Freezing-point sentence example

freezing-point
  • The intermediate summits occurring in the freezing-point curves of alloys are usually rounded; this feature is believed to be due to the partial decomposition of the compound which takes place when it melts.
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  • In the case of a pure substance, and of a certain small class of mixtures, there is no further fall in temperature until the substance has become completely solid, but, in the case of most mixtures, after the freezing-point has been reached the temperature soon begins to fall again, and as the amount of solid increases the temperature becomes lower and lower.
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  • In the winter months of November and December the thermometer frequently falls to freezing-point, and in the hottest months the maximum on the Kibyen plateau has been found to be rarely over 85° The population of Bauchi is estimated at about 1,000,000 and is of a very various description.
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  • The summer temperature in the plains is that of southern Italy; in the mountain district& it is high during the day, but falls almost to freezing-point at night.
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  • The table given below will be useful in calculating the size of the radiating surface necessary to raise the temperature to the extent required when the external air is at freezing point (32° Fahr.): - At the city of Lockport in New York state, America, an interesting example of the direct app of Lockport.
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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
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  • About the same time Davy showed that two pieces of ice could be melted by rubbing them together in a vacuum, although everything surrounding them was at a temperature below the freezing point.
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  • In the same way, whilst in the plains and hills round Naples snow is rarely seen, and never remains long, and the thermometer seldom descends to the freezing-point, 20 m.
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  • For instance, suppose the effect of a falling temperature is to so modify the metabolism of the cells that they fill up more and more with watery sap; as the freezing-point is reached this may result in destructive changes, and death from cold may result.
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  • Arctic plants make their brief growth and flower at a temperature little above freezing-point, and are dependent for their heat on the direct rays of the sun.
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  • Thus for calcium chloride the depression of the freezing-point, when n =7, N= l oo, is nearly 60° C. At this point n" = Jo nearly, and the depression should be only 10 4° C. These and similar discrepancies have been very generally attributed to a loose and variable association of the molecules of the dissolved substance with molecules of the solvent, which, according to H.
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  • The total heat of steam, for instance, is generally reckoned from the state of water at the freezing-point, o° C. If h denote the heat required to raise the temperature of the liquid from the selected zero to the temperature t° C., and if H denote the total heat and L the latent heat of the vapour, also at t° C., we have evidently the simple relation H =L+h..
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  • In the winter months of November and December the thermometer frequently falls to freezing-point, and in the hottest months the maximum on the Kibyen plateau has been found to be rarely over 85° The population of Bauchi is estimated at about 1,000,000 and is of a very various description.
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  • dissolved in them was published in 1878; and continued investigation and experiment with various solvents, such as benzene and acetic acid, in addition to water, led him to believe in a simple relation between the molecular weights of the substances and the freezing-point of the solvent, which he expressed as the "loi generale de la congelation," that if one molecule of a substance be dissolved in loo molecules of any given solvent, the temperature of solidification of the latter will be lowered by 0.63° C. (See, however, the article Solution.) Another relation at which he worked was that the diminution in the vapour-pressure of a solvent, caused by dissolving a substance in it, is proportional to the molecular weight of the substance dissolved - at least ' when the solution is dilute.
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  • The south-eastern corner is crossed by an annual isotherm of 60°, the north-western by one of 50°; and although in the former region sometimes not a day in the year may show an average temperature below freezing-point, at Jefferson City there are occasionally two months of freezing weather, and at Rockport three.
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  • He showed that, since water expands on freezing, the laws of thermodynamics require that its freezing-point must be lowered by increase of pressure; and he calculated that for every additional atmosphere of pressure the freezingpoint of water was lowered by 0.0075°.
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  • The fatty (fixed) oils and fats form a well-defined and homogeneous group of substances, passing through all gradations of consistency, from oils which are fluid even below the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest fats which melt at about 50° C. Therefore, no sharp distinction can be made between fatty oils and fats.
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  • I have often seen the temperature in the Siberian steppes fall to more than forty degrees below freezing point !
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  • Antifreeze will lower the freezing point of a liquid.
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  • Temperatures will drop into the 30s near the freezing point, 32 degrees Fahrenheit, although frost may form at temperatures slightly warmer than the freezing point.
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  • Drink lots of water and prevent your water from freezing by adding flavor mix to it, which reduces the freezing point.
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  • If this course is inconvenient, some liquid of low freezing-point, such as glycerine, may be mixed with the water.
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  • below the freezing point of water, the summer heat merely thawing the surface to a depth of about 3 ft.
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  • below the freezing point.
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  • The temperature drops so rapidly that a month later, about October the oth on the middle Urals and November the 15th throughout Russia, the thermometer ceases to rise above the freezing-point.
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  • The climate of Minas Geraes is characterized by high sun temperatures and cool nights, the latter often dropping below the freezing point on the higher campos.
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  • Liquids may be cooled below their freezing-point without solidification, the metastable (after W.
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  • The temperature is rather remarkable, there being an intermediate cold layer between 25 and 50 fathoms. This is due to the sinking of the cold surface water (which in winter reaches freezing-point) on to the top of the denser more saline water of the greater depths.
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  • Thermodynamic theory also indicates a connexion between the osmotic pressure of a solution and the depression of its freezing point and its vapour pressure compared with those of the pure solvent.
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  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.
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  • The theoretical value for the depression of the freezing point of a dilute solution per gramme-equivalent of solute per litre is 1857° C. Completely ionized solutions of salts with two ions should give double this number or 3.714°, while electrolytes with three ions should have a value of 5.57°.
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  • Molecular Depressions of the Freezing Point.
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  • The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.
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  • Corresponding with this result we find that the freezing point of dilute solutions indicates that two pressure-producing particles per molecule are present.
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  • in summer or falls below freezing-point in winter.
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  • If, however, this non-magnetic substance is cooled to a temperature a few degrees below freezing-point, it becomes as strongly magnetic as average cast-iron (µ = 62 for H = 40), and retains its magnetic properties indefinitely at ordinary temperatures.
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  • But if the alloy is heated up to 580° C. it loses its susceptibility - rather suddenly when H is weak, more gradually when H is strong - and remains non-magnetizable till it is once more cooled down below the freezing-point.
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  • to freezing point at night.
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  • These limits may be set down as from a little above the freezing point of water to a little below the boiling point.
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  • After this the metal is allowed to rest for a time in the pot at a temperature above its freezing point and is then ladled out into ingot forms, care being taken at each stage to ladle off the top stratum.
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  • A little vapour is given off at ordinary temperatures and pressures, and when under a few millimetres pressure only it rapidly vaporizes below Ioo° C. The freezing-point is uncertain, owing perhaps to the existence of two modifications, as suggested by Kast (Zeits.
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  • Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point.
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  • This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.
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  • If we determine the freezing-points of a number of mixtures varying in composition from pure A to pure B, we can plot the freezing-point curve.
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  • In such a curve the percentage composition can be plotted horizontally and the temperature of the freezing-point vertically, as in fig.
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  • In such a diagram, a point P defines a particular mixture, both as to percentage, composition and temperature; a vertical line through P corresponds to the mixture at all possible temperatures, the point Q being its freezing-point.
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  • In the case of two substances which neither form compounds nor dissolve each other in the solid state, the complete freezing-point curve takes the form shown infig.5.
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  • It consists of two branches AC and BC, which meet in a lowest point C. It will be seen that as we increase the percentage of B from nothing up to that of the mixture C, the freezing-point becomes lower and lower, but that if we further increase the percentage of B in the mixture, the freezing-point rises.
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  • 6 gives the freezing-point diagram for alloys of lead and tin.
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  • The two sloping lines cutting at the eutectic point are the freezing-point curves of alloys that, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and tin respectively.
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  • 7 gives the freezing-point curve of mercury and thallium; here A and E are the melting-points of pure mercury and pure thallium, and the branches AB and ED do not cut each other, but cut an intermediate rounded branch BCD.
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  • Sometimes a freezing-point curve contains more than one intermediate summit, so that more than one compound is indicated.
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  • Many other inter-metallic compounds have been indicated by summits in freezing-point curves.
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  • Of these, the first three are well indicated on the freezing-point curves.
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  • We must not take it for granted, when the freezing-point curve gives no indication of the compound, that the compound does not exist in the solid alloy.
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  • For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.
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  • We can then draw a continuous surface through the summits of all these ordinates, and so obtain a freezing-point surface, or liquidus; points above this surface will correspond to wholly liquid alloys.
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  • If now we cut the freezing-point surface by planes parallel to the base ABC we get curves giving us all the alloys whose freezing-point is the same; these isothermals can be projected on to the plane of the triangle and are seen as dotted lines in fig.
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  • The freezing surface, in this case, consists of three sheets each starting from an angular point of the surface, that is, from the freezing-point of a pure metal.
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  • As the lines of the surface which correspond to Ee, &c., slope downwards to their common intersection it follows that the alloy e has the lowest freezing-point of any mixture of the three metals; this freezing-point is 96° C., and the alloy e contains about 32% of lead, 15-5% of tin and 52.5% of bismuth.
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  • The importance is now widely recognized of considering the mechanical properties of alloys in connexion with the freezing-point curves to which reference has already been made, but the subject is a very complicated one, and all that need be said here, is that when considered in relation to their meltingpoints the pure metals are consistently weaker than alloys.
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  • Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
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  • The most easily observed is the freezing-point, and according to the very careful determinations of H.
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  • Hansen the freezing-point T ° C. varies with the degree of concentration according to the formula T = - 0.0086-0 0064-6330"o - o 0001055a02.
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  • The freezing-point of sea-water is lower as the salinity increases and normal sea-water of 35 per mille salinity freezes at 28.6° F.
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  • Experience shows that sea-water can be cooled considerably below the freezing-point without freezing if there is no ice or snow in contact with it.
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  • Along the coast the average number of days during a year in which the temperature falls below freezing-point is only 3 or 4, but in the Panhandle this average is 111.
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  • Along the coast the weather is very mild, the thermometer rarely falling to freezing-point even in winter.
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  • In eastern Canada Ungava and Labrador are very chill and inhospitable, owing largely to the iceberg-laden current sweeping down the coast from Davis Strait, bringing fogs and long snowy winters and a temperature for the year much below the freezing-point.
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  • The average winter minimum for the entire state is 35°, and there is an average of 35 days in each year in which the thermometer falls below the freezing-point.
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  • Paschen proved that the emission spectra of water vapour as observed in an oxyhydrogen flame, and of carbon dioxide as observed in a hydrocarbon flame may be obtained by heating aqueous vapour and carbon dioxide respectively to a few hundred degrees above the freezing point.
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  • As early as 1788 Sir Charles Blagden (1748-1820) made measurements of the freezing points of salt solutions, and showed that the depression of freezing point was.
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  • To take the simplest case of a one component system water substance has its three phases of solid ice, liquid water and gaseous vapour in equilibrium with each other at the freezing point of water under the pressure of its own vapour.
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  • The phenomena of equilibrium can be represented on diagrams. Thus, if we take our co-ordinates to represent pressure and temperature, the state of the systems p with ice, water and vapour in equilibrium is represented by the point 0 where the pressure is that of the vapour of water at the freezing point and the temperature is the freezing point under that pressure.
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  • If all the water be frozen, we have the vapour pressure curve of ice OB; while, if the pressure be raised, so that all the vapour vanishes, we get the curve OC of equilibrium between the pressure and the freezing point of water.
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  • Equilibrium between these phases is obtained at the freezing point of the saturated solution under the pressure of the vapour.
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  • This constancy both in freezing point and composition formerly was considered as a characteristic of a pure chemical compound, and hence these mixtures were described as components and given the name of "cryohydrates."
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  • If the process be continued till a very large quantity of ice be melted the resulting solution is so dilute that its freezing point B is identical with that of the pure solvent.
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  • Or, by increasing the pressure, we eliminate the vapour and obtain the curve OF giving the relation between pressure, freezing point and composition when a saturated solution is in contact with ice and salt.
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  • B is the freezing point of pure water, 0 that 2345 FIG.
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  • 4 A represents the freezing point of pure water, and AB the freezing point curve showing the depression of the freezing point as phenol is added.
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  • This process continues till the composition of the liquid phase reaches that of the eutectic, when the whole mass solidifies on the further loss of heat without change of temperature, giving a very definite freezing point.
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  • 5 freezing point curve, and then travels along it till the non-variant point is reached.
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  • Thus in interpreting complicated freezing point curves, we must look for chemical compounds where the curve shows a maximum, and for a eutectic or cryohydrate where two curves meet at a minimum point.
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  • At A we 66 have the freezing point of pure water, which is lowered by the gradual addition of 46 ferric chloride in the manner shown by the curve AB.
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  • The theoretical form of the freezing point diagrams when solid solutions are present depends on the relation between the available energy and the composition in the two phases.
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  • But at intermediate compositions we can only guess at the form of the energy-composition curve, and the freezing point composition curve, deduced from it, will vary according to the supposition which we make.
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  • With the most likely forms for the energy curves we get the accompanying diagrams for the relation between freezing point and concentration.
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  • All available evidence, from the freezing point curve and from other sources must be scrutinized before an opinion is pronounced.
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  • 6 When the temperature sank to a, on the freezing point curve, E40 crystals of pure A would appear.
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  • Similar 'considerations show that, since at its freezing point the vapour pressure of a solution must be in equilibrium with that of ice, the depression of freezing point produced by dissolving a substance in water can be calculated from a knowledge of the vapour pressure of ice and water below the freezing point of pure water.
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  • By imagining that a dilute solution is put through a thermodynamic cycle we may deduce directly relations between its osmotic pressure and its freezing point.
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  • Let us Freezing freeze out unit mass of solvent from a solution at its freezing point T - dT and remove the ice, which is assumed to be the ice of the pure solvent.
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  • Then let us heat both ice and solution through the infinitesimal temperature range dT to the freezing point T of the solvent, melt the ice by the application of an amount of heat L, which measures its latent heat of fusion, and allow the solvent so formed to enter the solution reversibly through a semi-permeable wall into an engine cylinder, doing an amount of work Pdv.
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  • The freezing point of a solution may be determined experimentally.
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  • The solution then freezes, until the heat liberated is enough to raise the tern perature to the point of equilibrium given by the tendency of the solution taken in contact with ice to approach the true freezing point on one side and the temperature of the enclosure on the other.
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  • To get the true freezing point then, it is well to arrange that the temperature of the enclosure should finally be nearly that of the freezing point to be observed.
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  • But we have seen that the depression of dT of the freezing point of a dilute solution is measured by TPdv/L.
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  • Putting the absolute temperature of the freezing point of water as 273°, the osmotic pressure P as 22.2 atmospheres or 22.4X106, C.G.S.
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  • Dilute solutions of substances such as cane-sugar, as we have seen, give experimental values for the connected osmotic properties - pressure, freezing point and vapour pressure - in conformity with the theoretical values.
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  • The slope of the temperature vapour pressure curves in the neighbourhood of the freezing point of the solvent is given by the latest heat equation.
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  • Approximately one degree lowering of freezing point corresponds with a change of 12 atmospheres in the osmotic pressure.
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  • From the known coefficients of compressibility and thermal expansion we find that V may be represented by the linear equation V=1.000+0.0008 A, where A is the lowering of the freezing point below o°.
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  • Thus the theory of the connexion of osmotic pressure with freezing point (like that with vapour pressure) seems to give results which accord with experiments.
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  • Whether osmotic pressure be due to physical impact or to chemical affinity it must necessarily have the gas value in a dilute solution, and be related to vapour pressure and freezing point in the way we have traced.
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  • Snow is often seen, and the thermometer is frequently below freezing-point.
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  • There, a sun which never sets sends feeble rays that maintain a low equable temperature, rarely rising more than a few degrees above the freezing-point.
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  • The temperature of the cold chamber is varied from the freezing-point of water, to a few degrees lower, according to the needs of the plants under treatment.
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  • The Greenhouse is a structure designed for the growth of such exotic plants as require to be kept during winter in a temperature considerably above the freezing-point.
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  • These freezing-point curves and transformation curves thus divide the diagram into 8 distinct regions, each with its own specific state or constitution of the metal, the molten state for region 1, a mixture of molten metal and of solid austenite for region 2, austenite alone for region 4 and so on.
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  • so much of either metal as is present in excess over the eutectic ratio, freezes out before the eutectic; (2) that though thus constant, its composition is not in simple atomic proportions; (3) that its freezing-point is constant; and (4) that, when first formed, it habitually consists of interstratified plates of the metals which compose it.
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  • But, far below the freezing-point, transformations may take place in the solid metal, and follow a course quite parallel with that of freezing, though with no suggestion of liquidity.
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  • Thus the iron has rather a freezingrange than a freezing-point.
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  • This formation of cementite through the rejection of carbon by both the primary and the eutectic austenite continues quite as in the case of 1.00% carbon steel, with impoverishment of the austenite to the hardenite or eutectoid ratio, and the splitting up of that hardenite into pearlite at Ari, so that the mass when cold finally consists of (1) 1 Note the distinction between the " eutectic " or alloy of lowest freezing-point, 1130°, B, with 4.30% of carbon, and the " eutectoid," hardenite and pearlite, or alloy of lowest transformation-point, 690° S, with 0.90% of carbon.
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  • smaller and smaller proportion of the whole, and the austenitecementite eutectic which forms at the eutectic freezing-point, 1130° (aB), increases in amount until, when the carbon-content reaches the eutectic ratio, 4 30%, there is but a single freezing-point, and the whole mass when solid is made up of this eutectic. If there is more than 4-30% of carbon, then in cooling through region 3 the excess of carbon over this ratio freezes out as " primary " cementite.
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  • The mean summer temperature there is 66 and upwards, while the average temperature of January does not descend to the freezing point (32).
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  • In only seven of the thirty years, 1871-1900, was the thermometer observed to sink below the freezing-point; frost thus occurs in the island even on the low grounds, though never for more than a few hours.
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  • below freezing point at night in winter to a maximum of 115° F.
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  • The thermometer may range within twenty-four hours from freezing-point to 80°.
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  • is extraordinary; and freezing point is only reached on extremely rare occasions, such as during hurricanes or electric storms. The mean annual temperature is about 25.7° C. (78° F.); that of the hottest month is about 28.8° C. (84° F.), and that of the coldest, 21° C. (70° F.).
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  • Waves of intense cold occur, lasting for several days, and one may have to endure a cold of 12° below zero, rising to a maximum of 17° below freezing-point.
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  • S = 0.9944 00O 04T 0.000,0009 T 2 (Regnault Above 60° To 200° Corrd.) S =1.000 0.000,22 (T 60), (Bosscha Corrd.) The Addition Of The Cubic Term Below 20° Is Intended To Represent The Somewhat More Rapid Change Near The Freezing Point.
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  • But in many cases it is more readily determined by observing the rise of the boiling-point or the depression of the freezing-point of the solution.
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  • For the depression of the freezing-point a relation of the same form applies, but do is negative, and L is the latent heat of fusion.
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  • At the freezing-point, the solution must have the same vapour-pressure as the solid solvent, with which it is in equilibrium.
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  • The relation follows immediately from Kirchhoff's expression (below, section 14) for the difference of vapour-pressure of the liquid and solid below the freezing-point.
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  • Thus for calcium chloride the depression of the freezing-point, when n =7, N= l oo, is nearly 60° C. At this point n" = Jo nearly, and the depression should be only 10 4° C. These and similar discrepancies have been very generally attributed to a loose and variable association of the molecules of the dissolved substance with molecules of the solvent, which, according to H.
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  • The highest pressures recorded for cane-sugar are nearly three times as great as those given by van't Hoff's formula for the gas-pressure, but agree very well with the vapour-pressure theory, as modified by Callendar, provided that we substitute for V in Arrhenius's formula the actual specific volume of the solvent in the solution, and if we also assume that each molecule of sugar in solution combines with 5 molecules of water, as required by the observations on the depression of the freezing-point and the rise of the boiling-point.
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  • The total heat of steam, for instance, is generally reckoned from the state of water at the freezing-point, o° C. If h denote the heat required to raise the temperature of the liquid from the selected zero to the temperature t° C., and if H denote the total heat and L the latent heat of the vapour, also at t° C., we have evidently the simple relation H =L+h..
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  • in summer, and drops below freezing-point in winter; where there is a deadly monotony of dust-coloured scenery for the greater part of the year, with the minimum of rain and the maximum of heat.
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  • the thermometer never falls below freezing-point from the end of May to the middle of October, and at 15,000 ft.
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  • Although the temperature remains pretty steadily below the freezing point for at least three months of the year, many of the harbours remain unobstructed; for the tides and the prevailing off-shore winds break up and drive off the ice.
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  • Again in the plateau regions in the south the night temperature is sometimes down to freezing point.
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  • The lake never freezes over, though the temperature of the water does not, even in summer, rise far above freezing point.
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  • Beckmann obtained P4 molecules from the boiling-point of carbon bisulphide solutions, and Hertz arrived at the same conclusion from the lowering of the freezing-point in benzene solution; E.
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  • The south-eastern corner is crossed by an annual isotherm of 60°, the north-western by one of 50°; and although in the former region sometimes not a day in the year may show an average temperature below freezing-point, at Jefferson City there are occasionally two months of freezing weather, and at Rockport three.
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  • The graduation of a thermometer is determined by the freezing-point and the boiling-point of water, the interval between these being divided into a certain number of degrees, representing equal increases of temperature.
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  • He showed that, since water expands on freezing, the laws of thermodynamics require that its freezing-point must be lowered by increase of pressure; and he calculated that for every additional atmosphere of pressure the freezingpoint of water was lowered by 0.0075°.
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  • Ice forms over fresh water if the temperature of the air has been for a sufficient time at or below the freezing-point; but not until the whole mass of water has been cooled down to its point of maximum density, so that the subsequent cooling of the surface can give rise to no convection currents, is freezing possible.
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  • In this zone there prevails a genuine sub-tropical climate, with extremely warm and almost rainless summers and mild winters, the temperature hardly ever sinking below freezing-point.
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  • The fatty (fixed) oils and fats form a well-defined and homogeneous group of substances, passing through all gradations of consistency, from oils which are fluid even below the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest fats which melt at about 50° C. Therefore, no sharp distinction can be made between fatty oils and fats.
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  • The pressure being still further reduced, the temperature is gradually lowered until the freezing-point is reached and ice formed, when about one-sixth of the original volume has been evaporated.
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  • The rabbit flea can live for nine months at temperatures around the freezing point without feeding.
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  • Around the coast the weather can be surprisingly mild, regularly reaching freezing point in summer.
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  • I have often seen the temperature in the Siberian steppes fall to more than forty degrees below freezing point!
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  • The table given below will be useful in calculating the size of the radiating surface necessary to raise the temperature to the extent required when the external air is at freezing point (32° Fahr.): - At the city of Lockport in New York state, America, an interesting example of the direct app of Lockport.
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  • From these experiments Joule obtained 72.692 foot-pounds in the latitude of Manchester as equivalent to the amount of heat required to raise i lb of water through 1° Fahr, from the freezing point.
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  • Boiling and freezing-point determinations of the molecular weight in solution indicate the formula S8.
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  • At present, measurements of freezing point are more convenient and accurate than those of osmotic pressure, and we may test the validity of Arrhenius' relations by their means.
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  • The theoretical value for the depression of the freezing point of a dilute solution per gramme-equivalent of solute per litre is 1857° C. Completely ionized solutions of salts with two ions should give double this number or 3.714°, while electrolytes with three ions should have a value of 5.57°.
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  • But if the alloy is heated up to 580° C. it loses its susceptibility - rather suddenly when H is weak, more gradually when H is strong - and remains non-magnetizable till it is once more cooled down below the freezing-point.
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  • A little vapour is given off at ordinary temperatures and pressures, and when under a few millimetres pressure only it rapidly vaporizes below Ioo° C. The freezing-point is uncertain, owing perhaps to the existence of two modifications, as suggested by Kast (Zeits.
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  • The region PbEeE' contains all the alloys that commence their solidification by the crystallization of lead; similarly, the other two regions correspond to the initial crystallization of bismuth and tin respectively; these areas are the projections of the three sheets of the freezing-point surface.
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  • As the lines of the surface which correspond to Ee, &c., slope downwards to their common intersection it follows that the alloy e has the lowest freezing-point of any mixture of the three metals; this freezing-point is 96° C., and the alloy e contains about 32% of lead, 15-5% of tin and 52.5% of bismuth.
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  • Hansen the freezing-point T ° C. varies with the degree of concentration according to the formula T = - 0.0086-0 0064-6330"o - o 0001055a02.
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  • The freezing-point of sea-water is lower as the salinity increases and normal sea-water of 35 per mille salinity freezes at 28.6° F.
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  • The average winter minimum for the entire state is 35°, and there is an average of 35 days in each year in which the thermometer falls below the freezing-point.
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  • Chem., 1896, 21, p. 355; Ber., 1900, 33, p. 1302)examined the questionfromthe physico-chemical standpoint by determining the freezing-point depressions, the result being that the para-oxyazo compounds give abnormal depressions and the ortho-oxyazo compounds give normal depressions; Auwers then concluded that the para compounds are phenolic and the ortho compounds are quinone hydrazones or act as such.
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  • The well-known expression for the efficiency of the cycle of reversible operation gives us Pdv/L = dT /T or dT = TPdv/L as a value for the depression of the freezing point of the solution compared with that of the pure solvent.
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  • Putting the absolute temperature of the freezing point of water as 273°, the osmotic pressure P as 22.2 atmospheres or 22.4X106, C.G.S.
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  • From the known coefficients of compressibility and thermal expansion we find that V may be represented by the linear equation V=1.000+0.0008 A, where A is the lowering of the freezing point below o°.
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  • This formation of cementite through the rejection of carbon by both the primary and the eutectic austenite continues quite as in the case of 1.00% carbon steel, with impoverishment of the austenite to the hardenite or eutectoid ratio, and the splitting up of that hardenite into pearlite at Ari, so that the mass when cold finally consists of (1) 1 Note the distinction between the " eutectic " or alloy of lowest freezing-point, 1130°, B, with 4.30% of carbon, and the " eutectoid," hardenite and pearlite, or alloy of lowest transformation-point, 690° S, with 0.90% of carbon.
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  • smaller and smaller proportion of the whole, and the austenitecementite eutectic which forms at the eutectic freezing-point, 1130° (aB), increases in amount until, when the carbon-content reaches the eutectic ratio, 4 30%, there is but a single freezing-point, and the whole mass when solid is made up of this eutectic. If there is more than 4-30% of carbon, then in cooling through region 3 the excess of carbon over this ratio freezes out as " primary " cementite.
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  • below freezing point at night in winter to a maximum of 115° F.
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  • The thermometer may range within twenty-four hours from freezing-point to 80°.
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  • is extraordinary; and freezing point is only reached on extremely rare occasions, such as during hurricanes or electric storms. The mean annual temperature is about 25.7° C. (78° F.); that of the hottest month is about 28.8° C. (84° F.), and that of the coldest, 21° C. (70° F.).
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  • Waves of intense cold occur, lasting for several days, and one may have to endure a cold of 12° below zero, rising to a maximum of 17° below freezing-point.
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  • S = 0.9944 00O 04T 0.000,0009 T 2 (Regnault Above 60° To 200° Corrd.) S =1.000 0.000,22 (T 60), (Bosscha Corrd.) The Addition Of The Cubic Term Below 20° Is Intended To Represent The Somewhat More Rapid Change Near The Freezing Point.
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