Franks sentence example
This was accomplished by calling the Franks in against the Lombards.
In the 5th century the Franks seized Tournai, and Merovaeus made it the capital of his dynasty.
The original significance of the name remains in dispute, but the first of the family to whom it was applied was Hugh, who was elected king of the Franks in 987.
The Armenians in the south-east of Asia Minor borrowed feudal institutions from the Franks and the feudal vocabulary itself.
By these measures the counts became citizens, the rural population ceased to rank as serfs, and the Italo-Roman population of the towns absorbed into itself the remnants of Franks, Germans and other foreign stocks.Advertisement
Of this period scarcely any record remains, but when at the end of the 3rd century the Franks began to swarm over the Rhine into the Roman lands, the names of the old tribes had disappeared.
The branch of the Franks - who were a confederacy, not a people - which gradually overspread Gallia Belgica, bore the name of the Salian Franks..
The strip of coast from the mouth of the Scheldt to that of the Ems remained, however, in the hands of the free Frisians (q.v.), in alliance with whom against the Franks were the Saxons, who, pressing forward from the east, had occupied a portion of the districts known later as Gelderland, Overyssel and Drente.
Odoacer inaugurated that long series of foreign rulersGreeks, Franks, Germans, Spaniards and Austrians who have successively contributed to the misgovernment of Italy from distant seats of empire.
Towards the end of the 3rd century, the inroads of the Franks having been repelled by the emperor Probus, the city rapidly acquired wealth and importance.Advertisement
The Franks, who had thrice previously sacked the city, gained permanent possession of it about 455.
With this use of the word, philologically inexact, but historically quite defensible, may be compared the use of the word English, which is not exactly the language of the Angles, or of the word French, which is not exactly the language of the Franks.
In 728 the Lombard king Luitprand took and destroyed the suburb Classis; about 752 the city itself fell into the hands of his successor Aistulf, from whom a few years after it was wrested by Pippin, king of the Franks.
The legions at once joined him; numbers of Franks enlisted in his service; an increased and well-equipped fleet secured him the command of the neighbouring seas.
The Romans held it nearly five hundred years, and on the dissolution of their power it passed under the sway of the Franks.Advertisement
In the 5th century came other German tribes, the Alamanni, and then the Franks, who drove the Alamanni into the south.
The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
Charles's son, Pippin, was crowned king of Italy, entered the peninsula at the head of the Franks, defeated the Lombards, took Ravenna and presented it to the pope, while retaining a feudal superiority.
Venice was now brought face to face with the Franks under their powerful sovereign, who soon showed that he intended to claim the lagoons as part of his new kingdom.
He and his followers plotted the murder of the doge, were discovered, and sought safety at the court of Charlemagne, where Fortunatus strongly urged the Franks to attack the lagoons.Advertisement
The period from the election of the first doge to the appearance of the Franks was characterized by fierce struggles between Heraclea and Jesolo.
He turned his attention to the lagoon of Venice, which had been steadily growing in commercial and maritime importance, and had, on the whole, shown a sympathy for Byzantium rather than for the Franks.
In order to hold these possessions, she borrowed from the Franks the feudal system, and granted fiefs in the Greek islands to her more powerful families, on condition that they held the trade route open for her.
The real founder of the house, however, was Robert the Strong, who received from Charles the Bald, king of the Franks, the countships of Anjou and Blois, and who is sometimes called duke, as he exercised some military authority in the district between the Seine and the Loire.
Robert's two sons, Odo or Eudes, and Robert II., succeeded their father successively as dukes, and, in 887, some of the Franks chose Odo as their king.Advertisement
They gave the kingdom a connexion of its own with the Red Sea and its shipping; and they enabled the Franks to 2 Pisa naturally connected itself with Antioch, because Antioch was hostile to Constantinople, and Pisa cherished the same hostility, since Alexius I.
The disunion between the Mahommedans of northern Syria and the Fatimites of Egypt, and the political disintegration of the former, were both favourable to the success of the Franks; but they had nevertheless to maintain their ground vigorously both in the north and the south against almost incessant attacks.
The plan of conquering Egypt had indeed presented itself to the Franks from the first, as it continued to attract them to the end; and it is significant that Godfrey himself, in 1100, promised Jerusalem to the patriarch, "as soon as he should have conquered some other great city, and especially Cairo."
Before the accession of Zengi, there had been constant fighting, which had led, however, to no definite result, between the various Mahommedan princes and the Franks of northern Syria.
If Fulk had been left alone to wage the struggle against Zengi, and if Zengi had enjoyed a clear field against the Franks, the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem might have come far sooner than it did.Advertisement
One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of the alliance in 1147 - a breach which was widened by the attack directed against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.
On the whole, the interference of the Comneni, if it checked Zengi for the moment in 1138, may be said to have ultimately weakened and distracted the Franks, and to have helped to cause the loss of Edessa (1144), which marks the turning-point in the history of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
Two great central courts sat in Jerusalem to do justice - the high court of the nobles, and the court of burgesses for the rest of the Franks.
The fact is that until the 13th century the Franks lived consuetudinibus antiquis et jure non scripto.
The former courts, under their bailiffs, gradually absorbed the separate courts which the Syrians had at first been permitted to enjoy under their own refs; and the bailiff with his 6 assessors (4 Syrians and 2 Franks) thus came to judge both commercial cases and cases in which Syrians were involved.Advertisement
Continually recruited from the West, they retained the vigour which the native Franks of Palestine gradually lost; and their corporate strength gave a weight to their arms which made them indispensable.
The Franks of northern Europe attempted to live a life that suited a northern climate under a southern sun.
Little driblets of men might indeed be added to the numbers of the Franks; but the great bodies of crusaders either perished in Asia Minor, as in I ioi and 1147, or found themselves thwarted and distrusted by the native Franks.
The result was the renewed enmity of the Greek empire, while the French adventurers who won the prize ruined the prospects of the Franks by their conduct.
Not only so, but in the spring of 1147 the Franks were unwise enough.Advertisement
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
If a religious union had been effected between Egypt and northern Syria, political disunion still remained; and the Franks were safe as long as it lasted.
He was confronted, however, by Raymund, count of Tripoli, the one man of ability among the decadent Franks, who acted as guardian of the kingdom; while he was also occupied in trying to win for himself the Syrian possessions of Nureddin.
It was, however, by their own folly that the Franks lost Jerusalem in 1244.
The Franks evacuated Syria altogether, leaving behind them only the ruins of their castles to bear witness, to this very day, of the Crusades they had waged and the kingdom they had founded and lost.Advertisement
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
Early in the 6th century it passed under the authority of the Franks, and in the 9th century was part of the Frankish kingdom of Aquitaine.
Bonif ace does not seem to have taken part in the anointing of Pippin as king of the Franks in 752.Advertisement
One of the most important results of the struggle was the defection of the pope, who sought and obtained protection from Pippin, king of the Franks.
He then got himself crowned by St Boniface, a ceremony which was new to France and which gave the sovereign immense prestige; henceforth the king of the Franks called himself Gratia Dei rex Francorum.
The Frankish assemblies, previously held in the month of March (champs de mars), but under Pippin deferred to May (champs de mai), came to be more numerous, and served the king of the Franks as a means of receiving the gifts of his subjects and of promulgating his capitularies.
His palace was in the Propylaea; the lofty " Tower of the Franks," which adjoined the south wing of that building, was possibly built in his time.
This is in three books and deals with Frankish history from the fabulous reign of Pharamond, king of the Franks, to A.D.
During his last years he was engaged in a war with the Franks.
The name Franks seems to have been given in the 4th century to a group of Germanic peoples dwelling north of the Main and reaching as far as the shores of the North Sea; south of the Main was the home of the Alamanni.
It is evidently this Marcomeres, the chief of these tribes, who is regarded by later historians as the father of the legendary Faramund (Pharamund) although in fact Marcomeres has nothing to do with the Salian Franks.
The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that the term " et Franci " is not a later emendation.
All these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they had in common.
Waitz holds with some show of probability that the Franks represent the ancient Istaevones of Tacitus, the Alamanni and the Saxons representing the Herminones and the Ingaevones.
The place-names became entirely Germanic; the Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans.
At this time Tournai became the capital of the Salian Franks.
After Chlodio a certain Meroveus (Merowech) was king of the Salian Franks.
A king of the Franks having died, his two sons disputed the power.
In any case, eventually, Franks fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac (the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name of Meroveus appears among the combatants.
Clovis made his authority recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of the Ripuarian Franks.
In the Chronicon of Fredegarius it is already affirmed that the Franks are descended from the Trojans.
The Ripuarians long remained allies of Clovis, Sigebert's son Chloderic fighting under the king of the Salian Franks at Vouille in 507.
Thus the Salian Franks united under their rule all the Franks on the left bank of the Rhine.
During the reigns of Clovis's sons they again turned their eyes on Germany, and imposed their suzerainty upon the Franks on the right bank.
This country, north of the Main and the first residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into which Germany was divided in the Toth century - the duchy of Franconia (Franken).
The Franks were redoubtable warriors, and were generally of great stature.
From the girdle hung the single-edged missile axe or francisca, the scramasax or short knife, a poniard and such articles of toilet as scissors, a comb (of wood or bone), &c. The Franks also used a weapon called the framea (an iron lance set firmly in a wooden shaft), and bows and arrows.
Towards the end of the 8th century it was taken by the Franks of Charlemagne.
From Denmark he carried away thirty boys to be brought up among the Franks.
It was captured by Euric the Goth in 466 and by the Franks under Childebert in 542; it was dismantled by Charlemagne in 778, but repulsed the emir of Saragossa in 907.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
Lothair, king of the west Franks, claimed the guardianship, and attempted to make use of his position to serve his own purposes in Lorraine, which would in all probability have been lost to the empire but for the efforts of Adalbero and Gerbert.
The Franks continued the same policy and retained a system of river-dues.
It originated with the Salian Franks, often simply called Salians, the chief of that conglomeration of Germanic peoples known as Franks.
It is more probable, however, that these words served the Franks, who were ignorant of Latin, as clues to the general sense of each paragraph of the law.
As yet the law is not impregnated with the Christian spirit; this absence of both Christian and Pagan elements is due to the fact that many of the Franks were still heathens, although their king had been converted to Christianity.
Like all the barbarian laws, the law of the Salian Franks was a personal law; it applied only to the Salian Franks.
The Lex Ripuaria was the law of the Ripuarian Franks, who dwelt between the Meuse and the Rhine, and whose centre was Cologne.
The foster-brotherhood seems to have been unknown to the Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, the nations in which medieval gilds first appear; and hence Dr Pappenheim's conclusions, if tenable at all, apply only to Denmark or Scandinavia.
Its prosperity notably declined after the establishment of the Lombard rule and under the Franks.
The city did not easily recover from this blow, and Padua was still weak when the Franks succeeded the Eombards as masters of north Italy.
But the dissensions of the native Franks and the crusaders made it hopeless to continue the struggle; and Richard was alarmed by the news which reached him of John's intrigues in England and Normandy.
The bazaar of the Franks (kissaria) was a large walled enclosure, the gates of which were closed at sunset.
The inhabitants of Baden are of various origin - those to the north of the Murg being descended from the Alemanni and those to the south from the Franks, while the Swabian plateau derives its name and its population from another race.
Subsequently it was successively occupied or traversed by Visigoths, Huns, Ostrogoths, Langobardi, Franks and Avars.
It was later ruled by the Ostrogoths (5th century) and the Lombards (6th century) after the conquest of whom by the Franks (774) Trent became part of the kingdom of Italy.
He was killed in battle at Brissarthe in October 866, leaving two sons, Odo, or Eudes, and Robert, both of whom became kings of the Franks.
From 464 to 486 he governed that part of Gaul which lies between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Seine, and was termed "king of the Romans" by the German invaders, Franks, Burgundians and Visigoths, who already occupied the rest of Gaul.
Defeated in 486 by Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, at the battle of Soissons, Syagrius fled, leaving his land at the mercy of the Franks.
In the 5th century the territory was conquered by the Burgundians, and formed part of their kingdom; nearly a hundred years later it was occupied by the Franks.
When Vitiges, the king of the Ostrogoths, ceded Provence to the Franks in 535, the possession of Arles and Marseilles was guaranteed to Childebert by his brothers.
In the middle of the 5th century the town was plundered by the Huns under Attila; subsequently it came into possession of the Franks, and was made the capital of Austrasia.
After Conrad's death the Franks and the Saxons met at Fritzlar in May 919 and chose Henry as German king, after which the new king refused to allow his election to be sanctioned by the church.
In 921 Charles recognized Henry as king of the East Franks, and when in 9 2 3 the French king was taken prisoner by Herbert, count of Vermandois, Lorraine came under Henry's authority, and Giselbert, who married his daughter Gerberga, was recognized as duke.
When Pippin was crowned king of the Franks at St Denis on the 28th of July 754 by Pope Stephen II., Charles, and his brother Carloman were anointed by the pope as a sign of their kingly rank.
Carloman died in December 771, and Charles was at once recognized at Corbeny as sole king of the Franks.
At Easter 781, Carloman, his second son by Hildegarde, was renamed Pippin and crowned king of Italy by Pope Adrian, and his youngest son Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine; but no mention was made at the time of his eldest son Charles, who was doubtless intended to be king of the Franks.
This contest, in which the king himself took a very active part, brought the Franks into collision with the Wiltzi, a tribe dwelling east of the Elbe, who in 789 was reduced to dependence.
He loved the simple dress and manners of the Franks, and on two occasions only did he assume the more stately attire of a Roman noble.
According to both the German and Scandinavian authorities he was the son of a certain Sigmundr (Siegmund), a king in the Netherlands, or the "land of the Franks."
This was afterwards preserved as an administrative district under the Franks with the name first of pagus, then of comitatus, or countship of Anjou.
Though the name Trecht or Trajectum is almost universally found in old documents and on coins, the town was known by another name among the Frisians and Franks.
The earliest authentic record of the town is that of the building of a chapel - afterwards destroyed by the heathen Frisians - by Dagobert I., king of the Franks, in 636; but the importance of the place began when St Willibrord (q.v.), the apostle of the Frisians, established his see there.
His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 600 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
For many years the Saxons had been troublesome to the Franks, their neighbours to the east and south, and the intermittent campaigns undertaken against them by Charles Martel and Pippin the Short had scarcely impaired their independence.
Having received hostages Charles left the country; but in 774 while he was in Italy the Saxons retook Eresburg, and crossing the frontier attacked the church of St Boniface at Fritzlar and ravaged the land of the Franks.
Oaths and hostages were exacted; and many Saxon youths were educated in the land of the Franks as Christians, and sent back into Saxony to spread Christianity and Frankish influence.
Two years later a final campaign was undertaken, when a large number of these people were transported into the country of the Franks and their land was given to the Abotrites.
Radulf made himself practically independent of the Franks, in spite of an attack made on him by Sigebert III., king of Austrasia.
They were again reduced to dependence on the Franks by Charles Martel, who abolished the office of duke and divided the country among Frankish counts.
Local histories containing more or less ecclesiastical material were written in the 6th and following centuries by Jordanes (History of the Goths), Gregory of Tours (History of the Franks), Isidore of Seville (History of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi), Bede (Ecclesiastical History of England), Paulus Diaconus (History of the Lombards), and others.
They were present when the believers in Mahomet held sway in the Asiatic and African provinces which Alexander had once brought under the intellectual influence of Hellenism; while the Lombards, the West Goths, the Franks and the AngloSaxons had established kingdoms in Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain.
Not only were the bishoprics in the towns of the Rhine country re-established, but as the Franks colonized the country on both sides of the Main, they carried the Christian faith into the very heart of Germany.
Celtic monks worked as missionaries in this part of the country side by side with Franks.
The churches of the Lombards, West Goths, Franks and Anglo-Saxons, all counted themselves parts of the Catholic Church; but the Catholic Church had altered its condition; it lacked the power of organization, and split up into territorial churches.
Beside him are the Celts Josephus Scottus and Dungal, the Lombards Paulinus and Paulus Diaconus, the West Goth Theodulf and many Franks.
But the Teutonic elements maintained their place in the law of the Frankish Church; and this was not altered by the fact that, since Christmas Boo, the king of the Franks and Lombards had borne the title of Roman emperor.
Under Charles occurred the first attempt at reconciliation between the papacy and the Franks.
It was occupied by the Visigoths in 477, in the succeeding century was repeatedly plundered by the Franks and Lombards, and was occupied by the Saracens in 731.
It was a menace to his empire on the south, the occasional ally of the Franks and the home of the unorthodox caliphs.
The house of Schwarzburg is one of the oldest and noblest in Germany; and tradition traces its descent from Widukind and the kings of the Franks.
During the first crusade the reigning prince was Kumushtegin (Ahmed Ghazi), who defeated the Franks and took prisoner the prince of Antioch, Bohemund, afterwards ransomed.
The acquisition of Egypt had been an object of the Franks since the days of Baldwin I.
Not much later a considerable portion of northern Gaul fell into the hands of the Franks, and before the middle of the century the eastern part was occupied by the Burgundians.
The chief events of the latter part of the century were the conquest of the eastern part of Britain by the Angli, the invasion of Italy by the Ostrogoths and the complete subjugation of northern Gaul by the Franks.
The first half of the 6th century saw the subjugation of the Burgundian and Visigothic portions of Gaul by the Franks and the recovery of Africa by the Romans.
The Franks and the Langobardi remained in Gaul and Italy, but they gradually became denationalized and absorbed in the native populations, while in Spain Teutonic nationality came to an end with the overthrow of the Visigothic kingdom by the Moors, if not before.
The followers (called by Tacitus comites, in England " thegns," among the Franks antrustiones, &c.) were expected to remain faithful to their lord even to death; indeed so close was the relationship between the two that it seems to have reckoned as equivalent to that of father and son.
The first conversion to the Catholic form was that of the Franks at the end of the 5th century.
The story is told from the point of view of a Lombard patriot and is especially valuable for the relations between the Franks and the Lombards.
When Rome, abandoned by the distant emperors, was placed under the protection of the Franks (754), relations between her and the Greek tinopie.
The surprising thing is that, although Rome was then included within the empire of the Franks, so that the popes were afforded special opportunities for activity, they showed for the most part no eagerness to strengthen their authority over the clergy beyond the Alps.
To' this use has been attached the absurd origin from "ne ' god," the words in which, according to the 12th century chronicle, Rollo, duke of the Normans, refused to kiss the foot of Charles III., the Simple, king of the West Franks.
Barcinona or Bardjaluna, as it was then called, was captured by the Moors in 713, and in 801 it passed, with the rest of Catalonia, under the dominion of the Franks.
It was by means of their horsemen that the Austrasian Franks established their superiority over their neighbours, and in time created the Western Empire anew, while from the word caballarius, which occurs in the Capitularies in the reign of Charlemagne, came the words for knight in all the Romance languages.
But there are grounds for believing that some of the rudiments of chivalry are to be detected in early Teutonic customs, and that they may have made some advance among the Franks of Gaul.
Again, among the Franks we find Charlemagne girding his son Louis the Pious, and Louis the Pious girding his son Charles the Bald with the sword, when they arrived at manhood.
It was among the Franks indeed, and possibly through their experiences in war with the Saracens, that cavalry first acquired the pre-eminent place which it long maintained in every European country.
For they slew as many good prisoners as would well have been worth, one with another, four hundred thousand franks."
The war was brought to an end by the treaty of Verdun (August 843),which gave to Charles the Bald the kingdom of the western Franks, which practically corresponded with what 1 For Charles I., Roman emperor, see Charlemagne; cf.
When the Lombard kingdom fell before the Franks under Charlemagne in 774, the archbishops of Milan were still further strengthened by the close alliance between Charles and the Church, which gave a sort of confirmation to their temporal authority, and also by Charles's policy of breaking up the great Lombard fiefs and dukedoms, for which he substituted the smaller counties.
Ethnographically, the Bavarians belong to various ancient tribes; Germanized Slavs in the north-east, Swabians and Franks in the centre, Franks towards the west, and, in the Palatinate, Walloons.
The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably without a serious struggle; and were ruled from 555 to 788 by dukes of the Agilolfing family, who were possibly of Frankish descent.
The ease with which various risings were suppressed by the Franks gives colour to the supposition that they were rather the outcome of family quarrels than the revolt of an oppressed people.
Moreover, during the early years of the reign of Charlemagne, Tassilo gave decisions in ecclesiastical and civil causes in his own name, refused to appear in the assemblies of the Franks, and in general acted as an independent ruler.
Given at the partition of 817 to the king of the East Franks, Louis the German, it formed part of the larger territories which were confirmed to him in 843 by the treaty of Verdun.
It deals chiefly with the struggles of the Byzantine army, under the command of the eunuch Narses, against the Goths, Vandals, Franks and Persians.
He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.
As the power of the Roman empire declined the Franks pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, and by the end of the 5th century had regained all the lands that had formerly been under Teutonic influence.
The name is taken from Merovech, one of the first kings of the Salian Franks, who succeeded to Clodio in the middle of the 5th century, and soon became the centre of many legends.
About 330 the city was taken by the Franks but was not permanently occupied by them till the 5th century, becoming in 475 the residence of the Frankish king Childeric. It was the seat of a pagus or gau, and counts of Cologne are mentioned in the 9th century.
He had distinguished himself as a general by victories over the Franks and Alemanni, and six months after the deposition of Avitus he was declared emperor by the regent Ricimer.
In 407 it was destroyed by the Vandals, and having been partially rebuilt, came into the hands of the Franks.
Among the Franks and Burgundians we find monolithic sarcophagi in imitation of the Romans, and in other districts sarcophagi were constructed out of several blocks of stonethe so-called Plattengraber.
About the middle of the 3rd century the name Franks (q.v.) makes its first appearance, apparently a new collective term for the tribes of north-west Germany from the Chatti to the mouth of the Rhine.
In the 4th century the chief powers in western Germany were the Franks and the Alamanni, both of whom were in constant conflict with the Romans.
In the 6th century the predominant peoples are the Franks, Frisians, Saxons, Alamanni, Bavarians, Langobardi, Heruli and Warni.
By the beginning of this century the The Saxons seem to have penetrated almost, if not quite, Franks to the Rhine in the Netherlands.
To the east of the Franks between the Harz, the Elbe and the Saale lay the kingdom of the Thuringi, the origin of whom is not clear.
Shortly The after the middle of the 6th century the Franks were Saxons threatened with a new invasion by the Avars.
In and the 567568 the Langobardi, who by this time had moved Franks.
The conquest of the Frisians by the Franks was begun by Pippin (Pepin) of Heristal in 689 and practically completed by Charles Martel, though they were not entirely brought into subjection until the time of Charlemagne.
When Clovis, or Chiodovech, became king of a tribe of the Salian Franks in 481, five years after the fall of the Western empire, the region afterwards called Germany was Divisions divided into five main districts, and its history for iermany.
In the south-west the Alamanni occupied the territory afterwards called Swabia (q.v.), and extended along the middle Rhine until they met the Ripuarian Franks, then living in the northern part of the district which at a later period was called after them, Franconia (q.v.); and in the south-east were the Bavarians, although it was some time before their country came to be known as Bavaria (q.v.).
Clovis was descended from Chlogio, or Clodion, who had ruled over a branch of the Salian Franks from 427 to 447, and whose successors, following his example, had secured an The w/lrs.
Having obtained possession of that part of Gaul which lay between the Seine and the Loire, Clovis turned his attention to his eastern neighbors, and was soon engaged in a struggle with the Alamanni which probably arose out of a quarrel between them and the Ripuarian Franks for the possession of the middle Rhine.
When in 496, or soon afterwards, the Alamanni were defeated, they were confined to what was afterwards known as Swabia, and the northern part of their territory was incorporated with the kingdom of the Franks.
Clovis had united the Salian Franks uiider his rule, and he persuaded, or compelled, the Ripuarian Franks also to accept him as their king; but on his death in 511 his kingdom was divided, and the Ripuarian, or Rhenish, Franks as they are sometimes called, together with some of the Alamanni, came under the rule of his eldest son Theuderich orTheodoricl.
This was the first of the many partitions which effectually divided the kingdom of the Franks into an eastern and a western portion, that is to say, into divisions which eventually became Germany and France respectively, and the district ruled by Theuderich was almost identical with that which afterwards bore the name of Austrasia.
His son and successor; Theudebert I., exercised a certain supremacy over the Alamanni and the Bavarians, and even claimed authority over various Saxon tribes between whom and the Franks there had been some fighting.
They were still heathens, cherishing bitter hatred towards the Franks, whom they regarded as the enemies both of their liberties and of their religion; and their hatred found expression, not only in expeditions into Frankish territory, but in help willingly rendered to every German confederation which wished to throw off the Frankish yoke.
Hardly any rebellion against the dukes of the Franks, or against King Pippin, took place in Germany without the Saxons coming Torward to aid the rebels.
A Saxon chief who made peace with the Franks could undertake nothing for the whole people.
The East and West Franks were unable to understand each others speech, so Charles took the oath in a Romance, and Louis in a German dialect.
Hitherto a sovereign crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle had been king of the West Franks, or king of the Franks and Saxons.
On the disintegration of the empire, it fell into the hands of the Visigoths, who, in spite of the attacks of the Franks, especially in 585, retained possession till 724, when they were expelled by the Arabs, destined in turn to yield before long to Pippin the Short.
The Franks claimed some authority over this people, and probably some of the princes of the Slovenes had recognized this claim, but it could not be regarded as serious while the Avars were in possession of the land.
This step brought the later Austria definitely under the rule of the Franks, and during the struggle Establish- Charlemagne erected a mark, called the East Mark, ment of to defend the eastern border of his empire.
It was they, apparently, who formed the army which conquered the land, an army composed chiefly of Franks, and of a few Gallo-Romans who had taken the side of Clovis.
For each of their expeditions, the kings raised an army of citizens in which the Gallo-Romans mingled more and more with the Franks; they only kept one small permanent body which acted as their bodyguard (trustis dominica), some members of which were from time to time told off for other tasks, such as that of forming garrisons in the frontier towns..
The Achaeans, or Hellenes, as they were later termed, were on this hypothesis one of the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi (Celts), who from time to time have pressed down over the Alps into the southern lands, successively as Achaeans, Gauls, Goths and Franks, and after the conquest of the indigenous small dark race in no long time died out under climatic conditions fatal to their physique and morale.
At the beginning of the 19th century the population was estimated at about 200,000, made up of 120,000 Moslems, 60,000 Copts, 4000 Jews and 16,000 Greeks, Armenians and " Franks."
The beginning of this reign coincided with the beginning of the Crusades, and al-Aflal made the fatal mistake of helping the Franks by rescuing Jerusalem from the Ortokids, thereby, facilitating its conquest by the Franks in 1099.
He made repeated attempts to recover the Syrian and Palestinian cities from the Franks, but with poor success.
His external policy was not more fortunate than that of his predecessor, as he lost Tyre to the Franks, and a fleet equipped by him was defeated by the Venetians.
Abbs was killed by the Franks near Ascalon, his son sent in a cage to Cairo where he was executed, while lJsmah escaped to Damascus, The infant Fgiz, who had been permanently incapacitated by the scenes of violence which accompanied his accession, died in i16o.
At the same time Egypt was invaded by the Franks, who raided and did much damage on the coast.
Shawar, being unable to cope with the Syrians, demanded help of the Frankish king of Jerusalem Amalric (Amauri) I., who hastened to his aid with a large force, which united with Shawars and besieged Shirgflh in Bilbeis for three months; at the end of this time, owing to the successes of Nureddin in Syria, the Franks granted Shirguh a free passage with his troops back to Syria, on condition of Egypt being evacuated (October 1164).
Terms were then made by which both Syrians and Franks were to quit Egypt, though the garrison of Cairo remained; the hostile attitude of the Moslem population to this garrison led to another invasion at the beginning of 1168 by King Amalric, who after taking Bilbeis advanced to Cairo.
The caliph, who up to this time appears to have left the administration to the viziers, now sent for Shirguh, whose speedy arrival in Egypt caused the Franks to withdraw.
Much of Saladins time was spent in Syria, and his famous wars with the Franks belong to the history of the Crusades and to his personal biography.
He followed the plan of dividing his empire between his sons, the eldest Mahommed, called Malik al-Kdmil, being his viceroy in Egypt, while al-Muazzam Isa governed Syria, al-Ashraf Musa his eastern and al-Malik al-Aubad Ayyub his northern possessions His attitude towards the Franks was at the first peaceful, but later in his reign he was compelled to adopt more strenuous measures.
With these allies, and availing himself of the advantages offered by the inundation of the Nile, al-Kamil was able to cut off both the advance and the retreat of the invaders, and on the 31st of August 1221 a peace was concluded, by which the Franks evacuated Egypt.
Meanwhile in 1244 Jerusalem had been finally wrested from the Franks.
His authority was before his death recognized all over Syria (with the exception of the few cities still in the power of the Franks), over Arabia, with the exception of Yemen, on the Euphrates from Birah to Kerkesia (Circesium) on the Chaboras (Khabur), whilst the amirs of north-western Africa were tributary to him.
After the danger from the Mongols had ceased, however, KalUn directed his energies towards capturing the last places that remained in the hands of the Franks, and proceeded to take Markab, Latakia, and Tripoli (April 26th, 1289).
Meanwhile,, All Pasha, who had been behaving with violence towards the Franks in Alexandria, received a halt-isherif from the sultan, which he sent by his secretary to Cairo.
This Hygelac is undoubtedly to be identified with the Chochilaicus, king of the Danes (really Gotar) who, as mentioned above, made a raid against the Franks c. 520.
In 850 Horic was attacked by his own nephews and compelled to share the kingdom with them, while in 852 Herioldus was charged with treachery and slain by the Franks.
By the French, Charles the Great, Roman emperor and king of the Franks, is reckoned the first of the series of French kings named Charles (see Charlemagne).
The fragments of this casket, known as the Franks casket, came The Franks Casket.
Franks, who had bought it in Paris for a dealer.
The addiction of the Franks in later centuries to the chase is evidenced by the frequency with which not only the laity but also the clergy were warned by provincial councils against expending so much of their time and money on hounds, hawks and falcons; and we have similar proof with regard to the habits of other Teutonic nations subsequent to the introduction of Christianity.
After his death Ebroin became sole and absolute ruler of the Franks, imposing his authority over Burgundy and subduing the Austrasians, whom he defeated in 678 at Bois-du-Fay, near Laon.
Saladin almost immediately set himself to drive the Franks from the country.
After being defeated by Saladin at Banias, the Franks were compelled to make a treaty with the Moslem leader.
The town was captured by the Franks in 1210; after 1246 it was held in fief by the rulers of Athens.
Childebert, king of the Franks, also refused to interfere.
This is generally known as the Breviarium Alaricianum, or Breviary of Alaric. Alaric was of a peaceful disposition, and endeavoured strictly to maintain the treaty which his father had concluded with the Franks, whose king Clovis, however, desiring to obtain the Gothic province in Gaul, found a pretext for war in the Arianism of Alaric. The intervention of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths and father-in-law of Alaric, proved unavailing.
It was overrun by Slavic hordes, who have left their traces in many village names, and was one of the chief battlefields of the various powers - Byzantines, Franks, Venetians and Turks - who struggled for the possession of the Morea.
He came to the throne at a time when the attacks of the Greeks in Cilicia, and of Zengi on Edessa, were fatally weakening the position of the Franks in northern Syria; and from the beginning of his reign the power of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem may be said to be slowly declining, though as yet there is little outward trace of its decay to be seen.
Even his enemy, Nureddin, said of him, when he died - "the Franks have lost such a prrince that the world has not now his like."
Abdarrahman was among the slain and the Moslems retreated hastily in the night, leaving their camp to the Franks.
Hajjaj, a man of high qualities, re-entered Gaul and pushed forward his raids as far as Lyons, but the Franks again drove back the Arabs as far as Narbonne.
The ambassadors brought presents with them; on one of these occasions the first elephant reached the land of the Franks.
In this extremity the caliph bade Ibn Raiq, who had made himself master of Basra and Wasit, and had command of money and men, to come to his help. He created for him the office of Amir al-Omara, "Amir of the Amirs," which nearly corresponds to that of Mayor of the Palace among the Franks.'
In the west of Atabeg (prince's guardian) Zengi, the prince of Mosul, had extended his dominion over Mesopotamia and the north of Syria, where he had been the greatest defender of Islam against the Franks.
Under the Moors Lareda became one of the principal cities of the province of Saragossa; it became tributary to the Franks in 793, but was reconquered in 797.
By the invitation of the Goths an army of 75,000 warlike Alamanni and Franks, the subjects of King Theudibald, crossed the Alps under the command of two Alamannic nobles, the brothers Lothair and Buccelin (553) The great strategic talents of Narses were shown even more conspicuously in this, than in his previous and more brilliant campaigns.
The most ancient form of the word is Niuster, from niust, which would make the word signify the "most recent" conquests of the Franks.
When Provence was ceded to the Franks by the Ostrogoths, he received the cities of Orange, Carpentras and Gap. In 531 he marched against the Thuringi with his brother Theuderich(Thierry)I., and in 542 with his brother Childebert against the Visigoths of Spain.
The Saxons are not named, and the Franks appear only as a dreaded hostile power.
The Franks then defeated the Danes in a naval battle, and recovered the booty.
Now it is related in Beowulf that Hygelac met his death in fighting against the Franks and the Hetware (the Old English form of Attoarii).
The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.
The stories of his expulsion by the Franks; of his stay of eight years in Thuringia with King Basin and his wife Basine; of his return when a faithful servant advised him that he could safely do so by sending to him half of a piece of gold which he had broken with him; and of the arrival at Tournai of Queen Basine, whom he married, are entirely legendary.
He died in 481 and was buried at Tournai, leaving a son Clovis, afterwards king of the Franks.
Under the Franks the land tax and the provincial customs continued as forms of revenue, while beside them the gifts and court fees of Teutonic origin took their place.
The second book, from 397 to 511, deals with the invasions of the Franks, and is based on the histories of Sulpicius Alexander and Renatus Profuturus Frigeridus, now lost; on the catalogues of the bishops of Clermont and Tours; on some lives of saints, e.g.
In 1229 it was placed under the control of the knights of St John (whence one of its alternative names), but finally lost by the Franks in 1291.
During the Crusades it was alternately in the possession of the Franks and the Mahommedans, but finally fell into the hands of the latter in 1291.
Appointed by Odo ruler of several counties, including the county of Paris, and abbot in commendam of many abbeys, Robert also secured the office of duke of the Franks, a military dignity of high importance.
The rule of Charles, and especially his partiality for a certain Hagano, had aroused some irritation; and, supported by many of the clergy and by some of the most powerful of the Frankish nobles, Robert took up arms, drove Charles into Lorraine, and was himself crowned king of the Franks at Reims on the 29th of June 922.
Robert left a son, Hugh the Great, duke of the Franks, and his grandson was Hugh Capet, king of France.
After the death of his elder brother Charles in 866 he became king of Aquitaine, and in October 877 he succeeded his father as king of the West Franks, but not as emperor.
With anarchy among themselves and so precarious a hold on the country, hated by the Italian population and by the Catholic clergy, threatened also by an alliance of the Greek empire with their persistent rivals the Franks beyond the Alps, they resolved to sacrifice their independence and elect a king.
From this time till the fall of the Lombard power before the arms of their rivals the Franks under Charles the Great, the kingly rule continued.
So wrote Pope Stephen IV., at the end of their rule, when stirring up the kings of the Franks to destroy them.
The bride was the Christian Theodelinda, and she became to the Langobards what Bertha was to the Anglo-Saxons and Clotilda to the Franks.
Their old enemies the Franks on the west, and the Sla y s or Huns, ever ready to break in on the north-east, and sometimes called in by mutinous and traitorous dukes of Friuli and Trent, were constant and serious dangers.
But the popes, thoroughly irritated and alarmed, and hopeless of aid from the East, turned to the family which was rising into power among the Franks of the West, the mayors of the palace of Austrasia.
Samo also defeated the Franks in a great battle that took place at Wogatisburg (630), probably near the site of the present town of Eger.
He seems also to have claimed a kind of protectorate over the Teutonic powers generally, and indeed to have practically exercised it, except in the case of the Franks.
The Franks were Catholics from their first conversion; the Suevi became Catholics much earlier than the Goths.
On the death of Gontran in 592 Childebert annexed the kingdom of Burgundy, and even contemplated seizing Clotaire's estates and becoming sole king of the Franks.
Allying himself with the Franks and Vandals, he led his vast many-nationed army to the Rhine in the spring of 451, crossed that river, and sacked, apparently, most of the cities in Belgic Gaul.
During the following winter (1204-1205) the Franks prosecuted conquests in Bithynia, in which Henry, Baldwin's brother, took part.
It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks.
General Franks' column advanced to Lucknow from the eastern frontier of Oudh, defeating the enemy in four actions.
From 1872 Brunner devoted himself especially to studying the early laws and institutions of the Franks and kindred peoples of western Europe, and on these subjects his researches have been of supreme value.
In the Visigothic and Lombard codes princeps is the equivalent of rex or imperator; and when, after the overthrow of the Lombard kingdom by the Franks, Arichis II.
Civilized Europe had been caught at a moment when it was completely destitute of a war-navy; the Franks had never been maritime in their tastes, the English seemed to have forgotten their ancient seafaring habits.
In the time of the first crusades the main power was in the hands of the Arslan family, which, however, suffered so severely in wars with the Franks, that it was superseded by the Tnuhs, who, holding Beirut and nearly all the Phoenician coast, came into conflict with the sultans of Egypt.
When his father died in 956 he succeeded to his numerous fiefs around Paris and Orleans, and thus becoming one of the most powerful of the feudatories of his cousin, the Frankish king Lothair, he was recognized somewhat reluctantly by that monarch as duke of the Franks.
The word Franconia, first used in a Latin charter of 10J3, was applied like the words France, Francia and Franken, to a portion of the land occupied by the Franks.
About the close of the 5th century this territory was conquered by Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, was afterwards incorporated with the kingdom of Austrasia, and at a later period came under the rule of Charlemagne.
Early in the 3rd century the Alamanni drove the Romans beyond the Rhine and the Danube, but in their turn they were conquered by the Franks under Clovis, the decisive battle being fought in 496.
The king counted on him to accomplish the great work which was his dream, namely, to make the Franks familiar with the rules of the Latin language, to create schools and to revive learning.
He had as pupils the king of the Franks, the members of his family and the young clerics attached to the palace chapel; he was the life and soul of the Academy of the palace, and we have still, in the Dialogue of Pepin (son of Charlemagne) and Alcuin, a sample of the intellectual exercises in which they indulged.
Alcuin transmitted to the ignorant Franks the knowledge of Latin culture which had existed in England since the time of Bede.
According to Gregory of Tours, 3000 Franks were baptized with Clovis by Remigius on Christmas Day, 496, after the defeat of the Alamanni.
Towards the end of the 5th century the town passed to the Franks, who gave it its present name.
Thus, when the Anglo-Saxon, Winfrid, surnamed Boniface, appeared in the kingdom of the Franks as papal legate in 723, to romanize the existing church of the time, neither the Franks, the Thuringians, the Alemanni nor the Bavarians could be considered as pagans.
In 806 the northern and north-eastern districts were added to the empire of the Franks, and thus won for the Western Church.
Eventually they formed a portion of the Franks and were incorporated in the kingdom of Clovis probably with the Ripuarii, at the beginning of the 6th century.
But since Roman days the central Danube has never formed the boundary of a state; on the contrary it became the route followed from east to west by successive hordes of barbarians - the Huns, Avars, Slays, Magyars and Turks; while the Franks under Charlemagne, the Bavarians and the Crusaders all marched in the opposite direction towards the east.
It was destroyed by Charlemagne in 799, from which time it probably long remained under the dominion of the Franks.
The conversion of Clovis was a master-stroke; it was fortunate both for himself and for the Franks.
Clovis was king of the Sicambrians, one of the tribes of the Salian Franks.
In 531 the Thuringians in the centre of Germany were brought into subjection by his eldest son, King Theuderich, and about the same time the Bavarians were united to the Franks, though preserving a certain autonomy.
Moreover, the countries formerly subdued by the Franks availed themselves of this opportunity to loosen the yoke; Thuringia was lost by Sigebert in 641, and the revolt of Alamannia in 643 set back the frontier of the kingdom from the Elbe to Austrasia.
So when next year the king of the Franks went to Rome in person, on Christmas Eve of the year 8oo and in the basilica of St Peter the pope placed on his head the imperial crown and did him reverence after the established custom of the time of the ancient emperors.
Thirdly, Charlemagnes title of emperor strengthened his other title of king of the Franks, as is proved by the fact that at the great assembly of Aix-la-Chapeile in 802 he demanded from all, whether lay or spiritual, a new oath of allegiance to himself as Caesar.
The partition of Verdun separated once more, and definitively, the lands of the eastern and western Franks.
Louis soon proved to Hugh the Great, who was trying to play the part of a mayor of the palace, that he was by no means a roi fainant; and the powerful duke of the Franks, growing uneasy, allied himself with Herbert of Vermandois, William of Normandy and his brother-in-law Otto I.
Thus the triple alliance of Adalberos bold and adroit imperialism with the cautious and vacillating ambition of the duke of the Franks, and the impolitic hostility towards Germany of the ruined Carolingians, resulted in the unhooked-for advent of the new Capetian dynasty.
The rise of the power of the Franks and the advance of their dominion northwards brought on a collision with the Frisians, who in the 7th century were still in possession of the whole of the seacoast, and apparently ruled over the greater part of modern Flanders.
On Pippin's death Radbod again attacked the Franks and advanced as far as Cologne, where he defeated Charles Martel, Pippin's natural son.
A final defeat was, however, inflicted upon them by Charles Martel in 734, which secured the supremacy of the Franks in the north, though it was not until the days of Charles the Great (785) that the subjection of the Frisians was completed.
At the partition treaty of Verdun (843) Frisia became part of Lotharingia or Lorraine; at the treaty of Mersen (870) it was divided between the kingdoms of the East Franks (Austrasia) and the West Franks (Westrasia); in 880 the whole country was united to Austrasia; in 911 it fell under the dominion of Charles the Simple, king of the West Franks, but the districts of East Frisia asserted their independence and for a long time governed themselves after a very simple democratic fashion.
Various opinions are still held with regard to the question; but it seems not unlikely that the original settlers were Frisians who had been expelled by the Franks in the 8th century.
The Breton bishops were for the most part abbots of monasteries, who had but little consideration for the territorial limits of the civitates; and many of the religious usages of the Bretons differed profoundly from those of the Franks.
Reccared must have seen from the example of the Franks that the support of the Church was a great element of strength for the Crown.
On the eastern extremity of the Pyrenees the Franks found no native free population.
Fled before Franks to Barcelona at end of reign, and was murdered at Barcelona.
By 811 the Franks had conquered as far as Tortosa and Tarragona.
It was the headquarters of Saladin in the wars with the Franks.
But criticism is still busy attempting to trace these also to historical originals, and Theodor Abeling (Das Nibelungenlied, 1907) makes out a very plausible case for identifying Siegfried with Segeric, son of the Burgundian king Sigimund, Brunhild with the historical Brunichildis, and Hagen with a certain Hagnericus, who, according to the Life of St Columban, guided the saint (the chaplain of the Nibelungenlied), who had incurred the enmity of Brunichildis, safe to the court of her grandson Theuderich, king of the West Franks.
This Herr Abeling locates among the Franks of what is now southern France, whence the stories spread, from the 6th century onwards, on the one hand across the Rhine into Franconia, on the other hand westwards and northwards, by way of Ireland - at that time in close intercourse with continental Europe - and the northern islands, to Iceland.
It afterwards fell into the power of the Longobards, and then of the Franks, who yielded it to the pope, for whom it was governed by counts to the end of the 10th century.
Our thanks go to Franks for his use of jazz influences to compliment his excellent lyric content, and King for writing some of the great soul classics.
In Church's and Philip Franks ' production, however, no such clangers are dropped.
For good reviews of the cellular mechanisms of general anesthesia see Franks and Lieb (1994, 1997 ).
Ben Sidran is a vastly underrated singer songwriter with a style not dis-similar to Michael Franks with a slightly ' tougher ' delivery.
The Franks controlled the great routes of trade, and took tolls of the traders; and in 1130 their power may be regarded as having reached its height.
The conversion of Clovis and his rude followers to Christianity tended gradually to civilize the Franks, and to facilitate the fusion which soon took place between them and the Gallo-Roman population.
It tended also to accentuate Schristipread of the enmity to the Franks of the heathen Frisians and amity.
But the popes, Gregory III., Zachary and Stephen II., determining at any cost to espouse the national cause and to aggrandize their own office, continued to rely upon the Franks.
The advent of the Franks determined the final solution.
When Louis V., king of the Franks, died in 987, the Franks, setting aside the Carolingians, passed over his brother Charles, and elected Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the Great, as their king, and crowned him at Reims. Avoiding the pretensions which had been made by the Carolingian kings, the Capetian kings were content, for a time, with a more modest position, and the story of the growth of their power belongs to the history of France.
In 1032 Robert, the second son of Robert the Pious, king of the Franks, and grandson of Hugh Capet, founded the first ducal house, which ruled until 1361.
Absentee landlords, he thinks, rack-rented the soil (p. 167), while the "inhuman severity" of their treatment of villeins led to a progressive decay of agriculture, destroyed the economic basis of the Latin kingdom, and led the natives to welcome the invasion of Saladin (pp. 327-331) The French writers Rey and Dodu are more kind to the Franks; and the testimony of contemporary Arabic writers, who seem favourably impressed by the treatment of their subjects by the Franks, bears out their view, while the tone of the assizes is admittedly favourable to the Syrians.
It proved as futile as it was impolitic; for the vizier of Damascus, Muin-eddinAnar, was able to sow dissension between the native Franks and the crusaders; and by bribes and promises of tribute he succeeded in inducing the former to make the siege an absolute failure, at the end of only four days (July 28th, 1148).
The sultan, who had risen from a Mongolian slave to become a second Saladin, and who combined the physique and audacity of a Danton with the tenacity and religiosity of a Philip II., dealt blow after blow to the Franks of the East.
Felix introduced adoptian views into that part of Spain which belonged to the Franks, and Charlemagne thought it necessary to assemble a synod at Regensburg (Ratisbon), in 792, before which the bishop was summoned to explain and justify the new doctrine.
It is true that the Teutonic states succeeded everywhere in establishing themselves; but only in England and in the erstwhile Roman Germany did the Roman nationality succumb to the Teutonic. In the other countries it not only mantained itself, but was able to assimilate the ruling German race; the Lombards, West Goths, Swabians, and even the Franks in the greater part of Gaul became Romanized.
But if it did we must naturally suppose that it applied in the first instance to the mounted warriors who formed the most formidable portion of the warlike array of the Franks.
About the same time the Franks overran and occupied the modern Belgium, and in the course of the next half-century their dominions were enormously extended towards the south (see FRANKS).
Charlemagne, with the title of king of the Franks and Lombards, became master of Italy, and in 800 the pope, who had crowned Pippin king of the Franks; claimed to bestow the Roman empire, and crowned his greater son emperor of the Romans (800).
The Franks on their arrival in the Morea found a fortified city named Lacedaemonia occupying part of the site of ancient Sparta, and this continued to exist, though greatly depopulated, even after Guillaume de Villehardouin had in1248-1249founded the fortress and city of Misithra, or Mistra, on a spur of Taygetus some 3 m.
Moreover, he no longer bore the title of mayor, but that of duke or prince of the Franks; and the mayoralty, like the royal power now reduced to a shadow, became an hereditary possession which Pippin could bestow upon his sons.
These franks are uncured and made without nitrates from all organic ingredients.
The menu features double cheeseburgers, quarter-pound burgers, regular burgers and cheeseburgers, grilled cheese, tuna on a bun, all beef franks and butterfly shrimp.