty years of friction followed, while the parliament, and the ruling classes tried in a spasmodic way to enforce the statute, and the peasantry strove to evade it.
In some respects this expectation was not deceived; the years that followed 1360 seem to have been prosperous at home, despite the continued friction arising from the Statute of Laborers.
It entailed Walcherea enormous sacrifices, which led to corresponding disexpedition, contents; and differences as to its conduct produced Cabinet frequent friction within the government itself.
If the queen had remained unmarried, it is possible that the friction which had arisen in 1839 might have recurred in 1841.
Friction between the settlers and the Indians could not long be avoided, and in 1827 Red Bird and his band of Winnebago attacked the whites, but after some bloodshed they were defeated by Major William Whistler (1780-1863) of Fort Howard.
The amount of retardation does not admit of accurate computation, owing to the uncertainty both as to the amount of the oceanic friction from which it arises and of the exact height and form of the tidal wave, the action of the moon on which produces the effect.
His theorem that a fluid issues from a small orifice with the same velocity (friction and atmospheric resistance being neglected) which it would have acquired in falling through the depth from its surface is of fundamental importance in hydraulics.
In 681 St Moling of Ferns prevailed upon the ardri Finnachta (674-690) to renounce for ever the boroma, tribute, which had always been a source of friction between the supreme king and the ruler of Leinster.
For some years past the " wearing of the green " had been regarded by the army authorities as improper, and friction had consequently occurred, but the queen's order put an end in a graceful manner to what had formerly been a grievance.
His journey was long and triumphant, and his return precipitate; indeed it very nearly ended in a disaster at Fornovo, owing to the first of those Italian holy leagues which at the least sign of friction were ready to turn against France.
The hoof of the horse corresponds to the nail or claw of other mammals, but is so constructed as to form a complete and solid case to the expanded termination of the toe, giving a firm basis of support formed of a non-sensitive substance, which is continually renewed by the addition of material from within, as its surface wears away by friction.
FRICTION (from Lat.
Friction is preferably spoken of as "resistance" rather than "force," for a reason exactly the same as that which induces us to treat stress rather as molecular resistance (to change of form) than as force, and which may be stated thus: although friction can be utilized as a moving force at will, and is continually so used, yet it cannot be a primary moving force; it can transmit or modify motion already existing, but cannot in the first instance cause it.
For this some external force, not friction, is required.
Friction resists the motion of one surface upon another, but it may and frequently does confer the motion of the one upon the other, and in this way causes, instead of resists, the motion of the latter.
In the absence of friction it would simply cause A to slide on B, so that we may call it an effort tending to make A slide on B.
The friction is the resistance offered by the surface of B to any such motion.
If less, A slides over B, the rate of motion being determined by the excess of the effort over the resistance (friction).
It must be specially noticed, however, that it is not the friction between A and B that has prevented motion, this only prevented A moving on B, - it is the force which keeps B stationary, whatever that may be, which has finally prevented any motion taking place.
Thus friction causes motion, for had there been no frictional resistance between the surfaces of A and of B, the latter body would have remained stationary, and A only would have moved.
In the case supposed, therefore, the friction between A and B is a necessary condition of B receiving any motion from the external force applied to A.
Without entering here on the mathematical treatment of the subject of friction, some general conclusions may be pointed out which have been arrived at as the results of experiment.
These are: (1) that the friction is proportional to the normal pressure between the surfaces of contact, and therefore independent of the area of those surfaces, and (2) that it is independent of the velocity with which the surfaces slide one on the other.
Assuming the correctness of these, friction is generally measured in terms simply of the total pressure between the surfaces, by multiplying it by a "coefficient of friction" depending on the material of the surfaces and their state as to smoothness and lubrication.