In 1533 the fortaleza, now the governor's palace, was begun at San Juan, and in1539-1584Morro Castle was erected at the entrance of the harbour.
The north-east coast, which is sandy and barren, shows an average mean annual temperature (at Fortaleza) of nearly 80° F., which is slightly higher than those of Maranhao and Path.
(3) The third section, also extending for 200 m., contains the valleys of Santa, Nepena, Casma, Huarmey, Fortaleza, Pativilca, Supe and Huaura.
The Nepena, Casma, Huarmey, Fortaleza and Supe rivers rise on the slope of an outer range called the Cordillera Negra, and are consequently dry during the great part of the year.
Of Fortaleza, on the river Jaguaribe, 8 m.
There are two lines of railway running inland from the coast: the Baturite line from Fortaleza to Senador Pompeu, 179 m., and the Sobral line from Camocim (a small port) to Ipu, 134 m.
The capital of the state is Fortaleza, sometimes called Ceara, which is also the principal commercial centre and shipping port.
See Rodolpho Theophilo, Historia da Secca do Ceara, 1877 a 1880 (Fortaleza, 1883); Professor and Mrs Louis Agassiz, A Journey in Brazil (Boston, 1869); George Gardiner, Travels in the Interior of Brazil (London, 1846); C. F.
There are 9 leagues of desert between the Nepena and Casma, 16 between the Casma and Huarmey, and 18 between the Huarmey and Fortaleza.