Frederick sentence example
Marie and Frederick consumed two vials each, leaving the majority, which Sarah and Jackson greedily consumed.
Frederick found suitable clothing for his guests and in turn, they each retired to the one bedchamber of the cottage to wash and change.
As Frederick the Great observed almost two centuries earlier, "If my soldiers were to begin to think, not one of them would remain in the army."
Frederick made introductions after embracing and kissing his wife.
Upon entering, Frederick wrote two notes, one for the Exemplars, detailing Victor's location, and one for his wife.Advertisement
I know not of Victor, I am Frederick, Frederick Caulder.
Jackson felt awed by the love Marie and Frederick shared.
Frederick seemed guarded and pensive.
At the beginning of the 19th century it did not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance began with the reigns of Kings Frederick and William I., who exerted themselves in every way to improve and beautify it.
Frederick appeared to be taken aback both by the story, and the speed at which Sarah relayed it.Advertisement
A frown rolled over Frederick's face as he read, then he slowly folded it.
The concern on Frederick's face gave Jackson pause.
Sarah gasped and clasped her hands to her chest as Frederick lowered his head.
When they arrived at the catacombs, Frederick took the lantern from his manservant and instructed him to wait.
He paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather the emperor Frederick II., and his loyalty to Frederick and to his son Conrad IV.Advertisement
In November 1274 it was decided by the diet at Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the emperor Frederick II.
Louis accompanied the Crusaders to Damietta in 1221, and governed Germany as regent from 1225 until 1228, when he deserted Frederick II.
He was attached to the Hohenstaufen by the marriage of his daughter, Elizabeth, with Conrad, son of Frederick II.
He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
In 1164 Barisone, giudice of Arborea, was given the title of king of the whole island by Frederick Barbarossa, but his supremacy was never effective.Advertisement
Hunt; the landscape gardening was done by Frederick Law Olmsted.
The death without direct heirs of Duke John William in 1609 led to serious complications in which almost all the states of Europe were concerned; however, by the treaty of Xanten in 1614, Cleves passed to the elector of Brandenburg, being afterwards incorporated with the electorate by the great elector, Frederick William.
In 1451 the emperor Frederick III., as guardian of the young king Ladislas, entrusted Podébrad with the administration of Bohemia.
The emperor Frederick III., and King Matthias of Hungary, Podebrad's former ally, joined the insurgent Bohemian nobles.
When Alphonso died in 1291 James became king of Aragon, and left his brother Frederick as regent of Sicily.Advertisement
The Sicilians refused to be made over once more to the hated French whom they had expelled in 1282, and found a national leader in the regent Frederick.
Although the second Frederick of Sicily, he called himself third, being the third son of King Peter.
Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Bonif ace.
Charles's sons Robert and Philip landed in Sicily, but after capturing Catania were defeated by Frederick, Philip being taken prisoner (1299), while several Calabrian towns were captured by the Sicilians.
For two years more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the kingdom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive compensation elsewhere.
Bonif ace tried to induce King Charles to break the treaty, but the latter was only too anxious for peace, and finally in May 1303 the pope ratified it, Frederick agreeing to pay him a tribute.
But on the descent of the emperor Henry VII., Frederick entered into an alliance with him, and in violation of the pact of Caltabellotta made war on the Angevins again (1313) and captured Reggio.
A truce was concluded in 1317, but as the Sicilians helped the north Italian Ghibellines in the attack on Genoa, and Frederick seized some Church revenues for military purposes, the pope (John XXII.) excommunicated him and placed the island under an interdict (1321) which lasted until 1 335.
In 1337 Frederick died at Paternione, and in spite of the peace of Caltabellotta his son Peter succeeded.
Frederick's great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians into a united people.
His residence in the Netherlands fell in the most prosperous and brilliant days of the Dutch state, under the stadtholdership of Frederick Henry (1625-1647).
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley (vide Ellis's lecture) regarded the French ton de chapelle as being about a minor third below the Diapason Normal, a' 435, and said that most of the untouched organs in the French cathedrals were at this low pitch.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.
The fruitless siege of Parma in 1248 was the last effort of Frederick II.
The Berlin of the day - the day of Frederick the Great - was in a moral and intellectual ferment.
He became (1756-1759) the leading spirit of Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, and ran some risk (which Frederick's good nature obviated) by somewhat freely criticizing the poems of the king of Prussia.
It was first employed by the Milanese in 1038, and played a great part in the wars of the Lombard league against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
The incumbency of Trinity Chapel was held by the famous preacher Frederick William Robertson (1847-18J3).
Bernard was succeeded in 1706 by his three sons, Ernest Louis, Frederick William and Anton Ulrich, but after 1746 the only survivor was the youngest, Anton Ulrich, who reigned alone from this date until his death in 1763.
Then the army under Alva's son, Don Frederick of Toledo, marched northwards, and the sack of Zutphen and the inhuman butchery of Naarden are among the blackest records of history.
But the very horrors of Don Frederick's advance roused a spirit of indomitable resistance in Holland.
Here he was besieged by Don Frederick of Toledo, Alva's natural son, who blockaded all approach to the town.
First Bela solicited the aid of the pope, but was compelled finally to resort to arms, and crossing the Leitha on the 15th of June 1246, routed Frederick, who was seriously wounded and trampled to death by his own horsemen.
After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.
The Turks and the Venetians threatened it from the south, the emperor Frederick III.
In the following year there was a fresh rebellion, when the emperor Frederick was actually crowned king by the malcontents at Vienna-Neustadt (March 4, 1 459); but Matthias drove him out, and Pope Pius II.
Having come to an understanding with his father-in-law Podébrad, he was able to turn his arms against the emperor Frederick, and in April 1462 Frederick restored the holy crown for 60,000 ducats and was allowed to retain certain Hungarian counties with the title of king; in return for which concessions, extorted from Matthias by the necessity of coping with a simultaneous rebellion of the Magyar noble in league with Podebrad's son Victorinus, the emperor recognized Matthias as the actual sovereign of Hungary.
The war began on the 3 1st of May 1468, but, as early as the 27th of February 1469, Matthias anticipated an alliance between George and Frederick by himself concluding an armistice with the former.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
The endless tergiversations and depredations of the emperor speedily induced Matthias to declare war against him for the third time (1481), the Magyar king conquering all the fortresses in Frederick's hereditary domains.
But when Conrad died, the electors chose his nephew Frederick, surnamed Barbarossa, who united the rival honors of Welf and Waiblingen, to succeed him; and it was soon obvious that the empire had a master powerful Fmder!ck of brain and firm of will.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
The gates of Rome itself were shut against Frederick; and even on this first occasion his good understanding with Adrian began to suffer.
Having obtained his coronation, Frederick withdrew to Germany, while Milan prepared herself against the storm which threatened.
Famine forced the burghers to partial obedience, and Frederick held a victorious diet at Roncaglia.
Frederick placed judges of his own appointment, with the title of podest, in all the Lombard commu1ies; and this stretch of his authority, while it exacerbated his foes, forced even his friends to join their ranks against him.
Having ruined his rebellious city, but not tamed her spirit, Frederick withdrew across the Alps.
When Frederick once more crossed the Alps in 1166, he advanced on Rome, and besieged Alexander in the Coliseum.
Frederick fled for Lombard his life by the Mont Cenis, and in 1168 the town of Alessandria was erected to keep Pavia and the marquisate in check.
For the fifth time, in 1174, Frederick entered his rebellious dominions.
In the spring of 1176 Frederick threatened Milan.
Frederick escaped alone to Pavia, whence he opened negotiations with Alexander.
His title was derived from that of Frederick Barharossas judges; but he had no dependence on the empire.
The thirty years which elapsed between Frederick Barbarossas death in 1190 and the coronation of his grandson Frederick II.
Three years afterwards he died, leaving a son, Frederick, to the care of Constance, who in her turn died in 1198, bequeathing the young prince, already crowned king of Germany, to the guardianship of Innocent III.
It was bold policy to confide Frederick to his greatest enemy and rival; but the pope honorably discharged his duty, until his ward outgrew the years of tutelage, and became a fair mark for ecclesiastical hostility.
Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from the north, In 1227 Frederick, who h1d promised to lead a crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX.
Frederick enlisted his Saracen troops at Nocera and Luceria, and appointed the terrible Ezzelino da Romano his vicar in.
He therefore made alliance with Venice and Genoa, fulminated a new excommunication against Frederick, and convoked a council at Rome to ratify his ban in 1241.
So far Frederick had been successful at all points.
Five times king and emperor as he was, Frederick, placed under the ban of the church, led henceforth a doomed existence.
Hunted to the ground and broken-hearted, Frederick expired at the end of 1250 in his Apulian castle of Fiorentino.
Yet from many points of view it might be regretted that Frederick was not suffered to rule Italy.
The princes of the house of Aragon, now represented by Frederick, a son of Ferdinand I., returned to Naples.
Their elder son, George William Frederick (1775-1838), succeeded his father as duke of Leeds and his mother as Baron Conyers.
The last Count of Promnitz, whose ancestor had purchased both baronies from Frederick of Bohemia in 1556, sold them in 1765 to the elector of Saxony for an annuity of 12,000 thalers (rSoo).
It is a striking example of the difficulty of getting people to use their own powers of investigation accurately, that this form of the doctrine of evolution should have held its ground so long; for it was thoroughly and completely exploded, not long after its enunciation, by Caspar Frederick Wolff, who in his Theoria generationis, published in 1759, placed the opposite theory of epigenesis upon the secure foundation of fact, from which it has never been displaced.
Reumont was the friend and adviser of Frederick William IV.
In July 1497 Cesare went to Naples as papal legate and crowned Frederick of Aragon king.
After the close of the war for the Union Mrs Stowe bought an estate in Florida, chiefly in hope of restoring the health of her son, Captain Frederick Beecher Stowe, who had been wounded in the war, and in this southern home she spent many winters.
Sharing in the attack on the Saxon electorate, Albert was taken prisoner at Rochlitz in March 1547 by John Frederick, elector of Saxony, but was released as a result of the emperor's victory at Miihlberg in the succeeding April.
It was not, however, till late in the 12th century (1172-1176) that the city was surrounded with walls by order of the emperor Frederick I., to whom (in 1166) and to his grandson Frederick II.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
The ruined castle served as the place of imprisonment of Frederick II.'s son Henry.
So far as there ever was a Sicilian nation at all, it might be said to be called into being by the emperor-king Frederick II.
The offer of Frederick the Great has already been mentioned.
The fullest revelation of his religious convictions is given in his correspondence with Voltaire, which was published along with that with Frederick the Great in Bossange's edition of his works.
Her hatred of Germans showed itself likewise in her persistent struggle with Frederick the Great, which cost Russia 300,000 men and 30 millions of roubles - an enormous sum for those days - but in the choice of a successor she could not follow her natural inclinations, for among the few descendants of Michael Romanov there was no one, even in the female line, who could be called a genuine Russian.
Frederick the Great was at that moment impatient to extend and consolidate his kingdom by getting possession of the basin of the lower Vistula, which separated eastern Prussia from the rest of his dominions, while Austria had also claims on Polish territory and would certainly not submit to be excluded by her two rivals.
In these circumstances Catherine hesitated to bring matters to a crisis, but her hand was forced by Frederick, and in 1772 the first partition of Poland took place without any very strenuous resistance on the part of the victim.
King Frederick VII.
Valdemar's position was still further strengthened when Frederick II., the successful rival of Otto IV., was, in 1215, crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle.
Valdemar at once cultivated the friendship of the new emperor; and Frederick, by an imperial brief, issued in December 1214 and subsequently confirmed by Innocent III.
It was extended by Frederick Barbarossa, and was burned down in 1270, being restored by the emperor Charles IV.
Inside its boundaries there is the restored Remigius Kirche, apparently dating from the time of Frederick I.
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been betrothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the Great.
Soon after his father became king in 1727 Frederick took up his residence in England and in 1729 was created prince of Wales; but the relations between George II.
After a marriage between the prince and Lady Diana Spencer, afterwards the wife of John, 4th duke of Bedford, had been frustrated by Walpole, Frederick was married in April 1736 to 1 Frederick was never actually created duke of Gloucester, and when he was raised to the peerage in 1736 it was as duke of Edinburgh only.
Augusta (1719-1772), daughter of Frederick II., duke of SaxeGotha, a union which was welcomed by his parents, but which led to further trouble between father and son.
After the birth of his first child, Augusta, in 1737, Frederick was ordered by the king to quit St James' Palace, and the foreign ambassadors were requested to refrain from visiting him.
Frederick the Great of Prussia, when he seized Silesia, extended his protection to those who remained in that province.
As to Poland, his views differed widely from the views of both Frederick and Catherine.
Such tenets were destructive not only of Catholicism but of Christianity of any kind and of civil society itself; and for this reason so unecclesiastical a person as the emperor Frederick II.
At the age of fourteen he found his way to Berlin, where Frederick the Great, inspired by the spirit of Voltaire, held the maxim that " to oppress the Jews never brought prosperity to any government."
The town has equestrian statues of the emperor Frederick I.
In 1742, however, he was induced to transfer his support to Maria Theresa, and his troops took part in the struggle against Frederick the Great during the Silesian wars, and again when the Seven Years' War began in 1756.
Saxony was in that year attacked by the Prussians, and with so much success that not only was the Saxon army forced to capitulate at Pirna in October, but the elector, who fled to Warsaw, made no attempt to recover Saxony, which remained under the dominion of Frederick.
He left five sons, the eldest of whom was his successor in Saxony, Frederick Christian; and five daughters, one of whom was the wife of Louis, the dauphin of France, and mother of Louis XVI.
The war between the rival emperors, Frederick of Austria and Louis of Bavaria, and the interdict under which the latter was placed in 1324 inflicted extreme misery upon the unhappy people.
The months he spent at Berlin were important in the history of Prussia, for while he was there Frederick the Great died.
He certainly failed to conciliate the new king Frederick William; and thus ended Mirabeau's one attempt at diplomacy.
Saalfeld grew up around the abbey founded in 1075 by Anno, archbishop of Cologne, and the palace built by the emperor Frederick I.
Frederick of Saxony (fn4) held the office from 1498 to 1511; and he was succeeded by the Hohenzollern Albert of BrandenburgAnspach.
There is a statue of the emperor Frederick III.
Harrison, Sir Frederick Pollock and Lockyer were among the contributors.
The military and historical works comprise precis of the wars of Julius Caesar, Turenne and Frederick the Great.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
But he reluctantly, and most unwisely, allowed himself to be entangled in the scandalous family quarrel between Frederick, prince of Wales, and his parents.
He succeeded in promoting an agreement between Maria Theresa and Frederick.
His patron's successor, Frederick III., made him (1559) a privy councillor and member of the church consistory.
The Prussians and a Saxon contingent, commanded by Frederick the Great and his brother Prince Henry, were opposed to two Austrian armies under Loudon and Lacy.
After his marriage in 1766 with Caroline Matilda (1751-1 775), daughter of Frederick, prince of Wales, he abandoned himself to the worst excesses.
His theological views have a considerable similarity to those of Frederick Denison Maurice, who acknowledges having been indebted to him for his first true conception of the meaning of Christ's sacrifice.
In 1689 it was given to Philip William, a younger son of the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William, and he and his successors called themselves margrave of BrandenburgSchwedt.
Stimulated by this, he brought out his Neun Bucher preussischer Geschichte (1847-48), a work which, chiefly owing to the nature of the subject, makes severe demands on the attention of the reader - he is the "Dryasdust" of Carlyle's Frederick; but in it he laid the foundation for the modern appreciation of the founders of the Prussian state.
He also wrote biographies of Frederick the Great and Frederick William IV.
In 1875 Sir Frederick Abel, at the request of the British Government, began to investigate the matter, and in August 1879 the " Abel test " was legalized.
In the 13th century it became necessary for the legists to codify, as it were, the unwritten law, because the upheavals of the times necessitated the fixing of some rules in writing, and especially because it was necessary to oppose a definite custom of the kingdom to Frederick II., who sought, as king of Jerusalem, to take advantage of the want of a written law, to substitute his own conceptions of law in the teeth of the high court.
Greeks; lastly, there are the Crusades waged by the papacy against revolted Christians - John of England and Frederick II.
Here, with the burden of the day now past, the fine old crusader - he had joined before in the Second Crusade, forty years ago - perished by accident in the river; and of all his fine army only a thousand men won their way through, under his son, Frederick of Swabia, to join the ranks before Acre (October 1190).
They show the lay aspect of the Third Crusade; they anticipate the Crusade of Frederick II.
The difficulties which had arisen between Isaac Angelus and Frederick Barbarossa contain the germs of the Fourth Crusade; the negotiations between Richard and Saladin contain the germs of the Sixth.
This was practically the aim of Richard I.'s negotiations; and this was what Frederick II.
As emperor, Henry was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of Constantinople.
In 1195 Henry took the cross; some time before, he had already sent to Isaac Angelus to demand compensation for the injuries done to Frederick I., along with the cession of all territories ever conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily, and a fleet to co-operate with the new Crusade.
The capture of Damietta was a considerable feat of arms, but nothing was done to clinch the advantage which had been won, and the whole of the year 1220 was spent by the crusaders in Damietta, partly in consolidating their immediate position, and partly in waiting for the arrival of Frederick II., who had promised to appear in 1221.
In 1221 Hermann of Salza, the master of the Teutonic order, along with the duke of Bavaria, appeared in the camp before Damietta; and as it seemed useless to wait any longer for Frederick II., 4 the cardinal, in spite of the opposition of King John, gave the signal for the march on Cairo.
Unhappily Frederick preferred to put his Sicilian house in order, and the legate preferred to listen to the Italians, who had their own 3 A canon of the third Lateran council (1179) forbade traffic with the Saracens in munitions of war; and this canon had been renewed by Innocent in the beginning of his pontificate.
In 1225 Frederick married Isabella, and immediately after the marriage he assumed the title of king in right of his wife, and exacted homage from the vassals of the kingdom.'
It was thus as king of Jerusalem that Frederick began his Crusade in the autumn of 1227.
He sailed back to Otranto in order to recover his health, but the new pope, Gregory IX., launched in hot anger the bolt of excommunication, in the belief that Frederick was malingering once more.
The paradox of Frederick's Crusade is indeed astonishing.
By the treaty of the 18th of February 1229, which was to last for ten years, the sultan conceded to Frederick, in addition to the coast towns already in the possession of the Christians, Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem, with a strip of territory connecting Jerusalem with the port of Acre.
As king of Jerusalem Frederick was now able 1 Joinville, ch.
That, at any rate, was the view Frederick II.
It was indeed in the spirit of a king of Sicily, and not in the spirit - though it was in the role - of a king of Jerusalem, that Frederick had acted.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
Difficulties quickly arose when Frederick, in 1231, sent Marshal Richard to Syria as his legate.
A gild was formed at Acre - the gild of St Adrian - which, if nominally religious in its origin, soon came to represent the political opposition to Frederick, as was significantly proved by its reception of the rebellious John of Beirut as a member (1232).
Till 1243 the party of Frederick had been successful in retaining Tyre, and the baronial demand for a regency had remained without effect; but in that year the opposition, headed by the great family of Ibelin, succeeded, under cover of asserting the rights of Alice of Cyprus to the regency, in securing possession of Tyre, and the kingdom of Jerusalem thus fell back into the power of the baronage.
Theobald of Champagne had taken the cross as early as 1230, and 1239 he sailed to Acre in spite of the express prohibition of the pope, who, having quarrelled with Frederick II., was eager to divert any succour from Jerusalem itself, so long as Jerusalem belonged to his enemy.
On the one hand he repeated the provisions of the Fourth Lateran council on behalf of the Crusade to the Holy Land; on the other hand he preached a Crusade against Frederick II., and promised to all who would join the full benefits of absolution and remission of sins.
The 1 It may be argued that the Crusade against a revolted Christian like Frederick II.
The answer is partly that men like St Louis did think that the Crusade was misplaced, and partly that Frederick was really attacked not as a revolted Christian, but as the would-be unifier of Italy, the enemy of the states of the church.
In part the war of Guelph and Ghibelline fought itself out in the East; and while one party demanded a regency, as in 1243, another argued for the recognition of Conrad, the son of Frederick II., as king.
An opportune storm, however, gave the king an excuse for returning home, as Frederick II.
On the other hand, like Frederick II., he aimed at uniting the kingdom of Jerusalem with that of Sicily; and here, too, he was able to provide himself with a title.
Negotiating in the spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for his Sicilian exchequer.
The Secreta fidelium Crucis of Marino Sanudo, a history of the Crusades written by a Venetian noble between 1306 and 1321, is also of value, particularly for the Crusade of Frederick II.
The Sixth Crusade, that of Frederick II., is described in the chronicle of Richard of San Germano, a notary of the emperor, and in other Western authorities, e.g.
In the large market place is the statue of the Prussian king Frederick William I., erected in 1824, and there is a war memorial on the Friedrich Wilhelm Platz.
He was expelled in 1311 by his Catalonian mercenaries; the mutineers bestowed the duchy " of Athens and Neopatras " on their leader, Roger Deslaur, and, in the following year, on Frederick of Aragon, king of Sicily.
He rapidly acquired the favour of the elector Frederick Augustus, surnamed the Strong, who had been elected to the throne of Poland in 1697.
He was at Warsaw when his master died in 1733, and he secured a hold on the confidence of the electoral prince, Frederick Augustus, who was at Dresden, by laying hands on the papers and jewels of the late ruler and bringing them promptly to his successor.
Briihl must therefore be held wholly responsible for the ruinous policy which destroyed the position of Saxony in Germany between 1733 and 1763; for the mistaken ambition which led Frederick Augustus II.
The new elector, Frederick Christian, dismissed him from office and caused an inquiry to be held into his administration.
In 1736 he had been made a count of the Empire and had married the countess Franziska von KolowratKradowska, a favourite of the wife of Frederick Augustus.
On the 26th of August 1618, Frederick, as a leading Protestant prince, was chosen king by the Bohemians, who deposed the emperor Ferdinand, then archduke of Styria.
She accompanied Frederick to Prague in October 1619, and was crowned on the 7th of November.
She left Prague on the 8th of November 1620, after the fatal battle of the White Hill, for Kiistrin, travelling thence to Berlin and Wolfenbiittel, finally with Frederick taking refuge at the Hague with Prince Maurice of Orange.
She had thirteen children - Frederick Henry, drgwned at sea in 1629; Charles Louis, elector palatine, whose daughter married Philip, duke of Orleans, and became the ancestress of the elder and Roman Catholic branch of the royal family of England; Elizabeth, abbess and friend of Descartes; Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice, who died unmarried; Louisa, abbess; Edward, who married Anne de Gonzaga, "princesse palatine," and had children; Henrietta Maria, who married Count Sigismund Ragotzki but died childless; Philip and Charlotte, who died childless; Sophia, who married Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, and was mother of George I.
In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia.
Her intellectual honesty was as perfect as Frederick's own, and she was as incapable as he was of endeavouring to blind herself to the quality of her own acts.
Therefore, when her inheritance was assailed at the beginning of her reign, she fought for it with every weapon an honest woman could employ, and for years she cherished the hope of recovering the lost province of Silesia, conquered by Frederick.
When Frederick renewed the war she accepted the struggle cheerfully, because she hoped to recover her own.
Her instincts, like those of her enemy Frederick and her son Joseph II., were emphatically absolutist.
Louis XII., having succeeded in the north, determined to conquer southern Italy as well, and concluded a treaty with Spain for the division of the Neapolitan kingdom, which was ratified by the pope on the 25th of June, Frederick being formally deposed.
Busch, of Limburg (1656-1664), manufactured a globe for Duke Frederick of Holstein, formerly at Gottorp, but since 1713 at Tsarskoye Zelo.
Colonel Schmettau's excellent survey of the country to the west of the Weser (1767-1787) was never published, as Frederick the Great feared it might prove of use to his military enemies.
In 1761 it was the headquarters of Frederick the Great, and in 1815 it was the last Saxon town that made its submission to Prussia.
Finally, in 1447 Frederick III., king of the Romans, after negotiations with Eugenius, commanded the burgomaster of Basel not to allow the presence of the council any longer in the imperial city.
Archdeacon Hare married in 1844 Esther, a sister of his friend Frederick Maurice.
The pope and the emperor befriended this foundation; Frederick II.
Vukcic - or Cosaccia, as he is frequently called by the contemporary chroniclers, from his birthplace, Cosacwas the first and last holder of the title "Duke of St Sava," conferred on him by the emperor Frederick III.
Gmund was surrounded by walls in the beginning of the 12th century by Duke Frederick of Swabia.
It received town rights from Frederick Barbarossa, and after the extinction of the Hohenstaufen became a free imperial town.
Napoleon had from the first been aware of the secret alliance between Prussia and Russia, sworn by their respective sovereigns over the grave of Frederick the Great, and this knowledge had been his principal reason for precipitating hostilities with the former.
The cavalry, moving well in advance, dispersed the Prussian depots and captured their horses, as far as the line of the Vistula, where at last they encountered organized resistance from the outposts of Lestocq's little corps of 15,000 men - all that was left of Frederick the Great's army.
Perhaps no battle better exemplifies the inherent strength of the emperor's strategy, and in none was his grasp of the battlefield more brilliantly displayed, for, as he fully recognized, " These Prussians have at last learnt something - they are no longer the wooden toys of Frederick the Great," and, on the other hand, the relative inferiority of his own men as compared with his veterans of Austerlitz called for far more individual effort than on any previous day.
In 1202 he was again in Italy and published his great work, Liber abaci, which probably procured him access to the learned and refined court of the emperor Frederick II.
Dominicus had presented Leonardo to Frederick II.
In return for a contribution to the costs of a crusade, he obtained from the emperor Frederick I.
On the 1st of October 1643 Frederick wedded Sophia Amelia of Brunswick Luneburg, whose .energetic, passionate and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not only Frederick's destiny but the destiny of Denmark.
During the disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces.
This was Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust.
Not till the 6th of July in the same year did Frederick III.
But with all his good qualities Frederick was not the man to take a clear view of the political horizon, or even to recognize his own and his country's limitations.
Frederick was resolved upon a rupture with Sweden at the first convenient opportunity.
The Rigsdag which assembled on the 23rd of February 1657 willingly granted considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military expenses; on the 15th of April Frederick III.
Fortunately Frederick had never been deficient in courage.
But it was Frederick III.
The traditional loyalty of the Danish middle classes was transformed into a boundless enthusiasm for the king personally, and for a brief period Frederick found himself the most popular man in his kingdom.
In 1791 he married Frederica Wilhelmina, daughter of Frederick William II., king of Prussia, thus cementing very closely the relations between the houses of Orange-Nassau and Hohenzollern.
Alessandria was founded in 1168 by the inhabitants of the district in order to defend themselves against the marquis of Monferrato and the town of Pavia, at whose request it was besieged in 1174 by Frederick Barbarossa for six months, but without success.
On the 1st of August 1431 a large army of crusaders, under Frederick, margrave of Brandenburg, whom Cardinal Cesarini accompanied as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian frontier; on the 14th of August it reached the town of Domazlice (Tauss); but on the arrival of the Hussite army under Prokop the crusaders immediately took to flight, almost without offering resistance.
He represented the antiFranco-Prussian portion of her council, and his object was to bring about an Anglo-Austro-Russian alliance which, at that time, was undoubtedly Russia's proper system, Hence the reiterated attempts of Frederick the Great and Louis XV.
Frederick himself was quite alive to his danger.
Frederick acted on the defensive with consummate skill, and the capture of the Prussian fortress of Kolberg on Christmas day O.S.
Frederick, however, was now at the last gasp. On the 6th of January 1762, he wrote to Finkenstein, "We ought now to think of preserving for my nephew, by way of negotiation, whatever fragments of my territory we can save from the avidity of my enemies," which means, if words mean anything, that he was resolved to seek a soldier's death on the first opportunity.
So serious indeed was the situation that Frederick II.
It is situated upon a lofty plateau, the highest point of which (823 ft.), projecting to the W., was the ancient citadel, and is occupied by the well-preserved castle erected by Frederick II., and rebuilt by Pierre d'Angicourt about 1280.
In 663 it was destroyed by Constans II., and was only restored in 1223 by Frederick II., who transported 20,000 Saracens hither from Sicily.
The earl left no children and he was succeeded as 16th earl by his brother Frederick Arthur Stanley (1841-1908), who had been made a peer as Baron Stanley of Preston in 1886.
The latter he escaped by flight to Berlin, and the elector Frederick III.
Here it must suffice to notice Frederick William's personal share in the question, which was determined by his general attitude of mind.
The united diet which was opened on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation of the diets instituted by Frederick William III.
To Frederick William these came as a complete surprise, and, rudely awakened from his medieval dreamings, he even allowed himself to be carried away for a while by the popular tide.
In any case Frederick William, uneasy enough as a constitutional king, would have been impossible as a constitutional emperor.
For Frederick William the position of leader of Germany now meant the employment of the military force of Prussia to crush the scattered elements of revolution that survived the collapse of the national movement.
But Prussia was not ripe for a struggle with Austria, even had Frederick William found it in his conscience to turn his arms against his ancient ally, and the result was the humiliating convention of Olmtitz (November 29th, 1850), by which Prussia agreed to surrender her separatist plans and to restore the old constitution of the confederation.
Yet Frederick William had so far profited by the lessons of 1848 that he consented to establish (1850) a national parliament, though with a restricted franchise and limited powers.
In religious matters Frederick William was also largely swayed by his love for the ancient and picturesque.
In general it may be said that Frederick William, in spite of his talents and his wide knowledge, lived in a dream-land of his own, out of touch with actuality.
Frederick William died on the 2nd of January 1861.
Petropolis was founded in 1845 by Julius Frederick Kdler under the auspices of the emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II., on lands purchased by his father, Dom Pedro I., in 1822.
On the 13th of March 1879 he married Princess Louise Marguerite of Prussia, third daughter of Prince Frederick Charles, and received an additional annuity of £10,000.
After the death of Frederick the Great, his presence was competed for by the courts of France, Spain and Naples, and a residence in Berlin having ceased to possess any attraction for him, he removed to Paris in 1787.
From the 12th to the 14th century it was very frequently at war, and strongly supported the Guelph cause against Frederick II.
The chief of these is occupied by the famous fortress Fredriksten, protected on three sides by precipices founded by Frederick III.
Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously (1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick III.
In 1793 it was besieged by the English under Frederick Augustus, duke of York, who was compelled to retire after the defeat of Hondschoote.
A few years later he incurred the royal disfavour for gross malversation in the administration of public property, and failing to compromise matters with the king, fled to Germany and engaged in political intrigues with the adventurer Wilhelm von Grumbach (1503-1567) for the purpose of dethroning Frederick II.
Otto appointed his younger son Dietrich as his successor and was attacked and taken prisoner by his elder son Albert; but, after obtaining his release by order of the emperor Frederick I., he had only just renewed the war when he died in 1190.
Dietrich married Jutta, daughter of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and was succeeded in 1221 by his infant son Henry, surnamed the Illustrious; who on arriving at maturity obtained as reward for supporting the emperor Frederick II.
In 1243 Henry's son Albert was betrothed to Margaret, daughter of Frederick II.; and Pleissnerland, a district west of Meissen, was added to his possessions.
About this time he sold his portion of Meissen to his nephew Frederick Tutta, who held the title of margrave and ruled the greater part of the mark until his death in 1291.
Albert's two remaining sons, Frederick and Dietrich or Diezmann, then claimed Meissen; but it was seized by King Adolph of Nassau as a vacant fief of the empire, and was for some time retained by him and his successor King Albert I.
In the course of constant efforts to secure the mark the brothers Frederick and Dietrich defeated the troops of King Albert at Lucka in May 1307 and secured partial possession of their lands.
In this year Dietrich died and Frederick became reconciled with his father, who, after renouncing his claim on Meissen for a yearly payment, died in 1314.
Having obtained possession of the greater part of the mark, Frederick was invested with it by the German king Henry VII.
During these years the part of Meissen around Dresden had been in the possession of Frederick, youngest son of the margrave Henry the Illustrious, and when he died in 1316 it came to his nephew Frederick.
About 1312 Frederick, who had become involved in a dispute with Waldemar, margrave of Brandenburg, over the possession of lower Lusatia, was taken prisoner.
Frederick, who was surnamed the Peaceful, died in 1323 and was followed as margrave by his son Frederick II., called the Grave, who added several counties to his inheritance.
From this latter Frederick's death in 1349 until 1381 the lands of the family were ruled by his three sons jointly; but after the death of his eldest son Frederick III.
In 1407 William was succeeded by his nephew Frederick, called the Warlike, who in 1423 received from the emperor Sigismund the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
In 1875 a geological commission was organized under the direction of Professor Charles Frederick Hartt, but it was disbanded two years later.
Thereupon, to spite the rival republic, the Sienese took the Ghibelline side, and the German emperors, beginning with Frederick Barbarossa, rewarded their fidelity by the grant of various privileges.
As the capital of the free county of Burgundy, or Franche-Comte, it was united with the German kingdom when Frederick I.
In 1184 Frederick made it a free imperial city, and about the same time the archbishop obtained the dignity of a prince of the Empire.
Weary with this work, he took a post at Borch College in 1710, where he wrote, and printed in 1711, his first work, An Introduction to the History of the Nations of Europe, and was permitted to present to King Frederick IV.
Fresh translations of Aristotle and Averroes had already been made from the Arabic (IIepi ret ivropiat from the Hebrew) by Michael Scot, and Hermannus Alamannus, at the instance of the emperor Frederick II.; so that the whole body of Aristotle's works was at hand in Latin translations from about 1210 to 1225.
In 1764 he removed to Berlin, where he received many favours at the hand of Frederick the Great and was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, and in 1774 edited the Berlin Ephemeris.
Queen Elizabeth, aided by her kinsmen, the emperor Frederick III.
The western provinces were held by Frederick himself.
The romances of Baron Frederick Podmaniczky are simpler, and rather of a narrative than colloquial character.
The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.
In this opposition he was joined by his brother, Frederick Augustus Conkling (1816-1891), at that time also a Republican member of Congress.
For at the beginning of his reign Valdemar leaned largely upon the Germans and even went the length, against the advice of Absalon, of acknowledging the overlordship of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the reichstag of Dole, 1162.1162.
These eighteen months of storm and stress established his influence in the capital once for all and at the same time knitted him closely to Frederick III., who recognized in Nansen a man after his own heart, and made the great burgomaster his chief instrument in carrying through the anti-aristocratic Revolution of 1660.
His greatest feat was the impassioned speech by which, on October 8th, he induced the burgesses to accede to the proposal of the magistracy of Copenhagen to offer Frederick III.
The agreement had hardly been concluded when Sir Frederick Roberts arrived at the Cape with io,000 troops, and after spending forty-eight hours there returned to England.
Here Frederick Barbarossa found them in strength in 1189.
In 1155 the German king, Frederick I., appointed his step-brother Conrad as count palatine.
In 1211 Henry abdicated in favour of his son Henry, who died in 1214, when the Palatinate was given by the German king Frederick II.
The part played by Count Frederick V., titular king of Bohemia, during the Thirty Years' War induced the emperor Ferdinand II.
The elector Frederick, called the Victorious, was one of the foremost princes of his time.
It was Frederick, count palatine of Simmern, who succeeded to the Palatinate on Otto Henry's death, becoming the elector Frederick III.
A similar line of action was followed by Frederick IV.
His son, the elector Frederick V., accepted the throne of Bohemia and thus brought on the Thirty Years War.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but it was shorn of the upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as the prize of war.
At Naples he was tried as a traitor, and on the 29th of October was beheaded with his friend and companion Frederick of Baden, titular duke of Austria.
His remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, still rest in the church of the monastery of Santa Maria del Carmine at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul; and here in 1847 a marble statue, by Thorwaldsen, was erected to his memory by Maximilian, crown prince of Bavaria.
The council formed a sequel to the peace of Venice (1177), which marked the close of the struggle between the papacy and the emperor Frederick I.
Apparently with this purpose in view, Prince Frederick Charles was instructed to break up his army corps into their constituent divisions, and move each division as a separate column on its own road, the reserve of cavalry and artillery following in rear of the centre.
As an eminent French critic (General Bonnal) says, this was but to repeat Frederick the Great's manoeuvre at Kolin, and, the Austrians being where they actually were and not where Moltke decided they ought to be, the result might have been equally disastrous.
Prince Frederick Charles was warned to guard the left flank of his marching troops and authorized to attack any forces of the enemy he might encounter in that direction, if not too strong for him.
The three Austrian corps were exactly the target Prince Frederick Charles desired.
Briefly he informed Prince Frederick Charles that the orders for the II.
The state of turmoil caused by these religious and political disputes was increased by the possibility of Albert's early death and the necessity in that event for a regency owing to the youth of his only son, Albert Frederick.
In 1526 he had married Dorothea, daughter of Frederick I., king of Denmark, and after her death in 1547, Anna Maria, daughter of Eric I., duke of Brunswick.
In 1147 he went on crusade, and after his return renounced Bavaria at the instance of the new king Frederick I.
He died in 1194, and Austria fell to one son, Frederick, and Styria to another, Leopold; but on Frederick's death in 1198 they were again united by Duke Leopold II., surnamed "the Glorious."
His later years were spent in strife with his son Frederick, and he died in 1230 at San Germano, whither he had gone to arrange the peace between the emperor Frederick II.
Restored when the emperor was excommunicated, he treated in vain with Frederick for the erection of Austria into a kingdom.
But Alphonso died childless in 1291 before the treaty could be carried out, and James took possession of Aragon, leaving the government of Sicily to the third brother Frederick.
An attempt was made to bribe Frederick into consenting to this arrangement, but being backed up by his people he refused, and was afterwards crowned king of Sicily.
He was in 1693 appointed the first professor of medicine in the university of Halle, then just founded by the elector Frederick III.
Goulburn, and then (1857) under Frederick Temple, who became his lifelong friend; he was also ordained deacon in 1854 and priest in 1856.
In March 1736 he received his first letter from Frederick of Prussia, then crown prince only.
Frederick, now king of Prussia, made not a few efforts to get Voltaire away from Madame du Chatelet, but unsuccessfully, and the king earned the lady's cordial hatred by persistently refusing or omitting to invite her.
It was in this same year that he received the singular diplomatic mission to Frederick which nobody seems to have taken seriously, and after his return the oscillation between Brussels, Cirey and Paris was resumed.
All this time Frederick of Prussia had been continuing his invitations.
This Berlin visit is more or less familiar to English readers from the two great essays of Macaulay and Carlyle as well as from the Frederick 'of the ' latter.
Both were unjust to Voltaire, and Macaulay was unjust to Frederick as well.
It was quite impossible that Voltaire and Frederick should get on together for long.
Voltaire was not humble enough to be a mere butt, as many of Frederick's led poets were; he was not enough of a gentleman to hold his own place with dignity and discretion; he was constantly jealous both of his equals in age and reputation, such as Maupertuis, and of his juniors and inferiors, such as Baculard D'Arnaud.
Frederick, though his love of teasing for teasing's sake has been exaggerated by Macaulay, was a martinet of the first water, had a sharp though one-sided idea of justice, and had not the slightest intention of allowing Voltaire to insult or to tyrannize over his other guests and servants.
In the early autumn of 1751 La Mettrie, one of the king's parasites, and a man of much more talent than is generally allowed, horrified Voltaire by telling him that Frederick had in conversation applied to him (Voltaire) a proverb about "sucking the orange and flinging away its skin," and about the same time the dispute with Maupertuis, which had more than anything else to do with his exclusion from Prussia, came to a head.
Frederick did not like disobedience, but he still less liked being made a fool of, and he put Voltaire under arrest.
It could not be proved that he had ordered the printing, and all Frederick could do was to have the pamphlet burnt by the hangman.
One day Voltaire sent his orders, &c., back; the next Frederick returned them, but Voltaire had quite made up his mind to fly.
There was some faint excuse for Frederick's wrath.
In the second place, in direct disregard of a promise given to Frederick, a supplement to Akakia appeared, more offensive than the main text.
An excuse was provided in the fact that the poet had a copy of some unpublished poems of Frederick's, and as soon as Voltaire arrived hands were laid on him, at first with courtesy enough.
The resident, Freytag, was not a very wise person (though he probably did not, as Voltaire would have it, spell "poesie" "poeshie"); constant references to Frederick were necessary; and the affair was prolonged so that Madame Denis had time to join her uncle.
He did not make himself a slave to his visitors, but reserved much time for work and for his immense correspondence, which had for a long time once more included Frederick, the two getting on very well when they were not in contact.
In 1844 he became an extraordinary professor at the university of Berlin, and in the same year was appointed tutor to Prince Frederick William (afterwards the Emperor Frederick III.) - a post which he held till 1850.
Especially noteworthy, however, was the Denkschrift or Missive addressed by him to King Frederick William III.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
In 1848 he was elected a member of the German parliament at Frankfort, where he associated himself with the right centre, supporting the proposal for a German empire under the supremacy of Prussia; and he was one of the deputation which offered the imperial crown to Frederick William IV.
On the 15th of August 1760 Frederick the Great gained a decisive victory near Liegnitz over the Austrians, and in August 1813 Blucher defeated the French in the neighbourhood at the battle of the Katzbach.
Frederick Barbarossa, however, elected emperor in 1152, made his authority felt in Tuscany, and appointed one Welf of Bavaria as margrave.
The tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many Ghibelline nobles favoured by the podestd Pace di Pesamigola, indicate a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights.
Rudolph of Habsburg, elected king of the Romans in 1273, having come to terms with Pope Nicholas III., Charles was obliged in 1278 to give up his title of imperial vicar in Tuscany, which he had held during the interregnum following on the death of Frederick II.
The Swedes, at the desire of Elizabeth, accepted Adolphus Frederick, duke of Holstein, as their future king, and, in return, received back Finland, with the exception of a small strip of land up to the river Kymmene.
Bestuzhev prevent the signing of a Russo-Prussian defensive alliance (March 1 743); but he deprived it of all political significance by excluding from it the proposed guarantee of Frederick's Silesian conquests.
Frederick II., conscious of the instability of his French ally, was now eager to contract an offensive alliance with Russia; and the first step to its realization was the overthrow of Bestuzhev, "upon whom," he wrote to his minister Axel von Mardefeld, "the fate of Prussia and my own house depends."
About this time he was hampered by the persistent opposition of the vicechancellor Mikhail Vorontsov, formerly his friend, now his jealous rival, who was secretly supported by Frederick the Great.
To prevent undergound intrigues, Bestuzhev now proposed the erection of a council of ministers, to settle all important affairs, and at its first session (14th-30th of March) an alliance with Austria, France and Poland against Frederick II.
His unwillingness to agree to the coalition was magnified into a determination to defeat it, though it is quite obvious that he could only gain by the humiliation of Frederick, and nothing was ever proved against him.
At the partition of 1544 the old château of Gottorp, originally built in 1160 for the bishop, became the residence of the Gottorp line of the Schleswig-Holstein family, which remained here till expelled by the Danish king Frederick IV.
His son Frederick was the author of Sermons on Several Important Subjects and Sermons on Christian Zeal, both published in 1753.
In June 1874 he was found guilty of a libel on Prince Bismarck, whom he had compared to Frederick II.
Innocent was raised to the Holy See when it was at deadly feud with the emperor Frederick II., who lay under excommunication.
Frederick at first greeted the elevation of a member of an imperialist family with joy; but it was soon clear that Innocent intended to carry on the traditions of his predecessors.
Innocent, therefore, remained at Lyons, whence he issued a summons to a general council, before which he cited Frederick to appear in person, or by deputy.
The council, which met on the 5th of June 1245, was attended only by those prepared to support the pope's cause; and though Frederick condescended to be represented by his justiciar, Thaddeus of Suessa, the judgment was a foregone conclusion.
Frederick retorted by announcing his intention of reducing "the clergy, especially the highest, to a state of apostolic poverty," and by ordaining the severest punishments for those priests who should obey the papal sentence.
In Naples he fomented a conspiracy among the feudal lords, who were discontented with the centralized government established under the auspices of Frederick's chancellor, Piero della Vigna.
At first the war went in Frederick's favour; then came the capture of the strategically important city of Parma by papal partisans (June 16th, 1247).