One day King Henry the Fourth of France was hunting in a large forest.
If this had been the Tour de France, he'd still be on the road.
When I go to France I will take French.
He seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with France over the Burgundian frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII.
Louis the Fourteenth became king of France when he was only five years old.
"I think they were going to visit you in France," the woman added.
He fled to France, and lived for a time in Paris under the name of Conti.
In 1811 the group of people that had formed in France unites into one group with the peoples of Central Europe.
by France, as far as the island of Ushant, and on the S.
In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller flakes or "leaves" of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can be seen to exist.
The disfavor into which he falls with the rulers of France turns to his advantage.
Molinier, Sources de l'histoire de France, no.
On the 17th of May 1517 the bishop of Dunkeld proceeded with Albany to France to conduct the negotiations which ended in the treaty of Rouen.
This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.
CLERMONT-FERRAND, a city of central France, capital of the department of Puy-de-Dome, 113 m.
The day before yesterday it was 'Napoleon, France, bravoure'; yesterday, 'Alexandre, Russie, grandeur.'
The man who ten years before and a year later was considered an outlawed brigand is sent to an island two days' sail from France, which for some reason is presented to him as his dominion, and guards are given to him and millions of money are paid him.
He belonged to a noble family of Scotch descent, tracing its origin to Walter Stutt, who in 1420 accompanied the earls of Buchan and Douglas to the court of France, and whose family afterwards rose to be counts of Tracy.
His marriage in March 1518 was arranged by the pope with Madeleine la Tour d'Auvergne, a royal princess of France, whose daughter was the Catherine de' Medici celebrated in French history.
Leo at once announced that he would excommunicate the king of France and release his subjects from their allegiance unless Francis laid down his arms and surrendered Parma and Piacenza.
Albany's longer absence in France permitted the partyfaction of the nobles to come to a head in a plot by the earl of Arran to seize the earl of Angus, the queen's husband.
Destutt de Tracy was the last eminent representative of the sensualistic school which Condillac founded in France upon a one-sided interpretation of Locke.
The language of her country novels is the genuine patois of middle France rendered in a literary form.
The man who had devastated France returns to France alone, without any conspiracy and without soldiers.
He first landed at Marseilles, where he received an enthusiastic welcome from the people, but the prince-president refused to allow him to cross France.
He was a considerable force in the educational revival of Jewish education in France.
especially in the conclusion of the present final peace with our dearest father the king of France," granted for 300 marks (too) licence to found, on three acres at Higham Ferrers, a perpetual college of eight chaplains and four clerks, of whom one was to teach grammar and the other song.
GEORGE SAND (1804-1876), the pseudonym of Madame Amandine Lucile Aurore Dudevant, née Dupin, the most prolific authoress in the history of literature, and unapproached among the women novelists of France.
She was then living in Paris, a few doors from her friend Mme d'Agoult, and the two set up a common salon in the Hotel de France.
While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Cardinal Giovanni travelled in Germany, in the Netherlands and in France.
While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the king of France.
of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France.
At the early age of sixteen he attained one of the highest dignities of the order, being made grand prior of France.
Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
The name was then given to the famous revolutionary song, composed in 1792, the tune of which, and the wild dance which accompanied it, may have also been brought into France by the Piedmontese.
army corps; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
In 1845 he was sent to Rome by Guizot to discuss the question of the Jesuits, being finally appointed ambassador of France at Rome.
His widow left a sum of Ioo,000 francs to the Institut de France, to found in his memory scholarships in political economy or law.
He actively promoted the incorporation of the left bank of the Rhine with France and in 1793 went to Paris to carry on the negotiations.
seized Mainx, and Forster - already disheartened by the turn of events in France - was cut off from all return.
Having borne the title of duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became duke of Chartres, and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon-Penthievre, daughter and heiress of the duke of Penthievre, grand admiral of France, and the richest heiress of the time.
Her wealth made it certain that he would be the richest man in France, and he determined to play a part equal to that of his great-grandfather, the regent, whom he resembled in character and debauchery.
His descendants made themselves quasi-independent and called themselves princes of Sedan and dukes of Bouillon, and they were even recognized by the king of France.
From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
But the government of Bombay had hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta confederacy at a time when France was on the point of declaring war against England, and when the mother-country found herself unable to subdue her rebellious colonists in America.
The only reservation which the most advanced Gallicans dared to formulate, in the terms of the celebrated declaration of the clergy of France (1682), had as its object the irreformable character of the pontifical definitions, which, it was claimed, could only have been acquired by them through the assent of the Church.
at Fondu Corrongiu and San Sebastiano), like those of the Central Plateau of France.
Charles IV of France >>
He was afterwards appointed the prince's envoy at Paris, where he remained till the decree of Napoleon, forbidding all persons born on the left side of the Rhine to serve any other state than France, compelled him to resign his office (IS'I).
of France; a papal bull published the concordat in the form of a concession by the pope, and it was afterwards accepted and published by the king as law of the country.
The first in date and importance is that of 1801, concluded for France between Napoleon, First Consul, and Pius VII.
After having been the law of the Church of France for a century, it was denounced by the French government in 1905.
When Roland heard of his wife's condemnation, he wandered some miles from his refuge in Rouen; maddened by despair and grief, he wrote a few words expressive of his horror at those massacres which could only be inspired by the enemies of France, protesting that "from the moment when I learned that they had murdered my wife I would no longer remain in a world stained with enemies."
But after the restoration of the grand duke, Montanelli, who was in Paris, was tried and condemned by default; he remained some years in France, where he became a partizan of Napoleon III.
The central feature of the estate is a château (375 X 150 ft.) of French Renaissance design, after the famous chateau at Blois, France.
He has been designated the "Restorer of Protestantism in France," and was the organizer of the "Church of the Desert."
In 1724 Louis XV., again assuming that there were no Protestants in France, prohibited the most secret exercise of the Reformed religion, and imposed severe penalties.
The Seminary of Lausanne sent forth all the pastors of the Reformed Church of France till the days of the first French Empire.
Haag, La France protestante, vol.
The French held Cleves from 1757 to 1762 and in 1 795 the part of the duchy on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France; the remaining portion suffered a similar fate in 1805.
In 1535 he received his cardinal's hat; in1536-1537he was nominated "lieutenant-general" to the king at Paris and in the Ile de France, and was entrusted with the organization of the defence against the imperialists.
After three quiet years passed in retirement in France (1550-1553), he was charged with a new mission to Pope Julius III.
Papers by him have appeared in the mathematical journals of Italy, France, Germany and England, and he has published several important works, many of which have been translated into other languages.
Scotland was divided mainly into two parties, one in favour of alliance with England, and the other with France.
of France and the emperor Maximilian being proposed as suitable husbands for the young widow, when the queen privately married Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, on the 6th of August 1514.
The rivalry between the French and English factions in Scotland was complicated by private feuds of the Hamiltons and Douglases, the respective heads of which houses, Arran and Angus, were contending for the supreme power in the absence of Albany in France, where at the instance of Henry VIII.
As Albany was strongly supported by the Scottish parliament, Angus found it necessary to withdraw to France till 1524.
During these years there was constant warfare between the English and the Scots on the border, but in May 1524 Albany was obliged to retire to France.
He at once undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI., king of France, and defeated the French forces at Guinegatte, the modern Enguinegatt; on the 7th of August 1479.
This treaty provided that Maximilian's daughter Margaret should marry Charles, the dauphin of France, and have for her dowry Artois and FrancheComte, two of the provinces in dispute, while the claim of Louis on the duchy of Burgundy was tacitly admitted.
Again in the Netherlands, he made a treaty with Francis II., duke of Brittany, whose independence was threatened by the French regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the struggle with France was soon renewed.
On his return to Germany he made peace with France at Frankfort in July 1489, and in October several of the states of the Netherlands recognized him as their ruler and as guardian of his son.
In December 1491 Anne was married to Charles VIII., king of France, and Maximilian's daughter Margaret, who had resided in France since her betrothal, was sent back to her father.
Having defeated the invading Turks at Villach in 1492, the king was eager to take revenge upon the king of France; but the states of the Netherlands would afford him no assistance.
The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
Aided by France they defeated the German troops, and the peace of Basel in September 1499 recognized them as virtually independent of the empire.
The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
The church offered the richest field for exploitation, and in spite of his dissolute life he impudently prayed the regent to give him the archbishopric of Cambray, the richest in France.
It is estimated that this cardinalate cost France about eight million francs.
In the following year he was named first minister of France (August).
Dubois was unscrupulous, but so were his contemporaries, and whatever vices he had, he gave France peace -after the disastrous wars of Louis XIV.
Thrice only did he revisit France - in 1644, 1647 and 1648.
The time thus spent seems to have been on the whole happy, even allowing for warm discussions with the mathematicians and metaphysicians of France, and for harassing controversies in the Netherlands.
A work so widely circulated by the author naturally attracted attention, but in France it was principally the mathematicians who took it up, and their criticisms were more pungent than complimentary.
In France Cartesianism won society and literature before it penetrated into the universities.
in France (Eng.
of France, but in 1492 restored Ferdinand to favour.
It has existed in France since the 17th century.
AISNE, a frontier department in the north-east of France, formed in 1790 from portions of the old provinces of Ile-de-France and Picardy.
Civil war was raging in France, and Clement became an ardent partisan of the League; his mind appears to have become unhinged by religious fanaticism, and he talked of exterminating the heretics, and formed a plan to kill Henry III.
Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome vi.
The name Albania (in the Tosk dialect Arberia, in the Gheg Arbenia), like Albania in the Caucasus, Armenia, Albany in Britain, and Auvergne (Arvenia) in France, is probably connected with the root alb, alp, and signifies "the white or snowy uplands."
in his struggle with the anti-pope, Honorius II.; and having served the papacy as legate to France and to Florence, he was allowed to resign his bishopric in 1067.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
/ ait and John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus, Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy, but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in 1426.
If it be true, as Bishop Alcock of Ely affirms, that Lydgate wrote a poem on the loss of France and Gascony, it seems necessary to suppose that he lived two years longer, and thus indications point to the year 1451, or thereabouts, as the date of his death.
ARGENTON, a town of western France, in the department of Indre, on the Creuse, 19 m.
This was specially true of the Reformers in Switzerland, France, Scotland, Holland and in some parts of Germany.
Its evolution and the thorough application of its principles to actual church life came later, not in Saxony or Switzerland, but in France and Scotland; and through Scotland it has passed to all English-speaking lands.
It is pathetic and yet inspiring to study the development of Presbyterianism in France; pathetic because it was in a time of fierce persecution that the French Protestants organized themselves into churches, and inspiring, because it showed the power which scriptural organization gave them to withstand incessant, unrelenting hostility.
Though under thirty years of age, he became all over Europe, and in an exceptional degree in France, the leader, organizer and consolidator of the Reformation.
- Prior to 1555 the Protestants of France had been for Ism.
It seemed as if all France had been waiting for this event as a signal, for organized churches began to spring up every where immediately afterwards.
One hundred and twenty-seven pastors had been sent to France from Geneva before 1567.
The book of order, Discipline ecclesiastique des eglises reformees de France, regulated the organization and procedure of the churches.
Their ecclesiastical polity came much more from Paris than from Geneva."2 To trace the history of Presbyterianism in France for the next thirty years would be to write the history of France itself during that period.
Under the protection of the edict the Huguenot Church of France flourished.
When it refused to discuss points of doctrine a secession took place under the name of the Union des eglises evangeliques de France.
From the geographical position of the Netherlands, Presbyterianism there took its tone from France.
During 1567 and 1568 the persecutions in France and Holland drove thousands of Protestants, mostly Presbyterians, to England.
She prepared many textbooks and wrote Journal and Letters from France and Great Britain (1833).(1833).
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
In 1890-1893 its shores were divided by treaty between Great Britain, France and Germany.
The first of these nations to make good its footing in the region was France.
The north and north-west shores also belong to France.
AVRANCHES, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Manche, 87 m.
It may be compared in some degree to such European societies as the Carbonara, Young Italy, the Tugendbund, the Confreries of France, the Freemasons in Catholic countries, and the Vehmgericht.
of France, and he was obliged to leave the enterprise of South American discoveries to his wealthy nobles.
He was exceedingly jealous of foreign interference, and quarrelled with France on questions connected with the rights of foreign residents.
The siege of Montevideo led to a joint intervention of England and France.
in height, cover Savoy and most of Dauphin and Provence, that is to say, nearly the whole of France to the south and east of the Rhne.
On the whole, however, France is inadequately provided with natural harbours; her long tract of coast washed by the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay has sqarcely three or four good seaports, and those on the southern shore of the Channel form a striking contrast to the spacious maritime inlets on theEnglish side.
Rivers.The greater part of the surface of France is divided between four principal and several secondary basins.
The basin of the Garonne occupies south-western France with the exception of the tracts covered by the secondary basins of the Adour, the Aude, the Hrault, the Orb and other smaller rivers, and the lowlying plain of the Landes, which is watered by numerous coast rivers, notably by the Leyre.
The Garonne rises in the valley of Aran (Spanish Pyrenees), enters France near Bagnres-de-Luchon, has first a north-west course, then bends to the north-east, and soon resumes its first direction.
m., includes a great part of central and western France or nearly a quarter of the whole country.
The annual rainfall for the whole of France averages about 32 in.
The prevailing winds, mild and humid, are west winds from the Atlantic; continental climatic influence makes itself felt in the east wind, which is frequent in winter and in the east of France, while the mistral, a violent wind from the north-west, is characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
Flora and Fauna.The flora of southern France and the Mediterranean is distinct from that of the rest of the country, which does not differ in vegetation from western Europe generally.
Other trees of southern France are the cork-oak and the Aleppo and maritime pines.
Geology.Many years ago it was pointed out by Elie de Beaumont and Dufrnoy that the Jurassic rocks of France form upon the map an incomplete figure of 8.
In the geological history of France there have been two great periods of folding since Archean times.
Towards the close of the Palaeozoic era France had become a part of a great continent; in the north the Coal Measures of the Boulonnais and the Nord were laid down in direct connection with those of Belgium and England, while in the Central Plateau the Coal Measures were deposited in isolated and scattered basins.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
During the Tertiary period arms of the sea spread into France in the Paris basin from the north, in the basins of the Loire and the Garonne from the west, and in the Rhne area from the south.
In France, as in Great Britain, volcanic eruptions occurred during several of the Palaeozoic periods, but during the Mesozoic era the // /
The so-called Celtic type, exemplified by individuals of rather less than average height, brown-haired and brachycephalic, is the fundamental element in the nation and peoples the region between the Seine and the Garonne; in southern France a different type, dolichocephalic, short and with black hair and eyes, predominates.
In 1906 the number of foreigners in France was 1,009,415
The following tables, showing the growth of the largest towns in France, are drawn up on the basis of the fourth classification, which is used throughout this work in the articles on French towns, except where otherwise stated.
In 1906 there were in France twelve towns with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants.
324,638 The annual number of emigrants from France is small.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
France is divided into provinces and dioceses as follows:
Of the population of France some 17,000,000 depend upon agriculture for their livelihood, though only about 6,500,000 are engaged in work on the land.
For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.
Forage Crops.The mangold-wurzel, occupying four times the acreage of swedes and turnips, is by far the chief root-crop in France.
Market-gardenin is an important industry in the regions round Paris, Amiens an Angers, as it is round Toulouse, Montauban,Avignon and in southern France generally.
The vine grows generally in France, except in the extreme north and in Normandy and Brittany.
FruitFruit-growing is general all over France, which, apart from bananas and pine-apples, produces in the open air all the ordinary species of fruit which its inhabitants consume.
The hilly regions of Limousin, Prigord and the Cvennes are the home of the chestnut, which in some places is still a staple food; walnuts grow on the lower levels of the central plateau and in lower Dauphin and Provence, figs and almonds in Provence, oranges and citrons on the Mediterranean coast, apricots in central France, the olive in Provcnce and the lower valleys of the Rhneand Durancc. Truffles arc found under Silk Cocoons.
Stock-raisIngFrom this point of view the soil of France may be divided into four categories:
The plain of Toulouse, which with the rest of south-western France produces good draught oxen, the Parisian basin, the plains of the north to the east of the maritime region, the lower valley of the Rhflne and tile Bresse, where there is little or no natural pasturage, and forage is grown from seed.
West, west-central and eastern France outside these areas, where meadows are predominant and both dairying and fattening are general.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.
Upper Poitou and the zone of south-western France to the north of the Pyrenees are the chief regions for the breeding of mules.
Three societies demand special mention: the Union centrale des agriculteurs de France, to which the above syndicates are affiliated; the Sociit nationale dagriculture, whose mission is to further agricultural progress and to supply the government with information on everything appertaining thereto and the Socit des agriculteurs de France.
With the exception of Loire, Bouches-du-Rhbne and Rhne, the chief industrial departments of France are to be found in the north and north-east of the country.
The typically industrial region of France is the department of Nord, the seat of the woollen industry, but also prominently concerned in other textile industries, in metal working, and in a variety of other manufactures, fuel for which is supplied by its coal-fields.
The following sketch of the manufacturing industry of France takes account chiefly of those of its branches which are capable in some degree of localization.
Coal.The principal mines of France are coal and iron mines.
The Flemish coal-basin, employing over 100,000 hands, produces 60% of the coal mined in France.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
Sulphur is obtained near Apt (Vaucluse) and in a few other localities of south-eastern France; bituminous schist near Autun (Sane-et-Loire) and Buxires (Allier).
The mineral springs of France are numerous, of varied character and much frequented.
Qiuirry-Products.Quarries of various descriptions are numerous all over France.
The products of the quarries of France for the five years 1901-1905 averaged 9,311,000 per annum in value, of which building material brought in over two-thirds.
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
Another group in the north of France has its centres at Lille, Tourcoing, Roubaix, St Quentin and Amiens.
The silk fabrics of France hold the first place, particularly the more expensive kinds.
being 13,117,000 gallons, or about 26% of the average annual production of France during the same period (49,945,000 gallons).
Occupations.The following table, which shows the approximate numbers of persons engaged in the various manufacturing industries of France, who number in all about 5,820,000, indicates their relative importance from the point of view of employment:
Fisheries.The fishing population of France is most numerous in the Breton departments of Finisire, Cfltes-du-Nord and Morbihan and in Pas-de-Calais.
Waterways.1The waterways of France, 7543 m.
Escaut (in France) - 39 39
Railways.The first important line in France, from Paris to Rouen, was constructed through the instrumentality of Sir Edward Blount (1809-1905), an English banker in Paris, who was afterwards for thirty years chairman of the Ouest railway.
After the rejection in 1838 of the governments proposals for the construction of seven trunk lines to be worked by the state, he obtained a concession for that piece of line on the terms that the French treasury would advance one-third of the capital at 3% if he would raise the remaining two-thirds, half in France and half in England.
The great railway systems of France are as follows:
The state railways served a large portion of western France, their chief lines being from Nantes via La Rochelle to Bordeaux, and from Bordeauxvia Saintes, Niort and Saumur to Chartres.
It establishes communication hetwee1f France and Switzerland and Italy via Macon and Culoz (for the Mt.
After entering on a rgime of free trade in 1860 France gradually reverted towards protection; this system triumphed in the Customs Law of 1892, which imposed more or less considerable duties on importsa law associated with the name of M.
While raising the taxes both on agricultural products and manufactured goods, this law introduced, between France and all the powers trading with her, relations different from those in the past.
Being in the main a self-supporting country France carries on most of her trade within her own borders, and ranks below _________ commerce, in Millions of Pounds Sterling.
The following were the countries sending the largest quantities of goods (special trade) to France (during the same periods as in previous table).
The following are the principal countries receiving the exports of France (special trade), with values for the same periods.
The other chief customers of France were Switzerland and Italy, whose imports from France averaged in 1901-1905 nearly 10,000,000 and over 7,200,000 respectively in value.
In the same period Spain received exports from France averaging 4,700,000.
The trade of France was divided between foreign countries and her colonies in the following proportions (imports and exports combined).
Shipping.The following table thhows the increase in tonnage of sailing and steam shipping engaged in foreign trade entered and cleared at the ports of France over quinquennial periods from 1890.
Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
Despite these monopolies, three-fourths of the shipping in French ports is foreign, and France is without shipping companies comparable in importance to those of other great maritime nations.
No member of a family that has reigned in France is eligible for either chamber.
The only exception to this rule is that no member of a royal family which has once reigned in France can be elected.
Before I790 France was divided into thirty-three great and seven small military governments, often called provinces, which are, however, to be distinguished from the provinces formed under the feudal system.
The communes, varying greatly in area and population, are the administrative units in France.
The ordinary judicial system of France comprises two classes of courts: (I) civil and criminal, (2) special, including courts dealing only with purely commercial cases; in addition there are the administrative courts, including bodies, the Conseil dEtat and the Conseils de Prefecture, which dGal, in their judicial capacity, with cases coming under the droit administratif.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
Prisons.The prisons of France, some of them attached to the ministry of the interior, are complex in their classification.
There were, however, but few prisons in France adapted for the cellular system, and the process of reconstruction has been slow, In 1898 the old Paris prisons of Grande-Roquette, Saint-Plagie and Mazas were demolished, and to replace them a large prison with 1500 cells was erected at Fresnes-ls-Rungis.
For the penal settlements at a distance from France see DEPORTATION.
At the head of the financial organization of France, and exercising a general jurisdiction, is the minister of finance, who co-ordinates in one general budget the separate budgets prepared by his colleagues and assigns to each ministerial department the sums necessary for its expenses.
The financial year in France begins on the 1st of January, and the budget of each financial year must be laid on the table Budget of the Chamber of Deputies in the course of the ordinary session of the preceding year in time for the discussion upon it to begin in October and be concluded before the 31st of December.
It is collected in accordance with a register of property (cadastre) drawn up for the most part in the first half of the 19th century, dealing with every piece of property in France, and giving its extent and value and the name of the owner.
The following table shows the rapid growth of the state revenue of France during the period 1875-1905, the figures for the specified years representing millions of pounds.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
France, with a greatly inferior population, now trains every man who is physically capable.
In theory a two-years contingent of course should be half as large again as a three-years one, but in practice, France has not men enough for so great an increase.
The active army and its reserve are not localized, but drawn from and distributed over the whole of France.
In 1906 the peace strength of the army in France was estimated at 532,593 officers and men; in Algeria 54,580; in Tunis 20,320; total 607,493.
But in 1908, owing to the prevailing want of trained soldiers in France, it was proposed to set free the white troops in Algeria by applying the principles of universal service to the natives, as in Tunis.
Colonial Troops.These form an expeditionary army corps in France to which are attached the actual corps of occupation to the various colonies, part white, part natives.
The strength of this army corps is 28,700 in France and 61,300 in the colonies.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The burden of public instructIon in France is shared by the communes, departments and state, while side by side with the public schools of all grades ~re private schools subjected to a state supervision and certain restrictions.
France is divided into sixteen academies or educational districts, having their centres at the seats of the universities.
For the administrative organization of education in France see EDUCATION.
The most important free institution in this class is the cole des Sciences Politiques, which prepares pupils for the civil services and teaches a great number of political subjects, connected with France and foreign countries, not included in the state programmes.
In addition to the educational work done by the state, communes and private individuals, there exist in France a good many societies which disseminate instruction by giving courses of lectures and holding classes both for children and adults.
France the pauper, as such, has no legal Tongking claim to help from the community, which Laos.
No poor-rate is levied in France.
In the extent and importance of her colonial dominion France is second only to Great Britain.
The realization of the fact that the value to France of her colonies was mainly commercial, led at length to the abandonment of the attempt to impose on a great number of diverse peoples—some possessing (as in Indo-China and parts of West Africa) ancient and highly complex civilizations—French laws, habits of mind, tastes and manners.
A partial exception to this rule is found in Algeria, where all laws in force in France before the conquest of the country are also (in theory, not in practice) in force in Algeria.
In all colonies Europeans preserve the political rights they held in France, and these rights have been extended, in whole or in part, to various classes of natives.
The colonial representatives enjoy equal rights with those elected for constituencies in France.
The oversight of all the colonies and protectorates save Algeria and Tunisia is confided to a minister of the colonies (law of March 20, 1894)1 whose powers correspond to those exercised in France by the minister of the interior.
Over three-fourths of the trade of Algeria and Tunisia is with France and other French possessions.
BIBL100RAPHY.P. Joanne, Diciionnalre gographique et administrative de la France (8 vols., Paris, 1890-1905); C. Brossard, La France et ses colonies (6 vols., Paris, 1900-1906); 0.
Reclus, Le Plus Beau Royaume sous le ciel (Paris, 1899); Vidal de La Blache, La France.
ArdouinDumazet, Voyage en France (Paris, 1894); H.
Havard, La France artistique et monumentale (6 vols, Paris, 1892-1895); A.
Lebon and P. Pelet, France as it is, tr.
Arnold (London, 1888); articles on Local Government in France in the Stock Exchange Official Intelligence Annuals (London, I908 and 1909); M.
Levasseur, La France et ses colonies (i Vols., Paris, 1890); M.
Mairey, La France et s2s colonies au debut du XX~ sIcle, which has numerous biblio.graphies (Paris, 1909); J.
de St Genis, La Fropriiti rurale en France (Paris, 1902); H.
C. Bodley, France (London, 1899); A.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
France: History >>
She was early regarded as a useful medium for contracting an alliance with England, more necessary than ever to Portugal after the treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 whereby Portugal was ostensibly abandoned by France.
She left England finally with a train of one hundred persons in March 1692, travelling through France and arriving at Lisbon on the 20th of January 1693.
(921-954), king of France, surnamed "d'Outremer" (Transmarinus), was the son of Charles III.
On the death of the usurper Rudolph (Raoul), Ralph of Burgundy, Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and the other nobles between whom France was divided, chose Louis for their king, and the lad was brought over from England and consecrated at Laon on the 19th of June 936.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.
In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, the nobles of which district had sworn an oath of fidelity to the king of France.
is counted as Louis I., king of France.
The last years of the reign were troubled by fresh difficulties with Hugh the Great and also by an irruption of the Hungarians into the south of France.
Gail in the chair of Greek at the College de France.
He was appointed secretary to Cabarrus on a special mission to France in 1787.
From 1814 to 182S Moratin lived in Italy and France, compiling a work on the early Spanish drama (Origenes del teatro espanol).
He lectured in the schools on natural philosophy, and on Greek in his own rooms. In 1540 Smith went abroad, and, after studying in France and Italy and taking a degree of law at Padua, returned to Cambridge in 1542.
He became a member of parliament, and was sent in 1562 as ambassador to France, where he remained till 1566; and in 1572 he again went to France in the same capacity for a short time.
A number of his letters from France are in the foreign state papers.
It was taken by France in 1807, and in 1815 it passed to Prussia.
Iles Loyalty or Loyaute), a group in the South Pacific Ocean belonging to France, about 100 m.
After his accession to the throne William spent some time at the court of the English king, Henry II.; then, quarrelling with Henry, he arranged in 1168 the first definite treaty of alliance between France and Scotland, and with Louis VII.
of France assisted Henry's sons in their revolt against their father in 1173.
It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.
From the Oligocene deposits of France and southern England have been obtained numerous remains of opossums referable to the American family Didelphyidae.
In 1803 the duchy was occupied by the French, and in 1810 it was incorporated with France.
Immediately after the restoration of Alphonso XII., early in 1875, Ruiz Zorilla went to France.
DORDOGNE, a river of central and south-western France, rising at a height of 5640 ft.
Dordogne, France >>
Claude Antoine de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliage of Orleans in the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, a peer of France in 1815, and duc d'Avaray in 1818.
of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella of Castile, which brought about the union of the crowns.
EU, a town of north-western France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, on the river Bresle, 64 m.
Through their grand-daughter Marie, the countship of Eu passed by marriage to the house of Brienne, two members of which, both named Raoul, were constables of France.
He was created a peer of France in 1458, and made governor of Paris during the war of the League of the Public Weal (1465).
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
The war with France at the beginning of this reign, with its attendant evils, quartering of troops, conscription and levies of money, joined with cattle disease and scanty harvests in plunging the land again into distress, from which it recovered very slowly.
1889-97, at the Ecole Normale Superieure 1897-1900 and at the College de France 1900-21.
Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among which was the memoir written upon the Suez Canal, according to Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Lapere, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
Towards the close of the year 1837 he returned to France, and on the 21st of December married Mlle Agathe Delamalle, daughter of the government prosecuting attorney at the court of Angers.
From 1848 to 1849 he was minister of France at Madrid.
But while he was negotiating, the elections in France had caused a change in the foreign policy of the government.
While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.
Political agitators, in order to sap the power of the Opportunist party, did not hesitate to drag in the mud one of the greatest citizens of France.
Among several military memorials, one in the Academy grounds was erected to the Prince Imperial of France, for two years a student in the Academy.
Bouquet's Recueil de historiens des Gaules et de la France, 17, 381876).
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
Had his successor been as prudent and able, he might have made a unified Netherlands the nucleus of a mighty middle kingdom, interposing between France and Germany, and a revival of that of the Carolingian Lothaire.
On these conditions Mary obtained the hearty support of the states Against France, but her humiliations were not yet at an end; two of her privy councillors, accused of traitorous intercourse with the enemy, were, despite her entreaties, seized, tried and beheaded (April 3).
The peace of Arras with France (March 1483) freed him to deal with the discords in the Netherland provinces, and more especially with the turbulent opposition in the Flemish cities.
Louis of Nassau, with a small force raised in France with the connivance of Charles IX., made a sudden dash into Hainault (May 1572) and captured Valenciennes and Mons.
On the formation of the Wirth ministry in May 1921 he was appointed Minister of Reconstruction, and in that capacity negotiated with the French minister, Loucheur, a convention for supplying German materials for the restoration of the devastated area in France, and thus paying in kind part of the reparation which the German Reich had undertaken to pay in gold.
appointed him one of the ambassadors who made peace with the Empire and drew up the Concordat of Worms (1122), and in the following year, with his later enemy Cardinal Peter Pierleoni, he was papal legate in France.
Declaring that the cardinals had been intimidated, Innocent refused to recognize their choice; by June, however, he was obliged to flee to France.
of France, about an appointment.
France was threatened with the interdict, but before matters came to a head Innocent died on the 22nd of September 1143.
He accompanied his uncle Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his visit to England and France in 1867.
These were followed by his most important work, the History of France (5 vols., 1858-1868).
The name is taken from Nicotiana, the tobacco plant, so called after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), French ambassador at Lisbon, who introduced tobacco into France in 1560.
There is also a lycee in which the instruction is similar to that given in France, and in which Christians, Jews and Mahommedans are educated together.
In the Saxon period the "mast" seems to have been regarded as the most valuable produce of an oak wood; nor was its use always confined to the support of the herds, for in time of dearth acorns were boiled and eaten by the poor as a substitute for bread both in England and France, as the sweeter produce of Q.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
The treaty of Westminster (24th of October 1655) dealt chiefly with commercial subjects, and contained a clause promising the expulsion from France of political exiles.
These naval victories were followed by a further military alliance with France against Spain, termed the treaty of Paris (the 23rd of March 1657).
"It was hard to discover," wrote Clarendon, "which feared him most, France, Spain or the Low Countries."
The war with France, Holland and Spain offered opportunities of gaining additional territory.
He repelled an invasion of Catalonia undertaken by the king of France in support of Charles of Anjou, and died on the 8th of November 1286.
BOHEMUND (I 108 - 1131), son of the great Bohemund by his marriage with Constance of France, was born in '108, the year of his father's defeat at Durazzo.
Burke and Grattan were anxious that provision should be made for the education of Irish Roman Catholic priests at home, to preserve them from the contagion of Jacobinism in France; Wolfe Tone, "with an incomparably juster forecast," as Lecky observes, "advocated the same measure for exactly opposite reasons."
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
Returning to France without having effected anything, Tone served for some months in the French army under Hoche; and in June 17 9 7 he took part in preparations for a Dutch expedition to Ireland, which was to be supported by the French.
In his later years he overcame the drunkenness that was habitual to him in youth; he developed seriousness of character and unselfish devotion to what lie believed was the cause of patriotism; and he won the respect of men of high character and capacity in France and Holland.
In 1833 he was appointed professor of Greek and Roman philosophy at the college of France and a member of the Academy of Sciences; he then published the Mélanges philosophiques (4th ed.
He stood between Scotland and France and Germany and France; and, though his expositions are vitiated by loose reading of the philosophers he interpreted, he did serviceable, even memorable work.
in France (1899),.
en France au xixe siecle (1846).
He is said to have baptized the emperor Philip and his son, to have done some building in the catacombs, to have improved the organization of the church in Rome, to have appointed officials to register the deeds of the martyrs, and to have founded several churches in France.
In France it was abolished in 1867, in Belgium in 1871, in Switzerland and Norway in 187 4, and in Italy in 1877.
From Italy the practice spread to France, Spain, England and other countries.
AUVERGNE, formerly a province of France, corresponding to the departments of Cantal and Puy-de-Dome, with the arrondissement of Brioude in Haute-Loire.
This family quarrel occasioned the intervention of Philip Augustus, king of France, who succeeded in possessing himself of a large part of the country, which was annexed to the royal domains under the name of Terre d'Auvergne.
The Terre d'Auvergne was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duch y -pairie) by King John II.
At the time that "the scramble for Africa" began, the narrow strip of coast over which the king of Togo ruled was the sole district between the Gambia and the Niger to which Great Britain, France or some other civilized power had not a claim.
The claims made by Germany to large areas of the hinterland gave rise to considerable negotiation with France and Great Britain, and it was not until 1899 that the frontiers were fixed on all sides.
In 1572 Louis, not deterred by previous disaster, raised a small force in France, and, suddenly entering Hainaut, captured Mons (May 23).
At this time also he developed an ardent love of France, a country which was politically in antagonism with his own, though so closely linked to it geographically, socially and by language.
against the Huguenots in France.
1853) Le Reveil du sentiment religieux en France au X Vil e siecle, by Strowski (Paris, 1898); Four Essays on S.
This type of instrument is very little used in England, but seems to be more in favour in France.
DAMMARTIN, a small town of France, in the department of Seine et Marne, 22 M.
In 1802 the island was given to France by the peace of Amiens.
When Bedmar took up this appointment, Venice had just concluded an alliance with France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, to counterbalance the power of Spain, and the ambassador was instructed to destroy this league.
Highton and his brother Edward Highton, and ' See Arthur Young, Travels in France, p. 3.
Another series of instruments, introduced by Cooke and Wheatstone in 1840, and generally known as " Wheatstone's step-by-step letter-showing " or " ABC instruments," were worked out with great ingenuity of detail by Wheatstone in Great Britain and by Breguet and others in France.
Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
in the traffic; and similar statistics pointing to increase of business consequent on reduction of rates were produced in regard to France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Similar experience was adduced by the working of the state telegraphs in Switzerland and in France.
In 1868 there were in France over 300 telegraph offices whose average receipts did not exceed 8 per annum.
France and Great Britain jointly acquired the cables between Calais and Dover, Boulogne and Folkestone, Dieppe and Beachy Head, Havre and Beachy Head, Piron, near Coutances, and Vieux Châteaux (St Heliers, Jersey).
In 1896 it was arranged to lay two new cables to France and one (for duplex working) to Germany.
In March 1899 communication was effected by his system between England (South Foreland lighthouse) and France (Wimereux, near Boulogne), a distance of 30 m.
In France the scientific study of the subject was advanced by the work of Blondel, Tissot, Ducretet and others, and systems called the Ducretet and Rochefort set in operation.
Apart from France, Germany and Switzerland, there was no European country that had as many telephones working as London.
That city, with a population of 6 millions, had nearly as many telephones as the whole of Sweden with about the same population, or as the whole of France, with a population of 39 millions.
The Anglo-French telephone service, which was opened between London and Paris in April 1891, was extended to the principal towns in England and France on the 11th of April 1904.
Bernardone's commercial enterprises made him travel abroad, and it was from the fact that the father was in France at the time of his son's birth that the latter was called Francesco.
In the struggle between France and Austria from the 17th century onwards the Breisgau frequently changed masters.
By his condemnation of Gallicanism (1613) Paul angered France, and provoked the defiant declaration of the states general of 1614 that the king held his crown from God alone.
But Augustus, who was the first to give to Italy a definite political organization, carried the frontier to the river Varus or Var, a few miles west of Nice, and this river continued in modern times to be generally recognized as the boundary between France and Italy.
But in 1860 the annexation Nice and the adjoining territory to France brought the political frontier farther east, to a point between Mentone and Ventimiglia which constitutes no natural limit.
The exportation in I902 only reached about 45 million gallons (and even that is double the average), while an equally abundant vintage in France and Spain rendered the exportation of the balance of 1907 impossible, and fiscal regulations rendered the distillation of the superfluous amount difficult.
The quality, too, owing to bad weather at the time of vintage, was not good; Italian wine, indeed, never is sufficiently good to compete with the best wines of other countries, especially France (thotigh there is more opening for Italian wines of the Bordeaux and,Burgundy type); nor will many kinds of it stand keeping, partly owing to their natural qualities and partly to the insufficient care devoted to their preparation.
Another stock, with no close allies nearer than the south of France, is found in the plain of Racconigi and Carmagnola; the mouse-colored Swiss breed occurs in the neighborhood of Milan; the Tirolese breed stretches south to Padua and Modena; and a red-coated breed named of Reggio or Friuli is familiar both in what were the duchies of Parma and Modena, and in the provinces of lJdine and Treviso.
Gruyre, extensively manufactured in Switzerland and France, is also produced in Italy in the Alpine regions and in Sicily.
Other cities where the ceramic industries keep their ground are Pesaro, Gubbio, Faenza (whose name long ago became the distinctive term for the finer kind of potters work in France, falence), Savona and Albissola, Turin, Mondovi, Cuneo, Castellamonte, Milan, Brescia, Sassuolo, Imola, Rimini, Perugia, Castelli, &c. In all these the older styles, by which these places became famous in the IthI8th centuries, have been revived.
The countries with which this trade is mainly carried on are: (imports) United Kingdom, Germany, United States, France, Russia and India; (exports) Switzerland, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Argentina.
The large number of these institutions was increased when these bodies were expelled from France.
The Italian suicide rate of 63.6 per 1,000,000 is, however, lower than those of Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and France, while it approximates to that of England.
France sided with the church.
Forced to fly to France, he there, at Lyons, in 1245, convened a council, which enforced his condemnation of the emperor.
He married his daughter Violante to our duke of Clarence, and his son Gian Galeazzo to a daughter of King John of France.
of France, whom he urged to make good his claim to the kingdom of Naples.
He made good his retreat, however, and returned to France in 1495.
upon the throne of France.
Lodovico escaped to Germany, returned the next year, was betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries and sent to die at Loches in France.
No policy could have been less far-sighted; for Charles V., joint heir to Austria, Burgundy, Castile and Aragon, the future overwhelming rival of France, was already born.
Spain, France, Germany, with their Swiss auxiliaries, had been summoned upon various pretexts to partake her provinces.
1515 Francis I., having now succeeded to the throne of France, regained the Milanese, and broke the power of the Swiss, who held it for Massimiliano Sforza, the titular duke.
By the treaty of Barcelona in 1529 the pope and emperor made terms. By that of Cambray in the same year France relinquished Italy to Spain.
Gian Pietro Caraffa, who was made pope in 1555 with the name of Paul IV., endeavoured to revive the ancient papal policy of leaning upon France.
Charles Emmanuel was now checkmated by France, as he had formerly been by Spain.
Meanwhile Spanish fanaticism, the suppression of the Huguenots in France and the Catholic policy of Austria combined to strengthen their authority as pontiffs.
The three branches of the Bourbon house, ruling in France, Austrian Spain and the Sicilies, joined with Prussia, Bavaria and the kingdom of Sardinia to despoil Maria Theresa of her heritage.
So was Genoa, which in 1755, after Paolis insurrection against the misgovernment of the republic, ceded her old domain of Corsica to France.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
Bona- The anathemas of the pope, the bravery of Piedmontese and Austrians, and the subsidies of Great Britain failed to keep the league of Italian princes against France intact.
Venice with its mainland End of the territories east of the Adige, inclusive of Istria and Dalmatia, went to the Habsburgs, while the Venetian isles of the Adriatic (the lonian Isles) and the Venetian fleet went to strengthen France for that eastern expedition on which Bonaparte had already set his heart.
The pope, Pius VI., was forthwith haled away to Siena and a year later to Valence in the south of France, where he died.
It is now known that the influence of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples and France.
Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.
fatal to that body and to popular institutions in France After the coup detat of Brumaire (November 1799) he as First Con~uI, began to~ organize an expedition against th~ Atistrians (Russia having now retired from the coalition), ii northern Italy.
By that triumph (due to Desaix and Kellermani rather than directly to him), Bonaparte consolidated his owi position in France and again laid Italy at his feet.
Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics (reconstituted soon after Marengo) were recognized by Austria on condition that they were independent of France.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
Other changes took place in that year, all of them in favor of France.
By complex and secret bargaining with the court of Madrid, Bonaparte procured the cession to France Napoleons of Louisiana, in North America, and Parma; while reorganthe duke of Parma (husband of an infanta of Spain) 1zat1o~ of was promoted by him to the duchy of Tuscany, now 1t8tV.
Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.
Piedmont was organized in six departments on the model of those of France, and a number of French veterans were settled by Napoleon in and near the fortress of Alessandria.
Alike in political and commercial affairs they were for all practical purposes dependencies of France.
For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.
On the other hand, they suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not compensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
The July revolution in Paris and the declaraRoil,; tion of the new king, Louis Philippe, that France, as 1830.
This second intervention gave umbrage to France, who by way of a counterpoise sent a force to occupy Ancona.
He was now forced to leave France, but continued his work of agitation from London.
All the while a vast amount of revolutionary literature was being printed in Switzerland, France and England, and smuggled into Italy; the poet Giusti satirized the Italian princes, the dramatist G.
The offer of French assistance, made after the proclamation of the republic in the spring of 1848, had been rejected mainly because France, fearing that the creation of a strong Italian state would be a danger to her, would have demanded the cession of Nice and Savoy, which the king refused to consider.
The Mamiani ministry having failed to achieve anything, Pius summoned Pellegrino Rossi, a learned lawyer who had long been exiled in France, to form a cabinet.
the 18th Pius invited Roman the armed intervention of France, Austria, Naples Republk~ and Spain to restore his authority.
The Piedmontese government rightly regarded this measure as a violation of the peace treaty of 1850, and Cavour recalled the Piedmontese minister from Vienna, an action which was endorsed by Italian public opinion generally, and won the approval of France and England.
Cavour believed that by taking part in the war his country would gain for itself a military status and a place in the councils of the great Powers, and ~ establish claims on Great Britain and France for the realization of its Italian ambitions.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
In exchange for French assistance Piedmont would cede Savoy and perhaps Nice to France; and a marriage between Victor Emmanuels daughter Clothilde and Jerome Bonaparte, to which Napoleon attached great importance, although not made a definite condition, was also discussed.
It was a revival of the old impossible federal idea, which would have left Italy divided and dominated by Austria and France.
After the meetings at Villafranca Napoleon returned to France.
Three weeks later the treaty of Turin ceding Savoy and Nice to France was ratified, though not without much opposition, and Cavour was fiercely reviled for his share in the transaction, especially by Garibaldi, who even contemplated an expedition to Nice, but was induced to desist by the king.
The new kingdom was recognized by Great 1 tam within a fortnight, by France three months later, and the sequently by ptber powers.
immediately, by an Italian occupation, lest Catholic an inion should lay the blame for this upon France.
Ricasoli wished to go on with the war, rather than accept Venetia as a gift from France; but the king and La Marmora saw that peace must be made, as the whole Austrian.
The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
to participate; and Rouher, the French premier, declared ir the Chamber (5th of December 1867) that France could never permit the Italians to occupy Rome.
Italy which had begut with Villafranca; and Bismarck was not slow to make us~ of this hostility, with a view to preventing Italy from takinj sides with France against Germany in the struggle between the two powers which he saw to be inevitable.
Austria would not join France unless Italy did the same, and she realized that that was impossible unless Napoleon gave way about Rome.
Then it was too late; Victor Emmanuel asked Thiers if he could give his word of honor that with 100,000 Italian troops France could be saved, but Thiers remained silent.
In France, where the Uon of Government of National Defence had replaced the Rome.
Agreeably surprised by this attitude on the part of France, Visconti-Venosta lost no time in conveying officially the thanks of Italy to the French government.
Prussia, while satisfied at the fall of the temporal power, seemed to fear lest Italy might recompense the absence of French opposition to the occupation of Rome by armed intervention in favor of France.
The course of events in France, however, soon calmed German apprehensions.
The friendly attitude of France towards Italy during the period immediately subsequent to the occupation of Rome seemed to cow and to dishearten the Vatican.
The growth of Clerical influence in France engendered a belief that Italy would soon have to defend with the sword her newly-won unity, while the tremendous lesson of the Franco-Prussian War convinced the military authorities of the need for thorough military reform.
We must arm, he said, since we have overturned the papal throne, and he pointed to France as the quarter from which attack was most likely to come.
In the case of Italy, as in that of Germany, he frankly regretted the constitution of powerful homogeneous states upon the borders of France.
Depretis recalled Nigra from Paris and replaced him by General Cialdini, whose ardent plea for Italian intervention in favor of France in 1870, and whose comradeship with Marshal Macmahon in 1859, would, it was supposed, render him persona gratissima to the French government.
Though the cabinet had no stable majority, it induced the Chamber to sanction a commercial treaty which had been negotiated with France and a general autonomous customs tariff.
Count Corti had no suspicion that France had adopted a less disinterested attitude towards similar suggestions from Bismarck and Lord Salisbury.
Though aware of Bismarcks hostility towards Italy, of the conclusion of the Austro-German alliance of 1879, and of the undisguised ill-will of France, Italy not only made no attempt to crush an agitation as mischievous as it was futile, but granted a state funeral to General Avezzana, president of the Irredentist League.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
Lord Salisbury and Waddington at the instance of Bismarck, that, when convenient, France should occupy Tunisia, an agreement afterwn.rds confirmed (with a reserve as to the eventual attitude of Italy) in despatches exchanged in July and August 1878 between the Quai dOrsay and Downing Street.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
This pertinacity engendered a belief in France that Italy was about to undertake in Tunisia a more aggressive policy than necessary for the protection of her commercial interests.
France undertook, the maintenance of order in the Regency, and assumed the representation of Tunisia in all dealings with other countries.
Apart from resentment against France on account of Tunisia there remained the question of the temporal power of the pope to turn the scale in favor of Austria and Germany.
Hence a tacit understanding between Bismarck and Austria that the latter should profit by Italian resentment against France to draw Italy into the orbit of the Austro-German alliance.