Forms sentence example

forms
  • All forms of online media are exploding in a similar fashion.
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  • Amid the chaos, a nurse calmly filled out forms in a method­ical fashion, looking as if the second coming of Christ wouldn't ruf­fle her.
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  • She backed away slowly, flashing the light on the forms, and then ducked into the barn, grabbing a feed sack she remembered throwing beside the barn door.
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  • Biographical information on her and her immediate family, her own medical and employment histories, all forms she'd completed without question.
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  • The forms were getting braver, darting out from the trees and then retreating when she flashed the light in that direction.
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  • Damian lifted his head, indicating the three forms standing at the top of the hill.
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  • Two forms stepped between them and the portal, blocking it.
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  • She looked back toward Andre's apartment, surprised to see two dark forms on the ledge following her.
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  • Her eyes fell to the entryway in front of the elegant building in which she stayed, then to the street further down, where several forms moved from beneath a canopy, trailed by a shadow darker than night.
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  • There was a long pause before she sensed him change forms behind her.
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  • She.d barely left it when it slammed open, and two furry forms barreled into the room, snarling and fighting.
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  • A few can assume forms, but they.re rare, he said.
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  • "Are we doing training forms?" she asked as he returned his dark stare to her.
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  • We're infusing different charges on different forms of flora.
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  • Three forms with glowing tattoos were moving slowly toward the road, stopping to sift through the dead bodies.
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  • It forms green prisms which are readily soluble in water.
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  • There were biographical forms and consent forms she hadn't really read, all signed in a loopy, angry signature, and a copy of Toby's birth certificate.
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  • As she emerged from the barn, one of the forms was nearing the circle of light.
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  • Only two forms and a body draped in black remained on the cliff side.
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  • He'd been fevered for a zillion years, trapped in the tiny cell in ever-changing forms, always in darkness.
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  • The male voice came from nowhere and everywhere and disturbed the two naked forms on the dark grey bed.
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  • There was ice everywhere, a panoply of shapes and forms.
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  • Katie followed, trailed closely by Deidre.  The sounds of their escape were nothing compared to the sounds of what followed.  Katie cast a look over her shoulder and saw several demons had dropped into the jungle and transformed into panther-like forms.  She stopped and reached into the pouch slung across her chest.
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  • Dean copied the information from the forms, including the license num­bers, and then rang the bell summoning the manager.
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  • There were a great many children whose cheerful voices and tiny forms darted by him several times.
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  • With piercing war cries, two forms broke from the horde before her.
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  • The iodide, Co12, is produced by heating cobalt and iodine together, and forms a greyish-green mass which dissolves readily in water forming a red solution.
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  • It is in these parasitic forms that we meet with the method of reproduction by sporogony described above.
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  • Not only are we eliminating historically warlike forms of government, we are replacing them with peaceful ones, namely democracy.
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  • The tension of the stiff forms in the foyer was overwhelming.
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  • A touch of coolness grazed his heated frame, which always grew hotter than Hell when he changed forms.
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  • She slumped in a chair at the kitchen table, eyes blurring as she struggled to make out the forms.
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  • She returned to the desk and scoured the paperwork for some sort of identifying information on the place she'd been or the company that developed the forms.
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  • She'd grown up never having seen death, and in the past week, she'd seen it in its most gruesome forms.
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  • Kris waited for him to change forms.
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  • Dan bypassed the mansion and led him towards the lake, where two forms stood on a large dock.
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  • After the young couple took their key and fairly skipped away, the old man retreated to the back room, leaving Dean alone with the stack of registration forms.
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  • They reached the beach, and Darian saw his young brother wielding a sword in complex weapons forms.
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  • Her most trusted friend and servant bowed and returned to the dark forms.
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  • Their great hulking forms and throaty grunts enhanced the theme of western frontier.
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  • She scanned over the comfortable furniture and past the living room to a large kitchen and dining area before her gaze returned to the two forms seated on the balcony.
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  • It forms double chlorides with the alkaline chlorides.
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  • And, if to satisfy these we were forced to maintain the existence of a world of moral standards, it was, thirdly, necessary to form some opinion as to the relation of these moral standards of value to the forms and facts of phenomenal existence.
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  • To comprehend the real position we are forced to the conviction that the world of facts is the field in which, and that laws are the means by which, those higher standards of moral and aesthetical value are being realized; and such a union can again only become intelligible through the idea of a personal Deity, who in the creation and preservation of a world has voluntarily chosen certain forms and laws, through the natural operation of which the ends of His work are gained.
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  • We have already mentioned the final conception in which Lotze's speculation culminates, that of a personal Deity, Himself the essence of all that merits existence for its own sake, who in the creation and government of a world has voluntarily chosen certain laws and forms through which His ends are to be realized.
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  • It is covered with numerous large papillae, and forms, like the trunk of the elephant, an admirable organ for the examination and prehension of food.
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  • With calm courage he returned to his poverty and his favourite studies, and in 1725 published the first edition of the work that forms the basis of his renown, Principii d'una scienza nuova.
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  • In Rhabdopleura each zooid forms its own delicate tube composed of a characteristic series of distinct rings.
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  • A ventral vessel occurs on the anterior side of the metasome and forms a loop extending down the entire length of the stalk, while a " heart " projects into the cavity of the pericardium, probably connected on the ventral side of the notochord with the ventral vessel, and on its dorsal side with the dorsal vessel.
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  • The hydrated salt forms rose-red prisms, readily soluble in water to a red solution, and in alcohol to a blue solution.
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  • It forms dark red crystals isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, and readily soluble in water.
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  • This salt may be used for the separation of cobalt and nickel, since the latter metal does not form a similar double nitrite, but it is necessary that the alkaline earth metals should be absent, for in their presence nickel forms complex nitrites containing the alkaline earth metal and the alkali metal.
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  • It forms monoclinic crystals which are very soluble in water.
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  • Cattle and sheep are produced in large numbers in some of the provinces, while in others mining forms the chief industry.
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  • It forms glancing prisms of neutral reaction slightly soluble in water.
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  • This investigator just missed a great discovery, for he did not consider the spherical forms to be living organisms but compared them with starch granules.
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  • Professor Suess, to whom the above description is due, finds that the Mediterranean forms no exception to the rule in affording no evidence of elevation or depression within historic times; but it is noteworthy that its present basin is remarkable in Europe for its volcanic and seismic activity.
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  • - As already stated, the " Mediterranean region " forms a distinct climatic unit, chiefly due to the form and position of the Mediterranean Sea.
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  • On the addition, well stirred, of a small quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, a precipitate of sulphur slowly forms, and during its growth manifests exceedingly well the phenomena under consideration.
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  • The mouth, with its jaws, forms a conical outgrowth which projects backwards, so that its apex lies beneath the prothorax.
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  • The more important of the suburbs lie towards the east, where the promontory joins the main plateau, of which it forms the north-western extremity.
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  • By early writers the word was generally given as an equivalent of the Linnaean Loxia, but that genus has been found to include many forms not now placed in the same family.
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  • It is represented in the south-west of North America by other forms that by some writers are deemed species, and in the northern parts of South America by the C. phoeniceus, which would really seem entitled to distinction.
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  • The earliest form of the name is Bodleton or Botheltun, and the most important of the later forms are Bodeltown, Botheltunle-Moors, Bowelton, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, B olton-in-yeMoors, Bolton-le-Moors.
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  • MONT BLANC, the culminating point (15,782 ft.) of the mountain range of the same name, which forms part of the Pennine Alps, and is divided unequally between France, Italy and Switzerland.
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  • Of late years the function of the collector is discharged in some forms of apparatus by a salt of radium.
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  • In some instances these differences are so marked that they have led some botanists to regard as distinct species many forms usually esteemed by others as varieties only.
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  • elongatus, and other distinct forms are known to botanists.
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  • The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
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  • It has more than one advantage over the meadow mushroom in its extreme commonness, its profuse growth, the length of the season in which it may be gathered, the total absence of varietal forms, its adaptability for being dried and preserved for years, and its persistent delicious taste.
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  • It forms the connecting-link between the plateaus of Haute Marne and the Ardennes, and is bounded E.
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  • A few species, however, like the common British forms Chelifer cancroides and Chiridium museorum, frequent human dwellings and are found in books, old chests, furniture, &c.; others like Ganypus littoralis and allied species may be found under stones or pieces of coral between tide-marks; while others, which are for the most part blind, live permanently in dark caves.
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  • The town is under the control of a provost, bailies and council, and, along with Hawick and Selkirk, forms the Hawick (or Border) group of parliamentary burghs.
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  • Cook, Minos and Minotaur are only different forms of the same personage, representing the sun-god Zeus of the Cretans, who represented the sun as a bull.
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  • The broad Oxford road forms its picturesque main street.
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  • The joists are covered with a waterproof material such as asphalt, lead, zinc or copper, the three last materials being usually laid upon boarding, which stiffens the structure and forms a good surface to fix the weatherproof covering upon.
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  • The stream forms a loop round and almost encircles the castle, from which there are beautiful views of the sinuous valley and the opposite well-wooded heights.
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  • The commune forms the basis of the native social system.
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  • Punishment may take forms varying from capital punishment, flogging and mutilation of the body to imprisonment, fines, and even deferred sentences which come into operation only if an offence is repeated within a specified time.
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  • Drago], the deep ravine of which forms the western boundary and defence of the city.
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  • A steel cylinder (about the thickness of a goose-quill), which forms the micrometer screw, has two threads cut upon it, one-half being cut with a thread double the pitch of the other.
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  • Beyond the introduction of the spider line it is unnecessary to mention the various steps by which the Gascoigne micrometer assumed the modern forms now in use, or to describe in detail the suggestions of Hooke, 4 Wren, Smeaton, Cassini, Bradley, Maskelyne, Herschel, Arago, Pearson, Bessel, Struve, Dawes, &c., or the successive productions of the great artists Ramsden, Troughton, Fraunhofer, Ertel, Simms, Cooke, Grubb, Clarke and Repsold.
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  • It will be sufficient to describe those forms with which the most important work has been done, or which have survived the tests of time and experience.
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  • The short screw whose divided milled head is shifts the zero of the micrometer by pushing, without turning, the short sliding rod whose flat end forms the point d'appui of the micrometer screw at I.
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  • The application of photography to exact astronomy has created the necessity for new forms of apparatus to measure the relative positions of stellar and planetary images on photographic plates, and the relative positions of lines in photographic spectra.
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  • 3377, Repsold gives a detailed description of two forms of eye-ends of transit circles, fitted with means of observing in this manner, to which he gives the name of " the impersonal micrometer."
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  • It doubtless arose from the proposed forms for the definitions of the primacy and the pontifical magisterium.
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  • Antioco, joined by a narrow isthmus and a group of bridges to the mainland, forms a good natural harbour to the south of the isthmus, the Golfo di Palmas; while the north portion of the peninsula, with the island of S.
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  • Pietro, forms a more or less protected basin, upon the shores of which are several small harbours (the most important being Carloforte), which are centres of the export of minerals and of the tunny fishery.
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  • In the north it forms the plain of Sassari.
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  • The most important minerals are lead and zinc, obtained in lodes in the forms of galena and calamine respectively.
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  • That the simpler forms, on the other hand, preceded those of more complicated plan is probable.
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  • A concordat may assume divers forms - historically, three.
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  • The shades which distinguish these three forms are not without significance, but they in no way detract from the contractual character of concordats.
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  • The veins of the leaves are next impressed by means of a die, and the petals are given their natural rounded forms by goffering irons of various shapes.
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  • floccus, but many Teutonic languages have the same word in various forms), a tuft of wool, cotton or similar substance.
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  • Except on the south side all the streets debouch on the promenade, which forms a circle round the town on the site of the old ramparts.
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  • It forms an evergreen bush, about 4 ft.
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  • Woman, in her wasted life, in her hurried death, here stands appealing to the society that degrades her, with a combination of eloquence and poetry, of forms of art at once instantaneous and permanent, and with great metrical energy and variety.
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  • This comes through the French and Latin forms from the Gr.
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  • " Scarcely any supposition," 2 he says, " can be made from which the same result, though possibly with greater difficulty, might not be deduced by the same laws of nature; for since, in virtue of these laws, matter successively assumes all the forms of which it is capable, if we consider these forms in order, we shall at one point or other reach the existing form of the world, so that no error need here be feared from a false supposition."
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  • Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
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  • Indeed it forms the right arm of the Tiber, by which navigation is carried on at the present day, and is known as the Fossa Trajana.
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  • The whole is still enclosed by the Byzantine walls, which follow the line of the cliffs and are carried along the sea-face; and the upper part of the level, which is separated from the lower by an inner cross wall, forms the castle; while at the highest point, where a sort of neck is formed between the two valleys, is the keep which crowns the whole.
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  • high, where the white buildings offer a marked contrast to the brown rock which forms their setting.
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  • square forms an ideal green.
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  • only from the channel of the Euphrates, which here forms a peninsula by a great bend (38° 10' N., approximately 39° 20' E.).
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  • The surface of the department consists of undulating and well-wooded plains, intersected by numerous valleys, and diversified in the north-east by hilly ground which forms a part of the mountain system of the Ardennes.
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  • It forms part of the educational division (academie) of Douai and of the region of the second army corps, its military centre being at Amiens, where also is its court of appeal.
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  • The actual piercing organs are the mandibles, while the upper lip or labrum forms a sucking tube.
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  • North-eastern Albania forms part of the Turkish vilayet of Kossovo; the northern highlands are included in the vilayet of Shkodra (Scutari), the eastern portion of central Albania belongs to the vilayet of Monastir, and the southern districts are comprised in the vilayet of Iannina.
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  • by the ranges of Grammos and Pindus; the entire chain, a prolongation of the Alpine systems of Bosnia and Dalmatia, may be described as the backbone of the peninsula; it forms the watershed between the Aegean and the Adriatic, and culminates in the lofty peak of Liubotrn, near Kalkandele, one of the highest summits in south-eastern Europe (8858 ft.).
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  • The jobars superintend the execution of the laws, collect fines and administer capital punishment; they are in contact with the buluk-bashi, or resident representative of the tribe at Scutari, who forms the only link between the mountaineers and the Turkish government.
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  • no certainty can be arrived at with regard to its earlier forms and later development.
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  • The groundwork, so far as it can be ascertained, and the grammar are Indo-European, but a large number of words have been borrowed from the Latin or Italian and Greek, and it is not always easy to decide whether the mutilated and curtailed forms now in use represent adopted words or belong to the original vocabulary.
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  • There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."
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  • An alphabet of fifty-two letters, some presenting ancient Phoenician and Cretan forms, was found by Hahn in partial use at Elbassan and Tirana; its antiquity, however, has not been established.
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  • Kohler (Erlangen, 1860) forms the first part of his work on the Nachexilische Propheten.
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  • In many forms of fireplaces fresh air is brought in and passed around the back and sides of the stove before being admitted into the room.
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  • In the case of factories the exhaust steam from the engines used for driving the working machinery is made use of and forms the most economical method of heating possible.
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  • Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.
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  • These interviews took place in October 15 93, and on the 29th of the following January Napier wrote to the king the letter which forms the dedication of the Plaine Discovery.
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  • In some of the early books of order a few forms of prayer were given, but their use was not compulsory.
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  • The interest accruing from it is added to the yearly sustentation contributions, and forms a central fund for ministerial support.
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  • The two parties united under the act of 1729, which adopted the Westminster symbols "as being, in all the essential and necessary articles, good forms of sound words and systems of Christian doctrine."
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  • It lies on either side of the formerly natural, now artificial outlet of the river Waveney to the North Sea, while to the west the river forms Oulton Broad and Lothing Lake.
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  • Hayes in 1878, forms the boundary between Argentina and Paraguay from the Paraguay river north-west to the Bolivian frontier.
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  • 30, 1905) Unpaid bills, $3,332,594, Paper £8 22,950 The paper currency forms an important part of the internal debt, and has been a fruitful source of trouble to the country.
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  • The Lake of Geneva, which forms 32 m.
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  • The Department of Waters i and Forests (Administration des Eaux et Forts) forms a branch of the min istry of agriculture.
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  • It forms white plates, melting at 132°, readily soluble in water, and subliming without decomposition.
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  • The island forms part of the modern nomos of Attica and Boeotia, of which it forms an eparchy.
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  • It forms a well-crystallized hydrazone with phenylhydrazine; and a-nitroso propionic acid with hydroxylamine.
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  • It is monobasic and yields salts which only crystallize with great difficulty; when liberated, from these salts by a mineral acid it forms a syrupy nonvolatile mass.
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  • Owing to the antiquity of both placentals and marsupials, the arboreal character of the feet of the modern forms of the latter is of little importance.
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  • Of the Old World forms, the family Triconodontidae is typified by the genus Triconodon, from the English Purbeck, in which the cheek-teeth carry three cutting cusps arranged longitudinally.
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  • To mention the other forms which have received names will be unnecessary on this occasion.
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  • The latter has indeed been regarded as the direct descendant of these Mesozoic forms; but as already stated, in the opinion of Mr B.
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  • Besides the above, in the Trias of North America we have Dromotherium and Microconodon, extremely primitive forms, representing the family From Owen.
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  • It forms slightly coloured small crystals possessing a strong disagreeable smell, and is rapidly decomposed by water with the formation of boric acid and sulphuretted hydrogen.
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  • A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.
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  • The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the Israelite priesthood.
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  • The root has nothing to do with resting in the sense of enjoying repose; in transitive forms and applications it means to "sever," to "put an end to," and intransitively it means to "desist," to "come to an end."
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  • The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
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  • With these names must clearly be judged the forms Tusci and Etrusci, although these forms must not be regarded as anything but the names given to the Etruscans by the folk among whom they settled.
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  • " It became clear that in the system of perpetual Becoming and of the dialectical passing over of all forms into one another, the finite personality could scarcely raise a plausible claim to the character of a substance and to immortality in the religious sense."
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  • He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of Hostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms to legal science.
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  • It forms, with the islands of Syme, Casos, Carpathos, Castelorizo, Telos and Charki, one of the four sanjaks into which the Archipelago vilayet of Turkey is divided.
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  • 55°, and forms a submarine promontory 1000 m.
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  • The Gulf of Carpentaria, situated in the north, is enclosed on the east by the projection of Cape York, and on the west by Arnheim Land, and forms the principal bay on the whole coast, measuring about 6° of long.
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  • Farther to the west, Van Diemen's Gulf, though much smaller, forms a better-protected bay, having Melville Island between it and the ocean; while beyond this, Queen's Channel and Cambridge Gulf form inlets about 14° 50' S.
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  • The Great Barrier Reef forms the prominent feature off the north-east coast of Australia; its extent from north to south is 1200 m., and it is therefore the greatest of all coral reefs.
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  • Lake Torrens, the largest of these depressions, sometimes forms a sheet of water 100 m.
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  • It consists in the main of an Archean block or " coign,"which still occupies nearly the whole of the western half of the continent, outcrops in north-eastern Queensland, forms the foundation of southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, and is exposed in western Victoria, in Tasmania, and in the western flank of the Southern Alps of New Zealand.
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  • The discovery as fossil, in South America, of primitive or ancestral forms of marsupials has given it much support.
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  • Previous to the existence of the strait, and across its site, there poured into Australia a wealth of Papuan forms. Along the Pacific slope of the Queensland Cordillera these found in soil and climate a congenial home.
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  • The forms of life characteristic of India and the Malay peninsula come down to the island of Bali.
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  • Several smaller forms of the same general appearance are known as wallabies, and are common everywhere.
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  • The herbage for the most part grows with marvellous rapidity after a spring or autumn shower and forms a natural shelter for the more stable growth of nutritious grasses.
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  • The region extending round the south-western extremity of the continent has a peculiarly characteristic assemblage of typical Australian forms, notably a great abundance of the Proteaceae.
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  • Arsenic, in its well-known and beautiful forms, orpiment and realgar, is found in New South Wales and Victoria.
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  • Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
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  • They had no special forms of religious worship, and no idols.
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  • He was also the author of important papers in which he extended to complex quadratic forms many of Gauss's investigations relating to real quadratic forms. After 1864 he devoted himself chiefly to elliptic functions, and numerous papers on this subject were published by him in the Proc. Lond.
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  • The various forms into which materialism may be classified correspond to the various causes which induce men to take up materialistic views.
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  • In anti-religious materialism the motive is hostility to established dogmas which are connected, in the Christian system especially, with certain forms of spiritual doctrine.
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  • A range of granite mountains forms a backbone which divides the peninsula into two unequal portions, the larger of which lies to the east and the smaller to the west of the chain.
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  • The highest mountain is believed to be Gunong Tahan, which forms part of an isolated range on the eastern side, between Pahang and Kelantan, and is estimated at about 8000 ft.
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  • The Sakai still inhabit in greatest numbers the country which forms the interior of Pahang, the Plus and Kinta districts of Perak, and the valley of Nenggiri in Kelantan.
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  • Other forms of his name are Antonio Della Paglia, A.
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  • two-thirds of the state, it forms a water-parting between the streams which flow W.
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  • The chronicler Saxo Grammaticus mentions in his Gesta Danorum the "rampart of Jutland" (Jutiae moenia) as having been once more extended by Valdemar the Great (1157-1182), which has been cited among the proofs that Schleswig (S4 nderjylland) forms an integral part of Jutland (Manuel hist.
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  • The miracle forms the subject of a celebrated fresco by Raphael in the Vatican.
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  • It deflagrates at 145°, and forms a characteristic cuprammonium salt.
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  • TAPACULO, the name 1 given in Chile to a bird of singular appearance - the Pteroptochus albicollis of ornithology, and applied in an extended sense to its allied forms, which constitute a small family, Pteroptochidae, belonging to the Clainatores division of Passeres, peculiar to South America.
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  • The kasbah forms the apex of a triangle of which the quays form the base.
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  • At Belleek it forms a considerable waterfall and is here well known to sportsmen for its good salmon fishing.
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  • The limestone forms fine scarps on the southern side of the lake, capped by beds regarded as the Yoredale series.
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  • The multitude of species and the many intermediate forms render their exact limitation difficult, but those presenting sufficiently marked characters to justify specific rank probably approach 300 in number.
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  • 63°, and near the Lindesnaes forms woods of some extent, the trees occasionally acquiring a considerable size.
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  • The cultivation of this tree in Europe forms one of the most important branches of the forester's art.
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  • The astringent principle is a peculiar kind of tannic acid, called by chemists quercitannic, which, yielding more stable compounds with gelatine than other forms, gives oak bark its high value to the tanner.
    0
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  • Nearly akin to these are several other forms of little but botanical interest; not _ far removed is the black or dyer's oak, F rom Isotschy op. c i t.
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  • The western trough extends northwards into Davis Strait, forming a depression in the Telegraph plateau; to the south of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia are Sigsbee Deep, Libbey Deep and Suhm Deep, each of small area; north-east of the Bahamas Nares Deep forms the largest and deepest depression in the Atlantic, in which a sounding of 4561 fathoms was obtained (70 m.
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  • Its basin forms the province of Kabul, which includes all northern Afghanistan between the Hindu Kush and the Safed Koh ranges.
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  • It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
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  • Of English plays, the interlude called Jack Juggler (between 1547 and 1553) was based on the Amphitruo, and the lost play called the Historie of Error (acted in 1577) was probably based on the Menae-chmi; Nicholas Udall's Ralph Royster Doyster, the first English comedy (acted before 1551, first printed 1566), is founded on the Miles gloriosus; Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors (about 1591) is an adaptation of the Menaechmi; and his Falstaff may be regarded as an idealized reproduction or development of the braggart soldier of Plautus and Terence - a type of character which reappears in other forms not only in English literature (e.g.
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  • It forms part of the territory formerly distinguished as the Slave Coast and was annexed by Germany in 1884.
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  • The depositions of witnesses were returned to Rome in 1632, but meantime the forms of the Roman chancery had been changed by Urban VIII., and the advocates could not at once continue their work.
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  • The other forms of velocity anemometer may be described as belonging to the windmill type.
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  • PERUGIA (anc. Perusia), a city and archiepiscopal see of Italy, the capital of the province of Perugia (which forms the entire compartimento of Umbria) situated 1444 ft.
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  • Hence it is not surprising that, in those more subtle forms in which energy cannot be readily or completely converted into work, the universality of the principle of energy, its conservation, as regards amount, should for a long while have escaped recognition after it had become familiar in pure dynamics.
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  • P. Joule to achieve; his experiments conclusively prove that heat and energy are of the same nature, and that all other forms of energy can be transformed into an equivalent amount of heat.
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  • In all cases there is a general tendency for other forms of energy to be transformed into heat on account of the friction of rough surfaces, the resistance of conductors, or similar causes, and thus to lose availability.
    0
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  • The from- ', bone parts are on exactly the same material as the voice, which in fact forms with them a five-part fugue-texture.
    0
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  • The sexes are distinct (with the exception of a few forms that are hermaphrodite), and the male is always smaller than the female.
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  • While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
    0
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  • The freeliving differ from the majority of the parasitic forms in undergoing no metamorphosis; they also possess certain structural peculiarities which led Bastian (Trans.
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    0
  • The parasitic and free-living Nematodes are connected by transitional forms which are free at one stage of their existence and parasitic at another; they may be divided into two classes those that are parasitic in the larval state but free when adult, and those that are free in the larval state but parasitic when adult.
    0
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  • (I) To the first class belong the so-called "hairworm," Mermis, not to be confused with the Gordian worms. 3 The adult forms of M.
    0
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  • Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
    0
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  • They, however, show no periodicity, and are found continuously both by day and by night; and their larval forms are termed Microfilaria perstans.
    0
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  • In all places where finished goods are handled, or manufactured goods are made, cranes of various forms are in universal use.
    0
    0
  • This second method forms the basis of the lifting gear in all hydraulic cranes.
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  • The Chambal is by far the largest river in Rajputana, through which it flows for about one-third of its course, while it forms its boundary for another third.
    0
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  • The Code forms the backbone of the skeleton sketch which is here reconstructed.
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  • It forms, like Giglio and Monte Cristo, part of a sunken mountain range extending towards Corsica and Sardinia.
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  • Between Kuhsan and Zulfikar it forms the boundary between Afghanistan and Persia, and from Zulfikar to Sarakhs between Russia and Persia.
    0
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  • The application of this to telegraphic purposes was suggested by Laplace and taken up by Ampere, and afterwards by Triboaillet and by Schilling, whose work forms the foundation of much of modern telegraphy.
    0
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  • House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
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  • Between a shoulder, a, in the iron bolt and a shoulder in the porcelain cup, c, is placed an indiarubber ring, which forms a yielding washer and enables the cup to be screwed firmly to the bolt, while preventing FIG.
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  • The cost of the cable before laying depends on the dimensions of its core, the gutta-percha, which still forms the only trustworthy insulator known, constituting the principal item of the expense; for an Atlantic cable of the most approved construction the cost may be taken at f250 to £300 per nautical mile.
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  • The speed of the ship can be roughly estimated from the speed of the engines; it is more accurately obtained by one or other of the various forms of log, or it may be measured by paying out continuously a steel wire over a measuring wheel.
    0
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  • A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
    0
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  • In the earlier forms of instrument the record was made by embossing lines on a ribbon of paper by means of a sharp style fixed to one end of a lever, which carried at the other end the armature of an electromagnet.
    0
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  • The speed of a cable is given in words per minute, the conventional number of five letters per word being understood, though in actual practice, owing to the extensive use of special codes, the number of letters per word is really between eight and nine; and this forms a considerable factor in lowering the earning capacity of a cable.
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  • There would be a very serious question raised, and it would probably extend to other forms of British enterprise."
    0
    0
  • Hence devices for detecting the oscillations in the antenna are merely very sensitive forms of ammeter and voltmeter.
    0
    0
  • First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.
    0
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  • Before explaining the advantages of such small damping it Will be necessary to consider the usual forms of the receiving appliance.
    0
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  • The ordinary forms of metallic filings coherer of the Branly type require tapping to bring them back to the high resistance or sensitive condition.
    0
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  • An innumerable number of forms of coherer or wave detector depending upon the change in resistance produced at a loose or imperfect contact have been devised.
    0
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  • Fleming 5 invented special forms of the metallic contact or metallic filings sensitive tube.
    0
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  • Tommasina 8 tried carbon in various forms. The theory of the action of the coherer has occupied the attention of T.
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  • Wilson constructed various forms of electric wave detector depending on this same principle.
    0
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  • In 1902 Marconi invented two forms of magnetic detector, one of which he developed into an electric wave detector of extraordinary delicacy and utility.
    0
    0
  • Hence it will be seen that the difference between various forms of the so-called spark systems of wireless telegraphy is not very great.
    0
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  • Very valuable work in devising forms of antennae for directive radio-telegraphy has been done by MM.
    0
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  • If, then, a long copper bar which forms part of this circuit is placed in proximity to the transmitting antenna and the handle moved, some position can be found in which the natural time period of the cymometer circuit is made equal to the actual time period of the telegraphic antenna.
    0
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  • The Den, or Dene, forms a promenade along the sea-front, with a small lighthouse and a pier.
    0
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  • Hence we frequently meet with forms which had passed out of the language that was spoken at the time they were engraved, side by side with their equivalents in that language.
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  • The first period is represented, not by any complete table, but by the old unmodernised forms of Tables III.
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  • It also forms amalgams with mercury, and on this account has been employed in dentistry for the purpose of stopping (or filling) teeth.
    0
    0
  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
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  • Experiments bearing on this subject were subsequently made by a great number of investigators.4 Page's discovery is of considerable importance in connexion with the theory of action of various forms of telephone, and was a very important feature in the early attempts by Reis to transit music and speech.
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  • One of the latest forms of FIG.
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  • A type of transmitter which has come to be invaluable in connexion with long distance telephony, and which has practically superseded all other forms, is the granular carbon transmitter.
    0
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  • The motions impressed upon the carbon granules are very vigorous, and this together with the particular arrangement of the parts of the instrument is effectual in obviating the difficulty from packing which attended the use of earlier forms of granulated carbon transmitters.
    0
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  • This instrument has almost entirely displaced all other forms of transmitter.
    0
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  • of the calls originated at an exchange are for subscribers connected to other exchanges, and in these cases the junction plant forms a considerable fraction of the whole equipment.
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  • The Main forms part of the southern boundary, and the Rhine the south-western; the western part of the province lies mostly in the basin of the Lahn, a tributary of the Rhine.
    0
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  • Comparison with monstrous forms shows that the pitcher of Cephalotus arises by a calceolate pouching from the upper surface of the ordinary spathulate leaves, the lid here arising from the proximal side of the pitcher-orifice.
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  • It has a few miles of Atlantic coast-line on the N., and the Rio Parnahyba forms the boundary line with Maranhao throughout its entire length.
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  • The portion of the Mediterranean commonly termed the Tyrrhenian Sea forms its limit on the W.
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  • But the peninsula of Italy, which forms the the largest portion of the country, nowhere exceeds 150 m.
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  • Its southern extremity, Calabria, forms a complete peninsula, being united to the mass of Lucania or the Basilicata by an isthmus isthmus 35 m.
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  • The next great affluent of the Po, the Adda, forms the outflow of the Lake of Como, and has also its sources in the Alps, above Bormio, whence it flows through the broad and fertile valley of the Valtellina for more than 65 m.
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  • Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
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  • They may be enumerated, proceeding from Rimini southwards: (1) the Foglia; (2) the Metauro, of historical celebrity, and affording access to one of the most frequented passes of the Apennines; (3) the Esino; (4) the Potenza; (5) the Chienti; (6) the Aso; (7) the Tronto; (8) the Vomano; (9) the Aterno; (10) the Sangro; (11) the Trigno, which forms the boundary of the southernmost province of the Abruzzi, and may therefore be taken as the limit of Central Italy.
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  • This projecting tract, which may be termed the "heel" or "spur" of Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m.
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  • On each side of that great chain are found extensive Tertiary deposits, sometimes, as in Tuscany, the district of Monferrat, &c., forming a broken, hilly country, at others spreading into broad plains or undulating downs, such as the Tavoliere of Puglia, and the tract that forms the spur of Italy from Bari to Otranto.
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  • Accurate statistics with regard to the area occupied in different forms of cultivation are difficult to obtain, both on account of their varied and piecemeal character and from the lack of a complete cadastral survey.
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  • Considerable trade is done in agro di limone or lemon extract, which forms the basis of citric acid.
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    0
  • The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have remained almost untouched by social and political changes.
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  • The followfng forms of contract are most usual in the several regions: In Piedmont the mezzadria (mttayage), the terzieria, the colonia parziaria, the boarla, the schiavenza and the affitto, or lease, are most usual.
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  • The boaria is widely diffused in its two forms of cascinafatta and paghe.
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  • The prevalent forms of contract are the mezzadria and the lease.
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  • In Liguria, also, mezzo4,ia and lease are the chief forms of contract.
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  • In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.
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  • Other forms of contract are the piccola mezzadria, or sub-letting by tenants to under-tenants, on the half-and-half system; enfiteusi, or perpetual leases at low rentsa form which has almost died out; and mezzadria (in the provinces of Caserta and Benevento).
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  • In addition to an initial endowment by the state, part of the annual income of the fund is furnished in various forms by the state (principally by making over a proportion of the profits of the Post Office Savings Bank), and part by the premiums of the workmen.
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  • Charitable institutions take, as a rule, the two forms of outdoor and indoor relief and attendance.
    0
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  • This Norman conquest of the two Sicilies forms the most romantic episode in medieval Italian history.
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  • Meanwhile each party forms its own organization of chiefs, finance-officers and registrars at home, and sends ambassadors to foreign cities of the same complexion.
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  • The captain of the people, acting as head of the ascendant Guelphs or Ghibellines, undertakes the responsibility of proscriptions, decides on questions of policy, forms alliances, declares war.
    0
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  • The serious feature of the situation lay less in the income than in the intangible expenditure, namely, the vast sums required for interest on the various forms of public debt and for pensions.
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  • His bill, adopted by parliament on the 7th of June 1875, still forms the ground plan of the Italian army.
    0
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  • Secondly: the " forms " of time and space, not referable to any sensation, and presupposed in every experience, come from the mind (" Transcendental Aesthetic ").
    0
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  • But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.
    0
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  • There was a new scepticism - at the very least a doctrine of limitation in human knowledge; but in its extremer forms an absolute agnosticism.
    0
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  • With what is specifically Christian we have nothing to do in the present article: but it is worth noticing that the appeal to " values, " aesthetic and still more moral, forms a substitute for that natural theology which Ritschl despised and professed to reject.
    0
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  • Herrmann's appeal to Kant's moral teaching is in close analogy to the more thoughtful forms of intuitionalist ethics.
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  • In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.
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  • Between the Andamans and Cape Negrais intervene two small groups, Preparis and Cocos; between the Andamans and Sumatra lie the Nicobar Islands, the whole group stretching in a curve, to which the meridian forms a tangent between Cape Negrais and Sumatra; and though this curved line measures 700 m., the widest sea space is about 91 m.
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  • by 16, forms the southern extremity of the whole group and lies 31 m.
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  • This tree is widely spread and forms a valuable export to European markets.
    0
    0
  • Yet again the Andamanese can be grouped according to certain salient characteristics: the forms of the bows and arrows, of the canoes, of ornaments and utensils, of tattooing and of language.
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    0
  • Fresh-water forms, however, are also known, very few as regards species or genera, but often extremely abundant as individuals.
    0
    0
  • In fresh-water Hydromedusae the life-cycle is usually secondarily simplified, but in marine forms the life-cycle may be extremely complicated, and a given species often passes in the course of its history through widely different forms adapted to different habitats and modes of life.
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  • hydrocaulus, and forms a cup, the hydrangium or hydrotheca (h, t), standing off from the body, into which the hydranth can be retracted for shelter and protection.
    0
    0
  • As regards number, we find in the aberrant forms Protohydra and Microhydra tentacles entirely absent.
    0
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  • The reduction of the tentacles in all these forms may be correlated with their mode of life, and especially with living in a constant current of water, which brings foodparticles always from one direction and renders a complete whorl or circle of tentacles unnecessary.
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  • With the exception of these forms, reduced for the most part in correlation with a semi-parasitic mode of life, the tentacles are usually numerous.
    0
    0
  • Massive colonies may assume, ' various forms and are often branching or tree-like.
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    0
  • In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.
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  • continues the stem or branch of which its parent forms a part.
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  • F, foundersecond bud, which usually polyp; I, 2, 3, succession of polyps forms a side branch or pinnule budded from the founder.
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  • The pinnules never branch again, since in the uniserial mode of budding a polyp never forms a second polyp-bud.
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  • The marginal tentacles are rarely absent in non-parasitic forms, and are typically four in number, corresponding to the four perradii marked by the radial canals.
    0
    0
  • external epithelium is flat on the ex-umbral surface, more columnar on the sub-umbral surface, where it forms the muscular tissue of the sub-umbrella and the velum.
    0
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  • Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
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  • The proximal portion forms the retractor muscles of themanubrium, or proboscis, well developed, for example, in Geryonia.
    0
    0
  • The medial portion forms radiating tracts of fibres, the so-called " bell-muscles " running underneath, and parallel to, the radial canals; when greatly developed, as in Tiaridae, they form ridges, so-called mesenteries, projecting into the sub-umbral cavity.
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  • The nervous system of the medusa consists of sub-epithelial ganglion-cells, which form, in the first place, a diffuse plexus of nervous tissue, as in the polyp, but developed chiefly on the subumbral surface; and which are concentrated, in the second place, to form a definite central nervous system, never found in the polyp. In Hydromedusae the central nervous system forms two concentric nerverings at the margin of the umbrella, near the base of the velum.
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  • The uppermost is a purely muscular cell from the sub-umbrella; the two lower are epidermo-muscular cells from the base of a tentacle; the upstanding nucleated portion forms part of the epidermal mosaic on the free surface of the body.
    0
    0
  • The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
    0
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  • (After C. Chun.) A, The epithelium becomes twothe bud forms an entocodon layered.
    0
    0
  • B, The lower layer forms a solid G,H, Formation of the medusae.
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    0
  • side, and then forms a recumbent hydroFIG.
    0
    0
  • The Leptolinae are chiefly forms belonging to the inshore fauna.
    0
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  • The Trachylinae, on the other hand, are above all oceanic forms, and have no polyp-stage, and hence there is typically no alternation in their life-cycle.
    0
    0
  • Hydra must, in short, be a living representative of the ancestor of which the actinula-stage is a transient reminiscence in the development of higher forms. It may be pointed out in this connexion that the fixation of Hydra is only temporary, and that the animal is able at all times to detach itself, to move to a new situation, and to fix itself again.
    0
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  • Certain other forms of doubtful affinities have also been referred provisionally to this section.
    0
    0
  • The polyp may be solitary, but more usually produces polyps by budding and forms a polyp-colony.
    0
    0
  • Moreover, P. Hallez [22], has recently shown that hydroids hitherto regarded as distinct species are only forms of „ the same species grown under different conditions.
    0
    0
  • The gymnoblastic polyp usually has a distinct perisarc investing the hydrorhiza and the hydrocaulus, sometimes also the hydranth as far as the bases of the tentacles (Bimeria); but in such cases the perisarc forms a closely-fitting investment or cuticule on the hydranth, never a hydrotheca standing off from it, as in the next sub-order.
    0
    0
  • The spadix forms a gelatinous cyst, the so-called acrocyst (ac), external to the gonotheca (gth), enclosing and protecting the embryos.
    0
    0
  • Obelia forms numerous polyserial stems of the characteristic zigzag pattern growing up from a creeping basal stolon, and buds the medusa of the same name.
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  • - Metagenetic colony-forming Hydromedusae, in which the polyp-colony forms a massive, calcareous corallum into which the polyps can be retracted; polyp-individuals always of two kinds, gastrozoids and dactylozoids; gonosome either free medusae or sessile gonophores.
    0
    0
  • The coenosteum increases in size by new growth at the surface; and in the deeper, older portions of massive forms the tissues die off after a certain time, only the superficial region retaining its vitality down to a certain depth.
    0
    0
  • - There cyclosystems placed at can be no doubt that the forms comprised intervals on the in this order bear a close relationship to the branches, each with a Hydroidea, especially the sub-order Gymnocentral gastropore and blastea, with which they should perhaps be zone of slit-like dac classed in a natural classification.
    0
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  • (After coralline may be regarded as a form of Moseley.) hydroid colony in which the coenosarc forms a felt-work ramifying in all planes, and in which the chitinous perisarc is replaced by a massive calcareous skeleton.
    0
    0
  • In both cases the hydranth is extremely reduced and has no tentacles, and the polyp forms a colony by budding from the base.
    0
    0
  • In the Disconectae the coenosarc forms a spongy mass, the " centradenia," which is partly hepatic in function, forming the socalled liver, and partly excretory.
    0
    0
  • The pneumato phore arises from the ectoderm as a pit or invagination, part of which forms a gas-secreting gland, while the rest gives rise to an air-sack lined by a chitinous cuticle.
    0
    0
  • The orifice of invagination forms a pore which may be closed up or may form a protruding duct or funnel.
    0
    0
  • In other forms they have no mouths.
    0
    0
  • They may be branched, so-called " gonodendra," and amongst them may occur special forms of palpons, " gonopalpons."
    0
    0
  • In forms with a compact coenosarc such as Velella, Physalia, &c., the separate cormidia cannot be sharply distinguished, and such a condition is described technically as one with " scattered " cormidia.
    0
    0
  • The following are some of the forms Cuvier, Lankester's Treatise on of cormidia that occur: Zoology.
    0
    0
  • in such forms as Velella, Porpita, &c., the ancestor was an eight-rayed medusa (Disconula) which acquired a pneumatophore as an ectodermal pit on the ex-umbrella, and in which the organs (manubrium, tentacles, &c.) became secondarily multiplied, just as they do in Gastroblasta as the result of incomplete fission.
    0
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  • The Auronectae are peculiar deep-sea forms, little known except from Haeckel's descriptions, in which the large pneumatophore has a peculiar duct, termed the aurophore, placed on its lower side in the midst of a circle of swimming-bells.
    0
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  • Another Roman basilica forms the nucleus of the cathedral.
    0
    0
  • It may be supposed that these crude fancies embody a dim recognition of the physical forces and objects personified under the forms of deities, and a rude attempt to account for their genesis as a natural process.
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  • This substance is endowed with a generative or transmutative force by virtue of which it passes into a succession of forms. They thus resemble modern evolutionists, since they regard the world with its infinite variety of forms as issuing from a simple mode of matter.
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    0
  • More especially the cosmology of Anaximander resembles the modern doctrine of evolution in its conception of the indeterminate (rO filr€Lpov) out of which the particular forms of the cosmos are differentiated.
    0
    0
  • The force which brings the atoms together in the forms of objects is inherent in the elements, and all their motions are necessary.
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    0
  • The formative principle or force of the world is said to contain the several rational germinal forms of things.
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  • Lucretius traces, in the fifth book of his poem, the progressive genesis of vegetal and animal forms out of the motherearth.
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  • In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
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  • Here the divine will is viewed as an efflux from the divine wisdom, as the intermediate link between God, the first substance, and all things, and as the fountain out of which all forms emanate.
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  • At the same time all forms, including the higher intelligible ones, are said to have their existence only in matter.
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  • Matter and form are here identified, and the evolution of the world is presented as the unfolding of the world-spirit to its perfect forms according to the plastic substratum (matter) which is but one of its sides.
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  • All parts of matter are capable of developing into all forms; thus the materials of the table and chair may under proper circumstances be developed to the life of the plant or of the animal.
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  • The speaker seeks to make intelligible the appearance of art and contrivance in the world as a result of a natural settlement of the universe (which passes through a succession of chaotic conditions) into a stable condition, having a constancy in its forms, yet without its several parts losing their motion and fluctuation.
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  • Helvetius, in his work on man, referred all differences between our species and the lower animals to certain peculiarities of organization, and so prepared the way for a conception of human development out of lower forms as a process of physical evolution.
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  • All organic forms are at bottom but one organization, and the inorganic world shows the same formative activity in various degrees or potences.
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  • Schelling conceives of the gradual self-evolution of nature in a succession of higher and higher forms as brought about by a limitation of her infinite productivity, showing itself in a series of points of arrest.
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  • Yet, as Strauss and others have shown, Kant's mind betrayed a decided leaning at times to a more mechanical conception of organic forms as related by descent.
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  • All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.
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  • Only spirit has a history; in nature all forms are contemporaneous.2 Hegel's interpretation of mind and history as a process of evolution has more scientific interest than his conception of nature.
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  • as conditioned in time by lower forms. In this respect it resembles Leibnitz's idea of the world as a development; the idea of evolution is in each case a metaphysical as distinguished from a scientific one.
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  • In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
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  • It is the same thought which collected in the cosmic space the divided masses into spheres, and combined these to solar systems; the same which caused the weather-beaten dust on the surface of our metallic planet to spring forth into living forms."
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  • The observation of the gradations of structure, from extreme simplicity to very great complexity, presented by living things, and of the relation of these graduated forms to one another.
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  • The observation of the facts of the geological succession of the forms of life.
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  • In the then state of knowledge, it appeared that all the species of animals and plants could be arranged in one series, in such a manner that, by insensible gradations, the mineral passed into the plant, the plant into the polype, the polype into the worm, and so, through gradually higher forms of life, to man, at the summit of the animated world.
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  • Meckel proceeds to exemplify the thesis, that the lower forms of animals represent stages in the course of the development of the higher, with a large series of illustrations.
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    0
  • The older advocates of evolution sought for the causes of the process exclusively in the influence of varying conditions, such as climate and station, or hybridization, upon living forms. Even Treviranus has got no further than this point.
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  • Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.
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  • In later years the attention of the best palaeontologists has been withdrawn from the hodman's work of making " new species " of fossils, to the scientific task of completing our knowledge of individual species, and tracing out the succession of the forms presented by any given type in time.
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  • But in the prodigious number of supporting discoveries that have been made no single negative factor has appeared, and the evolution from their predecessors of the forms of life existing now or at any other period must be taken as proved.
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  • It is necessary to notice, however, that although the general course of the stream of life is certain, there is not the same certainty as to the actual individual pedigrees of the existing forms. In the attempts to place existing creatures in approximately phylogenetic order, a striking change, due to a more logical consideration of the process of evolution, has become established and is already resolving many of the earlier difficulties and banishing from the more recent tables the numerous hypothetical intermediate forms so familiar in the older phylogenetic trees.
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  • Such a comparison is necessarily illogical, as the existing apes are separated from the common ancestor by at least as large a number of generations as separate it from any of the forms of existing man.
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  • Naturally very many other factors have to be considered, but this alone is a sufficient reason to restrain attempts to place existing forms in linear phylogenetic series.
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  • In embryology the method finds its expression in the limitation of comparisons to the corresponding stages of low and high forms and the exclusion of the comparisons between the adult stages of low forms and the embryonic stages of higher forms.
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    0
  • There has been a renewed activity in the study of existing forms from the point of view of obtaining evidence as to the nature and origin of species.
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  • Those who work with living forms of which it is possible to obtain a large number of specimens, and those who make revisions of the provisional species of palaeontologists, are slowly coming to some such conception as that a species is the abstract central point around which a group of variations oscillate, and that the peripheral oscillations of one species may even overlap those of an allied species.
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  • A complex apocentric modification of a kind which we cannot imagine to have been repeated independently, and which is to be designated as uniradial, frequently forms a new centre around which new diverging modifications are produced.
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  • With reference to any particular group of forms such a new centre of modification may be termed a metacentre, and it is plain that the archecentre of the whole group is a metacentre of the larger group cf which the group under consideration is a branch.
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    0
  • The empire of Russia has in the matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction partly developed into other forms, partly systematized 4th century and later Byzantine rules.
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  • catta, but the English name "lemur" is often taken to include all the members of the sub-order, although the aberrant forms are often conveniently termed "lemuroids."
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  • James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.
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  • The present writer has suggested that the word Pali should be reserved for the language of the canon, and other words used for the earlier and later forms of it; 1 but the usage generally followed is so convenient that there is little likelihood of the suggestion being followed.
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  • He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.
    0
    0
  • His list of such forms is much more complete than that given by Childers in the introduction to his Dictionary of the Pali Language.
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  • He became a Salian priest at the age of eight, and soon knew by heart all the forms and liturgical order of the official worship, and even the sacred music. In the earliest statue we have he is a youth offering incense; he is a priest at the sacrificial altar in the latest triumphal reliefs.
    0
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  • There are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows; but all active volcanic agency has so long ceased that the craters have.
    0
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  • A mountain, usually with very steep peaks, forms the centre, if not the whole island; on all sides steep ridges descend to the sea, or, as is oftener the case, to a considerable belt of flat land.
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    0
  • There are about twenty species, but the number cannot be very accurately defined - several, usually regarded as distinct, being probably merely variable forms of the same type, and the ease with which the trees intercross has led to the appearance of many hybrids.
    0
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  • Both these allied forms occur throughout central and southern Europe, but, though now abundant in England, it is doubtful whether they are there indigenous.
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    0
  • The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an ornamental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in contrast to the horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to grow.
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  • This tree, the "liard" of the Canadian voyageur, abounds on many of the river sides of the northwestern plains; it occurs in the neighbourhood of the Great Slave Lake and along the Mackenzie River, and forms much of the driftwood of the Arctic coast.
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  • galbanum, myrrh, stacte, frankincense, calamus, cassia and cinnamon, were all of them used in perfumes, even the myrrh being probably the kind distinguished at the present time in the Bombay market as perfumed myrrh or bissabol, which still forms an ingredient of the joss sticks used as incense in the temples in China.
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  • It forms quadratic prisms, having a violet reflex and insoluble in boiling hydrochloric acid.
    0
    0
  • Several hydrated forms of the oxide are known, and a colloidal variety may be obtained by the dialysis of a strong hydrochloric acid solution of sodium molybdate.
    0
    0
  • Molybdenum trioxide, like chromium trioxide, is an acidic oxide, and forms salts known as molybdates.
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    0
  • It forms red crusts, is insoluble in cold water, but is decomposed by boiling water.
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    0
  • Among European forms, some tadpoles of Pelobates attain a length of seven inches, the body being of the size of a hen's egg.
    0
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  • Cuvier's term in its wide extension, however, passed into general use; but, as the anatomy of the different forms became more fully known, the difficulty of including them under the common designation made itself increasingly obvious.
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  • The remainder of the department, with the exception of a more broken and picturesque district in the extreme north-west, forms part of the sterile and monotonous plain known as Champagne Pouilleuse.
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    0
  • Thallophyta are the most lowly organized plants and include a great variety of forms, the vegetative portion of which consists of a single cell or a number of cells forming a more or less branched thallus.
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  • The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.
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  • The male gametophyte is represented by one or few cells and, except in a few primitive forms where the male cell still retains the motile character as in the Pteridophyta, is carried passively to the macrospore in a development of the pollen grain, the pollen tube.
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  • The fertilized egg-cell (oospore) forms a filamentous structure, the proernbryo, from a restricted basal portion of which one or more embryos develop, one only as a rule reaching maturity.
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  • The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
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  • In all but the very simplest forms the plant-body is built up of a number of these cells, associated in more or less definite ways.
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  • In the Algae such a cell consists essentially of: (1) a mass of protoplasm provided with (2) a nucleus and (3) an assimilating apparatus consisting of a colored protoplasmic body, called a chromatophore, the pigment of which in the pure green forms is chlorophyll, and which may then be called a cliloroplast.
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  • Many forms, even when multicellular, have all their cells identical in structure and function, and are often spoken of as physiologically unicellular.
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  • In the fixed forms tioninAlg~.
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  • In the group of the Siphoneae both these types of differentiation may exist in the single, long, branched, tube-like and multinucleate cell (coenocyte) which here forms the plant-body.
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  • This may have a radial stem-like organization, a central cell-thread giving off from every side a number of short sometimes unicellular branches, which together form a cortex round the central thread, the whole structure having a cylindrical form which only branches when one of the short cell-branches from the central thread grows out beyond the general surface and forms in its turn a new central thread, from whose cells arise new short branches.
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  • Numerous variations and modifications of these forms exist.
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  • In the bulky forms colorless branches frequently grow out from some of the cortical cells, and, pushing among the already-formed threads in a longitudinal direction, serve to strengthen the thallus by weaving its original threads together.
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  • Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
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  • In addition to the cell types described, it is a very common occurrence in these bulky forms for rhizoid-like branches of the cells to grow out, mostly from the cells at the periphery of the medulla, and grow down between the cells, strengthening the whole tissue, as in the Rhodophyceae.
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  • In many forms its hyphae are particularly thick-walled, and may strikingly resemble the epidermis of a vascular plant.
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  • The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
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  • In the first place there is a differentiation of fixing organs, which in forms living on.
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  • In the higher forms a storage and a mechanically-strengthening system may also be developed, and in some aerial Fungi an external protective tissue.
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  • In the Bryophytes water is still absorbed, not only from the soil but also largely from rain, dew, &c., through the general surface of the subaerial body (thallus), or in the more differentiated forms through the leaves.
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  • They serve to conduct water through the thallus, the assimilating parts of which are in these forms often raised above the soil and are comparatively remote from the rhizoid-bearing (water-absorbing) region.
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  • The sporogonium of the liverworts is in the simpler forms simply a spore-capstile with arrangements for the development, protection and distribution of the spores.
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  • Opposed to the thalloid forms are the group of leafy Liverworts (Acrogynae), whose plant-body consists of a thin supporting stem bearing leaves.
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  • In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.
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  • This is the first indication of a conducting foliar strand or leaf bundle and forms an approach to leptom, though it is not so specialized as the leptom of the higher Phaeophyceae.
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  • In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.
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  • In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.
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  • In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.
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  • of the body is the acquirement of true roots, the nearest approach to which in the lower forms we saw in the rhizome of Polytrichaceae.
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  • This lacunar system not only enables the cells of the cortex itself to respire, but also forms channels through whicF air can pass to the deeper lying tissues.
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  • It is confined to the sporophyte, which forms the, leafy plant in these groups, and is known as the vascular system.
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  • The whole tissue system is known as the stelar system (from the way in which in primitive forms it runs through the whole axis of the plant in the form of a column).
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  • All the surviving forms, however, have a completely established double system with the specific characters alluded to, and since there is every reason to believe that the conditions of evolution of the primitive Pteridophyte must have been essentially similar to those of the Bryophytes, the various stages in the evolution of the conducting system of the latter (p. 732) are very useful to compare with the arrangements met with in the former.
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  • (The conjunctive frequently forms a connected whole with bands of per pa / -..-
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  • In some forms other gaps (perforations) appear in the vascular tube placing the pith and cortex in communication.
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  • The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.
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  • In the megaphyllous forms, on the other hand, (Ferns) whose leaves are large relatively to the stem, the departure of the correspondingly large trace causes a gap (leaf-gap) in the vascular cylinder, as already described.
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  • In some forms we find ji vtes.
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  • The protoxylem of each is a leaftrace, while the metaxylem consisting of a right and a left portion forms a quite distinct cauline system.
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  • Besides the types forming this series, there are a number of others (Medulloseae and allied forms) which show numerous, often very complex, types of stelar structure, in some cases polystelic, whose origin and relationship with the simpler and better known types is frequently obscure.
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  • 13, 23), the xylem of which is usually wedgeshaped in cross-section with the protoxylem elements at the inner extremity, while the phloem forms a band on the outer side of the xylem, and separated from it by a band of conjunctive tissue (mesodesm).
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  • All transitions are found between such forms and typical tracheids.
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    0
  • A considerable evolution in complexity can be traced in passing from the simplest forms of xylem and phloem found in the primary vascular tissues both among Pteridophytes and Phanerogams to these highly differentiated types.
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  • An ordinary cambium is scarcely ever found in the Monocotyledons, but in certain woody forms a secondary meristem is formed outside the primary bundles, and gives rise externally to a little secondary cortex, and internally to a secondary parenchyma in which are developed numerous zones of additional bundles, usually of concentric structure, with phloem surrounded by xylem.
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  • The cambium in the root, which is found generally in those plants which possess a cambium in the stem, always begins in the conjunctive tissue internal to the primary phloems, and Camblum forms new (secondary) phloem in contact with the In Roots primary, and secondary xylem internally.
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  • Opposite the primary xylems, the cambium either (a) forms parenchyma on both sides, making a broad, secondary (principal) ray, which interrupts the vascular ring and is divided at its inner extremity by the islet of primary xylem; or (b) forms secondary xylem and phloem in the ordinary way, completing the vascular ring.
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    0
  • Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
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  • supplementary vascular bundles, anomalous cambial zones, &c. It is often enormously developed and forms a very important tissue in roots.
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    0
  • This may take various forms and may cover the whole of the organ or be localized in special regions; but its cells are always living and are separated by very large intercellular spaces containing air.
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  • The pursuit of this study has not only thrown valuable light on the economy of the plant as a whole, but forms an indispensable condition of the advance of morphological anatomy.
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  • If we pass a little higher up the scale ot life we meet with forms consisting of two or more cells, each of which contains a similar minute mass of living substance, A study of them shows that each is practically independent of the others; in fact, the connection between them is so slight that they can separate and each becofne free without the slightest disadvantage to another.
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  • It does not at first appear to be the same with the bulkier plants, such as the ordinary green herbs, shrubs or trees, but a study of their earlier development indicates that they do not at the outset differ in any way from the simple undifferentiated forms. Each commences its existence as a simple naked protoplast, in the embroyo-sac or the archegonium, as the case may be.
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  • There can be no doubt that there is no fundamental difference between the living substance of animals and plants, for many forms exist which cannot be referred with certainty to either kingdom.
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    0
  • Free-swimming organisms without cell-membranes exist in both, and from them series of forms can be traced in both directions.
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  • Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
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  • Fixation of Nitrogen.Another, and perhaps an even more important, instance of symbiotic association has come to the front during the same period, it is an alliance between the plants of the Natural Order Leguminosae and certain bacterium-like forms which find a home within the tissues of their roots.
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  • Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
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  • The sap in these active tissues is alkaline, which has been interpreted as being in accordance with not appear to be concerned with digestion so directly as the others is pectase, which forms vegetable jelly from pectic substances occurring in the cell-wall.
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    0
  • In the erect position of the leaf the lower side has its cells extremely turgid, and the pulvinus thus forms a cushion, holding up the petiole.
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  • by Lee; Butschli, Investigation on Microscopic Forms and on Protoplasm, trans.
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  • Plants as agents of damage and disease may be divided into those larger forms which as weeds, epiphytes and so forth, do injury by dominating and shading more delicate species, or by gradually exhausting the soil, &c., and true parasites which actually live on and in the tissues of the plants.
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  • Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.
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    0
  • If the attack of a parasite is met by the formation of some substance in the protoplasm which is chemo- tactically repulsive to the invader, it may be totally incapable of penetrating the cell, even though equipped with a whole armoury of cytases, diastatic and other enzymes, and poisons which would easily overcome the more passive resistances offered by mere cell-walls and cell-contents of other plants, the protoplasm of which forms bodies chemotactically attractive to the Fungus.
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  • The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
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    0
  • If a clean cut remains clean, the cambium and cortical tissues soon form callus over it, and in this callusregenerative tissuenew wood, &c., soon forms, and if the wound was a small one, no trace is visible after a few years.
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  • Outflows of resinResinosisalro come under this general heading; but although some resin-fluxes are traced to the destructive action of Agaricus melleus in Conifers, others, as well as certain forms of Gummosis, are still in need of explanation.
    0
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  • On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
    0
    0
  • Schimper used the term xerophytes to include plants which live in soils which are physiologically dry, and the term hygrophytes those which live in soils which are physiologically wet or damp. Schimper recognized that the two classes are connected by transitional forms, and that it is useless to attempt to give the matter a statistical basis.
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  • Forms of stone cells or stereids occur in some of the more suffruticose halophytes, as in Arthrocneniumglaucum.
    0
    0
  • The simplest cell forms are found in embryonic tissues, in.
    0
    0
  • In other forms such as Elodea, Nitella, Chara, &c., where the cytoplasm is mainly restricted to the periphery of the sap vacuole and lining the cell wall, the streaming movement is exhibited in one direction only.
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    0
  • It forms a part of the 1mm or plastin network of the nucleus and may become impregnated with varying quantities of chromatin stored up for use in the formation of the chromosomes and other nuclear activities.
    0
    0
  • In Fucus and allied forms the spindle-fibres between the daughter nuclei disappear early and the new cell-wall is formed in the cytoplasm.
    0
    0
  • The researches of the last twenty years have shown that the structure of the nucleus and the phenomena of nuclear division in these lower forms conforms in all essential details to those in the higher plants.
    0
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  • Pure Morphology.Thus it became apparent that the mans and various organs of plants are, for the most part, different forms of a small number of members of the body, which have been distinguished as follows, without any reference to function.
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    0
  • However, they belong respectively to two different forms in the life-history of the plants; the leaves of the mosses are borne by the gametophyte, those of the club-mosses by the sporophyte.
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    0
  • When two organs can be traced along the same line of descent to one primitive form, that is when they are found to be mono phyletic, their homology is complete; when, however, they are traceable to two primitive forms, though these forms belong to the same morphological series, they are polyphyletic and therefore only incompletely homologous.
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  • Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.
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  • Evolution means the gradual development of highly organized from lowly organized forms; that is, of forms in which the physiological division of labor is more complete, from those in which it is less complete; of forms possessing a variety of organs, from forms possessing but few.
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  • It is also probable that the various forms of the angiospermous flower, with its many specialized mechanisms for pollination, may be the result of insect-visits, the flowers becoming adapted to certain kinds of insects, and the insects having undergone corresponding modification.
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  • Though adaptation to the environment seems sometimes to be considered, especially by neo-Lamarckians, as equivalent to, or at least as involving, the evolution of higher forms from Jower, there does not appear to be any evidence that this is the case.
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  • They endeavoured to define aspects of vegetation in which the forms exhibited an obvious adaptation to their climatic surroundings.
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  • Grisebach declined to see anything in such forms but the production by nature of that which responds to external conditions and can only exist as long as they remain unchanged.
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  • Characteristic representatives are Pa paver nudicaule, Saicifraga oppositifolia, which forms a profuse carpet, and Dryas octopetal,a.
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  • Its eastern limit in Europe is a line from Konigsberg to the Caucasus; thence through China it is continued by varietal forms to Japan.
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  • The Argan tree (A rgania Sideroxylon), which forms forests in Morocco, is a remarkable survivor of a tropical family (Sapotaceae).
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  • On the west coast Cupressus Lawsoniana replaces the northern Thuya gigantea, and a laurel (Umbellularia of isolated affinity) forms forests.
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  • Myrtaceae comes next with Eucalyptus, which forms three-fourths of the forests, and Melaleuca; both are absent from New Caledonia and New Zealand; a few species of the former extend to New Guinea and one of the latter to Malaya.
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  • And it is interesting to note that while the tropical forms of Quercus failed to reach Australia from Malaya, the temperate Fagus crept in by a back door.
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  • Palaeontological evidence conclusively proves that the surface of the earth has been successively occupied by vegetative forms of increasing complexity, rising from the simplest algae to the most highly organized flowering plant.
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  • High mountain levels supplied paths of communication for stocking the South Temperate region, the floras of which were enriched by adapted forms of tropical types.
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  • Darwin attributes this to the fact that the northern forms were the more powerful (Origin of Species, 5th ed., p.458).
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  • The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.
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  • He speculated on the differences in the character of races of mankind living in different climates, and correlated the political forms of communities with their situation on a seashore, or in the neighbourhood of natural strongholds.
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  • Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
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  • The apparent opposition of the observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as instruments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for supplying the requirements of man.
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  • The history of the origin of the various forms belongs 1 H.
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  • But the relief of the crust is not a finished piece of sculpture; the forms are for the most part transitional, owing - their characteristic outlines to the process by which they aieomorph 'o ogy.
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  • ' are produced; therefore the geographer must, for strictly geographical purposes, take some account of the processes which are now in action modifying the forms of the crust.
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  • The primary distinction of the forms of the crust is that between elevations and depressions.
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  • Elie de Beaumont, in his speculations on the relation between the direction of mountain ranges and their geological age and character, was feeling towards a comprehensive theory of the forms of crustal relief; but his ideas were too geometrical, and his theory that the earth is a spheroid built up on a rhombic dodecahedron, the pentagonal faces of which determined the direction of mountain ranges, could not be proved.'
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  • While the forms of the sea-bed are not yet sufficiently well known to admit of exact classification, they are recognized to be as a rule distinct from the forms of the land, and the importance Submarine of using a distinctive terminology is felt.
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  • Efforts have forms.
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  • been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."
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  • The highest point of an elevation is termed a " height," if it does not form an island or one of the minor forms.
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  • The forms of the dry land are of infinite variety, and have been studied in great detail.'
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  • From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
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  • The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
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  • These may be looked The six upon as being all derived by various modifications or elementa ry arrangements of the single form-unit, the slope or inclined land forms. plane surface.
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  • These forms never occur scattered haphazard over a region, but always in an orderly subordination depending on their mode of origin.
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  • The dominant forms result from crustal movements, the subsidiary from secondary reactions o during the action of the primitive forms on mobile distri butions.
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  • The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
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  • Some geographers distinguish a mountain from a hill by origin; thus Professor Seeley says " a mountain implies elevation and a hill implies denudation, but the external forms of both are often identical."
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  • If land forms may be compared to organs, the part they serve in the economy of the earth may, without straining the term, be characterized as functions.
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  • Rain is by far the most important of the inorganic mobile distributions upon which land forms exercise their function of guidance and control.
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  • Thus new land forms are created - valleys of curious complexity, for example by the " capture " and diversion of the water of one river by another, leading to a change of watershed.'
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  • At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
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  • Thus, for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the range shall be richly watered and deeply dissected by a complete system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea.
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  • The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
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