Fortresses Sentence Examples
His action in the matters just named, as also in the complex affair of the secularizations of clerical domains in Germany (February 1803), belongs properly to the history of those countries; but we may here note that, even before the signature of the peace of Amiens (27th of March 1802), he had effected changes in the constitution of the Batavian (Dutch) republic, which placed power in the hands of the French party and enabled him to keep French troops in the chief Dutch fortresses, despite the recently signed treaty of Luneville which guaranteed the independence of that republic. His treatment of the Italians was equally high-handed.
Meanwhile the Cretan campaign continued, and here also France lent her aid to the Venetians; this assistance could not, however, prevent the capture of Candia in 1669; on the 5th of September of that year Morosini, the Venetian commander, signed a treaty of peace with the Turks by which, after twenty-five years' warfare, they were placed in possession of the fortress of Candia, and with it of the effective rule over the whole island, Venice retaining only the fortresses of Suda, Grabusa and Spinalonga, and the islets along the coast.
The attempts of the Habsburgs to conquer Transylvania drew down upon them two fresh Turkish invasions, the first in 1552, when the sultan's generals captured Temesvar and fifty-four lesser forts or fortresses, and the second in 1566, memorable as Suleiman's last descent upon Hungary, and also for the heroic defence of Szigetvar by Miklos Zrinyi, one of the classical sieges of history.
He stormed fortresses with thirty thousand men.
Kamenski sent soldiers to Rustchuk, but I only employed these two things and took more fortresses than Kamenski and made them Turks eat horseflesh!Advertisement
For himself Bethlen secured the title of prince of the Empire, the seven counties of the Upper Theiss, and the fortresses of Tokaj, Munkacs and Ecsed.
The chief first-class fortresses of Russia are Warsaw and Novogeorgievsk in Poland, and Brest-Litovsk and Kovno in Lithuania.
The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
In June Romanzov's victory at Kartal made him master of the principalities, and by November the fortresses of Izmail and Kilia, guarding the passage of the Danube, and those of Akkerman and Bender on the Dniester had fallen into the hands of the Russians.
During February and March 1808 the frontier fortresses of Pampeluna, St Sebastian, Barcelona and Figueras were treacherously occupied and Spain lay at the feet of Napoleon.Advertisement
The regular army of his province and the fortresses were independent of him and commanded by royal officers; but he was allowed to have troops in his own service (in later times mostly Greek mercenaries).
In western Germany the Prussian forces, depleted to the utmost to furnish troops for the Bohemian campaign, were opposed to the armies of Hanover and Bavaria and the 8th Federal corps (the last consisting of Hessians, Wurttembergers, Badensers and Nassauers with an Austrian division drawn from the neutralized Federal fortresses), which were far superior in number.
My allies will block their roads and take the fortresses at the borders, among other actions.
He had raised him to princely rank, endowed him with property which made him the greatest territorial magnate in the kingdom, placed in his hands the sacred crown and half-a-dozen of the strongest fortresses, and won over to his cause the majority of the royal council.
Under the circumstances, we cannot wonder if the frontier fortresses fell to pieces, and the border troops, unpaid for years, took to brigandage.Advertisement
The first blow fell in 1521, when Sultan Suleiman appeared before the southern fortresses of Sabac and Belgrade, both of which fell into his hands during the course of the year.
Federal fortresses set at liberty von Beyer's division for field service in the west.
Moreover the little fortresses of Josephstadt and Koniggratz both refused to capitulate, and the whole Prussian armies were thus compelled to move down the Elbe to Pardubitz before they could receive any definite new direction.
He gradually obtained full possession of Navarre and the Basque provinces, outside of the fortresses, which he had not the means to besiege.
Ivan intervened in 1558 and quickly captured Narva, Dorpat and a dozen smaller fortresses; then, in 1560, Livonia placed herself beneath the protection of Poland, and King Sigismund II.Advertisement
One of these areas is defined by the three fortresses, La Fre, Laon and Reims, the other by the triangle, LangresDijonBesancon.
On the side of Belgium the danger of irruption through neutral territory, which has for many years been foreseen, is provided against by the fortresses of Lille, Valenciennes and Maubeuge, but (with a view to tempting the Germans to attack through Luxemburg, as is stated by German authorities) the frontier between Maubeuge and Verdun is left practically undefended.
Behind all this huge development of fixed defences lie the central fortresses of Paris and Lyons.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
The principal fortresses of the country were in the hands of Spanish garrisons, who refused obedience to the council.Advertisement
Before his arrival the Dublin garrison had defeated Ormonde with a loss of 5000 men, and Cromwell's work was limited to the capture of detached fortresses.
Unlike any other buildings in Abyssinia, the castles and palaces of Gondar resemble, with some modifications, the medieval fortresses of Europe, the style of architecture being the result of the presence in the country of numbers of Portuguese.
Being built midway between the Sierra de Priego and Sierra Parapanda, and commanding the open valley between these ranges, it became one of the chief frontier fortresses of the Moors in the 15th century.
The endless tergiversations and depredations of the emperor speedily induced Matthias to declare war against him for the third time (1481), the Magyar king conquering all the fortresses in Frederick's hereditary domains.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
As the supremacy of Rome extended itself Roads, over Italy, the Roman road system grew step by step, each fresh conquest being marked by the pushing forward of roads through the heart of the newly-won territory, and the establishment of fortresses in connection with them.
Agreeably to feudal customs, these nobles, as they grew in power, retired from the town, and built themselves fortresses on points of vantage in the neighborhood.
The line of fortresses protecting Austria from Italy lies in some places well back from the political boundary, but just inside the linguistic frontier, so as to separate the German and Italian races occupying Austrian territory.
In the course of the summer he took the fortresses of Arad, Lippa and Vilagos; provided himself with guns and trained gunners; and one of his bands advanced to within five leagues of the capital.
Between `Ana and Hit there were anciently at least four island cities or fortresses, and at the present time three such towns, insignificant relics of former greatness, Haditha, Alus or el-`Uzz and Jibba still occupy the old sites.
The queen interposed to prevent the execution of those who had counselled the crucifixion of the rebels and permitted them to withdraw with her younger son Aristobulus to the fortresses outside Jerusalem.
Greece was at the same time summoned to remove its army and fleet from the island, while the Turkish troops were to be concentrated in the fortresses and eventually withdrawn.
In the meantime, however, Pomerania had been devastated by the Thirty Years' War and occupied by the Swedes, who had taken possession of its towns and fortresses.
In 1229 the Order began the conquest of Prussia, founding fortresses at each step to rivet its conquests (for instance, at Thorn, named after Toron in Palestine), much as the AngloNormans had done in their conquest of Wales.
Further, owing to the carelessness of the Prussian negotiator, Napoleon was able to require the exaction of impossibly large sums from that exhausted land, and therefore to keep his troops in her chief fortresses.
Napoleon, on the other hand, had utterly failed in his Spanish enterprise; and the tsar felt sure that his rival must soon withdraw French garrisons from the fortresses of the Oder to the frontier of Spain.
Napoleon on his side succeeded in adjourning the question of the partition of Turkey; but he awarded the Danubian provinces and Finland to his ally and agreed to withdraw the French garrisons from the Prussian' fortresses on the Oder.
Before he could pass the river with safety it was necessary to subdue certain fortresses, one of which was for several days vigorously defended by the governor, Yussuf Kothual, a Kharizmian.
He conquered in 1135 several fortresses in the east of the principality of Antioch, and in this year and the next pressed the count of Tripoli hard; while in 1137 he defeated Fulk at Barin, and forced the king to capitulate and surrender the town.
But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli.
These fortresses, garrisoned not by the king, as in Norman England, but by their possessors, would only strengthen the power of the feudatories, and help to dissipate the kingdom into a number of local units.
From this period until late in the 19th century it remained the most important of the line of fortresses along the Meuse.
While recognized by a temple of her own in Nippur and honoured by rulers at various times by having votive offerings made in her honour and fortresses dedicated in her name, she, as all other goddesses in Babylonia and Assyria with the single exception of Ishtar, is overshadowed by her male consort.
Murad thereupon returned to Europe with a large force, and sent Chendereli Zade Ali Pasha northwards; the fortresses of Shumla, Pravadi, Trnovo, Nicopolis and Silistria were taken by him; Sisman III., rebel king of Bulgaria, was punished and Bulgaria once more subjugated.
Russia, however, retained the fortresses of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, with the desert country between the Bug and the Dnieper, while Ochakov was left to the Turks.
Bessarabia, with the fortresses of Akkerman, Izmail and Kilia, was restored to Turkey.
Servia had long resented the occupation of her fortresses by Turkish troops; frequent collisions arising from this source resulted in June 1862 in the bombardment of Belgrade; some slight concessions were then made to Servia, but it was not until 1867 that, through the mediation of England and other powers, she succeeded in obtaining the withdrawal of the Turkish garrisons.
On the other hand Wellington still held Lisbon with parts of Portugal, Elvas and Badajoz, for Soult had not felt disposed to attempt the capture of the last two fortresses.
The key to the remaining operations of t811 lies in the importance attached by both Allies and French to the possession of the fortresses which guarded the two great roads from Portugal into Spain - Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo on the northern, and Badajoz and Elvas on the southern road; all these except Elvas were in French hands.
Thence his line stretched along the Pyrenees by the passes of Vera, Echallar, Maya and Roncesvalles, to Altobiscar; his immediate object now being to reduce the fortresses of San Sebastian and Pampeluna.
There is a fine monument to Prince Michael (1860-1868) who succeeded in removing the Turkish garrison from the Belgrade citadel and obtaining other Turkish fortresses in Servia by skilful diplomacy.
It has, in consequence, seen more battles under its walls than most fortresses in Europe.
On the 23rd of January 1743, direct negotiations between the two powers were opened at Abo, and on the 7th of August 1743 Sweden ceded to Russia all the southern part of Finland east of the river Kymmene, which thus became the boundary between the two states, including the fortresses of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn.
Dunkirk forms with Bergues, Bourbourg and Gravelines a group of fortresses enclosed by inundations and canals.
In the military history of all these centuries constant allusion is made to the Rhine, its passages and its fortresses.
The king, realizing what street fighting in Florence would mean, at once came to terms; he contented himself with 120,000 florins, agreeing to assume the title of "Protector and Restorer of the liberty of Florence," and to give up the fortresses he had taken within two years, unless his expedition to Naples should be concluded sooner; the Medici were to remain banished, but the price on their heads was withdrawn.
At the same time League Charles violated his promise by giving aid to the Pisans against in their revolt against Florence, and did not restore the Charles other fortresses.
The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes (Quadi, Marcomanni) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube.
The old towns of Axel and Halst were formerly important fortresses, and as such were frequently besieged in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
The old forts and bastions of the city have been demolished, but the two linked fortresses, the Oberhaus and the Niederhaus, are still extant.
Legnago is one of the famous Quadrilateral fortresses.
Otto gained a victory near Xanten, which was followed by the surrender of the fortresses held by his brother's adherents in Saxony, but the rebels, joined by Eberhard of Franconia and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz continued the struggle, and Giselbert of Lorraine transferred his allegiance to Louis IV., king of France.
Until 1886 Olmiitz was one of the strongest fortresses of Austria, but the fortifications have been removed, and their place is occupied by a town park, gardens and promenades.
The security of the kingdom was sensibly promoted by the erection of a cordon of fortresses on its north-eastern borders, and a blow was given to foreign interference when Casimir succeeded in gaining dominant influence over the independent Polish principality of Masovia, which had hitherto gravitated between Bohemia and the Teutonic Order.
The duke unwillingly complied, but when the French entered Piedmont and demanded the cession of the fortresses of Turin and Verrua, he refused, and while still professing to negotiate with Louis, joined the league of Austria, Spain and Venice.
Louis agreed to restore most of the fortresses he had captured and to make other concessions; a treaty was signed in 1696, and Victor appointed generalissimo of the Franco-Piedmontese forces in Italy operating against the imperialists.
At first the French were successful and captured several Piedmontese fortresses, but after besieging Turin, which was skilfully defended by the duke, for several months, they were completely defeated by Victor and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven out of the other towns they had captured.
The two fortresses can accommodate a garrison of Io,000 men.
The Rhine fortresses offered but little resistance to the advance of Turenne and Conde.
French, however, in the course of the year lost a few fortresses on the Meuse, including Grave and Huy.
In the course of the spring (May-June) the king's army recaptured some of the lost fortresses of the Meuse and took in addition Liege and Limburg.
The peace of Nijmwegen gave Louis many of the Netherlands frontier fortresses, and little else.
In the following campaign, after desperate fighting to the north of the Danube in the mountainous region of Transylvania, Sarmizegethusa, the capital of Decebalus, was taken, and he was forced to terms. He agreed to raze all fortresses, to surrender all weapons, prisoners and !Roman deserters, and to become a dependent prince under the suzerainty of Rome.
The first of these is a methodical treatise, setting forth Machiavelli's views on military matters, digesting his theories respecting the superiority of national troops, the inefficiency of fortresses, the necessity of relying upon infantry in war, and the comparative insignificance of artillery.
On hearing of this, Henry, although he had sworn to observe this will, had himself released from his oath by the pope, and hurriedly marched against his brother, from whom in the beginning of 1156 he succeeded in taking Chinon and Mirebeau; and in July he forced Geoffrey to give up even his three fortresses in return for an annual pension.
Although it is mentioned in the 16th century, and coal was discovered there at the time of Peter the Great, it was not until 1 795 that an Englishman, Gascoyne or Gaskoin, established its first iron-works for supplying the Black Sea fleet and the southern fortresses with guns and shot.
During his reign Venice lost the fortresses Nicosia and Famagosta in Cyprus.
This completed the success of the insurrection in the Morea, where only Patras, Nauplia, and one or two lesser fortresses remained to the Turks.
Although he was not successful in his attempt to recover Narbonne (737), he destroyed the fortresses of Agde, Beziers and Maguelonne, and set fire to the amphitheatre at Nimes.
By the second peace of Thorn, Poland recovered the provinces of Pomerelia, Kulm and Michalow, with the bishopric of Ermeland, numerous cities and fortresses, including Marien 18,000 of their 21,000 villages were destroyed, moo churches were razed to the ground, and the population was diminished by more than a quarter of a million.
In 1485, after driving the Turks out of Moldavia, the Polish king, at the head of 20,000 men, proceeded to Kolomea on the Pruth, where Bayezid II., then embarrassed by the Egyptian war, offered peace, but as no agreement concerning the captured fortresses could be arrived at, hostilities were suspended by a truce.
During the reign of Alexander, who was too poor to maintain any adequate standing army in Lithuania, the Muscovites and Tatars ravaged the whole country at will, and were prevented from conquering it altogether only by their inability to capture the chief fortresses.
Hunters and fishermen frequented its innumerable rivers, returning home laden with rich store of fish and pelts, while runaway serfs occasionally settled in small communities beneath the shelter of the fortresses built, from time to time, to guard the 'southern frontiers of Poland and Muscovy.
After this he supervised the administrative and financial duties in connexion with the French army which occupied the principal fortresses of Prussia, and was one of the chief agents through whom Napoleon pressed hard on that land.
He civilized the north-eastern and southeastern borders of Muscovy by building numerous towns and fortresses to keep the Tatar and Finnic tribes in order.
In the meanwhile Garibaldi had invaded Sicily with his Thousand, and King Victor Emmanuel decided at last that he too must intervene; Fanti was given the chief command of a strong Italian force which invaded the papal states, seized Ancona and other fortresses, and defeated the papal army at Castelfidardo, where the enemy's commander, General Lamoriciere, was captured.
As a frontier province, Moesia was strengthened by stations and fortresses erected along the southern bank of the Danube, and a wall was built from Axiopolis to Tomi as a protection against Scythian and Sarmatian inroads.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
This excited the jealousy of Toghrul Beg, who summoned him to give up Hamadan and the fortresses of Jebel; but Ibrahim refused, and the progress of the Seljukian arms was for some time checked by internal discord - an everrecurring event in their history.
The town of Alaja was the creation of this sultan, as previously there existed on that site only the fortress of Candelor, at that epoch in the possession of an Armenian chief, who was expelled by Kaikobad, and shared the fate of the Armenian and Frankish knights who possessed the fortresses along the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Selefke (Seleucia).
El Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order to save his own life.
The fortresses of Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz barred the roads.
To 1 Isolated fortresses were still holding out for Napoleon in September 1815, e.g.
When the subject came on for discussion at the conference the German military delegate stated his view that the question of effectives could not be discussed by itself, as there were many others to which it was in some measure subordinated, such, for instance, as the length of service, the number of cadres whether existing in peace or made ready for war, the amount of training received by reserves, the situation of the country itself, its railway system, and the number and position of its fortresses.
Within these 30 kilometres all existing fortresses are dismantled, 3 no new ones are to be erected, and no armed troops to be maintained; any question between the two states relative to the provisions respecting the " buffer " zone to be decided by arbitration.
It is true that at all times churches have been put to secular uses; in periods of unrest, as among the Nestorian Christians now, they were sometimes built to serve at need as fortresses; their towers were used for beacons, their naves for meetings on secular affairs.
Legionary fortresses were established at Wroxeter (for a time only), Chester and Caerleon, facing the Welsh hills, and at Lincoln in the northeast.
Towns, villages and country houses were their prominent features; troops were hardly seen in them save in some fortresses on the edge of the hills and in a chain of forts built in the 4th century to defend the south-east coast, the so-called Saxon Shore.
The legionary fortresses were large rectangular others, principally (it seems) forts built before 150, wood is used freely and only the few principal buildings seem to have been constructed throughout of stone.
These officials seem to have been located in royal villages (cyninges tun, villa regalis) or fortresses (cyninges burg, orbs regis), which served as centres and meeting-places (markets, &c.) for the inhabitants of the district, and to which their dues, both in payments and services had to be rendered.
Glogau, Glatz and Neisse are fortresses.
No change occurred till 1859, when the system of Belgian defence was radically altered by the dismantlement of seventeen of the twenty-two fortresses constructed under Wellington's supervision in 1815-1818.
New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers.
The low-lying spaces at the confluences of the rivers, being readily laid under water, have been not infrequently chosen as sites for fortresses.
In 299 B.C. further successes led to the establishment of two new tribes - the Teretina in the upper valley of the Trerus (Sacco) and the Aniensis, in the upper valley of the Anio - while to about the same time we must attribute the construction of two new military roads, both secured by fortresses.
The vigour and success of his operations was such that in a short time he succeeded in recovering almost all the fortresses held by the English to the north of the Forth.
There he found an asylum till the 20th of May 1520, when he chartered a ship to Kalmar, one of the few Swedish fortresses which held out against Christian II.
Being a frontier province the Rhineland is strongly garrisoned, and the Rhine is guarded by the three strong fortresses of Cologne with Deutz, Coblenz with Ehrenbreitstein, and Wesel.
Yet such was the dread of The France and the enfeebled state of the country that Holland retained the privilege, which had been con- Nether- ceded to her during the war, of garrisoning the principal fortresses or Barrier towns, on the French frontier, and her right to close the navigation on the Scheldt was again ratified by a European treaty.
A branch line, parallel to this last, connects Skierniewice with Thorn and Bromberg; while a military railway connects the fortresses of Warsaw and Ivangorod with Brest-Litovsk, via.
The marshy lowlands, covered with forests on the western bank of the Vistula, are a natural defence against an army advancing from the west, and they are strengthened by the fortresses on that river.
The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.
Thebes was never a walled city in this sense, though its vast temple enclosures in different quarters would form as many fortresses in case of siege or tumult.
At last in 1558 the powers agreed to an armistice, and in 1559 the peace of Cateau-Cambresis was made, by which Emmanuel regained his duchy, but on onerous terms, for France was to occupy several Piedmontese fortresses, including Turin and Pinerolo, for not more than three years, and a marriage was arranged between the duke and Margaret, duchess of Berry, sister of the French king; while Spain was to garrison Asti and Vercelli (afterwards exchanged for Santhia) until France evacuated the above-mentioned fortresses.
The alliance at first resulted only in compelling the surrender of a few unimportant fortresses in the Romagna; but Julius freed Perugia and Bologna in the brilliant campaign of 1506.
The emperor is empowered to erect fortresses in any part of the empire.
In the first period (roughly 1871-1899), which is characterized by the development of the offensive spirit, the fortresses, except on the French and Russian frontiers, were reduced to a minimum.
In the interior only Spandau, Custrin, Magdeburg, Ingolstadt and Ulm were maintained as defensive supporting points, and similarly on the Rhine, which was formerly studded with fortresses from Basel to Emmerich, the defences were limited to New Breisach, Germersheim, Mainz, Cohlenz, Cologne and Wesel, all of a barrier character and not organized specially as centres of activity for field armies.
Another fund, of about 5,200,000, serves for the construction and armament of fortresses; while 6,000,000, known as the Reichskriegsschatzor war treasure fund is not laid out at interest, butis stored in coined gold and bullion in the Juliusturm at Spandau.
The Rhine lands were of course the centre of Roman civilization, with Roman roads, fortresses, stone and tiled houses and marble temples.
Henry saw that, while this state of things lasted, the population could never be safe, and began the construction of fortresses and walled towns.
They grudged even the contributions necessary for the maintenance of the frontier fortresses, and many of them stooped to accept the bribes he offered them on condition that they should remain quiet.
He superintended the siege works against Peschiera, was present at Palestro and Solferino, and repaired the fortifications of some of the northern fortresses.
The seaports wrested at the same period from the Saracens along the Spanish and Barbary coasts became important Genoese colonies, whilst in the Levant, on the shores of the Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected Genoese fortresses' of great strength.
In 550 Totila took some fortresses, but the great cities all withstood him, and the Goths were driven out the next year.
The De aedificiis contains an account of the chief public works executed during the reign of Justinian down to 558 (in which year it seems to have been composed), particularly churches, palaces, hospitals, fortresses, roads, bridges and other river works throughout the empire.
According to the paintings of the Middle Kingdom in the tombs of Beni Hasan, the battlements of brick fortresses were attacked and wrenched away with long and massive spears.
His short reign was marked by some fairly successful incursions into Armenia, and the recovery of the fortresses Marash and Tell Hamdn, which had been retaken by the Armenians.
In the 15th century its fortifications were extended to include Irish Town, and until their demolition in 1760 it was one of the strongest fortresses of the kingdom.
Its numbers were raised to 160,000 men, while fortresses and magazines were always kept in a state of readiness for war.
Subsequently, when Bernard de Newmarch and his Norman followers obtained possession of the country in the last quarter of the II th century, these were converted into regular fortresses.
They fought with courage, but were no match for Roman discipline; it was, however, impossible to follow them into their mountain fortresses, nor were the difficulties of pursuit thoroughly overcome till after the battle of Culloden in 1746.
David regained the shelter of Carlisle, a legate from Rome made peace, and Prince Henry received the investiture of Northumberland, without the strong fortresses of Bamborough and Newcastle.
It is situated on the river San and is one of the strongest fortresses in Galicia.
The treaty was based on the same principle of securing Holland against French aggression that had inspired that of Ryswick in 1698, by the terms of which the chief frontier fortresses of the Netherlands were to be garrisoned by Dutch troops.
A second Barrier Treaty was signed between Great Britain and Holland on 29th of January 1713, by which the strong places designed for the barrier were reduced to Furnes, the fort of Knocke, Ypres, Menin, Tournai, Mons, Charleroi and the citadel of Ghent, and certain fortresses in the neighbourhood of that city and of Bruges; Great Britain undertaking to obtain the right for the Dutch to garrison them from the future sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands.
He reduced the army, cut down the soldiers' pay, failed to keep up the supply of war material, and neglected the frontier fortresses at a time when the Seljuk Turks were pressing hard upon the eastern portion of the empire.
Aulus Gabinius, the new proconsul of Syria, defeated his hastily gathered forces, besieged him in one of the fortresses he had managed to acquire, and induced him to abandon his attempt in return for his life.
In the first year of his reign all the strong places of Kinnesrin and Mesopotamia were formed into a special province, which received the name of al-`Awasim ("the defending fortresses"), with Manbij (Hierapolis) as its capital.
He kept them as long as he could north of the Apennines, while he completed the reduction of the fortresses of Tuscany.
The so-called "Varna quadrilateral," which has played an important part in Bulgarian military history, consists of the fortresses of Varna, Shumla, Rustchuk and Silistria.
In the Spanish peninsula, the chief importance of the numerous small towns lay in the part they played as fortresses during the unceasing wars with the Moors.
Thus public monuments became fortresses, and antique sculpture was built into city walls.
The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places.
There are fortresses at Stockholm (Vaxholm and Oscar-Fredriksborg), Boden on the northern railway near the Russian frontier, Karlsborg on Lake Vetter, and Karlskrona; and there are forts at Gothenburg and on Gotland.
Her original demands were Silesia (she held most of the fortresses there), Pomerania (which had been in her possession for nearly twenty years), and a war indemnity of 20,000,000 rixdollars.
But the absence of troops on the Finnish border, and the bad condition of the frontier fortresses, constrained the empress to listen to Gustavus's pacific assurances, and stay her hand.
From Persia he was sent to Turkey in Asia, and, having captured in rapid succession the principal fortresses, he was at the end of the campaign made a field marshal at the age of forty-seven.
In the west the old conflict for Osroene and northern Mesopotamia (now Roman provinces), with the fortresses of Edessa, Carrhae and Nisibis, still smouldered.
The conflict centred round the Mesopotamian fortresses; Shpur thrice besieged Nisibis without success, but reduced several others, as Amida (359) and Singara (360), and transplanted great masses of inhabitants into Susiana.
Prince Charles, the eldest of the king's brothers, was thereupon hastily to mobilize the garrisons of all the southern fortresses, for the ostensible purpose of crushing the revolt at Kristianstad; but on arriving before the fortress he was to make common cause with the rebels, and march upon the capital from the south, while Sprengtporten attacked it simultaneously from the east.
It was one of the strong fortresses included in the county of Edessa (q.v.).
The most famous monument of ancient Thebes was the outer wall with its seven gates, which even as late as the 6th century B.C. was probably the largest of artificial Greek fortresses.
Lisbon, Elvas and Angra in the Azores, were considered first-class fortresses, but only Lisbon had modern defences.
Though regiments were disbanded, fleets put out of commission and fortresses dismantled to save the cost of their upkeep, the Crown paid nearly 10o,000 yearly for the maintenance of this new hierarchy, and squandered untold wealth on the erection of churches and monasteries.
But the action of the French troops in occupying the fortresses of northern Spain provoked in May 1808 a general rising in that country, which soon spread to Portugal.
Although thus a place of great antiquity, the history of the town practically centres in that of the successive fortresses on the Rock of Dumbarton, a twin-peaked mount, 240 ft.
In later times it seems in some sort to have been revived under Byzantine protection, and from time to time Byzantine officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which was constituted an archbishopric. They also held Ta Matarcha on the Asiatic side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and iith centuries became the seat of the Russian principality of Tmutarakan, which in its turn gave place to Tatar domination.
As Isca Silurum, it was one of the three great legionary fortresses of Roman Britain, established either about A.D.
The unprotected condition of the principal British fortresses and arsenals had long attracted his attention, and he succeeded in inducing the House of Commons to vote nine millions for the fortification of those important points.
The Polish gentry on the other hand exhibited far less energy in the field than in the council chamber; they were defeated again and again by the knights, and showed themselves utterly incapable of taking fortresses.
Niall Garve, however, went over to the English, making himself master of O'Donnell's fortresses of Lifford and Donegal.
The Turks meantime maintained their grip on the country by holding on the Walachian bank of the Danube the fortresses of Giurgevo, Turnu Severin and Orsova, with the surrounding districts.
A hold was obtained on the country by the occupation of various fortresses on Moldavian soil with the surrounding territory - in 1538 Cetatea Alba, in 1592 Bender, in 1702 Chotim (Khotin).
To the last he loved to draw his illustrations of sacred things from camps and fortresses, from guns, drums, trumpets, flags of truce, and regiments arrayed each under its own banner.
These were rejected, and failure also attended the negotiations between France and the United Provinces which took place at Gertruydenberg in 1710, negotiations only entered upon by the Dutch after they had by a treaty with England (October 1709) secured a guarantee that they would obtain the coveted barrier of fortresses against France.
The treaty between France and the United Provinces was mainly concerned with securing the barrier of fortresses.
Seven fortresses were to be garrisoned by a total of 35,000 men, three-fifths of the cost being borne by the imperial government and the remainder by the United Provinces.
To the peaceful occupation of a farmer he added that of a warrior, and his first exploit was the conquest of this place, where, and at Savendrug, his family subsequently erected fortresses.
During the campaign of 1854 it was successfully defended by General Krach against the Russians under Paskievich; the circuit of its defences had been strengthened before this time by the outlying fortresses Medjid-tabia (built by English engineers) and Arab-tabia.
But troops were collected and the various fortresses occupied by the Jews were successively reduced.
Warned by the failures of the English against Danish entrenched camps, he introduced the long-neglected art of fortification, and built many burhs stockaded fortresses on mounds by the waterside wherein dwelt permanent garrisons of military settlers.
He did not return for fifteen months; but when he did reappear it was to complete the work which he had begun in 1155, to extort from the greater barons the last of the royal fortresses which still remained in their hands, and to restore the northern boundaries of the realm.
The kings writ only ran in and about Dublin and a few other harbour fortresses.
When called to account for the doings of his subjects, as well as for certain disputes in Gascony, the English king promised redress, and, on the suggestion of Philip, surrendered, as a formal act of apology, the six chief fortresses of Guienne, which were to be restored when reparation had been made.
By espousing the cause of John of Montfort Edward obtained a good foothold on the flank of France, for many of the Breton fortresses were put into his hands.
Even more menacing to the kings prosperity was the news that another squadron had appeared off the coast of Wales, and landed stores and succours for Glendower, who had now conquered the whole principality save a few isolated fortresses.
The evacuation of the French fortresses in Maine and elsewhere which Death of was the price paid for the suspension of arms, was flumphmy bitterly resented.
Despite the needs of civil war, it was not on castles that the builders energy was spent; the government discouraged fortresses in private hands, and the dwellings of the new nobility of Edward IV.
It is one of the fortresses appointed by the Act of Union to be kept in a state of repair, and is approached from the esplanade, on which stands the colossal statue of Robert Bruce, erected in 1877.
Historically, great issues have hung upon the dislike by which High Lutheranism and High Anglicanism, those two midway fortresses between Rome and Geneva, have been estranged from each other.
In order to put down the brigands who still infested the country and to check the raids of the Arabs on the frontier, he built or rebuilt fortresses, which were of material assistance to the Jews in the great revolt against Rome.
The Achaean League at once deserted the cause of Macedonia, and Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, entered into an alliance with Rome; Acarnania and Boeotia submitted in less than a year, and, with the exception of the great fortresses, Flamininus had the whole of Greece under his control.
Frontier fortresses were also to be dismantled and their garrisons reduced to nominal strength.
The fortresses were in bad condition and short of supplies.
The king of Sardinia made peace in May, ceding Nice and Savoy to the Republic and consenting to receive French garrisons in his Piedmontese fortresses.
But when in 1812 Russia, attacked by Napoleon, had in great haste to conclude at Bucharest a treaty of peace with Turkey, and omitted to make sufficient provision for the security of her allies the Serbs, the Turkish army invaded and reconquered Servia, occupying all its fortresses.
In compliance with that treaty the sultan by the Hatti-Sherif of 1830 formally granted full autonomy to the Serbs, retaining at the same time Turkish garrisons in the Servian fortresses.
When in 1862 the Turkish garrison in the citadel of Belgrade bombarded the town, he demanded the evacuation of all the Servian fortresses and forts by the Turks.
In the beginning of 1867 he addressed to the Porte a formal demand that the Turkish garrisons should be withdrawn from Belgrade and other Serb fortresses.
To prevent a general conflagration in the Balkan Peninsula, the powers advised the sultan to comply with the demand, and when the British government strongly supported that advice the sultan yielded and delivered all the fortresses on Servian territory to the keeping of the prince of Servia (March 1867).
In the 12th century Galilee was the outpost of the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem, and its borders were strongly protected by fortresses, the magnificent remains of which still crown the most important strategical points.
Belfort (esh Shukif), on the north bank of the Leontes, the finest and most important, dates somewhat earlier; and Montfort (Kalat el Kurn) stood on a narrow spur north-east of Acre, completing the chain of frontier fortresses.
He constructed a number of fortresses on the great central plain and carved out the kingdom of Meath to serve as his mensal land.
During a reign of twelve years (1002-1014) he is said to have effected much improvement in the country by the erection and repair of churches and schools, and the construction of bridges, causeways, roads and fortresses.
The holy cities had been recovered from the Wahhabis, and Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses.
In 1904 the British School at Athens began a thorough exploration of Laconia, and in the following year excavations were made at Thalamae, Geronthrae, and Angelona near Monemvasia, while several medieval fortresses were surveyed.
On the heights, as at Bibracte, or on islands in the rivers, as at Lutetia, or protected by marshes, as at Avaricum, oppidaat once fortresses and places of refuge, like the Greek Acropoliskept watch and ward over the beaten tracks and the rivers of Gaul.
Like one of those physical forces which tend to reduce everything to a dead level, he battered down alike characters and fortresses; and in his endeavours to abolish faction, he killed that public spirit which, formed in the 16th century, had already produced the Republique of Bodin, de Thous History of his Times, La Boeties Contre Un, the Satire Mnippe, and Sullys Economies royales.
In the baronial outbreak of 1173 Roger Mowbray, who had inherited the Isle of Axholme from Nigel d'Albini, garrisoned Ferry East, or Kinnard's Ferry, and Axholme against the king, and, after the destruction of their more northern fortresses in this campaign, Epworth in Axholme became the principal seat of the Mowbrays.
Numerous fortresses guard the Portuguese frontier and the passes of the Pyrenees, but many of these are ill-armed and obsolete.
Instead of reducing the southern provinces of France, the Spaniards were driven from the strong fortresses that guarded the Pyrenees, and the French advanced almost to the Ebro; and at the same time the British were utilizing the war to extend their colonial power and were establishing more firmly that maritime supremacy which the Spanish government had been struggling for almost a century to overthrow.
The war was essentially a guerrilleros struggle in which the mountaineers held their ground among the hills against the insufficient, illappointed, and mostly very ill-led armies of the government, but were unable to take the fortresses, or to establish themselves in central Spain south of the Ebro; though they made raids as far as Andalusia.
Breasted and some account of the temples and fortresses from Halfa to Khartum will be found in the following section, Ancient Monuments south of Haifa, while the history of the early and medieval Christian kingdoms is outlined in the articles Ethiopia and Dongola.
Under the XIIth Dynasty colonies were planted and fortresses established down to the Batn-el-Hagar.
Forty-three miles farther south are the ruins of the twin fortresses of Kumma and Semna.
He protected the Catholic as well as the orthodox clergy, encouraging them both to civilize his subjects; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and built numerous towns including Vilna, the capital (c. 1321).
The feudal fortresses were regularly inspected by the central authority, and the nobles themselves became in many cases paid officers of the king.
The fortresses were dismantled by Cromwell, but some remains are extant.
Basil's policy was to make the great Armenian fortresses, garrisoned by imperial troops, the first line of defence on his eastern frontier; but it failed in the hands of his feeble successors, who thought more of converting heretical Armenia than of defending its frontier.
After the extension of the eastern frontier, the troops were withdrawn from the garrisons and fortresses, and Helvetia, free from warlike disturbances, gradually became completely romanized.
Royal officials were appointed for administrative purposes, large estates were recovered for the crown, and fortresses were destroyed, while the church was placed under the royal jurisdiction and all gifts to it were prohibited.
In 968 he reduced most of the fortresses in Syria, and after the fall of Antioch and Aleppo (969), which were recaptured by his lieutenants, secured his conquests by a peace.
Under the Wittelsbach rule, the estates of the various provinces of Brandenburg had obtained the right to coin money, to build fortresses, to execute justice, and to form alliances with foreign states.
It was obviously Gustavus's plan to drive Wallenstein away from the Leipzig road, north of which he had posted himself, and thus, in case of success, to isolate, and subsequently, with the aid of the Saxons in the Elbe fortresses, annihilate him.
The government was then carried on by Ã†thelflaed, who built a number of fortresses, and in conjunction with her brother, King Edward the Elder, succeeded in expelling the Danes from Derby and Leicester by the year 917-18.
Some were condemned to death, others to solitary confinement in fortresses, others to the Siberian mines and colonies.
We have seen the capitulation of towns, of celebrated fortresses, of states.
The player's challenge is to build and defend medieval desert fortresses and lay siege to fearless enemies as European nobles or Arabian warriors.
The old town is dominated by the old and the new Venetian fortresses toward the northern end of town.
Reveal your skills as a swordsman as you tackle black-hearted villains and prove your strategic prowess as you lay siege to seemingly impregnable fortresses.
The utmost the king could do was to garrison Smolensk and other fortresses and employ his wife Helena, the tsar's daughter, to mediate a truce between his father-in-law and himself.
Ivan's generals (he himself rarely took the field) were generally successful at first, and bore down their enemies by sheer numbers, capturing scores of fortresses and towns.
To conquer them, indeed, Alexander had no time, but he stormed some of their fortresses to hold them in check, and marched through their territory when he turned north from Pamphylia into the interior.
This people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Chalons-sur-Marne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses.
The Italian provinces were the most heavily taxed in the whole empire, and much of the money thus levied was spent either for the benefit of other provinces or to pay for the huge army of occupation and the fortresses in Ausfrian Italy.
All through the preceding year Hassan " Tilli," beylerbey of Bosnia, had raided in Croatia, taking border fortresses and driving off the inhabitants into slavery.
Omar was a poet and patron of learning, but continued to enlarge his kingdom, taking the sacred town of Azret (Turkestan), and to protect Ferghana from the raids of the nomad Kirghiz built fortresses on the Syr-darya, which became a basis for raids of the Khokand people into Kirghiz land.
He induced both France and Spain to evacuate the fortresses which they still held in Piedmont, made a profitable exchange of territory with the Bernese, and acquired an extension of seaboard by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia (see Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy).
Herat gradually recovered under the enlightened Ghorid kings, who were indeed natives of the province, though they preferred to hold their court amid their ancestral fortresses in the mountains of Ghor, so that at the time of Jenghiz Khan's invasion it equalled or even exceeded in populousness and wealth its sister capitals of Balkh, Mery and Nishapur, the united strength of the four cities being estimated at three millions of inhabitants.
First he placed the fortresses of middle Alsace in a state of defence, to deceive the enemy.
But then his brother Geoffrey, who had received as appanage the three fortresses of Chinon, Loudun and Mirebeau, tried to seize upon Anjou, on the pretext that, by the will of their father, Geoffrey the Handsome, all the paternal inheritance ought to descend to him, if Henry succeeded in obtaining possession of the maternal inheritance.
Thus, to defend her immense possessions in Volhynia and Podolia, she converted the castles of Bar and Krzemieniec into first-class fortresses, and placed the former in the hands of her Silesian steward, who acquitted himself so manfully of his charge r that "the Tatars fell away from the frontier all the days of Pan Pretficz," and a large population settled securely beneath the walls of Bar, henceforth known as "the bastion of Podolia."
This special legal status probably arose from the towns being considered in the first place as the king's fortresses 3 or burgs (see Borough), and, therefore, as participating in the special peace enjoyed by the king's palace.
Some English strongholds, such as Alnwick, Chillingham, Ford and Naworth, have been modernized; others, like Norham, Wark and Warkworth, are picturesque ruins; but most of the Scottish fortresses have been demolished and their sites built over, or are now represented by grass-grown mounds.
The government was then carried on by Ãƒâ€ thelflaed, who built a number of fortresses, and in conjunction with her brother, King Edward the Elder, succeeded in expelling the Danes from Derby and Leicester by the year 917-18.
Fortresses and guarded lands that were once thought impenetrable were beginning to fall.
There are also a variety of other castles and fortresses that can be utilized with the Adventure Castle to create an entire world of fantasy for your child.