This body consists, according to the population of the commune, of from 10 to 36 members, elected for four years on the principle of the scrutin de liste by Frenchmen who have reached the age of twenty-one years and have a six months residence qualification.
In the course of a bloody insurrection in Catalonia, which ended in the bombardment of Barcelona, Ferdinand de Lesseps showed the most persistent bravery, rescuing from death, without distinction, the men belonging to the rival factions, and protecting and sending away not only the Frenchmen who were in danger, but foreigners of all nationalities.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
The emperor Napoleon, almost alone among Frenchmen, had genuine Italian sympathies.
The farmers are chiefly Italians, Canary Islanders and Frenchmen.
4 Principally Frenchmen, with Englishmen, Italians, Norwegians, Danes, Dutchmen and Spaniards.
Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.
In this way several Frenchmen - Benoit de Boigne, Perron and others - rose in the Mahratta service to a position dangerous to the British.
In it he drew a picture of the general ruin of all classes of Frenchmen, caused by the bad economic regime.
The gift of high offices of state to Frenchmen lent to the Protestant opposition the aspect of a national resistance to foreign domination.
The election of Merlin of Douay and Francois of Neufchatel as Directors, in place of Carnot and Barthelemy, gave to that body a compactness which enabled it to carry matters with a high hand, until the hatred felt by Frenchmen for this soulless revival of a moribund Jacobinism gradually endowed the Chambers with life and strength sufficient to provoke a renewal of strife with the Directory.
That the Russian campaign of 1812 was the last device for assuring the success of the Continental System and the ruin of England was nothing to the great mass of Frenchmen.
France had subjected half the continent; but her hold on Spain was weakened by Wellington's blow at Salamanca; and now Frenchmen heard that their army in Russia was "dead."
Now at the close of 1812 matters were worse, and Napoleon, on reaching Paris, found the nation preoccupied with the task of finding out how many Frenchmen had survived the Russian campaign.
This he did, putting to death almost the entire garrison at Fort Caroline " not as Frenchmen, but as Lutherans," on the 10th of September 1565.
At the same time it was decided that the deputies to that convention should be elected by all Frenchmen 25 years old, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labour.
The baron Cerro Azul was shot down without trial; Marshal de Gama Eza, an old imperial soldier of eighty years of age, was murdered in cold blood, and numerous executions of men of lesser note took place, among these being two Frenchmen for whose death the Brazilian government was subsequently called upon to pay heavy compensation.
But Frenchmen, always touchy on such a point, regarded Voltaire as something of a deserter; and it was not long before he bitterly repented his desertion, though his residence in Prussia lasted nearly three years.
He increased his bodyguard to Boo men, all Frenchmen, who behaved with the greatest licence and brutality; by his oppressive taxes, and his ferocious cruelty towards all who opposed him, and the unsatisfactory treaties he concluded with Pisa, he accumulated bitter hatred against his rule.
After the capital, Puerto Principe was the richest prize of the island when it was captured and plundered in 1668 by a force of Frenchmen and Englishmen under Henry Morgan, the buccaneer.
Seven of the departments of state have Frenchmen at their head, the other two, Tunisians: thus the larger proportion of the Bey's ministers are French.
Indeed more than six centuries passed before the idea was again resuscitated; and even then it required a group of brilliant Frenchmen to do what the old Dominican had carried out unaided.
On the 9th of August Sullivan crossed to the north end of the island of Rhode Island, but as the Frenchmen were disembarking on Conanicut Island, Lord Howe arrived with the British fleet.
The name Iowa (meaning "sleepy ones") was taken from a tribe of Siouan Indians (probably of Winnebago stock), which for some time had dwelt in that part of the country and were still there when the first white men came - the Frenchmen,.
Similar efforts would tend to make Frenchmen forget the past, and would at the same time supply an outlet for the poor and discontented.
He preferred to remain in France, and as the Italian cardinals died they were replaced by Frenchmen.
While the Roman Catholic religion was declared to be that accepted by the majority of Frenchmen, the state subsidized the Reformed Church, those adhering to the Augsburg Confession and the Jewish community.
Marsiglio of Padua had had Frenchmen among his sympathizers and helpers.
Napoleon was at the head of a veteran army of Frenchmen, who worshipped their leader and were willing to die for France if necessity demanded.
Of his 156 guns, 78 belonged to the British artillery; but of his 67,600 men only 29,800 were British or King's German Legion troops, whereas all Napoleon's were Frenchmen and veterans.
After a careful education at home by eminent specialists, mostly Frenchmen,' he first went abroad in 1786.
Rockhill; the Frenchmen J.
In 1808 a large body of Frenchmen were landed here by their Spanish captors, and allowed almost to perish of starvation.
The ideas of the Revolution were slow in penetrating to this ignorant peasant population, which had always been less civilized than the majority of Frenchmen, and in 1789 the events which roused enthusiasm throughout the rest of France left the Vendeans indifferent.
Two-thirds of the villagers were to be French immigrants, the other third Frenchmen or naturalized Frenchmen already settled in Algeria.
William Duer (1747-1799) and others in 1787 and officially organized in 1789 as the Compagnie du Scioto in Paris by Joel Barlow, the agent of Duer and his associates abroad, William Playfair, an Englishman, and six Frenchmen.
By 1659 two Frenchmen, Radisson and Groseillers, had penetrated beyond the great lakes to the prairies of the far West; they were probably the first Europeans to see the Mississippi.
Themselves Frenchmen, and surrounded by a College of Cardinals in which the French element predominated, the popes gave to their ecclesiastical administration a certain French character, till they stood in more and more danger of serving purely national interests, in cases where the obligations of their office demanded complete impartiality.
Dutreuil de Rhins and Fernand Grenard, both Frenchmen, left Cherchen, with Lhasa as their objective.
There he instructed some of the ablest Frenchmen of the day, among them S.
By the influence of Lord James, in spite of the earnest opposition of Knox, permission was obtained for her to hear Mass celebrated in her private chapel - a licence to which, said the Reformer, he would have preferred the invasion of ten thousand Frenchmen.
This was driven out by the inhabitants, and Louis then stormed Arras, razed the walls, deported the citizens, whose places were taken by Frenchmen, and changed the name to Franchise.
The tale, true or false, that Frenchmen and Provencals were known from the natives by being unable to frame the Italian sound of c shows how thoroughly the Lombard tongue had overcome the other tongues of the island.
Eighty-three heads (many of them those of Frenchmen and Albanians) were stuffed and sent to Constantinople, with a boast that the Mameluke chiefs were utterly destroyed.
At supper he was always surrounded by a number of his most intimate friends, mainly Frenchmen; and he insisted on the conversation being perfectly free.
the French codes and conferred many appointments and estates on Frenchmen, his administration was more or less native, and he favoured the abler Neapolitans.
The best American prisons had recently been visited by two eminent Frenchmen, J.
In 1655 Prince Thomas of Savoy invested Pavia with an army of 20,000 Frenchmen, but had to withdraw after 52 days' siege.
" Subjection to the pope implied an Italianization of French religion; and most Frenchmen looked on the Italians as an inferior race.
If that were so, no one need be ashamed to profess it; and the younger generation of Frenchmen began to gravitate back to the Church.
and Henry III., were Italianated Frenchmen.
Sculpture was represented in London for a brief space by Torrigiani; painting by Holbein and Antonio More; music by Italians and Frenchmen of the Chapel Royal.
There were also 27,570 naturalized Frenchmen, mostly of Spanish origin.
From 1613 until 1760 the territory now within the borders of Michigan formed a part of New France, and the first Europeans to found missions and settlements within those borders were Frenchmen.
A few Frenchmen attempted to establish a settlement here in 1731, but were soon driven away by the Indians.
At the instigation of Louvois, a decree of banishment from France was now issued against all Frenchmen who should continue to serve in foreign armies.
Townley had hardly joined the French buccaneers remaining in the South Sea ere he died, and the Frenchmen with their companions crossed New Spain to the West Indies.
As an educational reformer, as a man of letters and learning, who trod "the large and impartial ways of knowledge," and who swayed others to the same paths, as a thinker influential alike in the action and the reaction to which he led, Cousin stands out conspicuously among the memorable Frenchmen of the 29th century.
Fortunately for the duke of Guienne the majority of his subjects had no desire to become Frenchmen; the Gascons felt no national sympathy with their neighbors of the north, and the towns in especial were linked to England by close ties of commerce, and had no wish whatever to break off their allegiance to the house of Plantagenet.
and tried to patch up a peace with the dauphin, in order to unite all Frenchmen against the foreign invader.
In India, Frenchmen and Englishmen had striven during the last war for authority over the native states round Pondicherry and Madras, and the conflict threatened to break out anew.
By imbuing Frenchmen with such a mutual hatred as nothing but the arm of despotic power could control the Reign of Terror rendered political liberty impossible for many years.
As the majority of Frenchmen wanted to be rid of them, they could achieve their purpose only by extraordinary means.
The congress at Rastadt, which had sat for fifteen months without doing the majority of Frenchmen endured so long the fearful sacrifices which his policy exacted.
It was not necessary either to secure the lasting benefits of the Revolution or to save France from dismemberment; for nine Frenchmen out of ten were agreed on both of these points and were ready to lay down their lives for the national cause.
A determined attempt was made by some Frenchmen to gain for their country an overwhelming influence by means of a treaty which they induced the king to sign.
To take a concrete instance of a valid mood: all men are mortal, all Frenchmen are men, therefore all Frenchmen are mortal (the mood Barbara).
new truth) or the major premise is improperly used (begs the question) inasmuch as unless we knew that all Frenchmen are mortal we could not state that all men are mortal.
The Church claimed her right of ordering the civil estate of all Frenchmen as an absolute mistress more strictly than ever.
Bonaparte thus gained the good opinion of peace-loving Frenchmen; he partitioned Venetian territory with Austria, contrary to French interests but conformably with his own in Italy, and henceforward was the decisive factor in French and European policy, like Caesar or Pompey of old.
The adoption of the Roman instead of the Gothic ritual of Saint Isidore has been lamented, but it marked the assumption by Castile of a place in the community of the western European kingdoms. The Frenchmen, both monks and knights, who accompanied Constance brought to bear on Spain the ecclesiastical, architectural, literary and military influence of France, then the intellectual centre of Europe, as fully as it ever was exercised in later times.
But in 1722, when the Mississippi country was opened, the population once more increased, and again in 1748, when the settlement of the Ohio Valley began, the governor-general of Canada offered special inducements to Frenchmen to settle at Detroit, with the result that the population was soon more than 1000 and the cultivation of farms in the vicinity was begun.
Firstly, he doubted whether the allies were strong enough to attack the Quadrilateral, for he saw the defects of his own armys organization; secondly, he began to fear intervention by Prussia, whose attitude appeared menacing; thirdly, although really anxious to expel the Austrians from Italy, he did not wish to create a too powerful Italian state at the foot of the Alps, which, besides constituting a potential danger to France, might threaten the popes temporal power, and Napoleon believed that he could not stand without the clerical vote; fourthly, the war had been declared against the wishes of the great majority of Frenchmen and was even now far from popular.
The glamour of Austerlitz had very naturally dazzled all Frenchmen.
The constant use of chicory for coffee, and of woad for indigo, was apt to produce a reaction in favour of a humdrum peaceful policy; and yet, by a recent imperial decree, Frenchmen had the prospect of seeing the use of the new and imperfectly made beet sugar enforced from the 1st of January 1813, after which date all cane sugar was excluded as being of British origin.
This defect appears most strongly in his treatment of Joan of Arc; and the attack on Agnes Sorel seems to have been dictated by the dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.), then a refugee in Burgundy, of whom he was afterwards to become a severe critic. He was not, however, misled, as his more picturesque predecessor Froissart had been, by feudal and chivalric tradition into misconception of the radical injustice of the English cause in France; and except in isolated instances where Burgundian interests were at stake, he did full justice to the patriotism of Frenchmen.
It is not difficult to imagine the storms aroused by this indiscreet proposal; and had not the majority of the Frenchmen assembled at Constance had the sagacity to ref use to uphold the cardinal of Cambrai on this point, the upshot would have been a premature dissolution of the council.
In the first place, the ridiculous and discreditable incident of the beating had time to blow over; in the second, England was a very favourable place for Frenchmen of note to pick up guineas; in the third, and most important of all, his contact with a people then far more different in every conceivable way from their neighbours than any two peoples of Europe are different now, acted as a sovereign tonic and stimulant en his intellect and literary faculty.
1397), as also of the Frenchmen Pierre d'Ailli (d.
In the second or French period we get verse-makers rather than poets, who long to be Frenchmen, and sigh over the barbarism of their country; but the study of history in a critical spirit is beginning under the influence of Naruszewicz, Albertrandi and others.
Purchasers were to be Frenchmen, or Europeans naturalized as French citizens, who had never held " colonization lands "; and they were obliged, under pain of forfeiture, either to take up residence themselves on their property within six months and to live on it and exploit it for a period of ten years, or else to place on the land another family fulfilling the same conditions.
As the generality of Frenchmen at that time were orthodox although not zealous Catholics, the Nonjurors carried with them a large part of the laity.
The subjugation of those primitive tribes did not mean their annihilation: their blood still flows in the veins of Frenchmen; and they survive also on those megalithic monuments (see STONE MONUMENTS) with which the soil of France is dotted, in the drawings and sculptures of caves hollowed out along the sides of the valleys, and in the arms and ornaments yielded by sepulchral tumuli, while the names of the rivers and mountains of France probably perpetuate the first utterances of those nameless generations.
Two mounted Frenchmen, probably adjutants, were galloping up the hill.
Having forced his way out of the crowd of fugitives, Prince Andrew, trying to keep near Kutuzov, saw on the slope of the hill amid the smoke a Russian battery that was still firing and Frenchmen running toward it.
One had saved a standard, another had killed five Frenchmen, a third had loaded five cannon singlehanded.
Rostov looked frowningly at the Frenchmen, bowed reluctantly, and remained silent.
He was enormously tall, handsome, amiable as Frenchmen are, and was, as all Moscow said, an extraordinarily clever doctor.
At the moment when Rostov and Ilyin were galloping along the road, Princess Mary, despite the dissuasions of Alpatych, her nurse, and the maids, had given orders to harness and intended to start, but when the cavalrymen were espied they were taken for Frenchmen, the coachman ran away, and the women in the house began to wail.
Judging by their faces they were both Frenchmen.
There for several hours amid incessant cannon and musketry fire, now Russians were seen alone, now Frenchmen alone, now infantry, and now cavalry: they appeared, fired, fell, collided, not knowing what to do with one another, screamed, and ran back again.
The first people to go away were the rich educated people who knew quite well that Vienna and Berlin had remained intact and that during Napoleon's occupation the inhabitants had spent their time pleasantly in the company of the charming Frenchmen whom the Russians, and especially the Russian ladies, then liked so much.
At the gate stood Gerasim, the cook, and two Frenchmen.
Now and then he met Russians with anxious and timid faces, and Frenchmen with an air not of the city but of the camp, walking in the middle of the streets.
At the gate of one house three Frenchmen, who were explaining something to some Russians who did not understand them, stopped Pierre asking if he did not know French.
On the third day he was taken with the others to a house where a French general with a white mustache sat with two colonels and other Frenchmen with scarves on their arms.
The crowd consisted of a few Russians and many of Napoleon's soldiers who were not on duty--Germans, Italians, and Frenchmen, in a variety of uniforms.
Then two pairs of Frenchmen approached the criminals and at the officer's command took the two convicts who stood first in the row.
There was some smoke, and the Frenchmen were doing something near the pit, with pale faces and trembling hands.
The crowd of Russians and Frenchmen began to disperse.
"That will teach them to start fires," said one of the Frenchmen.
No one found more opportunities for attacking, no one captured or killed more Frenchmen, and consequently he was made the buffoon of all the Cossacks and hussars and willingly accepted that role.
I went to get Frenchmen, answered Tikhon boldly and hurriedly, in a husky but melodious bass voice.
"But why are you angry?" remonstrated Tikhon, "just as if I'd never seen your Frenchmen!
In front of him soldiers, probably Frenchmen, were running from right to left across the road.
Karataev was still sitting at the side of the road under the birch tree and two Frenchmen were talking over his head.
Dolokhov stood at the gate of the ruined house, letting a crowd of disarmed Frenchmen pass by.
The quartermasters who met the regiment announced that all the huts were full of sick and dead Frenchmen, cavalrymen, and members of the staff.
These were two Frenchmen who had been hiding in the forest.
The soldiers surrounded the Frenchmen, spread a greatcoat on the ground for the sick man, and brought some buckwheat porridge and vodka for both of them.
The historian evidently decomposes Alexander's power into the components: Talleyrand, Chateaubriand, and the rest--but the sum of the components, that is, the interactions of Chateaubriand, Talleyrand, Madame de Stael, and the others, evidently does not equal the resultant, namely the phenomenon of millions of Frenchmen submitting to the Bourbons.
It was revived by several German workers, prominent among whom were Treviranus and Link, and later Moldenhawer, as well as by the Frenchmen Mirbel, at the beginning of the j9th century.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.