French sentence example

french
  • His French accent rolled off his deep voice in a way that made her smile.
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  • I study French, too.
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  • French became the language of diplomacy and international affairs.
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  • She turned it off and eased out of bed, stopping to gaze out the French doors.
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  • At the moment his French lesson was unwelcome.
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  • If she wanted to learn French or Spanish, she'd take lessons.
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  • She used a few combs to pull hers into a French bun.
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  • Hamburgers, hot dogs, onion rings, French fries - you know, the usual fast food stuff.
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  • A bakery box held four small French pastries.
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  • Rhyn crossed his arms, irritated.  Kiki trotted from the patio into the house perched on a hill overlooking Tokyo.  He returned ten minutes later with a small briefcase, a jacket and a hard case for his iPad.  Rhyn opened the portal, and the two strode through it, back to the massive tree where Rhyn had lost Toby in the cold, wet French Alps.
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  • The impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February.
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  • In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
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  • J'ai une bonne petite soeur is French, and it means I have a good little sister.
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  • All her invitations without exception, written in French, and delivered by a scarlet-liveried footman that morning, ran as follows:
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  • I didn't know he spoke French.
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  • The light beyond the solid French doors made her flinch, but she forced herself to cross the doorway.
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  • "That would be a description of his ego and nothing else," the brooding blond said with a light French accent.
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  • The three moved with her, Pierre speaking tersely in French on the phone.
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  • Pierre said then cursed in French.
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  • She turned where he indicated, noticing the double French doors for the first time.
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  • Katie pushed the door to her designated guest room and stripped out of the grease- stained, French fry scented clothing.
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  • Kris had opened it near the cliff.  On the other side of the world from the Caribbean Sanctuary, the French Alps were dark and cold, and it was sleeting.
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  • According to Hagenbeck's estimate, this elephant, which came from the French Congo, was about six years old at the time it came under scientific notice.
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  • Nothing was stated as to the probability of an increase in the stature of the French Congo animal as it grows older; but even if we allow another foot, its height would be considerably less than half that of a large Central African bull of the ordinary elephant.
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  • He was of better education than most of his contemporaries, and had married a daughter of Colonel Seves the French non-commissioned officer who became Soliman Pasha under Mehemet Ali.
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  • French wines and luxury brands are appreciated by connoisseurs (another French concept) everywhere.
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  • I had a French grammar in raised print, and as I already knew some French, I often amused myself by composing in my head short exercises, using the new words as I came across them, and ignoring rules and other technicalities as much as possible.
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  • I even tried, without aid, to master the French pronunciation, as I found all the letters and sounds described in the book.
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  • I had had, moreover, a good start in French, and received six months' instruction in Latin; but German was the subject with which I was most familiar.
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  • The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
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  • My studies the first year were French, German, history, English composition and English literature.
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  • In the French course I read some of the works of Corneille, Moliere, Racine, Alfred de Musset and Sainte-Beuve, and in the German those of Goethe and Schiller.
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  • Later I read the book again in French, and I found that, in spite of the vivid word-pictures, and the wonderful mastery of language, I liked it no better.
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  • In my college reading I have become somewhat familiar with French and German literature.
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  • Of all the French writers that I have read, I like Moliere and Racine best.
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  • Like a good many of Helen Keller's early letters, this to her French teacher is her re-phrasing of a story.
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  • A French gentleman, whose name I cannot remember, showed me the great French bronzes.
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  • I know a woodchopper, of middle age, who takes a French paper, not for news as he says, for he is above that, but to "keep himself in practice," he being a Canadian by birth; and when I ask him what he considers the best thing he can do in this world, he says, beside this, to keep up and add to his English.
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  • He made great contributions to the knowledge of Saadia, and planned a complete edition of Saadia's works in Arabic and French.
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  • In October 1704 the "Cinque Porte" returned and found two of these men, the others having been apparently captured by the French.
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  • The city confers the title of marquis on the Osorio family, the ruins of whose palace, sacked in 1810 by the French, are still an object of interest.
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  • In 1798, when the French occupied Rome, Consalvi was imprisoned in the castle of St Angelo, together with other papal officials, in retaliation for the murder of General Duphot; a proposal to whip him through the streets was defeated by the French general in command, but, after three months' confinement, he was deported with a crowd of galley slaves to Naples, and his property was confiscated as that of "an enemy of the Roman republic."
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  • Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals.
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  • Its French estates were granted to the Hospitallers, but actually Philip IV.
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  • Of George Sand's style a foreigner can be but an imperfect judge, but French critics, from Sainte-Beuve, Nisard and Caro down to Jules Lemaitre and Faguet, have agreed to praise her spontaneity, her correctness of diction, her easy opulence - the lactea ubertas that Quintilian attributes to Livy.
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  • No one has better understood or more skilfully portrayed the artistic temperament - the musician, the actor, the poet - and no French writer before her had so divined and laid bare the heart of a girl.
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  • He must minimize foreign influence, whether French, Spanish or German, in Italy.
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  • The French and Venetians were at first successful, but on the 6th of June met overwhelming defeat at Novara.
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  • His marriage in March 1518 was arranged by the pope with Madeleine la Tour d'Auvergne, a royal princess of France, whose daughter was the Catherine de' Medici celebrated in French history.
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  • The French government discovered his hiding-place, and he was imprisoned and expelled from Paris.
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  • He went to Nottingham, in the hope of being able to support himself by teaching French and Italian.
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  • In 1627 he commanded the large forces assembled at the siege of La Rochelle; and some years after in 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, he was general of the French army in Lorraine.
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  • From the Trentino he returned to Caprera to mature his designs against Rome, which had been evacuated by the French in pursuance of the Franco-Italian convention of the 15th of September 1864.
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  • Two days later he took Monterotondo, but on the 2nd of November his forces were dispersed at Mentana by French and papal troops.
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  • After the revocation of the edict of Nantes the settlement of some French refugees further stimulated this industry.
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  • The actual highest summit is wholly French and is the loftiest peak in the Alps, and in Europe also, if certain peaks in the Caucasus be excluded.
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  • He became teacher of science successively at the French gymnasium in Berlin, and at the military academy, and on the foundation of the university of Berlin in 1810 he was chosen professor of physics.
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  • The marriage of this youth to James IV.'s widow on the 6th of August 1514 did much to identify the Douglases with the English party in Scotland, as against the French party led by Albany, and incidentally to determine the political career of his uncle Gavin.
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  • Albany's arrival in November 1521, with a large body of French men-at-arms, compelled Angus, with the bishop and others, to flee to the Borders.
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  • In the first, or general, prologue, Douglas claims a higher position for Virgil than for his master Chaucer, and attacks Caxton for his inadequate rendering of a French translation of the Aeneid.
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  • The most attractive parts are the American quarter, where the employes of the Panama railway have their homes, and the old French quarter, where dwelt the French officers during their efforts to build the canal.
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  • From his sixth to his ninth year he was given over to the care of learned foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
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  • At the end of 1709 he went to Dresden for twelve months for finishing lessons in French and German, mathematics and fortification, and, his education completed, he was married, greatly against his will, to the princess Charlotte of BrunswickWolfenbiittel, whose sister espoused, almost simultaneously, the heir to the Austrian throne, the archduke Charles.
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  • It was selected by the French convention of 1886 as the seat of the overland trade between Tongking and Yunnan, and opened two years later.
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  • Concessions have been obtained by the French government to build a line of railway from the Tongking frontier at the town of Laokay via Mengtsze to Yunnan-fu.
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  • He was naturalized as a French citizen in 1834, and in the same year became professor of constitutional law in the faculty of law at Paris.
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  • Portocarrero was induced to become a supporter of the French party, which desired that the crown should be left to one of the family of Louis XIV., and not to a member of the king's own family, the Habsburgs.
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  • But the king's French advisers were aware that Spain required a thorough financial and administrative reform.
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  • The dock and victualling yards occupy together an area of some i oo acres spread over the shores on both sides of those arms of the great harbour known as "Dockyard" and "French" creeks, the dockyard being partly on the former, but principally on the latter creek.
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  • From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
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  • Bouillon remained French till 1814, and Vauban called it "the key of the Ardennes."
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  • Throughout the entire south of the peninsula French influence was predominant.
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  • The rivalry between the English and the French, which had already convulsed the south, did not penetrate to Bengal.
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  • All the French settlements in India were promptly occupied.
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  • He is assisted by the conseil colonial numbering sixteen members, six of whom are French citizens elected by the French, six natives elected by the natives, the other four being members of the chamber of commerce of Saigon and the conseil prive.
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  • CochinChina is represented in the French chamber by a deputy.
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  • The last of the direct descendants of Simon Grynaeus was his namesake Simon (1725-1799), translator into German of French and English anti-deistical works, and author of a version of the Bible in modern German (1776).
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  • He was educated privately and was so precocious a boy as to translate a Latin version of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice into French in 1796, which was published by his father in 1797.
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  • The French artists still retain FIG ' 4.
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  • In its application it falls into sharp division in the hands of German and French poets.
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  • The French legend of the knight of the swan is attached to the house of Bouillon, and although William of Tyre refers to it about 1170 as fable, it was incorporated without question by later annalists.
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  • But in French story Helyas is not the son of Parzival, but of the king and queen of Lillefort, and the story of his birth, of himself, his five brothers and one sister is, with variations, that of "the seven swans" persecuted by the wicked grandmother, which figures in the pages of Grimm and Hans Andersen.
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  • Copland about 1550, is founded on a French romance La Genealogie ...
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  • There is also a weekly French service between Porto Torres and Ajaccio in Corsica.
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  • The French attacks of 2792-1793 were repelled by the inhabitants, Cagliari being unsuccessfully bombarded by the French fleet, and the refusal by Victor Amadeus III.
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  • After having been the law of the Church of France for a century, it was denounced by the French government in 1905.
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  • It remains, however, partly in force for Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine, which formed part of French territory in 1801.
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  • For the Italian republic, between Napoleon and Pius VII., analogous to the French concordat; abrogated.
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  • He also contributed largely to the Internationale theologische Zeitschrift, a review started in 1893 by the Old Catholics to promote the union of National Churches on the basis of the councils of the Undivided Church, and admitting articles in German, French and English.
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  • [[Roland (disambiguation)|ROLAND [[[Roland]] De La Platiere], Jean Marie]] (1734-1793), French statesman, was born at Thizy on the 18th of February 1734.
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  • A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
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  • About the same time the art was introduced into England by French refugees, and soon afterwards it spread also to America.
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  • In 1807 it was captured by the French, who demolished the fortifications.
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  • Asheville is situated at the junction of three branches of the Southern railway, on a high terrace on the east bank of the French Broad river, at the mouth of the Swannanoa, about 2300 ft.
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  • The central feature of the estate is a château (375 X 150 ft.) of French Renaissance design, after the famous chateau at Blois, France.
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  • The Seminary of Lausanne sent forth all the pastors of the Reformed Church of France till the days of the first French Empire.
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  • In 1721 he entered Merton College, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner, and studied philosophy, mathematics, French, Italian and music. He afterwards studied law at the Inner Temple, but was never called to the bar.
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  • The French held Cleves from 1757 to 1762 and in 1 795 the part of the duchy on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France; the remaining portion suffered a similar fate in 1805.
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  • The English and French governments made representations to the Vatican, but Pius IX., through the medium of the Civiltd Cattolica, maintained that the question at issue was a spiritual one, outside his temporal jurisdiction.
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  • The Sicilians refused to be made over once more to the hated French whom they had expelled in 1282, and found a national leader in the regent Frederick.
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  • The rivalry between the French and English factions in Scotland was complicated by private feuds of the Hamiltons and Douglases, the respective heads of which houses, Arran and Angus, were contending for the supreme power in the absence of Albany in France, where at the instance of Henry VIII.
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  • In 1688 Mannheim, which had in the meantime recovered from its former disasters, was captured by the French, and in 1689 it was burned down.
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  • In 1794 Mannheim fell into the hands of the French, and in the following year it was retaken by the Austrians after a severe bombardment, which left scarcely a single building uninjured.
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  • He at once undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI., king of France, and defeated the French forces at Guinegatte, the modern Enguinegatt; on the 7th of August 1479.
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  • Again in the Netherlands, he made a treaty with Francis II., duke of Brittany, whose independence was threatened by the French regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the struggle with France was soon renewed.
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  • Early in 1490 he took a further step and was betrothed to the duchess, and later in the same year the marriage was celebrated by proxy; but Brittany was still occupied by French troops, and Maximilian was unable to go to the assistance of his bride.
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  • The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
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  • He soon took the field, but after his failure to capture Padua the league broke up; and his sole ally, the French king, joined him in calling a general council at Pisa to discuss the question of Church reform.
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  • After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy; but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513.
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  • Having made an alliance with Christian II., king of Denmark, and interfered to protect the Teutonic Order against Sigismund I., king of Poland, Maximilian was again in Italy early in 1516 fighting the French who had overrun Milan.
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  • When he was three years old his family was driven out of Holland by the French republican armies, and lived in exile until 1813.
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  • He would have entered Brussels in triumph, but his victorious advance was stayed by the intervention of the French.
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  • Both in Gaelic and in old French it is cat, although sometimes taking the form of chater in the latter; the Gaelic designation of the European wild cat being cat fiadhaich.
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  • This comes through the French and Latin forms from the Gr.
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  • Sent to join the French embassy in London, he made himself so active that he was recalled by the request of the ambassador, who feared his intrigues.
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  • He was soon after received at the French Academy; and, to the disgrace of the French clergy, he was named president of their assembly.
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  • Joachim Descartes, his father, having purchased a commission as counsellor in the parlement of Rennes, introduced the family into that demi-noblesse of the robe which, between the bourgeoisie and the high nobility, maintained a lofty rank in French society.
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  • During the leisure thus arising, Descartes one day had his attention drawn to a placard in the Dutch tongue; as the language, of which he never became perfectly master, was then strange to him, he asked a bystander to interpret it into either French or Latin.
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  • In the spring of 1625 1 It was only published after the author's death; and of it, besides the French version, there exists an English translation " by a Person of Quality."
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  • The book will contain four essays, all in French, with the general title of Project of a Universal science, capable of raising our nature to its highest perfection; also Dioptrics, Meteors and Geometry, wherein the most curious matters which the author could select as a proof of the universal science which he proposes are explained in such a way that even the unlearned may understand them.'
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  • What might have happened we cannot tell; but Descartes threw himself on the protection of the French ambassador and the prince of Orange, and the city magistrates, from whom he vainly demanded satisfaction in a dignified letter,2 were snubbed by their superiors.
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  • Through Clerselier he came to know Pierre Chanut, who in 1645 was sent as French ambassador to the court of Sweden.
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  • It dashes at once into the middle of the subjects with the examination of a problem which had baffled the ancients, and seems as if it were tossed at the heads of the French geometers as a challenge.
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  • The greatest and most original of the French Cartesians was Malebranche (q.v.).
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  • A complete French edition of the collected works was begun in the Romance Library (1907 foll.).
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  • There are also numerous editions and translations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Hungarian.
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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about French politicians.
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  • In 1868 he was elected to the French Academy.
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  • His chief philosophical importance consists in the fact that he was a leader in the attempt to revivify French philosophy by the new thought of Germany, to which he had been introduced by Cousin, but of which he never had more than a second-hand knowledge.
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  • In 1747, however, the town was taken by the French, under Marshal Lowendahl, who surprised it by means of a subterranean passage.
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  • Restored at the end of the war, it was again taken by the French under Pichegru in 1795.
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  • The English, under Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, in March 1814 made an attempt to take it by a coup de main, but were driven back with great loss by the French, who surrendered the place, however, by the treaty of peace in the following May.
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  • Her father's palace was pillaged by the Turks, and as a child of four years old she was sold to the comte de Ferriol, the French ambassador at Constantinople.
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  • In 1799 Alkmaar gave its name to a convention signed by the duke of York and the French general Brune, in accordance with which the Russo-British army of 23,000 men, which was defeated at Bergen, evacuated Holland.
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  • The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
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  • The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
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  • It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent.
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  • The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.
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  • The town was captured by the Swabian League in 1519, by Turenne in 1647, and again in 1688 by the French, who destroyed the walls.
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  • Hugh de la Marche, whose betrothed wife, Isabella of Angouleme, King John of England seized (thus bringing upon himself the loss of the greater part of his French possessions), was a nephew of Guy of Lusignan.
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  • As in choruses baritone and low tenor singers always prevail, d - d', at French or at medium pitch, would really be the.
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  • Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley (vide Ellis's lecture) regarded the French ton de chapelle as being about a minor third below the Diapason Normal, a' 435, and said that most of the untouched organs in the French cathedrals were at this low pitch.
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  • Strasburg was French territory in 1713, but Silbermann's organ is not quite a whole tone below.
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  • Ellis quotes an organ at Lille, a' 374.2, but no other instance of the very low Schlick pitch is recorded, although trial of the French cathedral organs might perhaps result in the finding of examples.
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  • The consideration of temperature as affecting the use of a standard pitch was not attended to when the French government issued its ordonnance.
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  • As a member of the council of Madras he helped to defend the city against the French in 1759, and in July 1760 he went to Bengal as president of the council and governor of Fort William.
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  • Flechier, Esprit (1632-1710), French preacher and author, bishop of Nimes, was born at Pernes, department of Vaucluse, on the 10th of June 1632.
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  • His French poems met with little success, but a description in Latin verse of a tournament (carrousel, circus regius), given by Louis XIV.
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  • On this account, the custom of both the French and English people of the country was for years before and for several years after 1870 to pronounce it Man-I-CO-ba, and even in some cases to spell it " Manitobah."
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  • About 4000 French Canadians, who had emigrated from Quebec to the United States, have also made the province their home, as well as Icelanders now numbering 20,000.
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  • French literature passed through the same phase, from which indeed it was later in emerging; and the ultimate consequence was the enrichment of both languages.
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  • The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
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  • It is pathetic and yet inspiring to study the development of Presbyterianism in France; pathetic because it was in a time of fierce persecution that the French Protestants organized themselves into churches, and inspiring, because it showed the power which scriptural organization gave them to withstand incessant, unrelenting hostility.
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  • The work which the young Frenchman did for his countrymen was immense.3 The year 1555 may be taken as the date when French Protestantism began to be organized.
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  • It was the first general synod of the French Protestant Church, and consisted of representatives from, some say sixty-six, others, twelve churches.
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  • It was based on a short confession drafted by Calvin in 1557, and may still be regarded, though once or twice revised, as the confession of the French Protestant Church.
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  • The remarkable feature of French church polity was its aristocratic nature, which it owed to the system of co-optation; and the exclusion of the congregation from direct and frequent interference in spiritual matters prevented many evils which result from too much intermeddling on the part of the laity.
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  • - The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
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  • On his death in 1802 the duchies were incorporated with the French republic and his son Louis became "king of Etruria."
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  • In 1861 he became inspector of the Academy of Paris, in 1864 professor of philosophy to the Faculty of Letters, and in 1874 a member of the French Academy.
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  • The inhabitants of the last-named islands were noted pirates until reduced to order by the French.
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  • He then made the acquaintance of Aaron Solomon Gumperz, who taught him the elements of French and English.
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  • The word appears in French as pirate for a liquid measure as early as the 13th century.
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  • Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
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  • But a French officer, Jacques de Liniers, gathered together a large force with which he enclosed the British within the walls, and finally, on the 12th of August, by a successful assault, forced Beresford and his troops to surrender.
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  • But his measures speedily gave dissatisfaction to the Argentine or Creole party, who had long chafed under the disabilities of Spanish rule, and who now felt themselves no longer bound by ties of loyalty to a country which was in the possession of the French armies.
    0
    0
  • Foremost among the leaders of the revolutionary armies were Manuel Belgrano, and after March 1812 General Jose de San Martin, an officer who had gained experience against the French in the Peninsular War.
    0
    0
  • Buenos Aires was in 1838 blockaded by a French fleet; but Rosas stood firm.
    0
    0
  • Buenos Aires was blockaded by the combined English and French fleets, September 1845, which landed a force to open the passage up the Parana to Paraguay, which had been declared closed to foreigners by Rosas.
    0
    0
  • On the south-eastern frontier the French Alps, which include Mont Blanc (15,800 ft.), and, more to the south, other summits over 11,000 ft.
    0
    0
  • North of that river the coast is low-lying and bordered by sand-lunes, to which succeed on the Strait of Dover the cliffs in the neighborhood of the port of Boulogne and the marshes and sand-dunes of Flanders, with the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, the latter the principal French port on the NOrth Sea.
    0
    0
  • Alone among French rivers, the Rhne, itself Alpine in character in its upper course, is partly fed by Alpine rivers (the Arve, the Isre and the Durance) which have their floodsin spring at the melting of the snow, and are maintained by glacierwater in summer.
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    0
  • The most important French lake is that of Grand-Lieu, between Nantes and Pairnbceuf (Loire-Infrieure), which presents a surface of 17,300 acres.
    0
    0
  • The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.
    0
    0
  • - 829,000, , 21.5 Finistre Gard About two-thirds of the French departments, corn- Gers prising a large proportion of those situated in Gironde mountainous districts and in the basin of the Garonne, Haute-Ga where the birth-rate is especially feeble, show a Haute-Lo Haute-Mi decrease in population.
    0
    0
  • The French census uses the commune as the basis of its returns, and employs the following classifications in respect to communal population: (I) Total communal population.
    0
    0
  • The following tables, showing the growth of the largest towns in France, are drawn up on the basis of the fourth classification, which is used throughout this work in the articles on French towns, except where otherwise stated.
    0
    0
  • 239,178 The Basques of Basses-PyrnCes go in considerable 442,777 numbers to the Argentine Republic, the inhabitants of 333,621 Basses Alpes to Mexico and the United States, and 429,812 there are important French colonies in Algeria and 315,199 Tunisia.
    0
    0
  • While wheat and wine constitute the staples of French agriculture, its distinguishing characteristic is the variety of its products.
    0
    0
  • For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.
    0
    0
  • Meslin, a mixture of wheat and rye, is produced in the great majority of French departments, but to a marked extent in the basin of the Sarthe.
    0
    0
  • French lignite comes for the most part from the department of BOuches-du-Rhne (near Fuveau).
    0
    0
  • The development of French coal and lignite mining in the i9th century, together with records of prices, which rose considerably at the end of the period, is set forth in the table below:
    0
    0
  • Cotton.In 1901, 166,000 persons were employed in the spinning and weaving of cotton, French cotton goods being distinguished chiefly for the originality of their design.
    0
    0
  • Leather.Tanning and leather-dressing are widely spread industries, and the same may be said of the manufacture of boots and shoes, though these trades employ more hands in the department of Seine than elsewhere; in the manufacture of gloves Isre (Grenoble) and Aveyron (Millau) hold the first place amongst French departments.
    0
    0
  • The Dogger Bank is frequented by numbers of French fishing-boats.
    0
    0
  • Oysters are reared chiefly at Marennes, which is the chief French market for them, and at Arcachon, Vannes, Olron, Auray, Cancale and Courseulles.
    0
    0
  • After the rejection in 1838 of the governments proposals for the construction of seven trunk lines to be worked by the state, he obtained a concession for that piece of line on the terms that the French treasury would advance one-third of the capital at 3% if he would raise the remaining two-thirds, half in France and half in England.
    0
    0
  • The above table shows the developments of French trade during the years from 1876 to 1905 by means of quinquennial averages.
    0
    0
  • The increase of the French mercantile marine (which is fifth in importance in the world) over the same period is traced in the following table.
    0
    0
  • The prosperity of the French shipping trade is hampered, by the costliness of shipbuilding and by the scarcity of outward-bound cargo.
    0
    0
  • Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
    0
    0
  • Despite these monopolies, three-fourths of the shipping in French ports is foreign, and France is without shipping companies comparable in importance to those of other great maritime nations.
    0
    0
  • Central Government.The principles upon which the French constitution is based are representative government (by two chambers), manhood suffrage, responsibility of ministers and irresponsibility of the head of the state.
    0
    0
  • The French debt as constituted in 1905 was made up of funded debt and floating debt as follows:
    0
    0
  • Organization.The general organization of the French army at home is based on the system of permanent army corps, the headquarters of which are as follows: I.
    0
    0
  • The French colonial (formerly marine) infantry, recruited by voluntary enlistment, comprises 18 regiments and 5 independent battalions (of which 12 regiments are at home), 74 batteries of field, fortress and mountain artillery (of which 32 are at home), with a few cavalry and engineers, &c., and other services in proportion.
    0
    0
  • Voluntary enlistments in the French army are permissible, within certain limits, at the age of eighteen, and the engages serve for at least three years.
    0
    0
  • It is convenient, to mention in this place certain institutions attached to the war department and completing the French military organization.
    0
    0
  • Central Administration.The head of the French navy is the Minister of Marine, who like the other ministers is appointed by decree of the head of the state, and is usually a civilian.
    0
    0
  • The French coast is divided into five naval arrondissements, which have their headquarters at th.e five naval ports, of which Cherbourg, Brest, and Toulon.
    0
    0
  • The French navy is manned partly by voluntary enlistment, partly by the transference to the navy of a certain proportion of each years recruits for the army, but mainly by a system known as inscription maritime.
    0
    0
  • All French sailors between the ages of eighteen and fifty must be enrolled as members of the armte de me,.
    0
    0
  • Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
    0
    0
  • As to the number of vessels, which fluctuates from month to month, little can be said that is wholly accurate at any given moment, but, very roughly, the French navy in 1909 included 25 battleships, 7 coast defence ironclads, 19 armoured cruisers, 36 protected cruisers, 22 s1oops, gunboats, &c., 45 destroyers, 319 torpedo boats, 71 submersibles and submarines and 8 auxiliary cruisers.
    0
    0
  • Examples of such bodies are the Society for Elementary Instruction the Polytechnic Association, the Philotechnic Association and the French Union of the Young at Paris; the Philomathic Society of Bordeaux; the Popular Education Society at Havre; the Rhone Society of Pro-, fessional Instruction at Lyons; the Industrial Society of Amiens and others.
    0
    0
  • The year of acquisition in the table, when one date only is given, indicates the period when the country or some part of it first fell under French influence, and does not imply continuous possession since.
    0
    0
  • The realization of the fact that the value to France of her colonies was mainly commercial, led at length to the abandonment of the attempt to impose on a great number of diverse peoples—some possessing (as in Indo-China and parts of West Africa) ancient and highly complex civilizations—French laws, habits of mind, tastes and manners.
    0
    0
  • None of the French possessions is self-governing in the manner of the chief British colonies.
    0
    0
  • In Guiana and Cochin-China the franchise is restricted to citizens, in which category the natives (in those colonies) are not included.1 The inhabitants of Tahiti though accorded French citizenship have not been allotted a representative in parliament.
    0
    0
  • The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
    0
    0
  • Class (I) includes the American colonies, Reunion, French India, Senegal.
    0
    0
  • In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
    0
    0
  • Save for the small item of military expenditure Tunisia is no charge to the French exchequer.
    0
    0
  • Commerce.The value of the external trade of the French possessions, exclusive of Algeria and Tunisia, increased in the ten years 1896-1905 from 18,784,060 to 34,957,479.
    0
    0
  • In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
    0
    0
  • Over three-fourths of the trade of Algeria and Tunisia is with France and other French possessions.
    0
    0
  • The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.
    0
    0
  • Previously French had gone to Florence, Italy, where he spent a year with Thomas Ball.
    0
    0
  • French's best-known work is "Death Staying the Hand of the Sculptor," a memorial for the tomb of the sculptor Martin Milmore, in the Forest Hills cemetery, Boston; this received a medal of honour at Paris, in 1900.
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    0
  • Nicholas French >>
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  • A partisan of French methods, Moratin published in 1762 his Desengano al teatro espanol, a severe criticism of the national drama, particularly of the auto sacramental; and his protests were partly responsible for the prohibition of autos three years afterwards (June 1765).
    0
    0
  • This last word is the regular French for "knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign military or other orders, particularly of the Legion of Honour.
    0
    0
  • In 1809 it was the scene of the death of Ferdinand von Schill, in his gallant though ineffectual attempt to rouse his countrymen against the French invaders.
    0
    0
  • The cabinet noir has now disappeared, but the right to open letters in cases of emergency appears still to be retained by the French government; and a similar right is occasionally exercised in England under the direction of a secretary of state, and, indeed, in all civilized countries.
    0
    0
  • The city is connected with its port, Jaffa, by a carriage road, 41 m., and by a metre-gauge railway, 54 m., which was completed in 1892, and is worked by a French company.
    0
    0
  • Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
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  • On the mount of Olives are the Russian church, tower and hospice, near the chapel of the Ascension; the French Paternoster church; the Carmelite nunnery; and the Russian church of St Mary Magdalene, near Gethsemane.
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  • In 1803 the duchy was occupied by the French, and in 1810 it was incorporated with France.
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    0
  • One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.
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  • He gave so much trouble to the Madrid governments that they organized a watch over him with the assistance of the French government and police, especially when it was discovered that the two military movements of August 1883 and September 1886 had been prepared and assisted by him.
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    0
  • Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
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  • The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John had war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbour the French king till his death on the 20th of January 1479.
    0
    0
  • In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
    0
    0
  • Some French authorities confidently put forward a claim that Guillaume le Testu, of Provence, sighted the continent in 1531.
    0
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  • He was soon admitted a member of the French Academy of the Fine Arts, but on the revocation of the edict of Nantes he was obliged to take refuge in Holland, and his name was struck off the Academy roll.
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    0
  • From Holland he was invited to England by the duke of Montague, who employed him, together with other French painters, to paint the walls of his palace, Montague House (on the site of which is now the British Museum).
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    0
  • "La Lutine," which had been captured from the French by Admiral Duncan, was carrying a large quantity of bullion and specie, which was underwritten at Lloyd's.
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    0
  • "HENRI LOUIS BERGSON (1859-), French philosopher, was born in Paris Oct.
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  • From 1825 to 1827 he acted as assistant viceconsul at Lisbon, where his uncle, Barthelemy de Lesseps, was the French charge d'affaires.
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    0
  • Youssouff acknowledged this protection given by a Frenchman by distinguishing himself in the ranks of the French army at the time of the conquest of Algeria.
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  • Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among which was the memoir written upon the Suez Canal, according to Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Lapere, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
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    0
  • Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.
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    0
  • In the latter year the government of the French Republic confided to him a mission to Rome at the moment when it was a question whether the expelled pope would return to the Vatican with or without bloodshed.
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    0
  • Rome, attacked by the French army, was taken by assault after a month's sanguinary siege.
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    0
  • A first scheme, indicated by him, was immediately drawn out by two French engineers who were in the Egyptian service, MM.
    0
    0
  • These stations were the starting-point of French Congo.
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    0
  • The winding-up of the Panama Company having been declared in the:month of December 1888, the adversaries of the French Republic, seeking for a scandal that would imperil the government, hoped to bring about the prosecution of the directors of the Panama Company.
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    0
  • The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
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    0
  • Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
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    0
  • His campaigns against the French king were conducted with success.
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    0
  • Chiefly through the valour of Lamoral, count of Egmont, two great victories were won over the French IL at St Quentin (August Io, 1557) and at Gravelines (July 1 3, 1 55 8).
    0
    0
  • The " malcontent " Catholics now turned for help from Matthias to the duke of Anjou, who had invaded the Netherlands with a French army and seized Mons.
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    0
  • He proclaimed a crusade against Louis and the French, and, after the peace of Lambeth, he forced Louis to make a public and humiliating profession of penitence (1217).
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  • Joining a Polish artillery regiment in the French service, he took part in the Russian campaign of 1812, and subsequently so brilliantly distinguished himself in the defence of Danzig (January - November 1813) that he won the cross of the Legion of Honour.
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    0
  • Although in the course of its long history it has undergone many sieges and was sacked at various epochs by the Vandals, Normans, French and Spaniards, it preserves many monuments of its ancient days.
    0
    0
  • It did not long remain French, for in 1521 the count of Nassau, Charles V.'s general, took it and added it to the Spanish provinces.
    0
    0
  • On the formation of the Wirth ministry in May 1921 he was appointed Minister of Reconstruction, and in that capacity negotiated with the French minister, Loucheur, a convention for supplying German materials for the restoration of the devastated area in France, and thus paying in kind part of the reparation which the German Reich had undertaken to pay in gold.
    0
    0
  • Such a motive weighed much with Hobbes and with the French materialists of the 18th century, such as La Mettrie and d'Holbach.
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    0
  • Instead, we find the Sakai occupying this position, thus indicating that they have been driven northward by the Malays, and that the latter people has not been expelled by the Mon-Khmer races from the countries now represented by Burma, Siam and French Indo-China.
    0
    0
  • In 1 528 a French expedition sailed from Dieppe, penetrated as far as Achin in Sumatra, but returned without reaching the Malay Peninsula.
    0
    0
  • Of the foreign-born, 14,924 were French Canadians, 10,616 were English Canadians and 7453 were Irish.
    0
    0
  • Samuel de Champlain, as governor of Quebec, entered what is now Vermont in July 1609 in an expedition against the Iroquois, and thus laid the basis for the French claim.
    0
    0
  • The name is taken from Nicotiana, the tobacco plant, so called after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), French ambassador at Lisbon, who introduced tobacco into France in 1560.
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    0
  • The city consists of two parts; the modern French town, built on the level ground by the seashore, and the ancient city of the deys, which climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the kasbah or citadel, 400 ft.
    0
    0
  • The kasbah was begun in 1516 on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest.
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    0
  • Here are the summer palace of the governor-general, many fine Moorish and French villas and luxurious hotels, all surrounded by beautiful gardens.
    0
    0
  • (The valley was in those days the favourite residence of the consuls.) At the Petit Seminaire, on the site of the old French consulate, Cardinal Lavigerie died (1892).
    0
    0
  • French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
    0
    0
  • Most of the naturalized French citizens are of Spanish or Italian origin.
    0
    0
  • On the 4th of July in that year a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated on the following day.
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    0
  • While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers.
    0
    0
  • Bordeaux, the French envoy in England, wrote that, in spite of the severe laws, the Romanists received better treatment under the Protectorate than under any other government.
    0
    0
  • In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.
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    0
  • A small expedition sent by Cromwell in February 1654 to capture New Amsterdam (New York) from the Dutch was abandoned on the conclusion of peace, and the fleet turned to attack the French colonies; Major Robert Sedgwick taking with a handful of men the fort of St John's, Port Royal or Annapolis, and the French fort on the river Penobscot, the whole territory from this river to the mouth of the St Lawrence remaining British territory till its cession in 1667.
    0
    0
  • "A man never mounts so high," Cromwell said to the French ambassador in 1647, "as when he does not know where he is going."
    0
    0
  • Grattan was a reformer and a patriot without a tincture of democratic ideas; Wolfe Tone was a revolutionary whose principles were drawn from the French Convention.
    0
    0
  • He rejoiced that the breaking up of the French schools by the revolution had rendered necessary the foundation of Maynooth College, which he foresaw would draw the sympathies of the clergy into more democratic channels.
    0
    0
  • In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.
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    0
  • An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
    0
    0
  • He drew up two memorials representing that the landing of a considerable French force in Ireland would be followed by a general rising of the people, and giving a detailed account of the condition of the country.
    0
    0
  • The French directory, which possessed information from Lord Edward Fitzgerald and Arthur O'Connor confirming Tone, prepared to despatch an expedition under Hoche.
    0
    0
  • Tone, who accompanied it as "Adjutant-general Smith," had the greatest contempt for the seamanship of the French sailors, which was amply justified by the disastrous result of the invasion.
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    0
  • Returning to France without having effected anything, Tone served for some months in the French army under Hoche; and in June 17 9 7 he took part in preparations for a Dutch expedition to Ireland, which was to be supported by the French.
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    0
  • When the prisoners were landed a fortnight later Sir George Hill recognized Tone in the French adjutant-general's uniform.
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    0
  • They were published after his death by his son, William Theobald Wolfe Tone (1791-1828), who was educated by the French government and served with some distinction in the armies of Napoleon, emigrating after Waterloo to America, where he died, in New York City, on the 10th of October 1828.
    0
    0
  • (For map see French West Africa and Gold Coast).
    0
    0
  • There is direct steamship communication between Togoland and Hamburg, and the steamers of three French and two English lines call at Togoland ports.
    0
    0
  • Before its annexation by Germany the lagoons were a favourite resort of slavers, and stations were established there by Portuguese, British, French and German traders.
    0
    0
  • Then Louis, in company with his brothers William and Henry, made his way across the French frontier to the camp of the Huguenot leader, Admiral Coligny.
    0
    0
  • In 1602 he made his second visit to the French capital, when his transcendent qualities brought him into the closest relations with the court of Henry IV., and made him the spiritual father of that circle of select souls who centred round Madame Acarie.
    0
    0
  • The saint's nephew and successor, Charles Auguste de Sales, brought out a more extended life, Latin and French, in 1635.
    0
    0
  • Dammartin is historically important as the seat of a countship of which the holders played a considerable part in French history.
    0
    0
  • Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
    0
    0
  • On the 5th of November 1823 it capitulated to the French.
    0
    0
  • Teignmouth was burned by French pirates in 1340, and was again devastated by the French on the 26th of June 1690.
    0
    0
  • During the Peninsular War Badajoz was unsuccessfully attacked by the French in 1808 and 1809; but on the 10th of March 1811, the Spanish commander, Jose Imaz, was bribed into surrendering to the French force under Marshal Soult.
    0
    0
  • Montegut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Emile (1825-1895), French critic, was born at Limoges on the 14th of June 1825.
    0
    0
  • The French institution of Prudhommes was introduced into Italy in 1893, under the name of Coltegi di Probiviri.
    0
    0
  • The large predominance of imports over exports after 1884 was a result of the falling off of the export trade in live stock, olive oil and wine, on account of the closing of the French market, while the importation of corn from Russia and the Balkan States increased considerably.
    0
    0
  • The judiciary system of Italy is mainly framed on the French model.
    0
    0
  • Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
    0
    0
  • The Genoese undertook to bring the French bishops to this council.
    0
    0
  • The French prelates went in silver chains to prison.
    0
    0
  • This firsi invitation to French princes brought with it incalculable evils.
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    0
  • Civil Wan He lost the island, which gave itself to Aragon; and of Gue!phs thus the kingdom of Sicily was severed from that of anj Naples, the dynasty in the one being Spanish and Ghibelline, in the other French and Guelph.
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    0
  • After quarrelling with the French king, Philip le Bel, he fell into the hands of the Colonna family at Anagni, and died, either of the violence he there received or of mortification, in October 1303.
    0
    0
  • Meanwhile Lodovico procured his nephews death, and raised a league against the French in Lombardy.
    0
    0
  • By a treaty signed at Granada, the French and Spanish kings were to divide the spoil.
    0
    0
  • Whatever parts the Italians themselves played in the succeeding quarter of a century, the game was in the hands of French, Spanish and German invaders.
    0
    0
  • Quarrelling with the Venetians In 1508, he combined the forces of all Europe by the league of Cambray against them; and, when he had succeeded in his first purpose of humbling them even to the dust, he turned round in 1510, uttered his famous resolve to expel the barbarians from Italy, and pitted the Spaniards against the French.
    0
    0
  • Gaston de Foix bought a doubtful victory dearly with his death; and the allies, though beaten on the banks of the Ronco, immediately afterwards expelled the French from Lombardy.
    0
    0
  • In 1521 he changed sides, allied himself to Charles, and died after hearing that the imperial troops had again expelled the French from Milan.
    0
    0
  • The French, meanwhile, had not entirely abandoned their claims on Italy.
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  • The treaty of Cteau Cambresis in 1559, and the evacuation of the Piedmontese cities held by French and Spanish troops in 1574, restored his state.
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  • The dispute was fought out in Flanders; but Spanish Lombardy felt the shock, as usual, of the French and Austrian dynasties.
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  • The French armies were more than once defeated by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who drove them out of Italy in 1707.
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  • At first, in 1745, the Sardinians were defeated by the French and Spanish troops.
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  • The duchy of Modena was placed under the protection of the French.
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  • The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.
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  • It is desirable in the first place to realize the condition of Italy at the time when the irruption of the French and the expulsion of the Austrians opened up a new political vista for that oppressed and divided people.
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  • Milan and Piedmont were comparatively well governed; but repugnance to Austrian rule in the former case, and the contagion of French Jacobinical opinions in the latter, brought those populations into increasing hostility to the rulers.
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  • The grand-duke of Tuscany was the first of the European sovereigns who made peace with, and recognized the French republic, early in 1795.
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  • In, taking this step the Modenese and Romagnols had the encouragement of Bonaparte, despite the orders which the French directory sent to him in a contrary sense.
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  • While the French directory saw in that province little more than a district which might be plundered and bargained for, Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or Mombello, near I\Iilan, he commissioned several of the leading men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and list of reforms for that province.
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  • Meanwhile he took care to curb the excesses of the Italian Jacobins and to encourage the Moderates, who were favorable to the French connection as promising a guarantee against Austrian domination and internal anarchy.
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  • He summed up his conduct in the letter of the 8th of May 1797 to the French directory, I cool the hot heads here and warm the cool ones.
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  • The constitution was modelled on that of the French directory, and, lest there should be a majority of clerical or Jacobinical deputies, the French Republic through its general, Bonaparte, nominated and appointed the first deputies and administrators of the new government.
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  • The new Genoese republic, French in all but name, was renamed the Ligurian Republic.
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  • Before he set sail for Egypt, the French had taken possession of Rome.
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  • The French directory at once ordered its general, Berthier, to march to Rome: the Roman democrats proclaimed a republic on the 15th of February 1798, and on their invitation Berthier and his troops marched in.
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  • He retired to the island of Sardinia, while the French despoiled Piedmont, thereby adding fuel to the resentment rapidly growing against them in every part of Europe.
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  • The French, poorly handled by Schrer and Srurier, were everywhere beaten, especially at Magnano (April 5) and Cassano (April 27).
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  • In many parts the peasants and townsfolk, enraged by the licence of the French, hung on his flank and rear.
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  • The republics set up by the French at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French troops retired; and a reaction in favor of clerical and Austrian influence set in with great violence.
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  • Melas defeated Championnet near Coni on the 4th of November; and a little later the French garrisons at Ancona and Coni surrendered.
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  • Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
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  • King Ferdinand also had to accept a French garrison at Taranto, and other points in the south.
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  • Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.
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  • Piedmont was organized in six departments on the model of those of France, and a number of French veterans were settled by Napoleon in and near the fortress of Alessandria.
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  • Finally, after the proclamation of the French empire (May 18, 1804) Napoleon proposed to place his brother Joseph over the Italian state, which now took the title of kingdom of Italy.
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  • The French emperor, at the supposed request of the doge of Genoa, declared the Ligurian Republic to be an integral part of the French empire.
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  • Gaeta, however, held out stoutly against the French.
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  • Already, in the negotiations with England during the summer of 1806, the emperor had shown his sense of the extreme importance of gaining possession of that island, which indeed caused the breakdown of the peace proposals then being considered; and now he ordered French squadrons into the Mediterranean in order to secure Corfu and Sicily.
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  • Capri, however, fell to the French on the 18th of October 1808, shortly after the arrival at Naples of the new king, Murat.
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  • Etruria reverted to the French empire, but the Spanish princess and her son did not receive the promised indemnity.
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  • But after the occupation of Vienna the conqueror dated from that capital on the 17th of May 1809 a decree virtually annexing Rome and the Painmonium Petri to the French empire.
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  • Thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was taken, at Napoleons orders, to Fontainebleau.
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  • By an imperial decree of the I7th of February 1810, Rome and the neighboring districts, including Spoleto, became part of the French empire.
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  • Rome thenceforth figured as its second city, and entered upon a new life under the administration of French officials.
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  • On the 16th of April 1814 Eugene, on hearing of Napoleons overthrow at Paris, signed an armistice at Mantua by which he was enabled to send away the French troops beyond the Alps and entrust himself to the consideration of the allies.
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  • His object was to restore his dominions to the conditions preceding the French occupation.
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  • The French system of taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for the higher government appointments; all who had served under the French administration were dismissed pr reduced in rank, and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed over the, heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded regiments in Spain and Russia.
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  • In Parma, on the other hand, there was very little oppression, the French codes were retained, and the council of state was consulted on all legislative matters.
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  • The upper classes were still to a large extent inoculated with French ideas, but the common people were either devoted to the dynasty or indifferent.
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  • But the French king soon abandoned his principle of non-intervention.
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  • The offer of French assistance, made after the proclamation of the republic in the spring of 1848, had been rejected mainly because France, fearing that the creation of a strong Italian state would be a danger to her, would have demanded the cession of Nice and Savoy, which the king refused to consider.
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  • On the 25th of April General Roman Oudinot landed with 8000 men at Civitavecchia, and Republl4 on the 3oth attempted to capture Rome by suprise, but was completely defeated by Garibaldi, who might have driven the French into the sea, had Mazzini allowed him to leave the city.
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  • Mazzini refused to allow the French into the city, but while the negotiations were being dlagged on Oudinots force was increased to 35,000 men.
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  • In Spite of this success, however, it was not until the end of the month, and after desperate fighting, that the French penetrated within the walls and the defence ceased (June 29).
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  • The Assembly, which had continued in session, was dispersed by the French troops on the 2nd of July, but Mazzini escaped a week later.
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  • The Piedmontese troops distinguished themselves in the field, gaining the sympathies of the French and English; and at the subsequent congress of Paris (1856), where Cavour himself was Sardinian representative, the Italian question was discussed, and the intolerable oppression of the Italian peoples by Austria and the despots ventilated.
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  • In Rome, after the restoration of the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no attention to Louis Napoleons advice to maintain some form of constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the administration.
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  • In exchange for French assistance Piedmont would cede Savoy and perhaps Nice to France; and a marriage between Victor Emmanuels daughter Clothilde and Jerome Bonaparte, to which Napoleon attached great importance, although not made a definite condition, was also discussed.
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  • On the fiat 29th Francis Joseph declared war, and the next day 1859 his troops crossed theTicino, a move which was followed, as Napoleon had stated it would be, by a French declaration of war.
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  • On the 23rd of May Prince Napoleon, with a French army corps, landed at Leghorn, his avowed object being to threaten the Austrian flank; and in June these troops, together with a Tuscan contingent, departed for Lombardy.
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  • Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal owing to the emperors opposition, backed by the presence of French armies in Lombardy; at a word from Napoleon there might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, invasion of central Italy.
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  • His rapid success, meanwhile, inspired both the French emperor and the government of Turin with misgivings.
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  • The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
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  • On the 29th a French force, under de Failly, ari-ived, and on the 3rd of November a battle ~, took place at Mentana between 4000 or 500o redMentana.
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  • The Garibaldians, mowed down by the new French chassept rifles, fought until their last cartridges were exhausted, and retreated the next day towards the Italian frontier, leaving 800 prisoners.
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  • The occupation of Rome caused no surprise to the French government, which had been forewarned on 11th September of the Italian intentions.
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  • Agreeably surprised by this attitude on the part of France, Visconti-Venosta lost no time in conveying officially the thanks of Italy to the French government.
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  • He doubtless foresaw that the language of Favre and Crmieux would not be endorsed by the French Clericals.
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  • Prussia, while satisfied at the fall of the temporal power, seemed to fear lest Italy might recompense the absence of French opposition to the occupation of Rome by armed intervention in favor of France.
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  • The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
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  • Payments would have been regularly continued had not pressure from the French Clerical party coerced the Vatican into refusing any further instalment.
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  • With the aid of Sella he concluded conventions for the redemption of the chief Italian railways from their French and Austrian proprietors.
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  • On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, which met in Paris in 1872, he, however, successfully protested against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, as a representative of a state, and obtained from Count de Rmusat, French foreign minister, a formal declaration that the presence of Father Secchi on that occasion could not constitute a diplomatic precedent.
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  • Upon the outbreak of the Prussian Kulturkampf the Left had pressed the Right to introduce an Italian counterpart to the Prussian May laws, especially as the attitude of Thiers and the hostility of the French Clericals obviated the need for sparing French susceptibilities.
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  • Depretis recalled Nigra from Paris and replaced him by General Cialdini, whose ardent plea for Italian intervention in favor of France in 1870, and whose comradeship with Marshal Macmahon in 1859, would, it was supposed, render him persona gratissima to the French government.
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  • Incensed by the elevation to the rank of embassies of the Italian legation in Paris and the French legation to the Quirinal, and by the introduction of the Italian bill against clerical abuses, the French Clerical party not only attacked Italy and her representative, General Cialdini, in the Chamber of Deputies, but promoted a monster petition against the Italian bill.
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  • As a precaution against an eventual French attempt to restore the temporal power, orders were hurriedly given to complete the defences of Rome, but in other respects the Italian government maintained its subservient attitude.
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  • Nemesis came in the spring of 1881, in the form of the French invasion of Tunisia.
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  • Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
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  • Almost up to the moment of the French occupation of Tunisia the Italian government believed that Great Britain, if only out of gratitude for the bearing of Italy in connection with the Dulcigno demonstration.
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  • A French attempt to purchase the line was upset in the English courts, and the railway was finally secured by Italy at a price more than eight times its real value.
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  • Roustan therefore hastened to extort from the bey concessions calculated to neutralize the advantages which Italy had hoped to secure by the possession of the Tunis- Goletta line, and at the same time the French government prepared at Toulon an expeditionary corps for the occupation of the Regency.
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  • On the 26th of April the island of Tabarca was occupied by the French, Bizerta was seized on the 2nd of May, and on the 12th of May the hey signed the treaty of Bardo accepting the French protectorate.
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  • Documents subsequently published have somewhat attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and Saint Hilaire for this breach of faith, and have shown that the French forces in Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from General Farre, minister of war in the Ferry cabinet, who pursued a policy diametrically opposed to the official declarations made by the premier and the foreign minister.
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  • The AustroGerman alliance of 1879 formally guaranteed the territory of the contracting parties, but Austria could not count upon effectual help from Germany in case of war, since Russian attack upon Austria would certainly have been followed by French attack upon Germany.
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  • Without some such proviso Italy would, in Mancinis opinion, be exposed single-handed to French resentment.
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  • Garibaldi, who, since the French occupation of Tunis, had ardently worked for the increase of the army, had thus the satisfaction of seeing his desire realized before his death at Caprera, on the 2nd of June 1882.
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  • The Italian General Staff is said to have undertaken, in the event of war against France, to operate with two armies on the north-western frontier against the French arme des Alpes, of which the war strength is about 250,000 men.
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  • A revival of Irredentism in connection with the execution of an Austrian deserter named Oberdank, who after escaping into Italy endeavoured to return to Austria with explosive bombs in his possession, and the cordial references to France made by Depretis at Stradella (8th October 1882), prevented the French government from suspecting the existence of the alliance, or from ceasing to strive after a Franco-Italian understanding.
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  • Mancini exerted himself in a hundred ways to soothe French resentment.
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  • In view of the French refusal, Lord Granville on the 27th of July invited Italy to join in restoring order in Egypt; but Mancini and Depretis, in spite of the efforts of Crispi, then in London, declined the offer.
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  • The extension of the Italian zone excited the suspicions of John, negus of Abyssinia, whose apprehensions were assiduously fomented by Alula, ras of Tigr, and by French and Greek adventurers.
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  • The value of French exports into Italy decreased immediately by one-half, while Italian exports to France decreased by nearly two-thirds.
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  • At the end of 1889 Crispi abolished the differential duties against French imports and returned to the general Italian tariff, but France declined to follow his lead and maintained her prohibitive dues.
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  • The attitude of several of his colleagues was more equivocal, but though they coquetted with French financiers in the hope of obtaining the support of the Paris Bourse for Italian securities, the precipitate renewal of the alliance destroyed all probability of a close understanding with France.
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  • The French authorities, under whose eyes the massacre was perpetrated, did nothing to prevent or repress it, and the mayor of Marseilles even refused to admit the wounded Italian workmen to the municipal hospital.
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  • The Italian foreign minister, Brin, began by demanding the punishment of the persons guilty of the massacre, but has~ned to accept as satisfactory the anodyne measures adopted by the French government.
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  • Giolitti removed the prefect of Rome for not having prevented an expression of popular anger, and presented formal excuses to the French consul at Messina for a demonstration against that consulate.
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  • In the following December the French tribunal at Angoulme acquitted all the authors of ~he massacre.
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  • The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
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