His widow left a sum of Ioo,000 francs to the Institut de France, to found in his memory scholarships in political economy or law.
The consequence of these further issues was instant depreciation, and the note of Too francs nominal value sank to less than 20 francs coin.
And the empress Eugenie, he succeeded in rousing the patriotism of the French and obtaining by their subscriptions more than half of the capital of two hundred millions of francs which he needed in order to form a company.
The communal tax did not exceed on the average two francs annually for each family.
This second issue amounted to 800,000,000 francs and carried no interest.
At this value they were converted into 800,000,000 francs of land-warrants, or mandats territoriaux, which were to constitute a mortgage on all the lands of the republic. These mandats were no more successful than the assignats, and even on the day of their issue were at a discount of 82%.
In comparison with other French officials, they are well paid (the salary nowadays ranges from 39,000 to 18,000 francs according to the class).
He quotes Lafargue with approval: " The working-man who eats a sausage and is paid five francs a day knows quite well that his employer robs him, and that a sausage tastes well and is good food."
The total length, including branches to Adana, Orfa (the ancient Edessa) and other places was to exceed 1550 m.; the kilometric guarantee granted was 15,500 francs (f,;620).
A grant of 40,000 francs having been obtained from the chamber, a national edition was issued in seven 4to vols., bearing the title Ouvres de Laplace (1843-1847).
She left him two thousand francs "to buy books with."
A month after his death, in March 1883, the prize of 3000 francs was awarded to him.
The cost of operations amounted to an initial expenditure of 6.25 francs, and an annual expenditure of about 2.3 francs per head of the population.
Was conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in 1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe during the two preceding years.
Spent 12,000,000 francs on works of restoration, and Louis XVIII., Louis Philippe and Napoleon III.
A stipend, ranging from 5000 francs a year to 250 francs, was attached to each grade of the institution.
Exactions at the expense of Hanover and Naples helped to lighten the burdens of French finance; Napoleon's sale of Louisiana to the United States early in 1803 for 60,000,000 francs brought further relief to the French treasury; and by pressing hard on his ally, Spain, he compelled her to exchange the armed help which he had a right to claim, for an annual subsidy of 2,880,000.
The revenge of the autocrat was characteristic. Besides driving Stein from office, he compelled Prussia to sign a convention(8th of September) for the payment to France of a sum of 140,000,000 francs, and for the limitation of the Prussian army to 42,000 men.
Grave and serious in manner, speaking slowly, but with energetic gestures, simple and abstemious in his life - his daily bill of fare being reckoned as hardly costing a couple of francs - Leo XIII.
In 1858 the representatives of Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, the Holy See, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey appropriated the sum of 400,000 francs in recognition of the use of his instruments in those countries.
A first issue was made of 400,000,000 francs' worth of assignats, each note being of loo francs' value and bearing interest daily at a rate of 5%.
They were to be redeemed by the product of the sales, and from certain other sources, at the rate of 120,000,000 francs in 1791, ioo,000,000 francs in 1792, 80,000,000 francs in 1793 and 1794, and the surplus in 1795.
The kilometric guarantee of 15,500 francs (£620) was split into two parts, 4500 francs (£180) being granted as the fixed working expenses of the line, all receipts in excess of which amount were to be credited to the Turkish government in reduction of the remaining 11,000 francs (f440) which took the form of an annuity to be capitalized as a 4% state loan redeemable in 99 years, that being the period fixed for the duration of the concession.
The capital sum per section was fixed, in round figures, at 54,000,000 francs (£2,160,000), subject to adjustment when the section was completed and its actual length definitely measured up. A minimum net price of 812% was fixed for the realization of these securities on the market.
The first series (54,000,000 francs or £2,160,000), was duly handed over to the concessionaires in 1903, and was floated in Berlin at 86.4% realizing the sum of £1,868,000.
On the 6th of November 1766, Lagrange was installed in his new position, with a salary of 6000 francs, ample leisure for scientific research, and royal favour sufficient to secure him respect without exciting envy.
He pressed him to remain; he gave him (the words are Voltaire's own) one of his orders, twenty thousand francs a year, and four thousand additional for his niece, Madame Denis, in case she would come and keep house for her uncle.
A loan of 500,000,000 francs was raised in 1921 for public works.
Of Tallahassee, and after the American Civil War she received an annuity of 30,000 francs from Napoleon III.
The total saving effected is stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked up. This system is also being tried on a small scale with sugar-cane juice in the West Indies.
In the penal code the penalty for interfering with and molesting worshippers is slight, a fine of from 16 to 300 francs and prison from six days to three months, while damage or insult to the objects of worship brought only 16 francs to soo francs fine, and prison from fifteen days to six months.
The values of the coinage are pieces of 5 and 10 centimes in bronze, of 50 centimes, 1 franc and 2 francs in silver, of 10 francs and 20 francs in gold.
The state subsidy having been withdrawn, the Institute voted a yearly subscription of Io,000 francs and nominated a commission of five members, one for each section, who managed the Journal.
Buloz is said to have eventually enjoyed an income of 365,000 francs from the Revue.
It was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations.
The attempt to reduce the brigand-soldiery, and especially the ordinances passed by the estates of Languedoil at Orleans in 1439, which not only gave the king an aid of ioo,000 francs (an act which was later used by the king as though it were a perpetual grant and so freed him from that parliamentary control of the purse so important in England), but demanded as well royal nominations to officerships in the army, marked a gain in the royal prerogative which the nobility resolved to challenge.
From 13,000,000 to 17,000,000 francs is the annual amount of the state budget, and the debt, consisting of loans contracted principally for the construction of railways, of which there are about 350 m., is 12,000,000 francs.
During the Hundred Days, and it was with him that Napoleon deposited five million francs in gold before leaving France for the last time.
On the assumption of the imperial title by Napoleon in May 1804, Talleyrand became grand chamberlain of the empire, and received close on 500,000 francs a year.
His experiences here were unsatisfactory, but he abjured duly and was rewarded by being presented with twenty francs and sent about his business.
Joseph took this step in April 1811, and proceeded to Paris in order to extort better terms, or offer his abdication; but he had to return with a monthly subsidy of 50o,000 francs and the promise that the army of the centre (the smallest of the five French armies) should be under his control.
This point of view suggested numerous projects, as chimerical as they were generous; two millions sterling (50 million francs) were expended with a view to installing Parisian unemployed workmen as colonists, but this attempt failed miserably.
In a few years he had incurred a debt of 56 million francs, a burden assumed by the impoverished state.
In 1873 the Academy of Inscriptions decreed to him the biennial prize of 20,000 francs, and in 1878 he was elected a member of the Institute.
To pay his gambling debts he accepted a gift of 200,000 francs from Louis Philippe, thus affording a ready handle to his enemies.
Cochet, Le Tombeau de Childeric I, roi des Francs (Paris, 1859); and E.
3000 francs for grand cross, 2000 francs for grand officers, 1000 francs for commanders, 250 francs for chevaliers.
The obligatory Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of decrees relating to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while 12,000 citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution.
A deputy receives an annual honorarium of 4000 francs and a railway pass.
The Belgian citizen on reaching the age of thirty-five, providing he is married or is a widower with legitimate offspring and pays five francs of direct taxes, gets a second vote.
The government in 1904 voted nearly 7,000,000 francs in aid of the religious establishments of, and the benevolent institutions kept up by, the Roman Church.
The grant to other cults amounted to 118,000 francs, but small as this sum may appear it is in due proportion to the relative numbers of each creed.
The rate of interest on all the loans extant is 3%, except on one loan of 219,959,632 francs, which pays only 21%.
The trade returns for 1904 were as follows: Imports General Commerce 4,426,400,000 francs Special Commerce (included in General Commerce)..
Twelve hundred francs' pension for life.
The first time he had recourse to his new judge was when a French prisoner, a colonel, came to him and, after talking a great deal about his exploits, concluded by making what amounted to a demand that Pierre should give him four thousand francs to send to his wife and children.
The proceeds were invested in such a way at Paris as to bring him in a yearly income of between 6000 and 7000 francs (equal now to more than L500).
The second brief visit, in 1647, partly on literary, partly on family business, was signalized by the award of a pension of 3000 francs, obtained from the royal bounty by Cardinal Mazarin.
The policy of protection was further accentuated by raising the impost on corn from 5 to 7 francs per hectolitre (23/4 bushels).
By 1796 the issues had reached the enormous figure of 45,500,000,000 francs, and even this gigantic total was swollen still more by the numerous counterfeits introduced into France from the neighbouring countries.
The assignats had now become totally valueless - the abolition of the "maximum" the previous year (1795) had produced no effect, and, though, by various payments into the treasury, the total number had been reduced to about 24,000,000,000 francs, their face-value was about 3 o to I of coin.