Free-state sentence example

free-state
  • Subsequently he actively supported in the Senate the free-state cause in Kansas.
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  • Alkalis decompose it into picro-podophyllic acid and picro-podophyllin, minute traces of both of which occur in a free state in the rhizome.
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  • Meanwhile the Topeka " government " disappeared, and also, with its single purpose equally served, the free-state party, most of it (once largely Democratic) passing into the Republican party, now first organized in the Territory.
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  • This portion of the law, designed to reassure foreign Catholics, met with little opposition; but the second portion, regulating the relations between state and church in Italy, was sharply criticized by deputies who, like Sella, recognized the ideal of a free church in a free state to be an impracticable dream.
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  • The element occurs widely and abundantly distributed in nature both in the free state and in combination.
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  • He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
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  • Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
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  • In 1865 a fresh feud occurred between the Orange Free State Boers and the Basuto.
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  • They also annexed a certain fertile portion of Basuto territory, and finally terminated the strife by a treaty at Thaba Bosigo, by which Moshesh gave up the tract of territory taken by the Boers and professed himself a subject of the Free State.
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  • The Free State strongly resented the British annexation of Basutoland, but after much negotiation the treaty of Aliwal North was concluded (1869) between the Free State and the high commissioner.
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  • This treaty defined the boundary between the Free State and Basutoland, whereby the fertile strip of country west of the Caledon river, known as the Conquered Territory, was finally transferred to the Free State, and the remainder of Basutoland was recognized as a portion of the British dominions.
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  • In the free state these substances are colourless, and were assumed to have the formula shown in i.
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  • It was the scene of two of the "battles" of the "Border War," and of much of the political violence resulting from the clashes between the "pro-slavery" and the "free-state" factions of Missouri and Kansas.
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  • Though the history of the Congo Free State affords a painful contrast to the philanthropic professions of its founder, in other parts of the continent the establishment of protectorates by Great Britain, France and Germany was followed by strenuous, and largely successful, efforts to put down slave raiding.
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  • The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.
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  • He returned to the Cape in February 1899 fully assured of the support of Mr Chamberlain, though the government still clung to the hope that the moderate section of the Cape and Free State Dutch would induce Kruger to deal justly with the Uitlanders.
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  • It is necessary to point out that the dissociated ions of such a body as potassium chloride are not in the same condition as potassium and chlorine in the free state.
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  • Here the land loses its semi-tropical character and resembles more the plains of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
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  • North of Mont-aux-Sources the mountain ridge sinks to 8000 and less feet, and here are several passes leading into the Orange Free State.
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  • The Orange Free State line, after leaving Ladysmith, ascends by steep gradients the whole of its own course in Natal territory, and when it gains the summit at Van Reenen's Pass it is 5500 ft.
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  • Many of the Boers who would not acknowledge British rule trekked once more over the mountains into what are now the Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.
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  • In a dispute between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State he decided (February 1870) that the Klip river and not the upper Vaal was the frontier stream.
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  • In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
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  • The first act was the seizure by the Boers of a Natal train on the Free State border.
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  • Further to strengthen their position, Pretorius and his party unsuccessfully endeavoured to bring about a union with the Orange Free State.
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  • Pretorius, while still president of the Transvaal, had been elected, through the efforts of his partisans, president of the Orange Free State.
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  • He had no sooner left the Transvaal than the -old Lydenburg party, headed by Cornelis Potgieter, landdrost of Lydenburg, protested that the union would be much more beneficial to the Free State than to the people of Lydenburg, and followed this up with the contention lions' that it was illegal for any one to be president of the South African Republic and the Free State at the same time.
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  • If at this stage of their existence the real ambition of the Transvaal Boers was to found a strong and compact republican state, their conduct in opposing a scheme of union with the Orange Free State was foolish to a degree.
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  • Had the fusion of the two little republics which Pretorius sought to bring about, and from which apparently the Free State was not averse, actually been accomplished in 1860, it is more than probable that a republican state on liberal lines, with some prospect of permanence and stability, might have been formed.
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  • Pretorius in 1863 resigned his Free State presidency and offering himself as mediator (not for the first time) succeeded at length in putting a period to the confused series of intestine quarrels.
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  • The prestige of the country was practically gone, not only with the world outside, but, what was of still more moment, with her neighbour the Free State, which felt that a federation with the Transvaal, which the Free State once had sought but which it now forswore, was an evil avoided and not an advantage lost.
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  • An attempt was made in 1888, after the conference held between Cape Colony, the Orange Free State and Natal, to induce the Transvaal to enter a customs union.
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  • Reitz as president of the Orange Free State (January 1889) on the death of Sir John Brand, Kruger recognized a new opportunity of endeavouring to cajole the Free State.
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  • In 1898, to strengthen his relations with foreign powers, Kruger sent the state secretary, Dr Leyds," to Europe as minister plenipotentiary, his place on the Transvaal executive being taken by Mr Reitz, the ex-president of the Free State.
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  • The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.
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  • Bloemfontein, President Kruger himself arriving on the scene to give confidence to his burghers; but the demoralization was so great that neither the military genius of the few nor the personal influence of the president could bolster up an adequate resistance, and on the 13th of March 1900 Lord Roberts's army marched into the Free State capital.
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  • After a halt of eight days at Kroonstad, the main army again moved forward, and, meeting but small resistance, marched without a halt into Johannesburg, which was occupied on the 31st of May, the Orange Free State having been formally annexed by proclamation three days earlier.
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  • The lake forms part of the (British) Uganda Protectorate, but the north-west shores were leased in 1894 to the Congo Free State during the sovereignty of king Leopold II.
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  • By the convention with Prussia of the 27th of June 1867, the free state surrendered its right to furnish its own contingent to the army, the recruits being after that time drafted into the Hanseatic infantry regiment, forming a portion of the Prussian IX.
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  • The Orange Free State Magazine, the only English magazine published.
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  • He earnestly admonished Leo, for his own sake and for Florence, to found a permanent and free state system for the republic, reminding him in terms of noble eloquence how splendid is the glory of the man who shall confer such benefits upon a people.
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  • By the agreement of the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German sphere of influence attained its present area.
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  • This was the ground of his quarrel with the Swiss Anabaptists, for the main idea in the minds of these greatly maligned men was the modern thought of a free Church in a free state.
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  • The chief tributaries of the Vaal (q.v.) wholly or partly within the province are, going from east to west, the Klip (this stream from near its source to its confluence with the Vaal divides the Free State from the Transvaal), the Wilge, Rhenoster, Vet, Modder and Reit.
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  • Eventually, in 1861, he sold his sovereign rights to the Free State for 4000 and removed with his followers to the district now known as Griqualand East.
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  • The country was declared a republic and named the Orange Free State.
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  • Peaceful overtures from Pretorius were declined, and some of his partisans in the Free State were accused %f treason (February 1857).
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  • Thereupon Pretorius, aided by Paul Kruger, conducted a raid into the Free State territory.
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  • " Several of the malcontents in the Free State who had joined Pretorius permanently settled in the Transvaal, and other Free Staters who had been guilty of high treason were arrested and punished.
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  • This experience did not, however, heal the party strife within the Free State.
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  • In the war the advantage rested with the Basutos; thereupon the Free State appealed to Sir George Grey, who induced Moshesh to come to terms. On the 15th of October 1858 a treaty was signed defining anew the boundary.
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  • Though unable to effect a durable peace with the Basutos, or to realize his ambition for the creation of one powerful Boer republic, Pretorius saw the Free State begin to grow in strength.
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  • Moshesh continued to menace the Free State border.
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  • Attempts at accommodation made by the governor of Cape Colony (Sir Philip Wodehouse) failed, and war between the Free State and Moshesh was renewed in 1865.
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  • A treaty was signed at Thaba Bosigo in April 1866, but war again broke out in 1867, and the Free State attracted to its side a large number of adventurers from all parts of South Africa.
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  • The intervention of the governor of Cape Colony led to the of the conclusion of the treaty of Aliwal North (Feb.12,1869), which defined the borders between the Orange Free State and Basutoland.
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  • In the years1870-1871a Discovery large number of diggers had settled on the diamond of the fields near the junction of the Vaal and Orange rivers, which were situated in part on land claimed by the Fi Griqua chief Nicholas Waterboer and by the Free State.
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  • The Free State established a temporary government over the diamond fields, but the administration of this body was satisfactory neither to the Free State nor to the diggers.
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  • Waterboer's claims were based on the treaty concluded by his father with the British in 1834, and on various arrangements with the Kok chiefs; the Free State based its claim on its purchase of Adam Kok's sovereign rights and on long occupation.
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  • It was then disposed of by the 4th earl of Carnarvon, at that time secretary of state for the colonies, who granted to the Free State fgo,000 " in full satisfaction of all claims which it considers it may possess to Griqualand West."
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  • In the opinion, moreover, of Dr Theal, who has written the history of the Boer Republics and has been a consistent supporter of the Boers, the annexation of Griqualand West was probably in the best interests of the Free State.
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  • At this time, largely owing to the exhausting struggle with the Basutos, the Free State Boers, like their Transvaal neighbours, had drifted into financial straits.
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  • At the time of the first annexation of the Transvaal the Free State declined Lord Carnarvon's invitation to federate with the other South African communities.
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  • In spite of the neutral attitude taken by their government a number of the Free State Boers, living in the northern part of the country, went to the Transvaal and joined their brethren then in arms against the British.
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  • This fact was not allowed to influence the friendly relations between the Free State and Great Britain.
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  • In him the Boers, not only in the Free State but in the whole of South Africa, lost one of the most enlightened and most upright rulers and leaders they have ever had.
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  • In 1889 an agreement was come to between the Free State and the Cape Colony government, whereby the latter were empowered to extend, at their own cost, their railway system to Bloemfontein.
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  • The Free State retained the right to purchase this extension at cost price, a right they exercised after the Jameson Raid.
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  • Reitz was elected president of the Free State.
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  • A further offensive and defensive alliance between the two Republics was then entered into, under which the Free State took up arms on the outbreak of hostilities with the Transvaal 1899.
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  • In order to understand the attitude which the Free State took at this time in relation to the Transvaal, it is necessary to review the history of Mr Reitz from an earlier date.
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  • Previously to his becoming president of the Free State he had acted as its Chief Justice and still earlier in life had practised as an advocate in Cape Colony.
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  • At the same time his policy was guided by a sincere patriotism, which looked to the true prosperity of the Free State as well as to that of the whole of South Africa.
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  • On entering Bloemfontein in 1900 the British obtained possession of certain state papers which contained records of negotiations between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
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  • At the first of these conferences, held in Pretoria, the object of the Free State deputies were to arrange a general treaty of amity and commerce which would knit the states more closely together, and to come to some agreement with reference to the scheme for building a railway across the Free State from the Cape, to connect with a farther extension in the Transvaal to Pretoria.
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  • Both of these suggestions were strongly disapproved by Mr Kruger, inasmuch as they meant knitting together the Boer republics and the British possessions, instead of merely bringing the Free State into completer dependence on the Transvaal.
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  • On the part of the Free State there was obviously a genuine desire to further the best interests of the state, together with the general prosperity of the whole of South Africa.
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  • In President Kruger's eyes British trade meant ruin; he desired to keep it out of the Republic at all costs, and he begged the Free State to delay the construction of their railway until the Delagoa Bay line was completed.
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  • With regard to the Customs Union, President Kruger was equally emphatic; he begged the Free State to steer clear of it.
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  • In response, Mr Fraser, one of the Free State delegates, remarked that a harbour requires forts, soldiers, ships and sailors to man them, or else it would be at the mercy of the first gunboat that happened to assail it.
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  • The Transvaal was to pay £ 20,000 annually to the Free State for loss incurred for not having the railway to Cape Colony.
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  • Such a treaty as the one proposed would simply have enslaved the Free State to the Transvaal, and it was rejected by the Free State volksraad.
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  • The Free State was on terms of friendship with its neighbours, nor (added Brand) would the Transvaal have need for such an alliance as the one proposed if its policy would only remain peaceful and conciliatory.
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  • This constitution appears to have been modelled on terms a great deal too liberal and enlightened to please Mr Kruger, whose one idea was to have at his command the armed forces of the Free State when he should require them, and who pressed for an offensive and defensive affiance.
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  • Brand refused to allow the Free State to be committed to a suicidal treaty, or dragged into any wild policy which the Transvaal might deem it expedient to adopt.
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  • The result of the whole conference was that Kruger returned to Pretoria completely baffled, and for a time the Free State was saved from being a party to the fatal policy into which others subsequently drew it.
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  • Independent power of action was retained by Brand for the Free State in both the railway and Customs Union questions.
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  • After Sir John Brand's death, as already stated, a series of agreements and measures gradually subordinated Free State interests to the mistaken ambition and narrow views of the Transvaal.
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  • The influence which the Kruger party had obtained in the Free State was evidenced by the presidential election in 1896, when Mr Steyn received forty-one votes against nineteen cast for Mr Fraser.
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  • Underlying the new policy adopted by the Free State was the belief held, if not by President Steyn himself, at least by his followers, that the two republics combined would be more than a match for the power of Great Britain should hostilities occur.
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  • In 1898 the Free State also acquiesced in the new convention arranged with regard to the Customs Union between the Cape Colony, Natal, Basutoland and the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
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  • But events were moving rapidly in the Transvaal, and matters had proceeded too far for the Free State to turn back.
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  • President Kruger had got the Free State ensnared in his meshes.
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  • For President Steyn and the Free State of 1899, in the light of the negotiations we have recorded, neutrality was impossible.
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  • He was originally an attorney in Cape Colony and had joined the Free State bar in 1875.
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  • There was in the Orange Colony a considerable body of opinion that the party system of government should be avoided, and that the executive should consist of three members elected by the single representative chamber it was desired to obtain, and three members nominated by the governor - in short, what was desired was a restoration as far as possible of the old Free State constitution.
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  • The first parliament under the new British 28th of May a proclamation was issued annexing the Free State to the British dominions under the title of Orange River Colony.
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  • The loss of their independence was, however, felt bitterly by the broken out the Free State began to expel British subjects, and the very first act of war was committed by Free State Boers, who, on the 11th of October, seized a train upon the border belonging to Natal.
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  • Under the imperial act by which unification was established (May 31, 1910) the colony entered the union under the style of the Free State Province.
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  • Ramsbottom, formerly colonial treasurer, became the first administrator of the Free State as a province of the union.
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  • In the more settled parts of Cape Colony, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State it now only exists within the enclosures of the large farms, and can hardly be said to be any longer truly wild.
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  • The element is not found in the free state in nature, nor to any large extent in combination, occurring chiefly as chrome-ironstone, Cr 2 O 3 FeO, and occasionally being found as crocoisite, PbCrO 4, chrome-ochre, Cr 2 0 3, and chromegarnet, CaO Cr 2 O 3.3SiO 2, while it is also the cause of the colour in serpentine, chrome-mica and the emerald.
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  • These boundaries include the grand-duchy of Oldenburg and the free state of Bremen, the former stretching southward from the North Sea nearly to the southern boundary of Hanover.
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  • On the capture of Bloemfontein by the British during the Anglo-Boer War of1899-1902Kroonstad was chosen by the Orange Free State Boers as the capital of the state, a dignity it held from the 13th of March to the IIth of May 1900.
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  • It subsequently fell into the hands of Illyrian corsairs, until in 229 it was delivered by the Romans, who retained it as a naval station and gave it the rank of a free state.
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  • In 1886 he succeeded in obtaining the element fluorine in the free state by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid at a low temperature.
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  • But the island appears to have always enjoyed the advantage of autonomy, probably on account of its sacred character, and even in the time of Pliny it ranked as a free state.
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  • Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua) and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.
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  • Provincial spirit remained keen, but the white inhabitants of the eastern district, who are largely (if not mainly) of British descent, look to the Transvaal and Free State for trade, while with the people of the western part of the province (who, Cape Town apart, are predominantly of Dutch origin) they have practically no commercial intercourse.
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  • Pretorius in his attempt to abolish the district governments in the Transvaal and to overthrow the Orange Free State government and compel a federation between the two countries.
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  • It was for this reason that he invariably failed to come to any arrangement with Sir John Brand while the latter was president of the Free State.
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  • Immediately after the ultimatum Natal and the Cape Colony were invaded by the Boers both of the Transvaal and the Free State.
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  • District, grammar and classical schools, a free state library and a state college, were all included in his plan.
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  • The constitution of the free state is republican, and, by the fundamental law of 1875, amended in 1905 and again in 1907, consists of two assemblies.
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  • Lunda is part of the old Bantu kingdom of Muata Yanvo, divided by international agreement between Portugal and the Congo Free State.
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  • Noki is on the southern bank of the Congo at the head of navigation from the sea, and close to the Congo Free State frontier.
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  • A recent case of conquest was that effected by the South African War of 18 991902, in which the Transvaal republic and the Orange Free State were extinguished, first de facto by occupation of the whole of their territory, and then de jure by terms of surrender entered into by the Boer generals acting as a government.
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  • On the 7th of September 1850 a bill finally passed Congress admitting California as a free state.
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  • The Zoutpansberg Boers formed a semi-independent community, and in 1857 Stephanus Schoeman, their commandant-general, sided against Marthinus Pretorius and Paul Kruger when they invaded the Orange Free State.
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  • Dextro-tartaric acid occurs in the free state or as the potassium or calcium salt in grape juice and in various unripe fruits.
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  • The chief cities are Cape Town (pop. 1904, 77, 66 8), Port Elizabeth (32,959), East London (25,220) and Kimberley (34331) in the Cape province; Durban (67,847) in Natal; Johannesburg (155,642) and Pretoria (36,839) in the Transvaal; and Bloemfontein (33,883) in the Orange Free State.
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  • Willcocks in 1.901 in which he estimated that there were in the Cape, Orange Free State and the Transvaal, 3,000,000 acres which could be brought under irrigation at a cost of about £30,000,000.
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  • There are separate synods with independent authority for the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the Cape, Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.
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  • In the Transvaal and Orange Free State education was imparted almost exclusively in Dutch.
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  • In the case of the Orange River colony its title was changed to Orange Free State province.
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  • Of these members the Cape Province returns 51, the Transvaal 36, and Natal and Orange Free State 17 each.
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  • In the Transvaal and Orange Free State provinces the franchise is restricted to white adult male British subjects.
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  • (In the Cape and Transvaal provinces they were the same in 19to; Natal and Orange Free State returning only 17 members to the House of Assembly, the parliamentary constituencies have been rearranged.) The qualifications for electors are the same as for parliament, and any person qualified to vote is qualified to be a member of the council.
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  • The British government meantime pursued its policy of abandonment, and in February 1854, by the Bloemfontein Convention, forced independence upon the people of the Sovereignty, which now became the Orange Free State.
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  • At the beginning of that time there was but one civilized government in South Africa - Cape Colony; at its close there were five separate states or provinces, three, the Cape, Natal and British Kaffraria, owning allegiance to Great Britain, and two forming Boer republics - the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
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  • The party in the Free State which had objected to independence being forced upon it was still strong and made overtures for union with the Cape; attempts were also made to unite the Free State and the Transvaal.
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  • When he penned this despatch Grey was well aware of the distraught condition of the Free State and the agitation for a change in its government.
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  • He held that the federation of that state with Cape Colony was preferable to its union or federation with the Transvaal, and it was with considerable satisfaction that he learned that on the 7th of December of the same year (1858) the Volksraad of the Free State had passed a resolution in favour of " a union or alliance with the Cape Colony " and sought to ascertain the views of the Cape legislature on the subject.
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  • Froude landed at Cape Town on the 21st of September 1874, and having visited Natal, the Free State and Pretoria as well as Cape Colony, sailed for England on the 10th of January 1875.
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  • President Brand represented the Free State.
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  • This last document still, however, reserved for Great Britain certain rights, including the power of veto over treaties concluded by the Transvaal with any power other than the Orange Free State.
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  • During the 1880-81 revolt many Free State burghers, despite the moderating influence of President Brand, joined the Transvaal commandoes.
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  • A customs union between Cape Colony and the Free State was concluded in 1889, to which later on all the other South African states, save the Transvaal, became parties.
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  • In 1887 he made proposals for an alliance with the Free State.
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  • Reitz, one of the founders of the Bond, in 1889 committed the Free State to an offensive and defensive alliance with the Transvaal.
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  • It greatly embittered racial feeling throughout the country; it threw the Free State Boers completely on to the side of the Transvaal; it destroyed the alliance between the Dutch in Cape Colony and the Imperialists led by Rhodes.
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  • Kruger also sought (unsuccessfully) to have the London Convention of 1884 annulled, and he entered into a closer union with the Free State.
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  • The British government had decided that the continued existence of either republic was inadmissible; on the 28th of May 1900 the annexation of the Free State was formally proclaimed, and on the 1st of September the Transvaal was also annexed to the British Empire.
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  • Among the other decisions of the convention were: the choice of Pretoria as the seat of administration anti of Cape Town as the seat of the legislature, the renaming the Orange River Colony, Orange Free State Province; the provision of three membered constituencies and of proportional representation and the safe-guarding of the smaller communities by giving Natal and the Orange River colonies more members of parliament than they were entitled to on the voters basis.
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  • They had met with the determined opposition of Mr Merriman (the Cape premier), of the Orange Free State Boers, and of the Bond, which had lost the counsel of Hofmeyr.
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  • The Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State official publications should also be consulted.
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  • The governor found that Lawrence had not resisted and would not resist the service of writs; by a written "agreement" with the free-state leaders he therefore withdrew his sanction from the Missourians and averted battle.
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  • It was during this "war" that John Brown first took up arms with the free-state men.
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  • On the 21st of May 1856, at the head of several hundred Missourians, he occupied the city without resistance, destroyed its printing offices and the free-state headquarters and pillaged private houses.
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  • After the free-state men gained control of the Territorial legislature in 1857 the legislature regularly adjourned from Lecompton, the legal capital, to Lawrence, which was practically the capital until the choice of Topeka under the Wyandotte constitution.
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  • Port Elizabeth has a large import trade, chiefly in textiles, machinery, hardware, apparel and provisions, supplying to a considerable extent the markets of Kimberley, Rhodesia, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
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  • History The Congo Free State owed its existence to the ambition and force of character of a single individual.
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  • Shortly afterwards this committee became the "International Association of the Congo," which in its turn was the forerunner of the Congo Free State.
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  • While negotiations with Germany for the recognition of the status of the Congo Free State were in progress, Prince Bismarck issued invitations to the powers to an international conference at Berlin.
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  • At the date of the issue of the circular the agreements with France and Portugal had partially defined the boundaries of the Free State on the lower river, and the 30th degree of longitude east of Greenwich was recognized as the limit of its extension eastwards.
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  • The net result of the above agreements was to leave the Congo Free State with France, Portugal and Great Britain as her neighbours on the north, with Great Britain and Germany as her neighbours on the east, and with Great Britain and Portugal on her southern frontier.
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  • The avowed object of the Free State was to develop the resources of the territory with the aid of the natives, but it early became apparent that the Arab slave-traders, who had established themselves in the country between Lake Tanganyika and Stanley Falls and on the upper river, opposed a serious obstacle to the realization of this programme.
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  • But the Free State was at that time ill prepared for a trial of strength, and at Mr Stanley's suggestion the bold course was taken of appointing Tippoo-Tib governor of Stanley Falls, as the representative of King Leopold.
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  • Kasongo, a more recent though still larger centre, with perhaps 60,000 inhabitants, has also been swept away, and is now represented by a station of the Free State 9 m.
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  • Although defeated on several occasions by the Free State forces, the mutineers were not finally dispersed until near the end of 1900, when the last remnants were reported to have crossed into German territory and surrendered their arms. In other parts of the country the state had difficulties with native chiefs, several of whom preserved their autonomy.
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  • The international position of the Free State was from the first a somewhat anomalous one.
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  • But, though those who opposed annexation formed a numerous body, all political parties were agreed that in case of annexation the excesses which had stained the record of the Free State should cease.
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  • (The prohibition of the import of alcohol deprives the state of a ready source of revenue.) Nearly all the funds required in the work of founding the Free State were provided by Leopold II.
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  • By agreement with France and Portugal, a common tariff (6% on most goods imported, to% on the export of ivory and india-rubber, 5% on other exports) was adopted by these powers and the Congo Free State.
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  • These figures do not, however, disclose the total profits which accrued to the Free State from its trading operations in the Congo.
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  • Stanley's book is of historic importance, describing the work he and his helpers accomplished on the Congo between 1879 and 1884; and Chapaux's volume gives the best general account of the Free State in convenient size.
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  • The greater part of the colony belongs to it, as do large tracts in the Orange Free State and Transvaal.
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  • The Basutos, who dwelt in the upper valleys of the Orange river, had subsisted under a semi-protectorate of the British government from 1843 to 1854; but having been left to their own resources on the abandonment of the Orange sovereignty, they fell into a long exhaustive warfare with the Boers of the Free State.
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  • The organization of the Bond developed into one embracing the Transvaal, the Orange Free State and Cape Colony.
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  • The policy of the extremists of this last party was summed up in the appeal which President Kruger made to the Free State in February 1881, when he bade them " Come and help us.
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  • Shortly after the passing of the bill the Orange Free State entered the union.
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  • In 1889 the Free State entered into an arrangement with the Cape Colony whereby the main trunk railway was extended to Bloemfontein, the Free State receiving half the profits.
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  • Subsequently the Free State bought at cost price the portion of the railway in its own territory.
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  • In 1891 the Free State railway was still farther extended to Viljoen's Drift on the Vaal river, and in 1892 it reached Pretoria and Johannesburg.
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  • The colonies of British Bechuanaland and Basutoland were now taken into the customs union existing between the Orange Free State and Cape Colony.
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  • The reason he gave for delay was that he did not anticipate war; and that he did not wish to excite unwarrantable suspicions in the minds of the Free State.
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  • On the 28th of August Sir Gordon Sprigg in the House of Assembly moved the adjournment of the debate, to discuss the removal of arms to the Free State.
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  • In the course of the speech he also read a telegram from President Steyn, in which the president repudiated all contemplated aggressive action on the part of the Free State as absurd.
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  • Proclamations by the Transvaal and Free State annexing portions of Cape Colony were actually issued on the 18th of October, and included British Bechuanaland and Griqualand West, with the diamond fields.
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  • It is not found in nature in the free state to any extent, and although enormous quantities of its salts, especially calcium and barium sulphate, are found in many localities, the free acid is never prepared from these salts, as it is more easily obtainable in another way, viz.
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  • Formerly this was employed exclusively in the free state as brimstone, and this is still the case to a considerable extent in some countries, notably in the United States, but the great bulk of sulphuric acid is now made from metallic sulphides, especially those of iron and zinc. Most of the brimstone of trade comes from Sicily, but in the United States Louisiana sulphur is playing an important part, and seems likely to oust the Sicilian sulphur.
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  • The resultant legislature (at Pawnee, later at Shawnee Mission) adopted the laws of Missouri almost en bloc, made it a felony to utter a word against slavery, made extreme pro-slavery views a qualification for office, declared death the penalty for aiding a slave to escape, and in general repudiated liberty for its opponents., The radical free-state men thereupon began the importation of rifles.
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  • All criticism of this is inconsequent; " fighting gear " was notoriously the only effective asset of Missourians in Kansas, every Southern band in Kansas was militarily organized and armed, and the free-state men armed only under necessity.
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  • Furthermore, a free-state " government " was set up, the " bogus " legislature at Shawnee being " repudiated."
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  • He was a political adventurer, an enthusiastic, energetic, ambitious, illbalanced man, shrewd and magnetic. He assuredly did much for the free-state cause; meek politics were not alone sufficient in those years in Kansas.
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  • Reeder (1807-1864), who showed himself a pro-slavery sympathizer as first Territorial governor, was removed from office for favouring the free-state party; he became a leader in the free-state cause.
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  • A census, miserably deficient (largely owing to free-state abstention and obstruction), was the basis of apportionment of delegates.
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  • The free-state party demanded a popular vote on the constitution.
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  • The free-state men regarded this as including the right to property in offspring of slaves, and therefore as pure fraud.
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  • Years before, in 1852 and 1854 respectively, the British government, at that time a little weary of the responsibilities of colonial rule, had recognized the independence of the two Dutch republics, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
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  • The gradual arrival of reinforcements, and the appointment of ~a soldier of geniusLord Robertsto the supreme command, changed the military situation; and, before the summer of 1900 was concluded, the places which had been besieged by the BoersKimberley, Ladysmith and Mafekinghad been successively relieved; the capitals of the Orange Free State and of tile Transvaal had been occupied; and the two republics, which had rashly declared war against the British empire, had been formally annexed.
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  • Formerly the meeting-place of the Orange Free State Raad, it is now the seat of the provincial council.
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  • In it was signed (1854) the convention which recognized the independence of the Free State Boers (see Orange Free State: History).
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  • In Market Square on the 28th of the following May the annexation of the Orange Free State to the British dominions was proclaimed.
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  • In 1888 he became consul to the Congo Free State.
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  • The relations of the Sudan government with its Italian, Abyssinian and French neighbours was marked by cordiality, but with the Congo Free State difficulties arose over claims made by that state to the Bahr-el-Ghazal Lado.
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  • But the most notable event in Leopold's career was the foundation of the Congo Free State.
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  • In March 1880 Gordon visited the king of the Belgians at Brussels, and King Leopold suggested that he should at some future date take charge of the Congo Free State.
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  • - This group includes iodine, bromine and chlorine, in their free state or as compounds.
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  • The entire area of Albert Edward Nyanza was found, by the work of the Anglo-German Boundary Commission of 1902-1904, to lie within the limits of the sphere of influence of the Congo Free State as defined in the agreement of the 12th of May 1894 between that state and Great Britain.
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  • More than one convention was held here in Territorial days, including that which framed the Topeka Constitution of 1855; and some of the meetings of the free-state legislature chosen under that document (see Kansas) were also held here.
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  • Lord Craigavon replied: We have no antipathy whatever toward the Inst Free State.
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  • Before 1939 Canada opened only two more legations, South Africa opened five and the Irish Free State opened four.
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  • But it has unexpected, unintended and frequently unexamined powers to do other things which could undermine a free state in many ways.
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  • It has: an executive committee on foreign missions (first definitely organized by the Assembly in 1877), which has missions in China (1867), Brazil (1869), Mexico (1874), Japan (1885), Congo Free State (1891), Korea (1896) and Cuba (1899); and executive committees of home missions (1865), of publication and sabbath school work, of ministerial education and relief, of schools and colleges and of colored evangelization (formed in 1891).
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  • For a considerable distance the Vaal forms the frontier between the province and the Orange Free State and in similar manner the Limpopo separates the Transvaal from Bechuanaland and Rhodesia.
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  • Peaceful overtures having failed, Pretorius and Paul Kruger placed themselves at the head of a commando which crossed the Vaal with the object of enforcing union, but the Free State compelled their withof drawal (see Orange Free State).
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  • The country lying to the north of the Orange river and west of the Caledon, formerly a part of Basutoland, was ceded to the Free State (see Basutoland).
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  • The renewal of the policy of British expansion had been answered by the formation of the Afrikander Bond, which represented the racial aspirations of the Dutch-speaking people, and had active branches in the Free State.
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  • The raid into the Free State failed; the blackest incident in connexion with it was the attempt of the Pretorius and Kruger party to induce the Basuto to harass the Free State forces behind, while they were attacking them in front.
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  • He realized that one of the most potent factors in the Milner situation was the attitude of the Cape Dutch, and in March 1898 at Graaff Reinet Milner called upon the Dutch citizens of the Cape, " especially those who had gone so far in the expression of their sympathy for the Transvaal as to expose themselves to charges of disloyalty to their own flag " to use all their influence, not in confirming the Transvaal in unjustified suspicions, not in encouraging its government in obstinate resistance to all reform, but in inducing it gradually to assimilate its institutions, and the temper and spirit of its administration, to those of the free communities of South Africa, such as Cape Colony or the Orange Free State.
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  • This agitation was particularly vigorous in Great Britain, and the movement entered on a new era when on the 10th of May 1903 the House of Commons agreed without division to the following motion: "That the government of the Congo Free State having, at its inception, guaranteed to the powers that its native subjects should be governed with humanity, and that no trading monopoly or privilege should be permitted within its dominions, this House request His Majesty's Government to confer with the other powers, signatories of the Berlin General Act, by virtue of which the Congo Free State exists, in order that measures may be adopted to abate the evils prevalent in that state."
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  • On the 7th of July 500 rifles and i,000,000 rounds of ammunition were landed at Port Elizabeth, consigned to the Free State government, and forwarded to Bloemfontein.
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  • At a later date, on receiving an inquiry from the Free State as to the movements of British troops, Mr Schreiner curtly refused any information, and referred the Free State to the high commissioner.
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  • Little organized effort was made in the South to settle the Territory; Lawrence (Wakarusa) and Topeka, free-state centres, and Leavenworth, Lecompton and Atchison, pro-slavery towns, were among those settled in 1854.
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  • Lawrence, was founded by agents of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company in July 1854, and during the territorial period was the political centre of the free-state cause and the principal point against which the assaults of the pro-slavery party were directed.
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  • In 1855 and again in 1857 the pro-slavery Territorial legislature passed an Act giving Lawrence a charter, but the people of Lawrence would not recognize that "bogus" government, and on the 13th of July 1857, after an application to the Topeka free-state legislature for a charter had been denied, adopted a city charter of their own.
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  • On the 3rd of April 1858 a free-state convention adopted the Leavenworth Constitution here; this constitution, which was as radically anti-slavery as the Lecompton Constitution was pro-slavery, was nominally approved by popular vote in May 1858, and was later submitted to Congress, but never came into effect.
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  • He abandoned Walker, who left Kansas; and he dismissed Acting-Governor Frederick P. Stanton for convoking the (now free-state) legislature.
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  • During the Kansas struggle Wyandotte was a pro-slavery town, while Quindaro (1856), a few miles up the Missouri, was a free-state settlement and Wyandotte's commercial rival until after the Civil War.
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  • (In the isolated south-eastern counties they continued through 1856-1858, mainly to the advantage of the " jay-hawkers " of free-state Kansas and to the terror of Missouri.) The struggle now passed into another phase, in which questions of state predominate.
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  • Every governor who followed him was forced by the logic of events and truth tacitly to acknowledge that right lay with the free-state party.
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  • The free-state men framed an excellent anti-slavery constitution at Leavenworth in March - April 1858, but the origins of the convention were illegal and their work was still-born.
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