Fortified sentence example

fortified
  • The town was strongly fortified by medieval walls, which have to some extent been demolished.
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  • The town was built and fortified by Cosimo I.
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  • In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the Penon.
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  • Restored to Prussia in 1816 it was again fortified, but in 1862 the fortifications were converted into a public park.
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  • The first army, with which was the Emperor, occupied the fortified camp at Drissa; the second army was retreating, trying to effect a junction with the first one from which it was said to be cut off by large French forces.
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  • Rhine, was strongly held by a series of fortified camps.
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  • Dean wondered if he'd fortified himself with one of the pints of vodka.
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  • The surrounding hills (Vinik, Goritsa, Kamenitsa) were, after 1886, fortified by modern earthworks.
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  • David surrounded the royal city with a wall and built a citadel, probably on the site of the Jebusite fort of Zion, while Joab fortified the western town.
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  • In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained in the army and among the Mussulman population by a system of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while, obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz.
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  • In 907 they fortified Chester, and in 909 and 910 either Æthelflaed or her husband must have led the Mercian host at the battles of Tettenhall and Wednesfield (or Tettenhall-Wednesfield, if these battles are one and the same).
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  • In 912 she fortified "Scergeat" and Bridgenorth, Tamworth and Stafford in 913, Eddisbury and Warwick in 914, Cherbury, "Weardbyrig" and Runcorn in 915.
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  • There were British, Roman and Saxon settlements at Dunster (Torre Dunestorre, Dunester), fortified against the piracies of the Irish Northmen.
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  • John fortified it against Louis of France in 1216, and during the civil wars it was the scene of much fighting, being stormed by the parliamentary forces in 1644.
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  • The attack on the Russian fortified camp began at two o'clock in the afternoon, in the midst of a violent snowstorm; and by nightfall the whole position was in the hands of the Swedes: the Russian army was annihilated.
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  • David Thomson with a small company from Plymouth, England, in the spring or early summer of 1623 built and fortified a house at Little Harbor (now Odiorne's Point in the township of Rye) as a fishing and trading station.
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  • Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days; Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences.
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  • The original leader of the Crusade was John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem (who had succeeded Amalric II., marrying Maria, the daughter of Amalric's wife Isabella by her former husband, Conrad of Montferrat); but after the end of 1218 the cardinal legate Pelagius, fortified by papal letters, claimed the command.
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  • The southern boundary of both basins is a low chain which leaves the Euphrates near the mouth of the Sajur tributary, and runs west towards Mt Amanus, to which it is linked by a sill whereon stood the ancient fortified palace of Samal (Sinjerli; see Hittites).
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  • It is a fortified place and has a good harbour, arsenal, magazine and barracks.
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  • Like his father, Antipas had a turn for architecture: he rebuilt and fortified the town of Sepphoris in Galilee; he also fortified Betharamptha in Peraea, and called it Julias after the wife of the emperor.
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  • Leake, whom Frazer follows, assumed the Pelasgicum to be a fortified space at the western end of the Acropolis; this view necessitates the assumption that the nine gates were built one within the other, but early antiquity furnishes no instance of such a construction; DOrpfeld believes it to have extended from the grotto of Pan to the sacred precinct of Asclepius.
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  • This was the City of Hadrian (Hadrianapolis) or New Athens (Novae Athenae); a handsome suburb with numerous villas, baths and gardens; some traces remain of its walls, which, like those of Themistocles, were fortified with rectangular towers.
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  • Having been fortified the town stood several sieges, specially during the wars of freedom waged by the Dutch, the most celebrated fight under its walls being the one in September 1586 when Sir Philip Sidney was mortally wounded.
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  • Early in the War of Independence Paulus Hook was fortified by the Americans, but soon after the battle of Long Island they abandoned it, and on the 23rd of September 1776 it was occupied by the British.
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  • Its naturally strong position was formerly fortified, and part of the walls, serving as a promenade, remain.
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  • He fortified cities, constructed roads and organized the army.
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  • After a severe siege, Fuenterrabia surrendered to the duke of Berwick and his French troops in 1719; and in 1794 it again fell into the hands of the French, who so dismantled it that it has never since been reckoned by the Spaniards among their fortified places.
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  • Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
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  • Lauban was founded in the 10th and fortified in the 13th century; in 1427 and 1431 it was devastated by the Hussites, and in 1640 by the Swedes.
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  • Early in the 19th century it was an important military post, with fortified barracks on Berry Head.
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  • The fortified station of Dinas occupies the summit of a hill about 22 m.
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  • Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
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  • Venice having adopted a hostile attitude since Turkey's conquests in the Morea, greater attention was devoted to the fleet; Mytilene was captured and the entrance to the straits fortified.
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  • Arrived at the line of the Spree, they took up and fortified a very formidable position about Bautzen (q.v.).
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  • Framlingham (Frendlingham, Framalingaham) in early Saxon times was probably the site of a fortified earthwork to which St Edmund the Martyr is said to have fled from the Danes in 870.
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  • Ploen is mentioned as early as the 11th century as a Wendish settlement, and a fortified place.
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  • Throughout the mountainous country the valleys are well watered and cultivated, with fortified villages perched on the surrounding heights.
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  • It was abandoned during the middle ages; its inhabitants took posession of the promontory of Minoa, turned it into an island, and built and fortified thereon the city of Monembasia, which became the most flourishing of all the towns in the Morea, and gave its name to the well-known Malmsey or Malvasia wine.
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  • In 1762 the Sieur de la Perriere, acting as an agent of the French government, established on the west bank of Lake Pepin a fortified post (Fort Beauharnois), which was to be a headquarters for missionaries, a trading post and a starting-point for expeditions in search of the " western sea."
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  • It became Genoese in 1527 and was strongly fortified.
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  • The new city was strongly fortified and figured prominently in the struggle for independence, and also in the various revolutions which have convulsed the republic. Its political autonomy dates from 1836, when it was made a coast department.
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  • Peniscola, often called the Gibraltar of Valencia, is a fortified seaport, with a lighthouse, built on a rocky headland about 220 ft.
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  • In this neighbourhood is concentrated most of the Afghan army north of the Hindu Kush mountains, the fortified cantonment of Dehdadi having been completed by Sirdar Ghulam Ali Khan and incorporated with Mazar.
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  • None had anticipated the possibility of such a sudden and brutal attack, and every one knew that the Danish capital was very inadequately fortified and garrisoned.
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  • The Dutch were almost without striking a blow expelled from the country, the strongly fortified seaport of Antwerp alone remaining in their hands.
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  • As the capital of the palatinate and as the nearest port for Ireland, Pembroke was in Plantagenet times one of the most important fortified cities in the kingdom.
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  • During the Civil War Colonel Henry Hastings fortified and held it for the king, and it was visited by Charles in 1645.
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  • In the middle ages it fell into the hands of the Venetians, who fortified it so strongly that in 1477 it successfully resisted a four months' siege by a Turkish army thirty thousand strong; in 1499, however, it was taken by Bayezid II.
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  • Another derivation of the name is to be found in Caer-mor-din, signifying "a fortified place near the sea."
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  • A chain of forts to the eastward is designed to facilitate the deployment of an army, concentrated within the fortified region, towards the Belgian frontier.
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  • Dunkirk is said to have originated in a chapel founded by St Eloi in the 7th century, round which a small village speedily sprang up. In the 10th century it was fortified by Baldwin III., count of Flanders; together with that province it passed successively to Burgundy, Austria and Spain.
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  • After the Restoration, Charles II., being in money difficulties, sold it to the French king Louis XIV., who fortified it.
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  • To the south-east of Kbszeg, at the confluence of the Giins with the Raab, is situated the town of Sarvar (pop. 3158), formerly fortified, where in 1526 the first printing press in Hungary was established.
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  • In 1630 the Dutch attempted again to effect a settlement; and Olinda, with its port, the Recife-Olinda, was destroyed, but the Recife was fortified and held, reinforcements They had extended their limits southwards till they reached the Spanish settlements of La Plata.
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  • Mean while, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches to the city of Rio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the United States and organized the National Guard.
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  • They had all along maintained a virtual independence of the Turks and until quite recently retained their medieval customs, living in fortified towers and practising the vendetta or blood-feud.
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  • Kassala was founded by the Egyptians in 1840 as a fortified post from which to control their newly conquered territory near the Abyssinian frontier.
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  • An outlawed Englishman, Hereward by name, fortified the Isle of Ely and attracted a number of desperate spirits to his side; amongst others came Morcar, formerly earl of Northumbria, who had been disappointed in the hopes which he based on William's personal favour.
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  • The citadel occupies the neck of the peninsula upon which the town stands; along the river bank in a semicircle is the town enceinte, and the suburb of Battant on the right bank of the Doubs is also "regularly" fortified as a bridge-head.
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  • It was then fortified by the engineer.
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  • A market town since the 14th century, Korsor has ruins of an old fortified castle, on the south side of the channel, dating from the 14th and 17th centuries.
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  • At that critical hour it was at his own expense that Hunyadi fortified Belgrade, now the sole obstacle between Hungary and destruction, with the sole assistance of the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Capistrano, equipped the fleet and the army which relieved the beleaguered fortress and overthrew Mahommed II.
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  • Guemar (pop. 6885), an ancient fortified town noted for its manufacture of carpets.
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  • The suppression of the independence of the feudal aristocracy was inaugurated in 1626 by an edict calling for the destruction of all fortified castles not needed for defence against invasion.
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  • Tradition relates that, after some six years' fighting, the Messenians were forced to retire to the fortified summit of Ithome.
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  • Its position has given it a certain military importance in various campaigns and it has been repeatedly fortified as a bridge-head.
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  • The inner town was formerly fortified, but the fortifications were transformed into pleasure grounds in 1811.
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  • As a fortified post of Bokhara it was captured by the Russians in 1866.
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  • Moltke, knowing well the danger for a great army of being forced into a battle with an unfordable river behind it, and with his naturally strong bent towards the defensive in tactics, concluded that Benedek would elect to hold the left bank of the Elbe, between the fortified towns of Josephstadt and Kiiniggra,tz, with his right thrown back and covered by the lower courses of the Aupa and the Mettau.
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  • The modern town lies at the foot of a rock, on which stands the old town with its steep rock-paved streets and fortified walls, commanded by the Fort Muzello.
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  • The word is derived from ribat, a fortified frontier station.
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  • Before the middle of the 15th century it had ceased to be a fortified residence and was used as a prison, which was also the case in the time of Leland (1535), who describes it as in a ruinous state.
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  • In this revolution Thrasybulus and his mercenaries held the fortified quarters of Ortygia and Achradina; the revolted people held the unwalled suburbs, already, it is plain, thickly inhabited.
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  • The military skill of Gylippus enabled the Syracusan militia to meet the Athenian troops on equal terms, to wrest from them their fortified position on Plemmyrium, which Nicias had occupied as a naval station shortly after Gylippus's arrival, and thus to drive them to keep their ships on the low beach between their double walls, to take Labdalum, an Athenian fort on the northern edge of Epipolae, and make a third counter-work right along Epipolae in a westerly direction, to the north of the circular fort.
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  • Each quarter of the city had its own distinct defences, and Syracuse was now the most splendid and the best fortified of all Greek cities.
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  • The love-sick mood and romantic temperament of the young Irishman found congenial soil in the wild surroundings of unexplored Canadian forests, and the enthusiasm thus engendered for the "natural" life of savagery may have been already fortified by study of Rousseau's writings, for which at a later period Lord Edward expressed his admiration.
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  • Snorre the Icelander tells us that the Danes fortified Southwark with ditch and rampart, which the English assailed in vain.
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  • He first attempted to land from his ships in the city, but the Thames side from Baynard's Castle to the Tower was so well fortified that he had to seek a quieter and less prepared position.
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  • It lies on the navigable Bega canal and on the river Bega, and consists of the inner town, formerly strongly fortified, and of four outlying suburbs.
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  • It would have been folly after that experience to risk defeat and perhaps disaster in assailing formidable positions, effectively held and assiduously fortified.
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  • Formerly it was fortified, but after the change in the defensive system of Belgium in 1858 the fortress was dismantled and its ramparts superseded by boulevards.
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  • Koldewey, and was found to cover a walled town with central fortified palace.
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  • In the War of 1812 Whitehall was fortified and was a base of supplies for American operations against Canada.
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  • Millom Castle, dating from shortly after the Conquest, was fortified in the 14th century by Sir John Huddlestone, whose descendants held it until 1774.
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  • It is surrounded by Roman walls, which were partly rebuilt by the Moors, and it contains an interesting fortified palace, owned by the dukes of Medinaceli.
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  • Towards the end of the 3rd century its name was changed to Constantia, in honour of the emperor Constantius Chlorus, who fortified it.
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  • Ter Neuzen was strongly fortified in 1833-39, and has a flourishing transit trade, as the port of Ghent, by the canal constructed in 1825-27.
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  • Among the relics of its former importance are the cathedral, built in1420-1424(though originally founded in 1188), restored in 1893 and now housing the archaeological collection of the Altmark, the Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1447, a "Roland column" of 1535, and two fortified gateways, dating from the 13th century.
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  • The annual pilgrim caravan or haj, numbering some 6000 people with Io,000 pack animals, is escorted by a few Turkish irregulars known as agel; small fortified posts have been established at the regular halting-places some 30 m.
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  • Abu Sa`id was assassinated (913) in his palace at aahsa (which in 926 was fortified and became the Carmathian capital of Bahrein).
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  • Kuwet was not formally placed under British protection, but it was officially announced by the government on the 5th of May 1903 " that the establishment of a naval base or fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other power would be regarded as a very grave menace to British interests which would certainly be resisted with all the means at its disposal."
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  • The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and established a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect the northern frontier of the empire.
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  • These caves (called by the Arabs Kulat ibn Ma'an) are apparently natural, but were enlarged and fortified.
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  • The caves were also fortified against the Romans by Josephus.
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  • Its possession was disputed between Padua and Vicenza; it passed for a moment under the power of Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan, who fortified it.
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  • On the left, around the hill called by the French the Santon (which was fortified) was Lannes' corps, supported by the cavalry reserve under Murat.
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  • Its strategic importance was early recognized by the Romans, and about 13 B.C. Drusus, the son-in-law of Augustus, erected a fortified camp here, to which the castellum Mattiacorum (the modern Castel) on the opposite bank was afterwards added, the two being connected with a bridge at the opening of the Christian era.
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  • In the rejuvenescence of the nation the old stays of that oppressive kingship which began with Solomon, the strongholds, the fortified cities, the chariots and horses so foreign to the life of ancient Israel, are no more known; they disappear together with the divinations, the soothsayers, the idols, the mazzebah and asherah of the high places.
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  • In 1752 the company had a pathway blazed between the small fortified posts at Will's Creek (Cumberland), Maryland, and at Redstone Creek (Brownsville), Pennsylvania, which it had established in 1750; but it was finally merged in the Walpole Company (an organization in which Benjamin Franklin was interested), which in 1772 had received from the British government a grant of a large tract lying along the southern bank of the Ohio as far west as the mouth of the Scioto river.
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  • It is fortified on the land side by a wall with 12 round towers.
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  • The strongly fortified castle (Castel Vecchio) built by the Della Scala lords in the 14th century stands on the line of the wall of Theodoric, close by the river.
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  • In many respects the resemblance between Verona and Florence is very striking; in both cases we have a strongly fortified city built in a fertile valley, on the banks of a winding river, with suburbs on higher ground, rising close above the main city.
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  • He enlarged the fortified area by constructing a wall and ditch (now called Adigetto) straight across the loop, to the S.W.
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  • They fortified it strongly in 1814, and with Peschiera, Mantua and Legnago it formed part of the famous quadrilateral which until 1866 was the chief support of their rule in Italy.
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  • It was built in the days when brigandage held the whole country in terror, and was strongly fortified and provided with artillery and garrison.
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  • Arad was a fortified place, and was captured by the Turks during the wars .of the 17th century, and kept by them till the end of that century.
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  • They were ransomed after five years and the place fortified.
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  • The town was originally fortified by Maria Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the town unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758.
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  • After conquering the Ordovices in North Wales and the island of Mona (Anglesey), during the next two years he carried his victorious arms to the Taiis (Tay; others read Tanaus, perhaps the north Tyne), and in his fourth campaign fortified the country between Clota and Bodotria (the firths of Clyde and Forth) as a protection against the attacks of the Caledonians.
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  • It was first improved by Baldwin IV., count of Flanders, in 997, and afterwards, in 1224, was regularly fortified by Philip Hurepel, count of Boulogne.
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  • There are also an ancient church crowning the eastern hill, and a curious fortified warehouse (called the New Works), dating probably from the 14th century, when a trading company was established here under a grant from Henry IV.
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  • The site of the town curves round the harbour, between it and the strongly fortified hills of Antennamare, the highest point of which is 3707 ft.
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  • It is connected with Amsterdam by a steam tramway, passing by way of the small fortified towns of Naarden and Muiden on the Zuider Zee.
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  • The principal towns besides Temuco are Lautaro (3139) and Nueva Imperial (2179), both of historic interest because they were fortified Spanish outposts in the long struggle with the Araucanians.
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  • Fortified by these resolves he betook himself to a hermit life in the wastes of Chalcis, S.E.
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  • Unable to garrison the island with a large force, the Arabs cleared a zone between the central stronghold, Medina, and the suburb called Rabat, to restrict the fortified area.
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  • The Romans, recognizing its strategical importance, fortified it, and supplied it with water by an imposing aqueduct, the remains of which still exist.
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  • The positions were fortified with a light outpost line, behind which was drawn a main position on which every art of the engineer was expended.
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  • The Battle of Oudenarde (June 30th - July 11th 1708) was fought on the ground north-west and north of the town, which was then regularly fortified and was garrisoned by a force of the Allies.
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  • These outer defences consisted of two strongly fortified lines, the first of which had been the German outpost line in the spring of 1917 and the British main line of resistance before March 1918, and the second the British outpost line corresponding to this main line - a less formidable obstacle about a mile farther east.
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  • The last German fortified system had been breached on this.
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  • The principal town (pop. about 3000) is on the north-west, upon the only harbour (only fit for small steamers), which is fortified.
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  • Instead of living in towns its bellicose inhabitants occupy isolated fortified buildings, and are constantly at war.
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  • Konitz was the first fortified post established in Prussia by Hermann Balk, who in 1230 had been commissioned as Landmeister, by the grand-master of the Teutonic order, to reduce the heathen Prussians.
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  • It was useful as marking definitely the boundary of the Roman sway, and as assuring the Romans that no inroad could be made without intelligence being had of it beforehand, while the limes itself and the system of roads behind it enabled troops to be directed rapidly to any threatened point, and the fortified positions could be held against large numbers till reinforcements arrived.
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  • Cherbourg is a fortified place of the first class, headquarters of one of the five naval arrondissements of France, and the seat of a sub-prefect.
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  • After the storming of Chenhai - the fortified town at the mouth of the river - on the 10th of October 1841, the British forces quietly took possession of Ning-po on the 12th.
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  • Between the years 1404 and 1408 Aberystwyth Castle was in the hands of Owen Glendower, but finally surrendered to Prince Harry of Monmouth, and shortly of ter this the town was incorporated under the title of Ville de Lampadarn, the ancient name of the place being Llanbadarn Gaerog, or the fortified Llanbadarn, to distinguish it from Llanbadarn Fawr, the village one mile inland.
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  • The government remained tolerant toward the movement, and in January 1562 the Huguenots were given permission to hold public services outside the walls of fortified towns and were not forbidden to meet in private houses within the walls.
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  • The bishop's seat had to be fortified against the incursions of the heathen Frisians and Northmen, and the security thus afforded attracted population till, after the destruction of its rival Dorestad by the Normans in the 9th century, Utrecht became the chief commercial centre of the northern Netherlands.
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  • Glogau, Ciistrin and Swinemiinde are strongly fortified.
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  • By the Normans it was made the capital of Apulia in 1041, and fortified.
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  • It was fortified with walls by John when the castle was built.
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  • The city, which was formerly strongly fortified, is built in the shape of an amphitheatre, with the kasbah, or citadel, at its highest point.
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  • It is famous for the defeat of the three hundred Fabii, who had established a fortified post on its banks.
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  • Ilchester (Cair Pensavelcoit, Ischalis, Ivelcestre, Yevelchester) was a fortified British settlement, and subsequently a military station of the Romans, whose Fosse Way passed through it.
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  • Arriving at Manhattan early in May, a few of the men remained there, another small party established a temporary post (Fort Nassau) on the Delaware river, and still another began a fortified settlement on the site of the present Hartford, Connecticut.
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  • Pursuing the same wise policy he established a trading post at Oswego in 1722 and fortified it in 1727, and thereby placed the Iroquois in the desirable position of middlemen in a profitable fur trade with the " Far Indians."
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  • It was a settled point of British military policy throughout the war to hold New York City, and from it, as a base, to establish a line of fortified posts along the Hudson by means of which communication might be maintained with another base on Lake Champlain.
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  • Washington prepared to withstand the British behind fortifications on Harlem Heights, but discovering that Howe was attempting to outflank him by landing troops in the rear he retreated to the mainland, leaving only a garrison at Fort Washington, and established a line of fortified camps on the hills overlooking the Bronx river as far as White Plains.
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  • It was occupied by the British under Cornwallis in June 1780, was well fortified and was garrisoned by a force under Lord Rawdon.
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  • The ruins are interesting, and show that Antioch was a strongly fortified city of Hellenic and Roman type.
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  • In 1517 the Portuguese effected a settlement, and in 1520 they fortified their port and bade defiance to the native besiegers.
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  • Its next advance brought it to the fortified position of Tashichiao, where Kuropatkin had, by drawing heavily upon his central reserve and even on the Eastern Detachment, massed about two army corps.
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  • The captured passes were therefore fortified (as Feng-hwang-cheng had been) for passive resistance.
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  • The report of Lewis and Clark attracted many traders and trappers, and within a few years the Missouri Fur Company, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, the Hudson Bay Company and the American Fur Company had established fortified trading posts on the Missouri, the Yellowstone, the Marias, the Milk and other rivers; the most prominent among these was Fort Benton, which was established in 1846 at the head of navigation on the Missouri, and was made the headquarters of the American Fur Company.
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  • Here also is an interesting building called the Ldwenburg, erected in 1793-1796 in the style of a fortified castle, and containing among other things portraits of Tudors and Stuarts.
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  • In 1634 the town came into the possession of France, and it was afterwards fortified by Vauban.
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  • It was afterwards fortified and received special privileges.
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  • The town is well fortified on the old system, being surrounded by a wall with towers at regular intervals.
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  • The present name is a corruption of the Saracen Kalat-al-Girchc (the castle of Girche, the chieftain who fortified it).
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  • The Bergstadt was fortified by Otto III.
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  • Fortified by this success and assured of the support of the parliament and of the great nobles, James, acting as an absolute king, could view without alarm the war which had broken out with England.
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  • Yellowveined black marble, known as Portoro, and building-stone are quarried here and in the fortified island of Palmaria to the east of Portovenere.
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  • Kuhna Shahr is a small fortified city on high ground overlooking the river Tuman.
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  • Early in 1767 the malcontents, fortified by the adhesion of the leading Catherine II.
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  • That year he got as far as Allumette Island in the Ottawa, but two years later, with a "Great War Party" of Indians, he crossed Lake Nipissing and the eastern ends of Lakes Huron and Ontario, and made a fierce but unsuccessful attack on an Onondaga fortified town a few miles south of Lake Oneida.
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  • The town is divided by the Savoureuse into a new quarter, in which is the railway station on the right bank, and the old fortified quarter, with the castle, the public buildings and monuments, on the left bank.
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  • In front of the Perches redoubts, the Bosmont, whence the Prussian engineers began their attack, is now heavily fortified with continuous lineslcalled the Organisation defensive de Bosmont.
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  • The fort of Mont Vaudois, the westernmost, overlooks Hericourt and the battlefield of the Lisaine: farther to the south Montbeliard is also fortified.
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  • The old fortress consisted of the town enceinte, the castle (situated on high ground and fortified by several concentric envelopes), and the entrenched camp, a hollow enclosed by continuous lines, the salients of which were the castle, Fort La Justice and Fort La Miotte.
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  • The Perches ridge, whence the town and suburbs could be bombarded, he fortified with all possible speed.
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  • With this object he fortified the outlying villages, and when the Germans (chiefly Landwehr) began the investment on the 3rd of November 1870, they encountered everywhere a most strenuous resistance.
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  • Its industries include the manufacture of buttons, shoes, cigars and soap. The town dates from about 110o and was early an important fortified place; until 1371 it was the residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.
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  • The city is situated on a plain, and is surrounded by fortified walls, 62 m.
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  • It was a strongly fortified town which resisted successfully the attacks of the Turks, into whose hands it fell by treachery in 1594, but they retained possession of it only for four years.
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  • Medieval writers, for whom the tale was preserved by the Arabian geographers, believed it true, and were fortified in their belief by numerous traditions of islands in the western sea, which offered various points of resemblance to Atlantis.
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  • Aghrem Baba Saad, a small ruined town to the west of Ghardaia, is the fortified post in which the Beni-Mzab took refuge when the Turks under Salah Rais (about 1555) attempted unsuccessfully to subjugate the country.
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  • The system of Marshal Valee had been the defensive: he multiplied the fortified posts in order to draw the enemy to a spot chosen beforehand.
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  • Mühlhausen is one of the oldest towns in Thuringia, and is said to have been fortified in 925.
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  • He all but completed the cathedral which his predecessor, William of St Carilef, had begun; fortified Durham; built Norham Castle; founded the priory of Mottisfout and endowed the college of Christchurch, Hampshire.
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  • It is below Werfen, and near its exit, just at the narrowest part, is the Lueg Pass, which was fortified as early as 1316 and offered a firm resistance to the French in the years 1800, 1805 and 1809.
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  • It was at one time a place of great strength, and still contains a magazine, and is fortified with batteries.
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  • The town is strongly fortified.
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  • With this he marched to Geneva, destroyed the bridge over the Rhone, fortified the left bank of the river, and forced the Helvetii to follow the right bank.
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  • The archbishop's palace to the north-east of the cathedral is a fortified building of the 14th century.
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  • Bury, of which the name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon burhg, birig or byrig (town, castle or fortified place), was the site of a Saxon station, and an old English castle stood in Castle Croft close to the town.
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  • The site is undoubtedly to be sought on the hill now occupied by the large medieval fortified farmhouse of Lunghezza, immediately to the south of the Anio, which occupies the site of the citadel joined by a narrow neck to the tableland to the south-east on which the city stood: this is protected by wide valleys on each side, and is isolated at the south-east end by a deep narrow valley enlarged by cutting.
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  • It lies about half-way between Hasselt and Louvain, and is still one of the five fortified places in Belgium.
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  • Washington, anticipating this move, had already marched from Boston and fortified the city.
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  • There he fortified himself, and remained until the American-French military and naval combination, referred to above, appeared and compelled his surrender.
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  • Dublin castle was fortified; and the citizens lived in a state of terror for several weeks together.
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  • Peine was at one time a strongly fortified place, and until 1803 belonged to the bishopric of Hildesheim.
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  • He fortified the Janiculum, threw a wooden bridge across the Tiber, founded the port of Ostia, established salt-works and built a prison.
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  • In addition to these temples, there was also found a great fortified enclosure, about 860 ft.
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  • The conquerors, who were few in number, formed a small military aristocracy, living not in the towns, but in fortified villages, where the chiefs in their castles kept up a barbaric state, surrounded by their tribesmen.
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  • The cathedral of the Assumption, finished in 1832, is the principal place of worship. The fortified Carmelite monastery, founded in 1627, was captured and plundered by Chmielnicki, chief of the Zaporogian Cossacks, in 1647, and disestablished in 1864.
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  • There is no trace of a common wall, each city was as strongly fortified towards the interior as on the outside.
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  • Meanwhile a Bavarian Assembly had been elected, and the Bavarian reactionaries feared that, when it assembled, Eisner's influence might continue to predominate or might even be fortified.
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  • The precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three York.
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  • The same Tertullian who had fortified the Catholic church against Gnosticism was none the less anxious to protect it from becoming a political organization.
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  • There is a powerful lighthouse, and since its cession by Great Britain to Germany, the main island has been strongly fortified, the old English batteries being replaced by armoured turrets mounting guns of heavy calibre.
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  • Founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1619, Gothenburg was from the first designed to be fortified, a town of the same name founded on Hisingen in 1603 having been destroyed by the Danes during the Calmar war.
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  • Under Julian it recovered some of its importance as a fortified town, and was able to withstand the attacks of the Vandals.
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  • Since 1870 Alsen has been fortified.
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  • It was almost completely destroyed by Tatar hordes in 1241, but was rebuilt and fortified by King Bela IV.
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  • Though he waged war all through his reign he very rarely appeared in the field, but directed the generals, whom he never trusted, from his "lair" in the fortified palace, the Alcazar of Seville.
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  • It is a fortified coaling station for the British navy.
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  • The natural advantages of its site and its position with relation to the pass over the Alpis Cottia (Mont Genevre; see CoTTri Regnum) made it important in early times, though it cannot have been very strongly fortified, inasmuch as Hannibal, after crossing the Alps in 218 B.e., was able to take it after a three days' siege.
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  • It became a colony either under the triumvirs or under Augustus, and it was then no doubt that it was fortified.
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  • The monasteries, which are all fortified, generally consist of large quadrangles enclosing churches; standing amid rich foliage, they present a wonderfully picturesque appearance, especially when viewed from the sea.
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  • There are no traces of the fortified palace of the bishops of Durham, of the White Friars' monastery founded in 13J4, or of the Austin priory founded in 1341.
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  • In the 17th and 18th centuries it played a considerable part as a fortified town.
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  • In 1311 Robert de Holland fortified a mansion here, and in 1327 this castle belonged to Henry, earl of Lancaster; but it was dismantled in 1460, and little more than the site is now traceable.
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  • There is little or no evidence for the existence of towns other than Roman in early times, for the word urbs is merely a translation of burg, which was used for any fortified dwelling-place, and it is improbable that anything which could properly be called a town was known to the invaders before their arrival in Britain.
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  • The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly descended.
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  • Such persons also had retinues and fortified residences of their own.
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  • To give this supremacy a firmer basis, Boniface fortified the Vatican and the Capitol, and restored the castle of St Angelo - which had previously been used as a quarry - providing it with walls and battlements, and erecting a tower in the centre.
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  • More weighty was the Du Pape of Joseph de Maistre (1819), closely reasoned and fortified with a wealth of learning, which had an enormous influence upon all those who thought that they saw in the union of " altar and throne " the palladium of society.
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  • It received a charter in the reign of Edward III., at which time it was walled and fortified, and entered by four gates, two of which remain.
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  • It was therefore decided to change it from a fortress to a fortified position by constructing an outer line of forts and batteries at a distance varying from 6 to 9 m.
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  • With the completion of this work, which in 1908 was being rapidly pushed on, Antwerp might be regarded as one of the best fortified positions in Europe, and so long as its communications by sea are preserved intact it will be practically impregnable.
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  • These include a church; a fortified monastery which was founded in 1478, but so often burned and rebuilt as to seem quite modern, and which is visited by pilgrims to the tomb of Peter I.
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  • Immediately to the south-west the fortified hills of Montjuich rise to an altitude of 650 ft., while the view is bounded on the west by the heights which culminate in Tibidabo (1745 ft.), and on the north-east by the Montanas Matas.
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  • At any rate, Charles led various expeditions against the invaders, and tried to put a barrier in their way by having fortified bridges built over all the rivers.
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  • The "fortified zone," instead of being between the "Vindictive" and the shore, was now between the "Vindictive" and the battery on the mole, increasing the difficulty of an assault.
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  • A machine-gun in the fortified zone was firing on them, and Lt.-Comm.
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  • It was rebuilt and fortified by Stefano Colonna in 1448.
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  • The line continues thence by the Hollandsche Diep and Volkerak to the sea, and the coast also is fortified.
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  • Under Burmese rule Lashio was also the centre of authority for the northern Shan States, but the Burmese post in the valley was close to the Nam Yao, in an old Chinese fortified camp. The Lashio valley was formerly very populous; but a rebellion, started by the sawbwa of Hsenwi, about ten years before the British occupation, ruined it, and it is only slowly approaching the prosperity it formerly enjoyed; pop. (1901) 2565.
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  • With the help of these and other victories (at Jahaz, Aroer, &c.), Moab recovered its territory, fortified its cities, supplied them with cisterns, and Mesha built a great sanctuary to his god.
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  • In the 15th century Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, had a fortified manor-house here, traces of which remain.
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  • Sold by one of the Fieschi in 1276 to Genoa, the town was fortified by its new possessors and made the seat of a governor of some importance.
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  • Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, and Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank.
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  • In the 13th century it was taken by the Lithuanians, who fortified it.
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  • The defence of Belgium depends on five fortified positions.
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  • The fortified position and camp of Antwerp represents the true base of the national defence.
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  • Liege with twelve forts and Namur with nine forts are the fortified tetes de Pont protecting the two most important passages of the Meuse.
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  • Termor de on the Scheldt and Diest on the Dender are retained as nominally fortified positions, but neither could resist a regular bombardment for more than a few hours, as their casemates are not bomb-proof.
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  • Novogeorgievsk is a strongly fortified camp which requires a garrison of 12,000 men, and may shelter an army of 50,000 men.
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  • The town of Sierock, at the confluence of the Bug and the Narew, is fortified to protect the rear of Novogeorgievsk.
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  • Immediately below that town the Rhone rushes through a great natural gateway, a narrow and striking defile (now strongly fortified), which commands the entrance of the Valais.
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  • Giffard, although inclined to nepotism, was a benefactor to his cathedral, and completed and fortified the episcopal castle at Hartlebury.
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  • Kalmar, a town of great antiquity, was formerly strongly fortified, and there remains the island-fortress of Kalmarnahus, dating partly from the 12th century, but mainly from the 16th and 17th.
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  • Although Henry was careful to claim the crown in his own right (1485), he soon fortified that claim by marrying Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV.
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  • Compelled at last to capitulate, it was completely dismantled, and was never again fortified.
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  • Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganized justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.
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  • In the middle ages it was strongly fortified and underwent several sieges; the most notable was that of 1601-1604, when it only surrendered by order of the states to Spinola.
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  • In 1864 Prussia, in annexing Holstein, obtained possession of the excellent port of Kiel, which has since been strongly fortified.
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  • Chariots are used in war, and fortified towns are built, though we must still suppose the houses to have consisted of a wooden framework coated with clay.
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  • Ferdinand sought earnestly to reform the church from within, and before he died in July 1564 the CounterRef ormation, fortified by, the entrance of the Jesuits into Germany and by the issue of the decrees of the council of Trent, had begun.
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  • The Swedes and their allies occupied Nuremberg, while the imperialists fortified a great camp and blockaded the city.
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  • It has been strongly fortified and made a naval station.
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  • Meanwhile pressure was being put upon France to admit the German claim to a voice in the affairs of North Africa, a claim fortified by the mission of Count von Tattenbach, German minister at Lisbon, to Fez for the purpose of securing from the sherifian government special privileges for Germany.
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  • Meanwhile he had published several small historical works; but his college and university duties left little time for writing, and in 1875 he accepted the vicarage of Embleton, a parish on the coast of Northumberland, near Dunstanburgh, with an ancient and beautiful church and a fortified parsonage house, and within reach of the fine library in Bamburgh Keep. Here he remained for nearly ten years, acquiring that experience of parochial work which afterwards stood him in good stead, taking private pupils, studying and writing, as well as taking an active part in diocesan business.
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  • The town, which is strongly fortified, holds a commanding strategic position on the route between western Europe and Brazil and South Africa, being situated in the Gulf of Goree on the eastern side of the peninsula of Cape Verde, the most westerly point of Africa.
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  • The town itself was fortified, and traces of early works remain.
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  • This was the origin of the new town, which was fortified in 1347.
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  • The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified.
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  • On the Adriatic coast, the naval harbour of Pola is strongly fortified with sea and land defences; then come Trieste, and several places in Dalmatia, notably Zara and Cattaro.
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  • The southern Tirol, the chief passes into Italy, strategic points on the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts, were strongly fortified, while in the interior the Tauern, Karawanken and Wochein railways were constructed, partly in order to facilitate the movement of troops towards the Italian border.
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  • In this northern region villages are built in the Sudanese zeriba style, surrounded with thorn fences; more important places are enclosed by a well-built wall and strongly fortified.
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  • In the autumn of the year Nicias fortified Minoa at the mouth of the harbour of Megara.
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  • On the advice of Alcibiades (q.v.), exiled from Athens in 415, they had fortified Decelea in Attica within fifteen miles of Athens.
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  • The gateways are strongly fortified.
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  • The capital of Kano, a walled and fortified town of great extent and formidable strength, fell to a British assault in February of 1903.
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  • On the west bank of the Nile, opposite the southern end of Roda Island, is the small town of Giza or Gizeh, a fortified place of considerable importance in the times of the Mamelukes.
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  • Of the Hyksos age there are the scanty remains of a great fortified camp at Tell el-Yehudia.
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  • Though he did not build a new metropolis he fortified Cairo with the addition of a citadel, and had plans made for a new wall to enclose both it and the double city; this latter plan was never completed, but the former was executed after his death, and from this time till the French occupation of Egypt the citadel of Cairo was the political centre of the country.
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  • In the year following the massacre the unfortunate exiles were attacked by Ibrahim Pasha, the eldest son of Mehemet Au, in the fortified town of Ibrim, in Nubia.
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  • By this time the Mabdi was master of the greater part of the Sudan, but Khartum and some other fortified points still held out.
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  • In April 1886 the frontier was drawn back to Wadi Haifa, a fortified camp at the northern end of the desolate defile, Batn-el-Hagar, through which the Nile tumbles amid black, rocky hills in a succession of rapids, and debouches on a wide plain.
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  • King John, the negus of Abyssinia, burning to avenge this defeat, marched, in February 1889, with an enormous army to Gallabat, where the amir Zeki Tumal commanded the khalifas forces, some 60,000 strong, and had strongly fortified the town and the camp. On the 9th of March 1889 the Abyssinians made a terrific onslaught, stormed and burnt the town, and took thousands of prisoners.
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  • The clergy, fortified by royal privileges, had also risen to influence; but celibacy and independence of the civil courts tended to make them more and more of a separate caste.
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  • He built Castelfranco on the northern frontier; fortified the port of Civita Vecchia; and strengthened the Castel Sant' Angelo, equipping it with cannon made from the bronze of the Pantheon, an act of vandalism which the Romans punished by the epigram, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini."
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  • At the end of this year and early in 895 (896) the Danes drew their ships up the Thames"and Lea and fortified themselves twenty miles above London.
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  • These were (1) the division of the fyrd or national militia into two parts, relieving each other at fixed intervals, so as to ensure continuity in military operations; (2) the establishment of fortified posts (burgs) and garrisons at certain points; (3) the enforcement of the obligations of thanehood on all owners of five hides of land, thus giving the king a nucleus of highly equipped troops.
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  • A second Prussian victory was gained at Chotusitz, near Caslau, on the 17th May 1742; by this time Frederick was master of all the fortified places of Silesia.
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  • As a fortified town, Giurgevo figured often in the wars for the conquest of the lower Danube; especially in the struggle of Michael the Brave (1593-1601) against the Turks, and in the later Russo-Turkish Wars.
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  • The German name is usually derived from the seven principal fortified towns or burgs," founded by the German colonists, though some authorities prefer to connect it with the Cibin Mountains on the south frontier.
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  • Burgoyne fortified himself on the site of the action, and on October 7th made another attempt to turn the American left.
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  • It was for a long time strongly fortified, and in 1716 Charles XII.
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  • After three or four years, fortified with the certificates of his various professors, he seeks a place in a law-court or as a teacher, preacher, cadi, or mufti of a village or minor town, or else one of the innumerable posts of confidence for which the complicated ceremonial of Mahommedanism demands a theologian, and which are generally paid out of pious foundations.
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  • It was formerly fortified, but all the ramparts (save the Fort Carre, built by Vauban) have now been demolished, and a new town is rising on their site.
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  • The Greeks, who occupied the maritime and southern regions, were driven to the sea-coast, the islands and the fortified towns.
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  • In the interesting and beautiful neighbourhood of Hexham there should be noticed Aydon castle near Corbridge, a fortified house of the late 13th century; and Dilston or Dyvilston, a typical border fortress dating from Norman times, of which only a tower and small chapel remain.
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  • It is enclosed by a strongly fortified wall, which is flanked by thirteen towers.
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  • In the town of Buffalo he collected a disorderly rabble, who seized and fortified Navy Island, in the river between the two countries, and for some weeks troubled the Canadian frontier.
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  • The town is now fortified, surrounded by a high wall with bastions and loopholes.
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  • They then fortified the Forth and Clyde Isthmus with a line of forts, two of which, those at Camelon and Barhill, have been identified and excavated, penetrated into Perthshire, and fought the decisive battle of the war (according to Tacitus) on the slopes of Mons Graupius.
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  • It was fortified early in the 14th century, and in 1343 sustained a siege by the revolted Esthonians.
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  • It was still an important fortress, having been enlarged and fortified by the Swedes.
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  • The ecclesiastical constitution thus introduced was one of missionary monastic stations, settled in fortified villages.
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  • In 1091 William Rufus renewed the treaty of Abernethy with Malcolm and fortified Carlisle, thereby cutting Malcolm off from Cumberland; Malcolm was summoned to meet Rufus at Gloucester; he went, but declined to accept the jurisdiction of the Anglo-Norman peers, or to " do right" to Rufus, except on the frontier of the two realms, wherever he may have supposed that frontier to be.
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  • It is strongly fortified by forts and guns of modern type upon which large sums have been expended by the imperial government, aided by a heavy annual military contribution payable by the colony and fixed at 20% of its gross revenue.
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  • Saffron Walden (Waledana) was almost certainly fortified by the Britons, and probably by some earlier race.
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  • It explains how the Gallo-Roman villa gave place to the village, with its fortified castle, the residence of the lord; how new towns were formed by the side of old, some of which disappeared; how the townspeople united in corporations; and how the communal bond proved to be a powerful instrument of cohesion.
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  • It was reputed an Argive and Thracian colony, and was long under Persian rule, of which we hear in the history of Dercyllidas' raid from Ephesus in 397 B.C. Fortified and increased by the Seleucids and Pergamenians, who renamed it successively Seleucia and Antiochia, it passed to Rome in 133.
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  • It appears to have been first fortified by Frederick Barbarossa, and its castle stood frequent sieges in the middle ages.
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  • The considered policy of the British Government was embodied in 1903 in Lord Lansdowne's declaration in the House of Lords that " we should regard the establishment of a naval base or a fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other Power as a very grave menace to British interests, and we should certainly resist it by all the means at our disposal."
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  • Otto II., the Lame (1229-1271), fortified several towns and bestowed privileges upon them for the purpose of encouraging trade.
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  • The port is not fortified.
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  • For these reasons rather than from any ecclesiastical scruples Fox visited and resided in his new diocese; and he occupied Norham Castle, which he fortified and defended against a Scottish raid in Perkin Warbeck's interests (1497).
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  • The fortifications of Epinal are connected to the southward with Belfort, Dijon and Besancon, by the fortified line of the Moselle, and north of it lies the unfortified zone called the Trouee d'Epinal, a gap designedly left open to the invaders between Epinal and Toul, another great fortress which is itself connected by the Meuse forts d'arret with Verdun and the places of the north-east.
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  • A castle of the lords of the manor was built early in the 14th century, and remains, as does another adjacent fortified building of the same period.
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  • It is highly probable that before it became important merely as a temple, it was the fortified centre uniting the Argive people dwelling in the plain, the citadel which was superseded in this function by Tiryns.
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  • Its position half way down the Indian seaboard gave it both strategic and commercial importance, while it lay beyond the _ authority of the Moguls, and so could be fortified fioqnuof without offending them.
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  • In 1670 Gerald Aungier fortified the island, and so became the true founder of its prosperity.
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  • For more than a hundred years, from its acquisition in 1661 to the outbreak of the first IIahratti war in 1775, the British on the west coast possessed no territory outside the island of Bombay and their fortified factory at Surat.
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  • Beaune was a fortified Roman camp and a stronghold during the middle ages.
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  • Andernach (Antunnacum) is the old Roman Castellum ante Nacum, founded by Drusus and fortified in the 3rd century A.D.
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  • To the north the city is commanded by the Jebel Mecid, a hill which the French (following the example of the Romans) have fortified.
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  • The principal street, which is considered one of the finest boulevards in South America, is the Calle 18 de Julio, extending eastward from the Plaza de la Independencia to the suburb of Cordon; one of its features is its Sunday morning market, occupying the whole street from the Plaza de la Independencia to the Plaza Libertad, a distance of half a mile - a survival of the old market that existed here at the fortified entrance to the walled town in the earlier years of its history.
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  • The fortified port, though unfrequented except as a naval harbour of refuge, is a very fine one.
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  • Left to themselves, the Christians henceforward defended themselves only in isolated cases in the fortified cities; for the most part they witnessed the disappearance of the Byzantine power without regret.
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  • After Ali's death he fortified himself in his castle near Istakhr and refused to submit.
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  • He retook Kairawan, swept the coast as far as Carthage, which he sacked, expelling the Greek garrisons from all the fortified places; he then turned his arms against the Berbers, who, commanded by the Kahina (Diviner), as the Arabs called their queen, beat him so completely that he was compelled to retreat to Barca.
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  • Musa, received orders to march against him, entered Arabia, and captured Medina, which, fortified by Mahommed by the same means as the Prophet had employed against the besieging Meccans, could not hold out against the well-trained Khorasanians.
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  • He found that while the front lines had been elaborately fortified, in various sectors the reserve lines which he had indicated as the " battle positions " were almost untouched, and parts of the front line were unsuitable for prolonged resistance.
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  • The forward lines on Monte Armentera and Monte Salubio were poorly adapted for defence, but had been strongly fortified, while the line east of the Maso torrent, which Cadorna had indicated as the main line of defence, had undergone little preparation.
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  • Instead of obeying he pitched his camp near the summit of a mountain overlooking Monterey, fortified his position, and raised the United States flag.
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  • Burned by the Hussites in 1428, the town was soon afterwards rebuilt, and in 1595 it was again fortified by Joachim Frederick, duke of Brieg.
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  • Fortified by the emperor Henry I., Dinkelsbiihl received in 1305 the same municipal rights as Ulm, and obtained in 1351 the position of a free imperial city, which it retained till 1802, when it passed to Bavaria.
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  • Arlon is no longer fortified.
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  • Seo de Urgel, near the headwaters of the Segre, is a fortified city which has been an episcopal see since 840, and has had a close historical connexion with Andorra (q.v.).
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  • His position as a Mexican official, and the location of his fortified post on the border, commanding the interior country and lying on the route of the overland immigrants, made him of great importance in the years preceding and immediately following American occupation; although he was a man of slight abilities and wasted his great opportunities.
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  • The rocky promontory on which the temple stands was fortified by a wall with towers, in 413 B.C., as a protection against the Spartans in Decelea; but it was soon after seized by a body of fugitive slaves from the Laurium mines.
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  • The town is walled and is entered by six gateways, which are fortified.
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  • The oasis in which Wargla is situated contains two or three other small fortified ksurs or villages, the largest and most picturesque being Ruissat.
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  • Hence they applied to all fortified habitations the term in use for their own primitive fortifications; the walls remained with them the main feature distinguishing a town from a village; and the fact of the town being a fortified place likewise necessitated the special provisions mentioned for maintaining the peace.
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  • It is still one of the five fortified places in Belgium, although its defences are not modernized.
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  • During the reign of Hia-wu Ti of the Han dynasty, Chinese colonies and high roads lined with fortified cities were established along this route, and though at times the government have lost possession of the line beyond the Great Wall, it has always succeeded in re-establishing its supremacy over it.
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  • Greifenhagen was built in 1230, and was raised to the rank of a town and fortified about 1250.
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  • The federation of Acarnania is of peculiar interest as being formed by scattered villages or tribes, without settled, still less fortified, habitation.
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  • Having been strongly fortified by Charles V., the city was in 1525 able to bid defiance to Francis I., who was so disastrously beaten in the vicinity, but two years later the French under Lautrec subjected it to a sack of seven days.
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  • In 1797 the town was strongly fortified on the Roscommon side, the works covering 15 acres and containing two magazines, an ordnance store, an armoury with 15,000 stands of arms and barracks for 1500 men.
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  • It was fortified in 1508-1511, and was able to repel the Tatars in 1513, 1520 and 1536.
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  • Hamm, which became a town about the end of the 12th century, was originally the capital of the countship of Mark, and was fortified in 1226.
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  • The enemy believed that Cadorna had been deceived by demonstrations made in the Trentino, and their belief was fortified by news that he was sending guns westward.
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  • Pecori-Giraldi retired from Asiago and Gallio, and based his right on the fortified lines of the Meletta group. This formed a salient, for the line marked out for the IV.
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  • The existence of these lakedwellings in Scotland was first made known by John Mackinlay, a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in a letter sent to George Chalmers, the author of Caledonia, in 1813, describing two crannogs, or fortified islands in Bute.
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  • As a rule they have been constructed on islets or shallows in the lochs, which have been adapted for occupation, and fortified by single or double lines of stockaded defences drawn round the margin.
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  • Bayonne, a first-class fortified place, is situated at the confluence of the Adour and its left-hand tributary, the Nive, about 3 m.
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  • When, by the 4th article of the treaty of Fredrikshavn (Friedrichshamn), 5/17 September 1809, the islands were ceded to Russia, together with the territories forming the grand-duchy of Finland on the mainland, the Swedes were unable to secure a provision that the islands should not be fortified.
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  • By the "Aland Convention," concluded between Great Britain, France and Russia on the 30th of March 1856, it was stipulated that "the Aland Islands shall not be fortified, and that no military or naval establishments shall be maintained or created on them."
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  • Adjoining the abbey is Whitby Hall, built by Sir Francis Cholmley about 1580 from the materials of the monastic buildings, and enlarged and fortified by Sir Hugh Cholmley about 1635.
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  • Touched by Italian influences, enriched and fortified by the new learning, Spanish genius walked firmly forward on its own path.
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  • The tradition thus formed was continued and fortified by the illustrious playwrights of the 17th century.
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  • It was selected by the Romans as a fortress to protect their settlements in northern Picenum, and strongly fortified in 174 B.C. The walls erected at that period, of large rectangular blocks of stone, still exist in great part.
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  • Madeira, like sherry and port, is a fortified wine.
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  • Marsala is a fortified white wine which is grown and made with considerable care.
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  • These, which would be suitable for ordinary beverage purposes, cannot as a rule stand the passage through the Red Sea, and it is therefore only possible to ship the heavier or fortified wines.
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  • Castel di Sangro has remains of ancient walls, but these are attributed to a road by Mariani, and in any case the fortified area there was quite small, only one-sixteenth the size of Aufidena.
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  • In 1828 (to 1832) a fortified trading post was established near La Junta in the Arkansas valley on the Santa Fe trail; in 1834-1836 several private forts were erected on the Platte; in 1841 the first overland emigrants to the Pacific coast crossed the state, and in 1846-1847 the Mormons settled temporarily at the old Mexican town of Pueblo.
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  • For of good habit and lusty are athletes, since they have fortified against the soul the body which should be its servant; but the disciples of wisdom are pale and wasted, and in a manner reduced to skeletons, because they have sacrificed the whole of their bodily strength to the faculties of the soul."
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  • After two centuries of struggle the Russians succeeded in colonizing the fertile valleys of the Oka basin; in the 12th century they built a series of fortified towns on the Oka and Klyazma; and finally they reached the mouth of the Oka, there founding (in 1222) a new Novgorod - the Novgorod of the Lowlands, now Nizhniy-Novgorod.
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  • The great lacustrine depression of the middle Volga was thus reached; and when the Mongol invasion of 1239-42 came, it encountered in the Oka basin a dense agricultural population with many fortified and wealthy towns - a population which the Mongols found they could conquer, indeed, but were unable to drive before them as they had done so many of the Turkish tribes.
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  • During these two centuries they fortified the lower river, settled it, and penetrated farther eastward into the steppes towards the upper Ural and thence to the upper parts of the Tobol and other great Siberian rivers.
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  • Caer, a fortress or fortified camp - Caerlleon, Caersws.
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  • Another distinguishing mark of Edward's policy towards Wales is to be found in the commercial and administrative powers given to the fortified towns, inhabited solely by people of English birth and by Welshmen who acquiesced in English rule.
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  • For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe and Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vauban (who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Louvois), among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Br