The fortifications are among the most elaborate in the kingdom.
Using the extra sand, they made fortifications and bedded down for the night behind them.
Restored to Prussia in 1816 it was again fortified, but in 1862 the fortifications were converted into a public park.
In place of its ancient fortifications Angouleme is encircled by boulevards known as the Remparts, from which fine views may be obtained in all directions.
Blue Town, the older part of the town, with the dockyard, is defended by strong modern-built fortifications, especially the forts of Garrison Point and Barton's Point, commanding the entrance of both the Thames and the Medway.
Towards the end of the 17th century the fortifications were greatly strengthened by Coehoorn, and in 1725 they were further extended.
During the Crimean War its fortifications were destroyed (1855) by the Russians themselves.
of the fortifications of Paris by the railway from Paris to Mantes.
Ten years later it was rebuilt on an extended scale, and provided with fortifications by the elector John William.
In 1803 it was assigned to the grand duke of Baden, who caused the fortifications to be razed.
So great was the strength of the fortifications that Mahommed II.
With the exception of the dockyards and fortifications there are few objects of interest.
The name is taken from the southward works or fortifications of London.
During the continuance of the lease Germany exercises all the rights of territorial sovereignty, including the right to erect fortifications.
In 1807 it was captured by the French, who demolished the fortifications.
In 1810 it was captured by the Russians, who destroyed the fortifications.
La Ferte-Milon has remains of an imposing chï¿½au of the 14th and 15th centuries with interesting fortifications.
On the side next the sea the town is defended by a citadel and other fortifications, and the entrance to the harbour is protected by a lighthouse.
Here another entrenched camp was made and from it the Moselle line (qv.) of forts darrit continues the barrier to Belfort (q.v.), another large entrenched camp, beyond which a series of fortifications at Montbliard and the Lomont range carries the line of defence to the Swiss border, which in turn is protected by works at Pontarlier and elsewhere.
Solomon greatly strengthened the fortifications of Jerusalem, and was probably the builder of the line of defence, called by Josephus the first or old wall, which united the cities on the eastern and western hills.
Joash, king of Israel, captured the city from Amaziah, king of Judah, and destroyed part of the fortifications, but these were rebuilt by Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, who did much to restore the city to its original prosperity.
It is clear from his account that the lines of fortifications included both the eastern and western hills.
Herod again raised the city to the position of an important capital, restoring the fortifications, and rebuilding the Temple from its foundations.
Herod Agrippa, who succeeded to the kingdom, built a third or outer wall on the north side of Jerusalem in order to enclose and defend the buildings which had gradually been constructed outside the old fortifications.
The writings of Josephus give a good idea of the fortifications and buildings of Jerusalem at the time of the siege, and his accurate personal knowledge makes his account worthy of the most careful perusal.
After the capture, Titus ordered the Temple to be demolished and the fortifications to be levelled, with the exception of the three great towers at Herod's palace.
The walls were repaired by her orders, and the line of fortifications appears to have been extended on the south so as to include the pool of Siloam.
These fortifications are all the work of the Knights of St John.
The picturesque fortifications also by which the city is surrounded remain almost unaltered as they were in the 15th century.
of Paris and immediately outside the fortifications.
It contains models of the principal dockyards and fortifications of the British empire, naval models of all dates, and numerous specimens of weapons of war from the remotest times to the present day.
The ancient town, traces of the fortifications of which still exist, was situated near Lacco, at the N.W.
The position is strong, being protected by the two rivers mentioned, and the medieval fortifications, which are nearly 2 m.
In 1708 an act was passed for extending the fortifications of Chatham.
coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E.
The hill is terraced with former native fortifications.
The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.
The port is protected by fortifications.
To Offa is ascribed by Asser, in his life of Alfred, the great fortifications against the Welsh which is still known as "Offa's dike."
The extraordinary ruined fortifications found, and the knowledge of the higher art of war displayed by the Maoris, suggest (what is no doubt the fact) that there was a hard fight for them when they first arrived, but the greatest resistance must have been from the purer Papuan inhabitants, and not from the half-castes who were probably easily overwhelmed.
end of the acropolis are extensive remains of the fortifications of Hermocrates across the narrow neck connecting it with the rest of the hill.
from earlier buildings have been used in the construction of these fortifications: from their small size they may be mostly attributed to private houses.
From 1725 onwards the fortifications were greatly strengthened.
He was a member of the International Prime Meridian and Time Conference in 1884, and of the Board of Fortifications in 1885-1886; was superintendent of the Naval Academy from 1886 to 1890; and was promoted to captain and served as delegate at the International Maritime Conference at Washington in 1889.
It was about this time that the town of Tuchkov, with which it was later (1830) incorporated, grew up outside of the fortifications.
Candia, the former capital and the see of the archbishop of Crete (pop. in 1900, 22,501), is officially styled Herakleion; it is surrounded by remarkable Venetian fortifications and possesses a museum with a valuable collection of objects found at Cnossus, Phaestus, the Idaean cave and elsewhere.
In Crete, in the later period, when the rulers could trust to the " wooden walls " of the Minoan navy, there is no parallel for the massive fortifications that we see at Tiryns or Mycenae.
Apt was at one time the chief town of the Vulgientes, a Gallic tribe; it was destroyed by the Romans about 125 B.C. and restored by Julius Caesar, who conferred upon it the title Apta Julia; it was much injured by the Lombards and the Saracens, but its fortifications were rebuilt by the counts of Provence.
The upper town still retains in part its fortifications, including the two great towers at the two extremities, called the Torre dell' Elefante (S.) and the Torre di S.
The latter erected the present fortifications according to tradition with the assistance of a French engineer in his service, whom he afterwards hanged for not building the fort on a higher rock adjacent to it.
There is a U.S. garrison at Fort Monroe, one of the most important fortifications on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The fort lies within the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the Federal government by the state of Virginia in 1821, the survey for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the building begun in 1819.
- Ruins of palaces, palatial villas, houses, built domeor cist-graves and fortifications (Aegean isles, Greek mainland and N.W.
The absence of fortifications both at Cnossus and Phaestus suggest that at this time Crete was internally peaceful and externally secure.
In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortifications on the rock above the town were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in 1796.
All the fortifications are obsolete.
to the south, is a good harbour for its size, and at Kinghorn Ness a battery has been established in connexion with the fortifications on Inchkeith.
both of building and of attacking fortifications.
In 1702 the fortifications were destroyed.
The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
These early fortifications of the Acropolis, ascribed to the primitive non-hellenic Pelasgi, must be distinguished from the Pelasgicum or Pelargicum, which was in all prob ab i l i ty an encircling wall, built round the base of the g citadel and furnished with nine gates from which it derived the name of Enneapylon.
Its fortifications, though not increased, were apparently strengthened by the Tyrants.
The Phaleric wall, branching from the city circuit at some point farther east than the middle or south wall, may have followed the ridge of the Sikelia heights, where some traces of fortifications remain, and then traversed the Phalerum plain till it reached the Peiraeus defences at a point a little to the north-west of their junction with the middle wall..
The great advantages which the Peiraic promontory with its three natural harbours offered for purposes of defence and commerce were first recognized by Themistocles, in whose archonship (493 B.C.) the fortifications of the Peiraeus were begun.
The Acro-th The fortifications were again demolished by the polls of the g ?'
The city itself, with its fortifications extending to the port of Peiraeus, was impregnable to a land attack.
Possibly these slight fortifications preserved the capital from the destruction which overwhelmed all the other settlements; but these measures for defence were due more to the loyalty of the inhabitants than to the efforts of the home government, which at this time remained indifferent to appeals for help from the island.
The English attacked the island in 1678, 1702, 1703 and 1743; and in 1797 an English force attempted to reduce San Juan, but was repulsed by the strong fortifications vigorously manned by resident volunteers.
As Hardee's attack rolled up the Union army from left to right, the remainder of the Confederate army was to issue from the Atlanta fortifications and join in the battle.
A bombardment of the Atlanta fortifications was then begun, but it had no material result.
Its fortifications were dismantled in 1874.
In the 16th century Hartlepool was less prosperous; in 1523 the haven was said to be ruined, the fortifications decayed.
In 1757 Chandernagore was bombarded by an English fleet under Admiral Watson and captured; the fortifications and houses were afterwards demolished.
Its walls date from the end of the 13th century, replacing earlier fortifications, and enclose a space much larger than that now covered by the town.
Equally obsolete is the old line of fortifications which formerly marked the limits of the city south and east and has now been partly demolished.
A similar residential quarter has also grown up on the N.E., where the line of the old fortifications has become a boulevard.
fortifications, in the direction of Hadra, has been laid out with fine avenues, and contains numerous garden-cafï¿½and pleasure resorts.
fortifications, which lie well within the area of the ancient city.
This so exasperated him that he completely demolished its fortifications, although he seems to have spared the lives of the inhabitants as far as lay in his power.
The fortifications were strengthened in 1841, and remained in an antiquated condition until 1882, when they were renovated by Arabi Pasha.
The Eure, which at this point divides into three branches, is crossed by several bridges, some of them ancient, and is fringed in places by remains of the old fortifications, of which the Porte Guillaume (14th century), a gateway flanked by towers, is the most complete specimen.
caused the fortifications to be razed.
The fortifications have been converted into promenades.
In 1799 it was taken of ter ten days' bombardment by the Austrian and Russian armies, and, in 1800, of ter the victory of Marengo, the French demolished the fortifications.
Corps up the Elbe to Pirna and KOnigstein to cover the fortifications of Dresden itself.
The Callao fortifications were bombarded by a Spanish fleet under Admiral Mendez Nunez on the 2nd of May 1866, when there were heavy losses both in lives and material.
The city proper lies on both sides of the little river Alster, which, dammed up a short distance from its mouth, forms a lake, of which the southern portion within the line of the former fortifications bears the name of the Inner Alster (Binnen Alster), and the other and larger portion (2500 yards long and 1300 yards at the widest) that of the Outer Alster (Aussen Alster).
The fortifications as such were removed in 1815, but they have left their trace in a fine girdle of green round the city, though too many inroads on its completeness have been made by railways and roadways.
In 1717 Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it for Austria, which kept it until 1739, improving the fortifications and giving great impulse to the commercial development of the town.
Fortifications have been built for the protection of the port.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
The fortifications also of Neu-Ulm, on the Bavarian side of the Danube, were ordered to be razed and devoted to municipal purposes.
Within this area Great Britain has exclusive jurisdiction, and is represented by a commissioner under the colonial office; and has, besides, the right to erect fortifications, station troops and take any other measures necessary for defensive purposes at any points on or near the coast in that part of the peninsula east of 121 0 40' E.
It has extensive remains of fortifications of the 13th century, the most remarkable feature of which is the Porte de Laon, a gateway flanked by massive towers and surmounted by a fine a,partmmt.
By the terms of the peace of Utrecht (1713) the fortifications were demolished and its harbour filled up, a sacrifice demanded by England owing to the damage inflicted on her shipping by Jean Bart and other corsairs of the port.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
The town has remains of old fortifications, among them the Tour Marguerite, and a chateau, now used as a law-court, dating from the 15th century.
On the other bank Fort Chaudanne is now the innermost of several forts facing towards the southwest, and the foremost of these works connects the fortifications of the left bank with another chain of detached forts on the right bank.
The fortifications were dismantled, the hostile chief being deported to Benares, and an infant son of the former raja installed under a treaty favourable to the company.
In the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, who erected fortifications, remains of which are still extant.
The inner town was formerly fortified, but the fortifications were transformed into pleasure grounds in 1811.
It possesses fine streets and open places, but of its fortifications the Kleiberg Gate (1647) alone remains.
It is oval in shape, and retains its medieval fortifications.
He then extended the city by including within the fortifications the low ground (or at any rate the western portion of the low ground) between Upper Achradina and the island, and making the Agora there 2; at the same time (probably) he was able to shift the position of the crossing to the island by making a new isthmus in the position of the present one, the old mole being broken through so as to afford an outlet from the Little Harbour on the east (Lupus, p. 91).
Dionysius largely extended the fortifications.
Profiting by the experience gained during the Athenian siege, he included in his new lines the whole plateau of Epipolae, with a strong fortress at Euryelus, its apex on the west; the total length of the outer lines (excluding the fortifications of the island) has been calculated at about 12 m.
His wars in Sicily and Africa left him time to do something for the relief of the poorer citizens at the expense of the rich, as well as to erect new fortifications and public buildings; and under his strong government Syracuse seems to have been at least quiet and orderly.
His assault seawards was made mainly on Achradina,1 but the city was defended by a numerous soldiery and by what seems to have been still more formidable, the ingenious contrivances of Archimedes, whose engines dealt havoc among the Roman ships, and frustrated the attack on the fortifications on the northern slopes of Epipolae (Liv.
The isthmus connecting the island with the mainland, which was defended by strong fortifications erected by Charles V.
of the low terrace above the marsh (the ancient Lysimeleia),' while in the other direction it ran N.N.W., making straight for the western edge of the gorge known as the Portella del Fusco, which was thus included within the fortifications, as it would otherwise have afforded a means of access to the enemy.
New strong fortifications were erected, and the town grew steadily in importance, serving as the capital of the whole Banat.
If the batteries and their artillery were somewhat out of date, the fact remained that warships steaming up the defile would be compelled to pass these fortifications at very close quarters, when the lack of range of their guns would cease to tell.
They consist of: (a) Ground plans of a palatial building and three temples and fortifications with sculptured gate at Boghaz Keui.
The fortifications of the citadel have an elaborate double gate with flanking towers.
(b) Fortifications, palace, &c., at Sinjerli.
Its fortifications were strengthened in 1766 by the erection of Fort George, on an eminence to the west of the town, across the river.
But its walls and other fortifications were soon restored, and Totila again marching against it was defeated by Belisarius, who, however, did not follow up his advantage.
The last form the chief remains of the ancient fortifications, the site of which is now mostly occupied by promenades.
The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis.
This second girdle of fortifications was known as the Lines (Linien), and a second wide boulevard (GÃ¼rtel-Strasse) follows their course round the city.
This second or outer girdle of fortifications formed the boundary between the city and the outlying suburbs, but was removed in 1892, when the incorporation of the suburbs took place.
Other notable buildings within the line of the old fortifications are the Gothic Augustine church, built in the 14th century, and containing a fine monument of Canova; the Capuchin church, with the burial vault of the Habsburgs; the church of Maria-Stiegen, an interesting Gothic building of the 14th century, restored in 1820; the handsome Greek church, by T.
Great part of the burden has been borne throughout by the "City Extension Fund," realized from the utilization of the ground formerly occupied by the fortifications and glacis.
Since then Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the removal of the fortifications.
The southern boundary never greatly altered; it did at times reach the Kur and the Aras, but on that side the Khazars were confronted by Byzantium and Persia, and were for the most part restrained within the passes of the Caucasus by the fortifications of Dariel.
In 1791 the fortifications were razed.
The present fortifications were planned and made in 1815, the older defences having been destroyed by Napoleon I.
The remains date from a reconstruction of Roman times,' in which the material of two earlier periods has been used: the large blocks belonging to the original fortifications bear Phoenician masons' marks; but the long line of towers at regular intervals is a thoroughly Roman characteristic. The castle, dating from the middle ages, with three lofty towers guarding the entrance, occupies the south-eastern extremity of the town.
The old fortifications have recently been pushed farther back, and their place occupied by pleasant boulevards.
The railway, which formerly incommoded the bank, has been diverted, and now, following the ceinture of the new line of inner fortifications, runs into a central station lying to the south of the city.
During the Thirty Years' War Mainz was occupied by the Swedes in 1631 and by the French in 1644, 'the fortifications being strengthened by the former under Gustavus Adolphus; in 1688 it was captured again by the French, but they were driven out in the following year.
From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to give an effectual check to an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II., and the fortifications were greatly strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian.
The older walls and towers - there were three ancient lines of fortifications - are in great part destroyed, but a wall built by the French encircles the town.
In the immediate neighbourhood of the modern Tlemcen are numerous remains of the fortifications of Agadir (vide infra), and the minaret of the mosque, a beautiful tower dating Sidi from the 13th century, the lower part of which is built Medin.
This and the other fortifications of Verona were rebuilt or repaired by the Austrians, but are no longer kept up as military defences.
The so-called" new town" (Neustadt), added in 1333, extends to the Anlagen, the beautiful gardens and promenades laid out (1806-1812) on the site of the 17th century fortifications, of which they faithfully preserve the general ground plan.
Of the medieval fortifications the picturesque Eschenheimer Tor, a round tower 155 ft.
Since the demolition of the fortifications the city has greatly expanded.
The town, with its numerous spires and remains of medieval fortifications, is very picturesque.
Until 1886 Olmiitz was one of the strongest fortresses of Austria, but the fortifications have been removed, and their place is occupied by a town park, gardens and promenades.
On its outskirts pleasant walks and fine trees have replaced the old fortifications.
The fortifications which partly surrounded the old and central portion of the city have disappeared to make way for tree-lined boulevards with fine squares at intervals.
Many remains from the Roman period have been excavated, such as traces of an amphitheatre, a triumphal arch, the old fortifications, an aqueduct, &c. The remains are preserved partly in the museum at Budapest, and partly in the municipal museum.
Through the intervention of the pope in 1702, the French, on payment of a large sum, agreed to vacate the town, and in 1715 its fortifications were rebuilt.
In 1835 the new town was built, and the present fortifications begun.
It is provided with a large dry-dock and is defended by fortifications of a modern type.
It was surrounded with walls and fortifications in the time of Rudolf of Habsburg, but these were demolished in modern times.
The ancient town (of Sicel origin, probably, despite its Greek name) takes its name from the headland (icey5aXal, head) upon which it stood (1233 ft.); its fortifications extended to the shore, on the side where,the modern town now is, in the form of two long walls protecting the port.
It was connected in historic times with its western port of Lechaeum by two continuous walls, with Cenchreae and Schoenus on the east by chains of fortifications.
After the Gothic raids of 267 and 395 Corinth was secured by new fortifications at the Isthmus.
At the beginning of the 12th century war broke out between Como and Milan, and after a ten years' war Como was taken and its fortifications dismantled in 1127.
Mighty fortifications and harbour works have assisted to make this ideal situation an emporium of Mediterranean trade.
Between the inner fortifications of Valletta and the outer works, across the neck of the peninsula, is the suburb of Floriana (pop. 7278).
The subsequent siege of St Angelo, and its supporting fortifications, was marked by the greatest bravery on both sides.
The fortifications of the " Three Cities " were greatly strengthened under the Grand Master Cotoner.
It was to be their last feat of arms in the World War, and they had the satisfaction of knowing, as they left the line on the 6th, that the last fortifications of the Germans on the Fourth Army front had fallen, and that the way was clear into the open country beyond.
The fortifications consist of the upper fortress, on a lofty serpentine rock rising abruptly from the plain on three sides, and of the lower fortress at the northern base of the rock.
Of pre-Roman or Roman buildings in the town itself there are few remains, except for some fragments of the Etruscan town walls composed of rather small rectangular blocks of travertine, built into the medieval fortifications.
The month before, the citizens of Utrecht had refused to raze their suburban villas, and defence of the fortifications had consequently been impossible.
In 1826 strong fortifications were begun.
in height, and remains of still earlier fortifications have been found at this point (F.
Higher up is the castle, which now shows no traces of fortifications older than medieval; it commands a fine view of the town and of the mountains which encircle it.
It is still surrounded by its old fortifications, has two Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, a new town-hall, handsome public offices, and a prison.
The policy of opposing uncivilized tribes by the construction of the limes, a raised embankment of earth or other material, intersected here and there by fortifications, was not his invention, but it owed in great measure its development to him.
He agreed to pay to Decebalus an annual subsidy, and to supply him with engineers and craftsmen skilled in all kinds of construction, but particularly in the erection of fortifications and defensive works.
Its fortifications were greatly strengthened; nevertheless it was twice taken by the Imperialists and twice recovered by the French during the Spanish Succession War.
The fortifications were finally dismantled in 1871.
The works and town are carefully guarded on every side by redoubts and fortifications, and are commanded by batteries on the surrounding hills.
to construct a military port; but the fortifications were dismantled in 1688, and further damage was inflicted by the English in 1758.
Remains of the ancient fortifications, including seven of the flanking towers, are still to be seen.
Owing to a great fire in 1777, the town is almost entirely modern; and its fortifications have been transformed into promenades.
The duties of this officer included: the arrangement of the camp and medical service, the transport of the baggage, the construction of roads, bridges and fortifications, the supply of ammunition and engines of war.
Considered the bulwark of the kingdom on that side, Bilbeis was by the Moslems defended with strong fortifications.
Napoleon in 1798 ordered the restoration of the fortifications, but they have again fallen into decay.
The fortifications were begun in 1843 and were only completed in 1905, although the place was surrounded by walls in early times.
The old fortifications, of which the Porte de Valenciennes (15th century) is the chief survival, have been demolished to make room for boulevards and public gardens.
Among his other expeditions was that to Louisburg in 1760, where he was sent in command of a squadron to destroy the fortifications.
The upper town preserves some part of the fortifications which protected it when, previous to the plague of 1630, the city had upwards of 30,000 inhabitants.
He was consequently imprisoned, on the pretext of having fought a duel, and only released when selected to accompany Prince Henry of Prussia in a visit to Vauban's fortifications.
Scanty traces of fortifications of the Roman period seem to have come to light in recent tunnelling operations.
Washington prepared to withstand the British behind fortifications on Harlem Heights, but discovering that Howe was attempting to outflank him by landing troops in the rear he retreated to the mainland, leaving only a garrison at Fort Washington, and established a line of fortified camps on the hills overlooking the Bronx river as far as White Plains.
Graudenz is an important place in the German system of fortifications, and has a garrison of considerable size.
Fortifications in this style are very rare in Sicily.
Considering his force (about 1450) insufficient for an attack on the fortifications, he withdrew a short distance north of Camden to an advantageous position on Hobkirk's Hill, where on the 25th of April Rawdon, with a force of only 950, took him somewhat by surprise and drove him from the field.
Temples and fortifications were often combined.
The fortifications of the town were restored by the landgrave Philip the Magnanimous and his son William IV.
In 1762 Cassel was captured by the Germans from the French; after this the fortifications were dismantled and New Cassel was laid out by the landgrave Frederick II.
It offered little resistance, however, to the Germans in 1870, and the fortifications have since been razed.
On the mountain above it (2073 ft.) are the fine remains of the fortifications of a city built in a very primitive style, in cyclopean blocks of local limestone; within the walls are traces of buildings, and a massive terrace which supported some edifice of importance.
St Louis made a pilgrimage to Mont St Michel, and afterwards supplied funds which were spent on the fortifications.
In central Siam, after Bangkok and Ayuthia, places of importance on the Menam Chao Phaya are Pak-Nam at the river mouth, the seat of a governor, terminus of a railway and site of modern fortifications; Paklat, the seat of a governor, a town of Mohns, descendants of refugees from Pegu; Nontaburi, a few miles above Bangkok, the seat of a governor and possessing a large market; Pratoomtani, Angtong, Prom, Inburi, Chainat and Saraburi, all administrative centres; and Lopburi, the last capital before Ayuthia and the residence of kings during the Ayuthia period, a city of ruins now gradually reawakening as a centre of railway traffic. To the west of the Menam Chao Phaya lie Suphanburi and Ratburi, ancient cities, now government headquarters; Pechaburi (the Piply of early travellers), the terminus of the western railway; and Phrapatoom, with its huge pagoda on the site of the capital of Sri Wichaiya, a kingdom of 2000 years ago, and now a place of military, agricultural and other schools.
The fortifications of Anklam were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, although the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was a town of considerable military importance, which suffered severely during the Thirty Years' and the Seven Years' Wars; and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case with towns of the same size.
The houses are built with thick walls of stone and brick round open courts, in the Moorish style, and their ironbarred doors and windows give them the appearance of being a part of the fortifications.
It was then surrounded by strong fortifications, and contained a number of important buildings, such as the town-house (built in 1652 and restored in 1706), the exchange, the infirmary and orphan asylum, and the European churches.
et archeolog.) estimates the population in 1356 at 5800, and in 1404 at 6490, in both cases within the fortifications.
Since the demolition of the fortifications in 1849 the town has extended in every direction, and particularly on the right bank of the Rhone.
Just before this event, however, the fortifications were once more (1534) rebuilt (bits still remain) and extended so as to take in several new suburbs, including that of St Gervais on the right bank of the Rhone which, till then, seems to have been unenclosed (1511-1527).
After the adventure of the "Escalade" the fortifications were once more strengthened and extended, these works being completed about 1726.
But, in 1822, some of the bastions were converted into promenades, while in 1849 the rest of the fortifications were pulled down so as to allow the city to expand and gradually assume its present aspect.
The inner line of fortifications was removed in 1902 and the city has been completely modernized.
Its walls are lofty and supported by buttress bastions with loopholed turrets at intervals; the fortifications, however, are but of hard clay and are much out of repair.
Until 1820 the south-eastern district of Pechersk was the industrial and commercial quarter; but it has been greatly altered in carrying out fortifications commenced in that year by Tsar Nicholas I.
The attack failed, but, warned by the danger, the Thasians employed their revenues to build war ships and strengthen their fortifications.
The fortifications of Vauban were begun in 1686.
Having passed to Spain, its fortifications were strengthened by Philip II., but they were razed by Frederick the Great, the town having been in the possession of Prussia since 1703.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the fortifications were re-erected, but were easily taken by the French in 1809, and were again stormed by the Austrians on the 28th of June 1849.
Many weeks passed without any success to the Union arms. Vicksburg and its long line of fortifications stood on high bluffs, all else was swampy lowland and intricate waterways.
A vast network of fortifications covered the front of both armies, whose flank extended far to the south-west, Grant seeking to capture, Lee to defend, the Danville railway by which the Confederates received their supplies.
On the 7th of July his fortifications on the Chattahoochee river were turned, and he fell back into the Atlanta (q.v.) position, which was carefully prepared, like all the others, beforehand.
Hence field fortifications played an unusually prominent part, time and material being available as a rule for works of solid construction.
The old fortifications have been dismantled and partly converted into fine promenades.
The former of these (2630 ft.) served as the acropolis, and was included within the same system of fortifications as the lower city.
But what chiefly excited his wonder was the strength of its fortifications, which excelled all those of the Greek world.
In Italy, where shells of the subApennine formations were discovered in the extensive quarrying for the fortifications of cities, the close similarity between these Tertiary and the modern species soon led to the established recognition of their organic origin.
To Nur-ed-din he was invariably submissive, but from the vigour which he employed in adding to the fortifications of Cairo and the haste with which he retreated from an attack on Montreal (1171) and Kerak (1173) it is clear that he feared his lord's jealousy.
Many inscriptions, coins, &c., have been found here, and traces of the ancient fortifications and of a Roman aqueduct are visible.
New fortifications were constructed in the end of the, 6th century by Franz von Poppendorf, and in 1644 the town afforded an asylum to the family of Ferdinand III.
The only relics of the fortifications of the old town, whose place is now occupied by shady promenades, is the Florian's Gate and the Rondell, a circular structure, built in 1498.
All these modern fortifications are low and thickly armoured earthworks, powerfully armed with heavy Krupp guns in turrets.
On the south side of the town there are three harbours - the large western or merchant harbour, the western flank of which is formed by a great mole joining the fortifications which traverse the breadth of the island on this side; the middle harbour, used chiefly for fitting out and repairing vessels; and the eastern or war harbour for vessels of the Russian navy.
Kronstadt was founded in 1710 by Peter the Great, who took the island of Kotlin from the Swedes in 1703, when the first fortifications were constructed.
Little is left of the old fortifications except a tower of the 13th or 14th century, surmounting a gateway known as the Tour de Garnabie.
During the Thirty Years' War it was captured by the Swedes in 1631, passing by the treaty of Westphalia to the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I., who strengthened its fortifications.
In 1887 the fortifications of the town were razed, and it has since become a fashionable watering-place, receiving annually nearly 15,000 visitors.
167, the town was hard pressed; the fortifications had fallen into disrepair during the long peace.
In 1814 it was blockaded by the allies and capitulated, whereupon its fortifications were demolished.
The inner city, including the business quarter, is contained almost entirely between the river and the Rosenlunds canal, continued in the Vallgraf, the moat of the old fortifications; and is crossed by the Storahamn, Ostrahamn and Vestrahamn canals.
Since the demolition of its fortifications in 1807, it has been defended only by some small forts.
The ancient fortifications, still extant in the beginning of the 19th century, have disappeared almost entirely, but of the four gateways one named after St Lawrence remains nearly perfect, consisting of two loopholed circular towers; and there are considerable ruins of another, the West or Butler Gate.
In 1740-1745 a fortification called Nuestra Senora de los Angeles was erected at the entrance; it is still standing, on a steep bluff overlooking the sea, and is one of the most picturesque of the old fortifications of the island.
It lies at the seaward end of the Great Wall of Trajan, and has evidently been surrounded by fortifications of its own.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
69, but continued to be prosperous, as may be gathered from the remains of its fortifications and from the many inscriptions which have been discovered there.
Close to the shore are the islands of Villegaignon (occupied by a fort), Cobras (occupied by fortifications, naval storehouses, hospital and dry docks), Santa Barbara and Enxadas, the site of the Brazilian naval school.
The original harbour occupied that part of the river Hull which faced the old town, but in 1774 an act was passed for forming a dock on the site of the old fortifications on the right bank of the Hull.
Mention of the church of Halmstad occurs as early as 1462, and the fortifications are mentioned first in 1225.
He devoted the period of his exile to study, and the superintendence of works for the fortifications of Bern and Basel which were designed as a material defence of the cause of Protestantism.
In 1687 marquis de Denonville built at the mouth of the river a fort which was named in his honour and was the predecessor of the fortifications on or near the same site successively called Fort Niagara; and the neighbourhood was the scene of military operations up to the close of the War of Independence.
Having been burned almost to the ground in 1491, it was rebuilt; and in the 16th century the fortifications were begunand gradually extended.
Some damage was also inflicted on it in 1813, when Napoleon made it the centre of his operations; one of the buttresses and two arches of the old bridge were then blown up. The dismantling of the fortifications had been begun by the French in, 810, and was gradually completed after 1817, the space occupied by them being appropriated to gardens and promenades.
To ensure this neutrality and freedom it is agreed that no fortifications or military defences which might interfere therewith shall be erected."
A neutralized state does not mean a state which is forbidden to have fortifications or an army; in this it differs from neutralized territory of a state not otherwise neutralized.
Thus Belgium, which is a neutralized state, riot only has an army but has fortifications, although by the treaties of 1831 and 1839 she was recognized as a " perpetually neutral state, bound to observe the same neutrality with reference to other states."
where their object is to establish upon the territory of two contiguous states a strip or zone on either side of the frontier which the respective states agree to regard as neutral, on which the parties undertake to erect no fortifications, and maintain no armed forces but those necessary to enforce the ordinary respect of government.
It is kept clean and cool by the waters of the river, which flow through the streets in open channels; and its old fortifications have been replaced by public walks, and, what is more unusual, by vineyards.
The French were in possession from 1677 to 1697, and again in 1713-1714 and 1744; and when they left the place in 1748, at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, they dismantled the fortifications.
He was taught the use of the astrolabe (which Prince Yakov Dolgoruki, with intent to please, had brought him from Paris) by a Dutchman, Franz Timmerman, who also instructed him in the rudiments of geometry and fortifications.
Having grown up within fortifications, where every foot of ground was precious, it is mostly, in spite of recent improvements, a labyrinth of narrow, tortuous, up-and-down streets, accommodating themselves to the irregularities of the ground, few of them fit for wheel carriages.
The old fortifications of the town, being so extensive as to require a force of from Io,000 to 20,000 troops to man them, were in great part thrown down by the English, and a simpler plan adopted, limiting the defences to the island of Vido and the old citadel; these are now dismantled.
The fortifications were demolished in 1813.
Probably the most important were military service (fird, expeditio) and the repairing of fortifications and bridges - the trinoda necessitas of later times.
We need scarcely doubt also that the labour of repairing fortifications and bridges, though it is charged against the landowners, was in reality delegated by them to their dependents.
The building now occupied by the university was originally the electoral palace, constructed about 1717 out of the materials of the old fortifications.
"Der alte Zoll," commanding a magnificent view of the Siebengebirge, is the only remaining bulwark of the old fortifications, the Sterntor having been removed in order to open up better communication with the rapidly increasing western suburbs and the terminus of the light railway to Cologne.
The fortifications had been dismantled in 1717.
The town walls, which can still be traced and indeed are partly standing, had a circuit of not more than 2 m., and the main street was less than half a mile in length; but remains of buildings on the road for fully a mile beyond the south gate, show that the town had outgrown the limit of its fortifications.
One of these, called after the name of an ancient town Apollonia, is the modern capital; Kastro is an "old-world Italian town" with medieval castle and fortifications, and an old town-hall bearing date 1365.
The Austro-Prussian army partly destroyed the fortifications, and kept possession of the town till the conclusion of peace.
It was a military post of importance in Elizabeth's reign, but its fortifications were for the most part demolished by order of Cromwell.
In 1870 Fort Merxem and the redoubts of Berendrecht and Oorderen were built for the defence of the area to be inundated north of Antwerp. In 1878, in consequence of the increased range of artillery and the more destructive power of explosives, it was recognized that the fortifications of Antwerp were becoming useless and out of date.
The fortifications are now decayed.
During the Scottish wars of the Independence its fortifications were strengthened by Edward I.
Castelsarrasin, situated on the left bank of the lateral canal of the Garonne and about a mile from the right bank of that river, is surrounded by promenades occupying the site of the old fortifications.
A Christian settlement was afterwards permitted to establish itself in the town, and to protect itself by fortifications; but it was expelled by Sultan Kala ` un and the defences destroyed.
Dismantled by order of Charlemagne, it became in the 9th century the capital of an independent principality, the rival of that of Benevento, and was surrounded by strong fortifications.
Sherman organized an expedition against these fortifications, which were reduced by a naval bombardment and were evacuated by the Confederates under General Thomas F.
Barcelona was formerly surrounded by a strong line of ramparts, and defended, or more correctly, overawed by a citadel on the north-east, erected in 1715 by Philip V.; but these fortifications being felt as a painful restriction on the natural development of the city, were, in spite of the opposition of the central government, finally abolished by the local authorities in 1845.
On the landward side, Braila has the shape of a crescent, the curve of its outer streets following the line of the old fortifications, dismantled in 1829.
Some of the old fortifications of the town remain, but the ramparts and ditches have been laid out as promenades.
The country, which forms part of the modern department of Acarnania and Aetolia, contains numerous fragments of ancient fortifications.
2) as Fontes Matthiaci were known to the Romans, who fortified the place c. i i B.C. The massive wall in the centre of the town known as the Heidenmauer was probably part of the fortifications built under Diocletian.
In 1672 the town was besieged by the bishop of Munster, but it was successfully defended, and in 1698 its fortifications were improved under Coehoorn's direction.
The fortifications of the city were doomed to destruction by the law of the 18th of April 1874.
Fortifications, ?n eland 0 14 n, monn koog?
Early in the Civil War the Confederates regarded the site (then an island) as of such strategic importance that (near the brick church tower and probably near the site of the first fortifications by the original settlers) they erected heavy earthworks upon it for defence.
The Cordova and Ubeda gates, and the arch of Baeza, are among the remains of its old fortifications, which were of great strength.
The older city, including both the Zealand and Amager portions, was formerly surrounded by a complete line of ramparts and moats; but pleasant boulevards and gardens now occupy the westward or landward site of fortifications.
South-west from this point extends the line of gardens which occupy the site of former landward fortifications, pleasantly diversified by water and plantations, skirted on the inner side by three wide boulevards, Ostervold, Norrevold and Vestervold Gade, and containing noteworthy public buildings, mostly modern.
The quarter of Christianshavn is that portion of the city which skirts the harbour to the south, and lies within the fortifications.
It is still surrounded in part by old walls and bastions, while other portions of the whilom fortifications have been converted into pleasant promenades.
Strong fortifications have been built at Ochakov and on the Kinburn promontory, to protect the entrance to the Dnieper.
In 1855 it was bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet, and after that the Russians demolished the fortifications.
It passed to Prussia in 1720, and its fortifications were dismantled in 1759.
The old city was triangular in shape, two sides being bounded by the Rhine and Mosel and the third by a line of fortifications.
Sir Samuel Greig, the father of the Russian navy and designer of the fortifications at Cronstadt, was born at Inverkeithing in 1735.
In 1572, while its fortifications were still slight, the Spanish city was attacked and was nearly captured by a force of Chinese pirates who greatly outnumbered the Spaniards.
The ancient walls and ditches, which formerly environed the city, were dismantled between 1881 and 1885, and the site of the old fortifications, bought from the government by the municipality, were converted into a fine boulevard, the Ring, nearly 4 m.
farther out, a new continuous line of wall fortifications, with outlying clusters of earthworks and forts, has since been erected; 1000 acres, now occupied by handsome streets, squares and two public parks, were thus added to the inner town, almost doubling its area.
The railway to Bonn and the Upper Rhine now follows the line of the ceinture of the new inner fortifications, and on this section there are three city stations in addition to the central.
Its prosperity now rapidly increased; when railways were introduced it became the meeting-place of several lines, and in 1881 its growth necessitated the pushing outward of the circle of fortifications.
Its fortifications were dismantled in 1703 and have since been converted into public promenades.
In 1684 its fortifications were dismantled.
The inner line of fortifications was razed in 1890, and the defensive works now consist only of the citadel and three detached forts, one of which, Fort Blucher, serves as a tete-de-pout on the left bank of the Rhine, Wesel contains some quaint old houses, and a town hall, dating from 1396, with an elaborate facade, and containing a valuable collection of old silver plate.
In 1795 Cochin was captured from the Dutch by the British, and in 1806 the fortifications and public buildings were blown up by order of the authorities.
HADRIAN'S WALL, the name usually given to the remains of the Roman fortifications which defended the northern frontier of the Roman province of Britain, between the Tyne and the Solway.
Of the fortifications erected by Vauban in the 17th century, only a gateway and the partially dismantled citadel, nicknamed la Belle Inutile, are left.
From 1899, however, Germany began to pay more attention to her fixed defences, and in the next years a long line of fortifications came into existence on the French frontier, ~he positions and strength of which were regulated with special regard to a new strategic disposition of the field armies and to the number and sites of the strategic railway stations which were constr.ucted about the same time.
Gustavus made an attempt to storm these fortifications, but he failed to make any impression on them; he failed also in inducing Wallenstein to accept battle, and he was forced to abandon Nuremberg and to march to the protection of Saxony.
From the war indemnity large sums had been expended on coast defence, on fortifications and on replacing the equipment and stores isa destroyed during the war.
The fortifications and citadel date from the 16th and 17th centuries.
From the remains of fortifications there he argues that the Hyksos were uncivilized desert people, skilled in the use of the bow, and must thus have destroyed by their archery the Egyptian armies trained to fight hand-tohand; further;, that their hordes were centered in Syria, but were driven thence by a superior force in the East to take refuge in the islands and became a sea-power--whence the strange description "Hellenic" in Manetho, which most editors have corrected to CtXAoi, "others."
Its seaward fortifications rise directly from the water's edge, one fort, on the north mole, standing boldly on a tall rock almost isolated by a little inlet of the Adriatic. On the landward side a massive round tower dominates the city from a still higher eminence.
Its dirty and irregular streets are inhabited by a scanty population of workpeople, and its interest lies mainly in its ancient fortifications.
In the interior, and to the north of the western gate, a citadel adjoins the fortifications.
Both the fortifications and the church were restored by Viollet-le-Duc between 1850 and 1880.
He superintended the siege works against Peschiera, was present at Palestro and Solferino, and repaired the fortifications of some of the northern fortresses.
The establishment is defended by strong fortifications.
In the 10th century it began to feel a lack of room within the limits of its fortifications; and accordingly, in the middle of the 12th century, it was found necessary to extend the line of circumvallation.
the limits of fortifications, which it had outgrown, have both contributed to render Genoa a picturesque confusion of narrow streets, lanes and alleys, varied with stairways climbing the steeper slopes and bridges spanning the deeper valleys.
Fortifications.-The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komarom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Petervarad, 6-Arad and Temesvar in Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified.
The fleet was, as it chanced, delayed by a storm in the Bay of Navarino, and rough fortifications were put up by the sailors on the promontory of Pylos.
In April 404 Lysander sailed into the Peiraeus, took possession of Athens, and destroyed the Long Walls and the fortifications of Peiraeus.
Rostock was a fortress of some strength, but the old fortifications have been razed, and their site is occupied by promenades.
Here the line of fortifications still marks the eastern limits of the city, though on the north large districts have grown up beyond the walls.
Neither on the south nor towards the river are there any fortifications left.
Of the gates the finest are the Bab-en-Nasr, in the north wall of the city, and the Bab-ez-Zuwela, the only surviving part of the southern fortifications.
Antiquities, Sites, &c.The remains for archaeological investigation in Egypt may be roughly classified as material and literary: to the latter belong the texts on papyri and the inscriptions, to the former the sites of ancient towns with the temples, fortifications and houses; remains of roads, canals, quarries and other matters falling within the domain of ancient topography; the larger monuments, as obelisks, statues, stelae, &c.; and finally the small antiquitiesutensils, clothes, weapons, amulets, &c. Where moisture can reach the antiquities their preservation is no better in Egypt than it would have been in other countries; for this reason all the papyri in the Delta have perished unless they happen to have been charred by fire.
The pan-Islamic press, allowed full licence by the Cairo authorities, spread abroad rumours that the Egyptian government intended to construct fortifications in the Sinai peninsula with the design of menacing the railway, under construction by Turkey, from Damascus to Mecca.
The report was spread by pan-Islamic agents that the intention of the Egyptian government was to construct fortifications on the frontier near Akaba, to which place the Turks were building a branch railway from the Damascus-Mecca line.
Its fortifications were strengthened in the 15th century.
The fortifications were again strengthened; and in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French.
In the 15th century its fortifications were extended to include Irish Town, and until their demolition in 1760 it was one of the strongest fortresses of the kingdom.
The dismantling of its fortifications began in 1760, but fragments of the old walls remain.
Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 1 535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast.
(94 o -9 86) subdued German territory south of the p Eider, extended the Danevirke, Denmark's great line of defensive fortifications, to the south of Schleswig and planted the military colony of Julin or Jomsborg, at the mouth of the Oder.
He enlarged and embellished it, and provided it with new harbours and fortifications; in short, did his best to make it the worthy capital of a great empire.
The Left was willing to vote 30,000,000 crowns for extraordinary military expenses, exclusive of the fortifications of Copenhagen, on condition that the amount should be raised by a property and income tax; and, as the elections of 1875 had given them a majority of three-fourths in the popular chamber, they spoke with no uncertain voice.
He spent immense sums on buildings of all sorts, on quays and harbours, on fortifications, repairing the walls of cities and erecting castles in Thrace to check the inroads of the barbarians, on aqueducts, on monasteries, above all, upon churches.
- The following note to newspaper editors, dated July 27 1914, was the first official intimation to the British press of the approach of war: "At a meeting of the Admiralty War Office and Press Committee, held this afternoon, it was resolved that as, in view of the present situation, the authorities may have to take exceptional measures, the Press should be asked to refrain from publishing any information relative to movements of British warships, troops, and aircraft, or to war material, fortifications, and naval and military defences, without first communicating with the Admiralty and War Office respectively in accordance with the arrangement which was notified to you by me in January of last year.
In 182 9, its fortifications were finally razed, the only defence left being a castle on the island of Slobosia, united to the shore by a bridge.
The remains of the acropolis fortifications are very interesting, including roads and ditches hewn in the rock; but beyond ruins of two churches and a fine tower built by Thoros I.
Remains of ancient fortifications still exist, though it seems uncertain whether they are of Greek or of Byzantine origin (Notizie degli Scavi, 1899, p. 70).
It is built in the Dutch style, and lies in a sandy but fertile plain, surrounded by pleasant promenades which have taken the place of the old fortifications.
The chief town, Le Palais (pop. 2637), has an old citadel and fortifications, and possesses a port which is accessible to vessels drawing 13 ft.
What is chiefly sought by such revision is better evidence for the chronology and inter-relation of the different cultures, but much new information has been gained in regard to plan and structure of the palaces and fortifications of Mycenae and Tiryns.
Being employed upon the fortifications of Dunkirk, he attracted the notice of the director of the works, and was selected as a member of the Ecole polytechnique then to be established under G.
They are of Elizabethan date, but there are also lines of much earlier date, the fortifications of Edward I.
In short almost every castle held by the English was captured, and the fortifications were destroyed.
Defensive works were erected in 17 3 0, and in 1763, when the town was made a governor's residence, a castle and other fortifications were constructed.
Chief of these were Kaskaskia, established near the mouth of the Kaskaskia river, about 1720; Cahokia, a little below the mouth of the Missouri river, founded at about the same time; and Fort Chartres, on the Mississippi between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, founded in 1720 to be a link in a chain of fortifications intended to extend from the St Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico.
There are some ruins of medieval fortifications.
During the Mahommedan rebellion it was besieged by the rebels for two years (1868-70), but owing to the strength of the fortifications it defied the efforts of its assailants.
Under his government the new fortifications of Corfu and some of the most important public works which still do honour to the English protectorate were undertaken.
The rejection of one of those conditions - the demolition of the fortifications of Corfu - led to a new prorogation; but none the less (on March 29, 1864) the plenipotentiaries of the five great powers signed the treaty by which the protectorate was brought to a close.
After graduating at the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1825, he acted as assistant professor there for some time, and as a lieutenant in the corps of engineers he was engaged for a year or two in the erection of coast fortifications.
It is chiefly remarkable for its finely preserved fortifications constructed of tetrahedral and polygonal blocks of local limestone well jointed, with maximum dimensions of about 3 by i z ft.; the outer circuit of the city wall measures about 22 m.
Remains of the fortifications of three successive periods can be traced, of which the last, perhaps a little more recent than that of the city wall, is the best preserved.
In 1816 the fortifications, which had been razed by Frederick the Great after the Seven Years' War, were restored and strengthened, and as a fortress of the second rank it remained the chief military place of Westphalia down to 1873, when the works were finally demolished.
The fortifications of Epinal are connected to the southward with Belfort, Dijon and Besancon, by the fortified line of the Moselle, and north of it lies the unfortified zone called the Trouee d'Epinal, a gap designedly left open to the invaders between Epinal and Toul, another great fortress which is itself connected by the Meuse forts d'arret with Verdun and the places of the north-east.
Epinal therefore is a fortress of the greatest possible importance to the defence of France, and its works, all built since 1870, are formidable permanent fortifications.
through the middle of the girdle of forts; the fortifications of the right bank, beginning with Fort de la Mouche, near the river 3 m.
The fortifications, erected in 1 755 and strengthened in 1816, were demolished in 1882.
The western heights, where is the foundation of another Roman lighthouse, form a further circuit of fortifications.
A large rath, or encampment, with remains of fortifications, stands to the south of the town.
It has massive fortifications erected under Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sahib towards the close of the 18th century; and near it on the west are remains of a city of the 2nd century A.D.
by the conspicuous fortifications of Castillo del Principe.
Of the medieval fortifications little remains save the Porta d'Agrate.
Portions of its ancient fortifications are still to be seen, but they have been for the most part replaced by a shady promenade which separates the town from its suburbs.
In the Wars of Religion it at first sided with the League, but afterwards opened its gates to the troops of Henry IV., from whom it received the confirmation of its communal privileges and permission to demolish its fortifications.
The BrOmserburg, or Niederburg, a massive structure built in the 13th century, formerly belonging to the archbishops of Mainz; the Boosenburg, or Oberburg, which was rebuilt in 1868, with the exception of the keep; the Adlerturm, a relic of the fortifications of the town; and the Vorderburg, the remains of an old castle.
The fortifications, begun in 1807 by order of Napoleon, were dismantled in 1889-1891.
Athanaric next attempted to establish himself in the territory between the Pruth and the Danube, and with this object set about heightening the old Roman wall which Trajan had erected in north-eastern Dacia; before his fortifications, however, were complete, the Huns were again upon him, and without a battle he was forced to retreat to the Danube.
Abbas, however, publicly renounced all pretension to the Caliphate, and the whole army accepted Motasim, who immediately had the fortifications of Tyana demolished and hastened back to Bagdad, where he made his public entry on the 20th of September 833.
The Greeks then destroyed all the fortifications at the mouth of the Nile near Tinnis, and returned with prisoners and booty.
Its fortifications were destroyed by the French in 1807, and are now replaced by beautiful promenades.
The actual antiquities of Korea are dolmens, sepulchral pottery, and Korean and Japanese fortifications.
The site of the former fortifications is occupied by a promenade.
In the old town, with its partly demolished fortifications, houses, shops and warehouses are more closely packed and the streets are narrower than in most East Indian towns, and, although a considerable number of Europeans live in this quarter, the outlying quarters, such as Simpang (where is the government house) and Tuntungan, are preferable for residence.
The town is surrounded by pleasant promenades, on the site of the old fortifications, and has numerous narrow and picturesque streets.
In 1673 the French again occupied it and dismantled the fortifications.
The old fortifications (Schanzen) have been converted into promenades, which command wonderful views of the snowy Alps of the Bernese Oberland.
Hence they applied to all fortified habitations the term in use for their own primitive fortifications; the walls remained with them the main feature distinguishing a town from a village; and the fact of the town being a fortified place likewise necessitated the special provisions mentioned for maintaining the peace.
4 As for the fortifications, some time naturally passed before they were completed.
Many even of the richer towns, notably Nuremberg, ran into debt irretrievably, owing partly to an exorbitant expenditure on magnificent public buildings and extensive fortifications, calculated to resist modern instruments of destruction, partly to a faulty administration.
each way, and, unlike most Chinese cities, its fortifications are kept in perfect repair.
A further contingent of six or seven thousand Russians had arrived on the 22nd of April; Russian engineers were busy with the fortifications along the Straits; Russian agents alone were admitted to the sultan's presence.
The strong fortifications which, with ramparts, bastions and wet ditches, formerly entirely surrounded the city, were removed on the north and west sides in 1895-1896, the trenches filled in, and the area thus freed laid out on a spacious plan.
It is surrounded by pleasant promenades occupying the site of the former engirdling fortifications.
In 1761 and 1762 it was bombarded by the French, and in 1763 its fortifications were dismantled.
To the north-west of the town are the Allees Marines, fine promenades which border the Adour for a mile and a quarter, and the Allees Paulmy, skirting the fortifications.
The Vieux-Chateau, also in Grand Bayonne, dates from the 12th and 15th centuries and is built upon a portion of the old Roman fortifications; it is used for military purposes.
New fortifications were constructed under Louis XII.
Early advanced against it with 12,000 veterans, defeated General Lew Wallace with about 3500 men at Monocacy Bridge on the 6th, and on the 11th appeared before the fortifications, which were at the time defended by only a few thousand raw troops; the city was saved by the timely arrival of some of Grant's veterans.
The latter occupies a prominence on the south side of the bay, is surrounded by massive fortifications, and retains in its ruins and numerous tombs many traces of its former greatness as a commercial port.
owes its celebrity to the medieval fortifications of remarkable completeness with which it is surrounded.
The remainder of the fortifications were built in the reign of Philip III.
On the plateau parts of the ancient fortifications are still visible, including the wall between town and Acropolis near the southern apex.
Each of these divisions of the city possesses a large and commodious harbour, that of the inner town, or city proper, being protected by strong fortifications.
high), which is occupied by extensive Spanish fortifications.
Cardinal Ximenes introduced the Inquisition, &c., and also restored and extended the fortifications.
Houses and fortifications were overthrown and a third of the garrison and a great number of the inhabitants perished.
On the left bank are the parish church (15th and 16th centuries), remains of the medieval fortifications, and the keep of a castle of the counts of Toulouse.
Its fortifications were destroyed by the French after Marengo (1799); the ramparts are now turned into shady promenades.
A line of fortifications extends south of the city from the Blue to the White Nile.
The Riksdag of 190o, in addition to grants for the fortifications at Boden, in the province of Norrbotten, on the Russian border, and other military objects, voted a considerable grant for an experimental mobilization, which fully exposed the defects and faults of the old system.
of September the delegates came to an agreement, the principal points of which were: that such disputes between the two countries which could not be settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, and which did not affect the vital interests of either country, should be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at the Hague, that on either side of the southern frontier a neutral zone of about fifteen kilometres width should be established, and that within eight months the fortifications within the Norwegian part of the zone should be destroyed.
Large sums of money have been expended in arms, equipment, guns and fortifications.
1., Ii.); and Nebuchadrezzar sought by every means great fortifications, canals and so forthto secure his empire against the menace from the north.
The town is surrounded by promenades occupying the site of the old fortifications; it contains in addition to the medieval market square, many old-fashioned houses and quaint narrow streets.
The harbour is half silted up with sand and the ruins of fortifications, and is accessible only to vessels of light draught.
Besides these excavated monuments, the Stadion; the enceinte of fortifications erected by Lysimachus, which runs from the tower called the "Prison of St Paul" and right along the crests of the Bulbul (Prion) and Panajir hills; the round monument miscalled the "Tomb of St Luke"; and the Opistholeprian gymnasium near the Magnesian gate, are worthy of attention.
Sulla captured it in 89 B.C. by setting on fire the wooden breastwork by which it was defended, and new fortifications were erected.
He asserted that the fortifications of Paris were directed against liberty, not against foreign invasion, and he stigmatized the law of regency (1842) as an audacious usurpation.
Its fortifications and citadel were demolished by Louis XIII.
Before evacuating the town the Spaniards dismantled the fortifications.
The fortifications, remodelled by the Venetians after 1489, the castle, the grand cathedral church of St Nicolas, and the remains of the palace and many other churches make Famagusta a place of unique interest.
The line of communication with Asia was secured against the Greek fleet by the Dardanelles fortifications, which enabled Rodosto to be used as an advanced base.
And thereupon, worn out by two days' hill fighting and lacking in internal homogeneity, Mahmud Mukhtar's Corps broke up, abandoning Kirk Kilisse and its fortifications, and streamed away in panic. The Bulgarians entered Kirk Kilisse on the 24th and possessed themselves of immense booty, including 55 guns.
The fortifications begun in 1658 were finally demolished under Frederick the Great in 1745, and the Neue Friedrichstrasse, the Alexander-strasse and the Wall-strasse were laid out on their site.
The old fortifications are now laid out as a promenade encircling the town.
Since the removal of the fortifications their site has been built upon.
Two gateways, the Kdnigstor and the Berliner Tor, remains of the old fortifications, are still standing.
The Pomeranian dynasty became extinct in 1637, when the country was suffering from the ravages of the Thirty Years' War, and by the settlement of 1648 Stettin, the fortifications of which had been improved by Gustavus Adolphus, was ceded to Sweden.
Thirty years later the fortifications were transferred to the site now occupied by Rostov, 5 m.
5 fortified in 1578, and in 1685 Vauban made it one of the strongest places on the French frontier, but the fortifications were razed in 1748 by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
The streets in the older quarters are narrow, crooked and gloomy; but the newer parts of the city, especially those laid out since the removal of the fortifications about 1861, are handsome and spacious.
The suburbs, with their broad and quiet boulevards on the site of the former fortifications, are steadily growing.
The town was surrounded with ramparts in 1539, but the fortifications of the Kronwerk were not constructed till the end of the 17th century.
On the departure of the German troops in 1852 the Danes demolished the fortifications on the north side.
The fortifications, pierced by four gates, were begun in 1504 and completed in 1645, and long ranked among the most remarkable in the peninsula.
Southampton and Portsmouth have gained importance through their fine natural harbours, improved by engineering works and fortifications; Bournemouth and Bognor, from their favourable position in the sunniest belt of the country, as health resorts.
The French finally removed the fortifications in 1804, since which year it has been an open town.
Many remains of ancient villas may be seen round the lake: above its west bank is the station of Forum Clodii, and on its north shore the village of Trevignano, which retains traces of the fortifications of an ancient town of unknown name.
It is chiefly remarkable for its finely preserved fortifications.
The inhabitants and troops were subsequently sent away, the fortifications destroyed and the town burned.
It possesses medieval fortifications, and no less than twenty-five towers are still standing in various parts of the town, which thus has a remarkably medieval appearance.
Above Falkenstein stand the ruins of the ancestral castle of Kuno, the powerful archbishop of Trier; above Konigstein are the remains of a fortress of like name, formerly belonging to the electors of Mainz, and destroyed by the French in 1796; on Altkonig are two concentric lines of pre-Roman fortifications, 4557 and 2982 ft.
The old walls and fortifications have almost disappeared, but Haverfordwest is still rich in memorials of its past greatness.
The French wars of 1744-1748 and 1756-1763 led to a further strengthening of the fortifications; and the influx of settlers from the mainland made the questions of supplies and of the protection of trade from piracy more pressing.
Among the innumerable ruins may be seen those of palaces, pagodas, churches and fortifications, the departed glories of which are recorded in the writings of the early European travellers who first brought Siam within the knowledge of the West, and laid the foundations of the present foreign intercourse and trade.
The fortifications designed in 1882 by the Belgian engineer, General Brialmont, and completed at a cost of more than £4,000,000, form the keystone of the national defences.