The number of freedmen at Athens seems never to have been great.
Tiberius sent 4000 Jewish and Egyptian freedmen to the island to bring the brigands to submission (Tac. Ann.
When the colleges of freedmen and slaves, who assisted the presidents of the festival, were abolished by Julius Caesar, it fell into disuse.
1079), undoubtedly included many freedmen who in point of services and economic subjection were not very much above the slaves.
While in prison he wrote the "Fort Warren letter" (August 11th), in which he urged the people of Texas to recognize their defeat, grant civil rights to the freedmen, and try to conciliate the North.
In 1865 he rejected the more radical views of his party as to the treatment to be accorded to the late Confederate states, opposed the immediate and unconditional enfranchisement of freedmen, and, though not accepting President Johnson's views in their entirety, he urged the people of Massachusetts to give the new president their support.
Hosmer's Appeal to Arms and Outcome of the Civil War (New York, 1907); John Eaton's Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen (New York, 1907), and various works mentioned in the articles American Civil War, Wilderness Campaign, &C.
In 46 Julius Caesar repeopled Corinth with Italian freedmen and dispossessed Greeks.
To each cohort, consisting of about moo men (chiefly freedmen), was entrusted the care of two of the fourteen city districts; one of its chief duties was that of a fire brigade.
In this case "the Synagogue of the Libertines" is the assembly of "the Freedmen" from Rome, descendants of the Jews enslaved by Pompey after his conquest of Judaea 63 B.C. If, however, we take Ac13EpTLvwv Kai Kvprivaiwv Kai AXE avbpLov closely together, the first name must denote the people of some city or district.
He filled vacancies in the senate with men of low birth,, in some cases even the sons of freedmen (Diod.
He also advocated the Freedmen's Bureau bills and the Tenure of Office Act, and went beyond Congress in favouring the confiscation of the property of the Confederate States and "of the real estate of 70,000 rebels who own above 200 acres each, together with the lands of their several states," for the benefit of the freedmen and loyal whites and to reimburse, it was said, the sufferers from Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, during which Stevens's own ironworks at Chambersburg had been destroyed.
GAIUS MANILIUS, Roman tribune of the people in 66 B.C. At the beginning of his year of office (Dec. 67) he succeeded in getting a law passed (de libertinorum suffragiis), which gave freedmen the privilege of voting together with those who had manumitted them, that is, in the same tribe as their patroni; this law, however, was almost immediately declared null and void by the senate.
Freedmen and their sons were subject to civil disabilities; the third generation became ingenui (full citizens).
Freedmen of humbler rank, on the other hand, filled the minor offices in the administrative service, in the city cohorts, and in the army; and we shall find that they entered largely into the trades and professions when free labour began to revive.
The military vocation of Rome was now felt to have reached its normal limits; and the emperors, understanding that, in the future, industrial activity must prevail, prepared the abolition of slavery as far as was then possible, by honouring the freedmen, by protecting the slave against his master, and by facilitating manumissions.
In private service superior posts were often filled by freedmen; the higher arts - as medicine, grammar, painting - were partly in the hands of freedmen and even of ingenui; the more successful actors and gladiators were often freedmen.
But it was a common practice to settle certain of the slaves (and possibly also of the freedmen) on other portions of the estate, giving them small farms on conditions similar to those to which the coloni were subject.
Other views of the original aerarii are that they were: - artisans and freedmen (Niebuhr); inhabitants of towns united with Rome by a hospitium publicum, who had become domiciled on Roman territory (Lange); only a class of degraded citizens, including neither the cives sine sufJragio nor the artisans (Madvig); identical with the capite censi of the Servian constitution (Belot, Greenidge).
The control of the imperial correspondence and purse was at first in the hands of freedmen and slaves.
Fabius Rullianus limited the landless and poorer freedmen to the four urban tribes, thus annulling the effect of Claudius's.
While in this position he became convinced that the only permanent solution of the manifold difficulties which the freedmen encountered lay in their moral and industrial education.
Nero's statues were again set up, his freedmen and household officers reinstalled, and the intended completion of the Golden House announced.
Although the civil rights were conferred upon the freedmen, Congress would not tolerate the political incapacity and social inferiority which the legislature had assigned to them, and therefore Georgia was placed under military government, as part of the third military district, by the Reconstruction Act of the 2nd of March 1867.
Again, there was apparently but one ges16cund class in Kent, with a wergild of 300 shillings, while, on the other hand, below the ceorlisc class we find three classes of persons described as laetas, who corresponded in all probability to the liti or freedmen of the continental laws, and who possessed wergilds of 80, 60 and 40 shillings respectively.
The nobility among the Franks and the freedmen (as a distinct class) in the AngloSaxon kingdoms, except Kent.
There is a good deal of uncertainty in regard to both the exact position and the numbers of the nobles and freedmen of Tacitus's age.
The volunteers organized as the Educational Commission for Freedmen (afterward the New England Freedmen's Aid Society), and the government granted them transportation, subsistence and quarters, and paid them small salaries.
He counselled a dissolution of the American Anti-Slavery Society, insisting that it had become functus officiis, and that whatever needed to be done for the protection of the freedmen could best be accomplished by new associations formed for that purpose.
Whilst the upper classes in Italy absorbed Greek influences by their education, by the literary and artistic tradition, the lower strata of the population of Rome became largely hellenized by the actual influx on a vast scale of Greeks and hellenized Asiatics, brought in for the most part as slaves, and coalescing as freedmen with the citizen body.
He found a rival in Egypt in the person of Ibn al-Modabbir, the finance minister, who occupied an independent position, and who started the practice of surrounding himself with an army of his own slaves or freedmen; of these Ibn Tulun succeeded in depriving the finance minister, and they formed the nucleus of an army by which he eventually secured his own independence.
His empire in India indeed - ruled by his freedmen who after his death became independent - may be regarded as the origin of that great Mahommedan monarchy which endured nominally till 1857.
The elements of this opposition were of very various kinds (r) The old-fashioned Moslems, sons of the Ansar and Mohajir, who had been Mahomet's first companions and supporters, and could not bear the thought that the sons of the old enemies of the Prophet in Mecca, whom they nicknamed tolaga (freedmen), should be in control of the imamate, which carried with it the management of affairs both civil and religious.
By means of his freedmen the emperor introduced the more rigorous economy of the Roman household into public finance.
He led an expedition following Sherman into the Carolinas and fought two successful actions with Bragg at Kinston, N.C. He was governor of Ohio in 1866-1867, and as such advocated the colonization of the freedmen in a restricted area, and sympathized with President Johnson's programme of Reconstruction and worked for a compromise between Johnson and his opponents, although he finally deserted Johnson.
They were drawn from all classes of society, - patricians, knights, freedmen, slaves, philosophers, literary men, and, above all, lawyers.
Numerous sepulchral insciptions of Imperial slaves and freedmen have been found at Surrentum.
After the peace he served as commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands from 1865 until 1874; in 1872 he was special commissioner to the hostile Apaches of New Mexico and Arizona; in1874-1881was in command of the Department of the Columbia and conducted the campaign against Chief Joseph in 1877 and that against the Bannocks and Piutes in 1878.
By these treaties, negotiated in 1866, the Cherokees gave the United States permission to settle other Indians on what was approximately the western half of their domain; the Seminoles, to whom the Creeks in 1855 had granted as their portion the strip between the Canadian river and its North Fork, ceded all of theirs, and the Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws ceded the western half of theirs back to the United States for occupancy by freedmen or other Indians.
The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).
These obligations existed also in the case of freedmen of the state, of cities, temples and corporations.
FREEDMEN'S BUREAU (officially the Bureau Of Freedmen, Refugees And Abandoned Lands), a bureau created in the United States war department by an act of Congress, 3rd of March 1865, to last one year, but continued until 1872 by later acts passed over the president's veto.
By his will he left a large sum for the building and the perpetual repair of public baths, and the interest of a still larger sum for the benefit of one hundred freedmen of the testator and, ultimately, for an annual banquet.
Mason, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen (New York, 1907); R.
The majority of the city lictors were freedmen; they formed a corporation divided into decuries, from which the lictors of the magistrates in office were drawn; provincial officials had the nomination of their own.
But in process of time this group was merged with freedmen, settled slaves (servi casati) and small freedmen into the numerous class of serfs (servi, rustici, villani) which appears under different names in all western European countries.
He enrolled the freedmen and.
After the Civil War she wrote much in behalf of the freedmen and of Indian rights.