Formerly Sentence Examples

formerly
  • Formerly he had feared the end.

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  • Sea-elephants and fur-seals were formerly plentiful.

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  • The hunters were formerly a numerous and merry crew here.

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  • Formerly giraffes were found in large herds, but persecution has reduced their number and led to their extermination from many districts.

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  • Formerly indebted to him for my life, yes.

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  • Formerly he had sought Him in aims he set himself.

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  • Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.

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  • It was formerly a Turkish military centre and most of the people were of Turkish blood.

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  • Lingah, with its principal place Bander Lingah and i 1 villages, formerly a part of Laristan, is now included in the "Persian Gulf Ports," a separate administrative division.

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  • The adjoining barracks were formerly the elector's palace.

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  • It was constructed with difficulty by embanking the river and raising the level of the formerly marshy ground, and was opened in 1858.

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  • On the Scheldt, near the Place Laurent, is the Geerard-duivelsteen (château of Gerard the Devil), a 13th-century tower formerly belonging to one of the patrician families, now restored and used as the office of the provincial records.

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  • His mother, Lady Randolph Churchill, divorced her second husband, George Cornwallis-West, in 1913; and married in 1918, as her third husband, Montague Phippen Porch, formerly a Government official in Nigeria.

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  • Of such we may cite tuberculosis of the larynx, formerly as incurable as distressing; and "adenoids" - a disease revealed by intrascopic methods - which used grievously to thwart and stifle the growth both of mind and body in children, are now promptly removed, to the infinite advantage of the rising generation.

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  • Though not so large as formerly, these timber rafts are still sometimes 400 or 500 ft.

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  • Lower still, marshes formerly extended far up the valley of the Lea.

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  • The ecclesiastical Court of Arches sat here formerly.

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  • The French colonial (formerly marine) infantry, recruited by voluntary enlistment, comprises 18 regiments and 5 independent battalions (of which 12 regiments are at home), 74 batteries of field, fortress and mountain artillery (of which 32 are at home), with a few cavalry and engineers, &c., and other services in proportion.

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  • It formerly joined the Kura; but in 1897 it changed its lower course, and now runs direct to the Kizil-agach Bay of the Caspian.

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  • The court of brotherhood was formerly called the brotheryeeld, brodall or brodhull; and the name guestling seems to owe its origin to the fact that the officials of the "members" were at first in the position of invited guests.

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  • His power was formerly of great extent, but he has now practically no important duty to exercise except that of chairman of the Dover harbour board.

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  • The Independencia Park, formerly called Calvario Park, which occupies a hill on the west side of the city, is the largest and most attractive of the public gardens.

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  • It was formerly the seat of a Greek bishopric, removed to Czernowitz in 1786, and possesses a cathedral (1402) with the tombs of several Moldavian princes.

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  • Battersea Fields, bordering the river, were formerly a favourite resort, so that the park also perpetuates a memory.

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  • The geographical features of the countries formerly known collectively as the Netherlands or Low Countries are dealt with under the modern English names of Holland and Belgium.

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  • The first choir was burned down in 1213, but was rebuilt in 1242 at the same time as the transept, and is a superb specimen of pointed Gothic. There are five towers with spires, which give the outside an impressive appearance, and much has been done towards removing the squalid buildings that formerly concealed the cathedral.

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  • Climate, &c. - It was formerly the custom to speak of the Malay Peninsula as an unhealthy climate, and even to compare it with the west coast of Africa.

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  • This, of course, means that a new station, where clearing, digging, and building are in progress, is often unhealthy for a time, and to this must be attributed the evil reputation which the peninsula formerly enjoyed.

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  • The Malays formerly suffered severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of the disease no longer assume serious dimensions.

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  • It contains the panelling of a room from the house of Edmund Hector, which formerly stood in Old Square, Birmingham, where Dr Samuel Johnson was a frequent visitor.

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  • Grampound (Ponsmure, Graundpont, Grauntpount, Graundpond) and the hundred, manor and vill of Tibeste were formerly so closely associated that in 1400 the former is found styled the vill of Grauntpond called Tibeste.

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  • Large stretches of marsh occur on each side of this river, as well as here and there among the hills where inland lakes formerly existed, as, for instance, near Bandung.

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  • At the southern end of the boulevard de la Republique is the square de la Republique, formerly the place Bresson, in which is the municipal theatre; at the other extremity of the boulevard is the place du Gouvernement, which is planted on three sides with a double row of plane trees and is the fashionable resort for evening promenade.

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  • The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.

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  • The museum (a state institution), formerly housed in the same building as the library, was transferred in 1897 to a new building in the suburb of Mustapha Superieur.

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  • The principal are Lisnaskea, Irvi nestown(formerly Lowtherstown), M aguires bridge, Tempo, Newtownbutler, Belleek, Derrygonnelly and Kesh, at which fairs are held.

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  • Oak was formerly largely used by wood-carvers, and is still in some demand for those artists, being harder and more durable than lime and other woods that yield more readily to the sculptor's tool.

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  • These details are taken from The Bonin Islands by Russell Robertson, formerly H.B.M.

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  • Of the forty-four churches, all in the circular Abyssinian style, which are said to have formerly existed in Gondar or its immediate neighbourhood, Major Powell-Cotton found only one intact in woo.

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  • It forms part of the territory formerly distinguished as the Slave Coast and was annexed by Germany in 1884.

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  • The female is viviparous, and the young, which, unlike the parent, are provided with a long tail, live free in water; it was formerly believed from the frequency with which the legs and feet were attacked by this parasite that the embryo entered the skin directly from the water, but it has been shown by Fedschenko, and confirmed by Manson, Leiper and others, that the larva bores its way into the body of a Cyclops and there undergoes further development.

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  • Gutta-percha-covered copper wires were formerly largely used for the purpose of underground lines, the copper conductor weighing 40 lb per statute mile, and the gutta-percha covering 50 lb (90 lb total).

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  • Although formerly in very extensive employment, this instrument is dropping out of use and the " sounder " (and in many cases the telephone) is being used in its place.

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  • A method of recording signals in the Morse code, formerly used to a considerable extent, was to use a chemically prepared ribbon of paper.

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  • The simplest form of receiving instrument (formerly much used) is known as the " mirror."

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  • East Teignmouth was formerly called Teignmouth Regis, and West Teignmouth, Teignmouth Episcopi.

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  • The best known and the most extensive of these lagoons is that in which Venice is situated, which extends from Torcello in the north to Chioggia and Brondolo in the south, a distance of above 40 m.; but they were formerly much more extensive, and afforded a continuous means of internal navigation, by what were called "the Seven Seas" (Septem Maria), from Ravenna to Altinum, a few miles north of Torcello.

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  • The Elsa and the Era, which join it on its left bank, descending from the hills near Siena and Volterra, are inconsiderable streams; and the Serchio, which flows from the territory of Lucca and the Alpi Apuani, and formerly joined the Arno a few miles from its mouth, now enters the sea by a separate channel.

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  • Many articles formerly imported are now made at home, and some Italian manufactures have begun to compete in foreign markets.

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  • Charles Emmanuel was now checkmated by France, as he had formerly been by Spain.

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  • The lonian Islands, formerly belonging to Venice, were, by a treaty signed at Paris on the 5th of November 1815, placed under the protection of Great Britain.

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  • The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.

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  • Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.

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  • Formerly a friend and disciple of Mazzini, with whom he had broken on the question of the monarchical form of government which Crispi believed indispensable to the unification of Italy, he had afterwards been one of Garibaldis most efficient coadjutors and an active member of the party of action.

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  • On the 29th of October, however, Austria abandoned her military posts in the sandjak of Novibazar, and the frontier between Austria and Turkey, formerly an uncertain one, which left Austria a half-open back door to the Aegean, was now a distinct line of demarcation.

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  • The leech has been used in medicine from remote antiquity as a moderate blood-letter; and it is still so used, though more rarely than formerly.

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  • The town is on the Great North Road, on which it was formerly an important coaching station.

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  • The hydroid genus Lafoea is remarkable for producing gonothecae on the hydrorhiza, each containing a blastostyle which bears a single gonophore; this portion of the colony was formerly regarded as an independent parasitic hydroid, and was named Coppinia.

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  • Close by are the Steipe or Rotes Haus, formerly the town hall, of the 15th century, and the Frankenturm or propugnaculum, of the 10th century, said to be the oldest stone domestic building in Germany.

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  • It must not be supposed that earlier writers all neglected this method, or still less that all writers now employ it, but merely that formerly it was frequently overlooked by the best writers, and now is neglected only by the worst.

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  • With it are connected a school of engineering, a school of arts and industries and the famous library (about 300,000 printed volumes and 2000 MSS.) formerly belonging to the city.

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  • In the west end of the town is Pinkie House, formerly a seat of the abbot of Dunfermline, but transformed in 1613 by Lord Seton.

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  • Corbridge was formerly of greater importance than at present.

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  • Delfzyl, which was formerly an important fortress for the protection of the ancient sluices on the little river Delf (hence its name), has greatly benefited by the construction of the Ems (Eems) shipcanal connecting it with Groningen, and has a good harbour with a considerable import trade in wood.

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  • The "pit amber" was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries.

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  • Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber."

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  • The Lord Mayor (q.v.) is elected by the Court of Aldermen from two aldermen nominated in the Court of Common Hall by the Livery, an electorate drawn from the members of the ancient trade gilds or Livery Companies (q.v.), which, through their control over the several trades or manufactures, had formerly an influence over the government of the city which from the time of Edward III.

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  • St Maartensdyk on the adjoining island of Tolen was formerly the seat of a lordship which belonged successively to the families of Van Borssele, Burren and Orange-Nassau.

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  • Ierseke was once a town of importance and the seat of a lordship, while at Wemeldinge there was formerly an establishment of the Templars.

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  • The mainland of Zeeland-Flanders was formerly also composed of numerous islands which were gradually united by the accumulation of mud and sand, and in this way many once flourishing commercial towns, such as Sluis and Aardenburg, were reduced in importance.

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  • The old towns of Axel and Halst were formerly important fortresses, and as such were frequently besieged in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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  • The king might still receive the same revenues and the same services from the district held by the lord as formerly, but for their payment a private person in his capacity as overlord was now responsible.

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  • The Munich MS., formerly at Bamberg, begins at line 85, and has many lacunae, but continues the history down to the last verse of St Luke's Gospel, ending, however, in the middle of a sentence.

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  • Maurice made no use of his advantage; he merely restored the former frontier and abolished the subsidies which had formerly been paid to the Persians.

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  • It was formerly a resort of pilgrims, and Roman coins have been found in the vicinity.

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  • Under Turkish protection, he visited the territory of the Hashid and Bakil tribes north-east of Sana, and though their hostile attitude compelled him to return after reaching their first important town, Khamr, he had time to reconnoitre the plateau lying between the two great wadis Kharid and Hirran, formerly covered with Himyaritic towns and villages; and to trace the course of these wadis to their junction at El Ish in the Dhu Husen country, and thence onward to the Jauf.

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  • The Arhab district, through which these two great wadis run, was formerly the centre of the Himyar kingdom; cultivation is now only to be found in the lower parts on the borders of the watercourses, all above being naked rock from which every particle of soil has been denuded.

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  • In the higher parts there are fine plains where Glaser found numerous Himyaritic remains, and which he considers were undoubtedly cultivated formerly, but they have long fallen out of cultivation owing to denudation and desiccation - the impoverishment of the country from these causes is increasing.

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  • In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.

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  • It also was formerly provided with stations and reservoirs, but owing to the greater facilities of the sea journey from Suez to Jidda it is now little used.

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  • The town is named after a celebrated sheikh buried here, by whose tomb travellers crossing the desert used formerly to deposit all superfluous goods, the sanctity of the saint's tomb ensuring their safety.

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  • The name is derived from the Fanti word Nkran (an ant), by which designation the tribe inhabiting the surrounding district was formerly known.

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  • The streets formerly consisted largely of mud hovels, but since a great fire in 1894, which destroyed large parts of James Town and Ussher Town, more substantial buildings have been erected.

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  • It stands on the eastern edge of the Syrian desert, on the north-eastern shore of a deep depression, formerly a sea, the Assyrium Stagnum of the old geographers, but in latter years drained and turned into gardens for the town.

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  • Formerly nearly the whole of Muttra consisted of pasture and woodland, but the roads constructed as relief works in1837-1838have thrown open many large tracts of country, and the task of reclamation has since proceeded rapidly.

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  • The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis.

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  • In the imperial art-history museum are stored the extensive art-collections of the Austrian imperial family, which were formerly in the Hofburg, in the Belvedere, and in other places.

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  • The picture gallery, which contains the collection formerly preserved in the Belvedere palace, contains masterpieces of almost every school in the world, but it is unsurpassed for its specimens of Rubens, Dürer and the Venetian masters.

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  • Great part of the burden has been borne throughout by the "City Extension Fund," realized from the utilization of the ground formerly occupied by the fortifications and glacis.

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  • Formerly there were similar districts in Lindsey in Lincolnshire.

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  • The hartebeest appears now to be quite extinct; so also is the leucoryx, though formerly these two antelopes were found right up to the centre of Tunisia, as was also the ostrich, now entirely absent from the country.

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  • These places are noticed separately, as are also Goletta (formerly the port of Tunis), Bizerta (a naval port and arsenal), Kef, Porto Farina, and the ruins at Carthage and Sbeitla (Sufetula).

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  • Silk-weaving, formerly important, is declining.

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  • The coinage formerly was the caroub and piastre (the latter worth about 6d.), but in 1891 the French reformed the coinage, substituting the franc as a unit, and having the money minted at Paris.

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  • The largest bird is the condor, and there is another bird of the vulture tribe, with a black and white wing feather formerly used by the Incas in their head-dress, called the coraquenque or alcamari.

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  • The methods formerly employed in reducing ores were lixiviation and amalgamation with quicksilver, but modern methods are gradually coming into use.

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  • Formerly the Indians were forcibly pressed into the service and the whites filled the positions of officers, in great part untrained.

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  • Formerly an integral part of China, the island of Hong-Kong was first ceded to Great Britain in 1841, and the cession was confirmed by the treaty of Nanking in 1842, the charter bearing the date 5th of April 1843.

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  • Allentown is the seat of a state homoeopathic hospital for the insane, of the Allentown College for Women (Reformed Church, 1867), and of Muhlenberg College (1867), an Evangelical Lutheran institution which grew out of the Allentown Seminary (established in 1848 and incorporated as the "Allentown Collegiate Institute and Military Academy" in 1864); in 1907 the college had 191 students, of whom 109 were in the Allentown Preparatory School (1904), formerly the academic department of the college and still closely affiliated with it.

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  • The walls with which Munich was formerly surrounded have been pulled down, but some of the gates have been left.

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  • Thus Delitzsch formerly derived the name from an Akkadian god, I or Ia; or from the Semitic nominative ending, Yau; 7 but this deity has since disappeared from the pantheon of Assyriologists.

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  • They formerly occupied a vast tract of country around Lakes Huron and Superior, and now are settled on reservations in the neighbourhood.

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  • The palace of the sultans and the mosque of Ala ed-din Kaikobad formerly covered great part of the Acropolis hill in the northern part of the city.

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  • The railway, which formerly incommoded the bank, has been diverted, and now, following the ceinture of the new line of inner fortifications, runs into a central station lying to the south of the city.

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  • The rigid Cheilostomes which have this habit were formerly placed in the genus Eschara, but the bilaminar type is common to a number of genera, and there can be no doubt that it is not in itself an indication of affinity.

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  • Under the name godwit two perfectly distinct species of British birds were included, but that which seems to have been especially prized is known to modern ornithologists as the black-tailed godwit, Limosa aegocephala, formerly called, from its loud cry, a yarwhelp,' shrieker or barker, in the districts it inhabited.

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  • Three elegies were formerly attributed to Pedo by Scaliger; two on the death of Maecenas (In Obitum Maecenatis and De Verbis Maecenatis moribundi), and one addressed to Livia to console her for the death of her son Drusus (Consolatio ad Liviam de Morte Drusi or Epicedion Drusi, usually printed with Ovid's works); but it is now generally agreed that they are not by Pedo.

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  • A majority vote was formerly required, but since the adoption of the tenth amendment (November 28, 1893) a plurality vote has elected.

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  • The poppy was formerly extensively cultivated, but after the anti-opium edict of 1906 vigorous measures were taken to stamp out the cultivation of the plant.

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  • The military authorities occupy the Meshuar or citadel, built in 1145, which separates the Jewish and Moorish quarters and was formerly the palace of the rulers of Tlemcen.

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  • In February 1852 the Whig government was defeated on a Militia Bill, and Lord John Russell was succeeded by Lord Derby, formerly Lord Stanley, with Mr Disraeli, who now his constant companions were Homer and Dante, and entered office for the first time, as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.

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  • Sachsenhausen on the south bank of the river, formerly the seat of a commandery of the Teutonic Order (by treaty with Austria in 1842 all property and rights of the order in Frankfort territory were sold to the city, except the church and house), is now a quarter of the city.

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  • This building, in which the Roman emperors were formerly elected and, since 1562, crowned, was founded in 852 by King Louis the German, and was later known as the Salvator Kirche.

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  • Formerly fifty-four representatives were elected, but provision was made (in the constitution) for increasing the number, and they at present number sixty-four, elected for six years.

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  • Here the reefs are generally less perfect than elsewhere, seldom forming complete central lagoons, and as they were formerly exposed to the constant attacks of the Mopla pirates from India, the people are hardier and more vigorous than their less warlike southern neighbours.

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  • They formerly traded with Arabia and Malaysia, and many Arabs settled amongst them, so that they betray a strong strain of Semitic blood in their features.

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  • Naumann has concluded that formerly TokyO Bay stretched further over the whole level country of Shimosa and Hitachi and northwards as far as the plain of KwantO extends; that the mountain country of Kasusa-Awa emerged from it an island, and that a current ran in a north-westerly direction between this island and the northern mountain margin of the present plain toward the north-east into the open ocean.

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  • Formerly the color-print artist was of mean extraction and low social position, but he now has some recognition at the hands of the professors of more esteemed branches of art.

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  • This change is doubtless due in part to Occidental appreciation of the products of his art, which were formerly held in little honor by his own countrymen, the place assigned to them being scarcely higher than that accorded to magazine illustrations in Europe and America.

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  • Formerly the embroiderer was content to produce a pattern with his needle, now he paints a picture.

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  • If we except the ware of Satsuma, it may be said that nearly all the fine faience Self Ii of of Japan was manufactured formerly in KiOto.

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  • But although the capital of Japan formerly played only an insignificant part in Japanese ceramics, modern Tokyo has an important school of artist-artisans.

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  • It is doubtless to the second half of the life of Vacarius that the composition must be attributed of two works the MS. of which, formerly the property of the Cistercian Abbey of Biddleston, is now in the Cambridge University library.

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  • The principal crops are oats and potatoes, but all grain crops are decreasing, and flax, formerly grown to a considerable extent, is now practically neglected.

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  • This species is now only met with in a wild state in the Assam plain, though, it formerly had a wider range.

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  • Calais, formerly a celebrated fortress, is defended by four forts, not of modern construction, by a citadel built in 1560, which overlooks it on the west, and by batteries.

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  • The place was formerly a favourite camping ground of the Indians, and was settled by whites in 1829.

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  • Flensburg is a busy centre of trade and industry, and is the most important town in what was formerly the duchy of Schleswig.

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  • Many decayed or ruined cities attest the changes in the river-bed in ancient times; and within our own times the main channel which formerly passed Rajmahal has turned away from it, and left the town high and dry, 7 m.

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  • The streets were formerly narrow and irregular, but the principal thoroughfares have been widened under the Street Improvement Act of 1888.

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  • The jinrikisha, drawn by one man or sometimes two men, which were formerly the chief means of passenger conveyance, have notably decreased in number since the introduction of the trams. Tokyo has often experienced earthquakes, and more than once has suffered from severe shocks, which have hitherto prevented the erection of very large buildings.

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  • Nearly in the centre of Kojimachi-ku, on an eminence, surrounded by moats, stood the castle of Yedo, formerly the residence of the shoguns, which was burnt down in 1873.

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  • The largest and most beautiful are those in Shiba and Uyeno, formerly the mausolea of the shoguns.

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  • Near the town are the ruins of three famous castles, Ulrichsburg, Girsberg and Hohrappoltstein, which formerly belonged to the lords of Rappoltstein._ See Bernhard, Recherches sur l'histoire de la vine de Rappoltsweiler (Colmar, 1888); and Kube, Rappoltsweiler, das Carolabad and Umgebung (Strassburg, 1905).

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  • The town is very picturesque, with its steep and narrow streets, and its one surviving gateway, while it is dominated on the west by the ruined castle of Stein, formerly a stronghold of the Habsburgs, but destroyed in 1415 and again in 1712.

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  • Both these groups seem to have reached their climax but recently, while the tortoises, crocodiles and sphenodon are on the descending scale, mere remnants of formerly much more numerous and cosmopolitan development.

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  • Its occurrence at widely distant and isolated localities was formerly supposed to be due to its introduction by the Romans.

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  • Thus nickel, which was formerly used in the manufacture of " German silver " as a substitute for silver, is now widely employed in naval construction and in the manufacture of steel armourplate and projectiles.

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  • Recent progress is reported in the scientific periodicals, especially in The Iron and Steel Metallurgist, formerly The Metallographist (Boston, Mass.), and Metallurgic (Halle).

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  • In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.

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  • Cloves, however, form its chief product, though the trade in them is less important than formerly, when the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the monopoly to Amboyna.

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  • The underground stems (rhizomes or tubers) are rich in starch; from that of Arum maculatum Portland arrowroot was formerly extensively prepared by pounding with water and then straining; the starch was deposited from the strained liquid.

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  • Slate quarries and copper and tin mines were formerly valuable.

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  • In America the internal revenue tax on denaturized alcohol (formerly duty-free only to scientific institutions) was removed by Congress in 1906 (act of June 7th).

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  • This species is extensively distributed throughout northern Europe and Asia, and was formerly common in most parts of Great Britain and Ireland.

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  • It was formerly called Frome or Froome Selwood, after the neighbouring forest of Selwood; and the country round is still richly wooded and picturesque.

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  • The archbishop had formerly exclusive jurisdiction in all causes of wills and intestacies, where parties died having personal property in more than one diocese of the province of Canterbury, and he had concurrent jurisdiction in other cases.

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  • He is entitled to consecrate all the bishops within his province and was formerly entitled, upon consecrating a bishop, to select a benefice within his diocese at his option for one of his chaplains, but this practice was indirectly abolished by 3 and 4 Vict.

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  • He is entitled to nominate eight chaplains, who had formerly certain statutory privileges, which are now abolished.

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  • In 1873 the municipal boundary was extended northwards beyond the river so as to include Newton-upon-Ayr and Wallace Town, formerly separate.

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    0
  • The consequent minority of men has been destructive of the sexual morality of the women, which formerly stood high.

    1
    0
  • Magnetic pyrites, copper pyrites, zinc blende and arsenical pyrites are other and less important examples, the last constituting the gold ore formerly worked in Silesia.

    1
    0
  • The fall in the price of silver stimulated the discovery and development of gold deposits, and many states formerly regarded as characteristically silver districts have become important as gold producers.

    1
    0
  • Not only is vein-material formerly regarded as unremunerative now extracted at a profit, but in many instances increased gold-values have been encountered below zones of relative barrenness, and operators have been encouraged to make costly preparations for really deep mining - more than 3000 ft.

    1
    0
  • Sugar, formerly its staple, has been succeeded by salt.

    1
    0
  • Roe were formerly abundant in all the wooded parts of Great Britain, but were gradually exterminated, till a century and a half ago they were unknown south of Perthshire.

    1
    0
  • The trees were formerly felled for building the ships of the navy and for feeding the iron furnaces of Sussex and Hampshire.

    1
    0
  • The ruins, of the castle, and the remains of the Grey Friars' monastery, founded in 1218, at the west end of the town, and Dunbar House in High Street, formerly a mansion of the Lauderdales, but now used as barracks, are of historic interest.

    1
    0
  • This meant the opening up of the world to commerce and the extension of European civilization to vast areas formerly peopled by savages or half-civilized peoples.

    1
    0
  • Cities grow more rapidly now than formerly, because the excess of deaths over births has been turned into an excess of births over deaths.

    1
    0
  • Thereby the cities are becoming less dependent upon immigration for increase of population than formerly, but the migration still goes on.

    1
    0
  • In the north of England Passion Sunday was formerly known as Carle or Carling Sunday, a name corrupted from "care," in allusion to the sorrowful season which the day heralds.

    1
    0
  • Berkeley was formerly noted for the manufacture of clothing, but the trade had decreased by the 16th century, for Leland, writing about 1520, says "the town of Berkeley is no great thing..

    1
    0
  • Formerly, when going into action, Rostov had felt afraid; now he had not the least feeling of fear.

    5
    4
  • But the roll of the drums did not make the looting soldiers run in the direction of the drum as formerly, but made them, on the contrary, run farther away.

    7
    6
  • A market, formerly held on Thursdays by a grant of 1309, is now held on Fridays.

    0
    0
  • Gaseous Interchanges and their Mechanism.Another feature of the construction of the plant has in recent years come into greater prominence than was formerly the case.

    0
    0
  • The differences between the nutritive processes of the animal and the plant are not therefore fundamental, as they were formerly held to be.

    0
    0
  • Its very prompt appearance, as soon as the apparatus became active, led to the opinion formerly held, that the work of the latter was complete only when the starch was formed.

    0
    0
  • It was formerly the custom to regard as parasites all those pants which inserted roots or root-like organs into the tissues of other plants and absorbed the contents of the latter.

    0
    0
  • Direct division is a much less common phenomenon than was formerly supposed to be the case.

    0
    0
  • It was formerly assumed, and the view is still held, that the foliage-leaf was the primitive form from which all others were derived, mainly on the ground that, in ontogeny, the foliage-leaf generally precedes the sporophyll.

    0
    0
  • Both were in turn replaced by the Lower Mesozoic flora, which again is thought to have had its birth in the hypothetical Gondwana land, and in which Gymnosperms played the leading part formerly taken by vascular Cryptogams. The abundance of Cycadean plants is one of its most striking features.

    0
    0
  • While the tropics preserve for us what remains of the preTertiary or, at the latest, Eocene vegetation of the earth, which formerly had a much wider extension, the flora of the North Temperate region is often described as the survival of the Miocene.

    0
    0
  • In Asia they held Asia Minor and Syria, had sent expeditions into Arabia, and were acquainted with the more distant countries formerly invaded by Alexander, including Persia, Scythia, Bactria and India.

    0
    0
  • It lies beneath the considerable elevation of Rivington Pike, where formerly was a great forest.

    0
    0
  • It was formerly employed by the Hudson's Bay Company as part of a canoe route to the fur lands of the north.

    0
    0
  • Many bones formerly referred to birds have since proved to belong to Pterodactyls, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.

    0
    0
  • The name Jarchi, formerly used for Rashi, rests on a misunderstanding.

    0
    0
  • This gigantic work, the line of which may still be traced throughout its course, was formerly called the Khandak Sabur or " Sapor's trench," being ascribed to the Sassanian king, Shapur I.

    0
    0
  • The mining industry, for which the town was formerly also famous and which embraced tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased.

    0
    0
  • Lime is quarried in the township. Lee was formerly a papermanufacturing place of great importance.

    0
    0
  • Molsheim was known in the 9th century as Molleshem, and formerly was the seat of a famous Jesuit college, which in 1702 was removed to Strassburg and united with the university of that city.

    0
    0
  • It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.

    0
    0
  • The city of Panama was formerly a stronghold of yellow fever and malaria, which American sanitary measures have practically eradicated.

    0
    0
  • Four years afterwards he made his first appearance as an author with an elegy called Fame's Memorial, or the Earl of Devonshire deceased, and dedicated to the widow of the earl (Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, "coronized," to use Ford's expression, by King James in 1603 for his services in Ireland) - a lady who would have been no unfitting heroine for one of his own tragedies of lawless passion, the famous Penelope, formerly Lady Rich.

    0
    0
  • This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.

    0
    0
  • The number of the council was formerly not fixed, and there are still honorary councillors who have no right to sit.

    0
    0
  • Europe have held their ground; while in the Urals only a few - now Siberian, but formerly also European - are met with.

    0
    0
  • Half of them were formerly serfs (10,447,149 males in 1858) - the remainder being " state peasants " (9,194,891 males in 1858, exclusive of the Archangel government) and " domain peasants " (842,740 males the same year).

    0
    0
  • A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.

    0
    0
  • It will be seen from these particulars - which are typical of what has happened not only on other British railways, but also on those of other countries - that much more space has to be provided and more weight hauled for each passenger than was formerly the case.

    0
    0
  • The speed at which the journey has to be completed is obviously another important factor, though the increased power of modern locomotives permits trains to be heavier and at the same time to run as fast, and often faster, than was formerly possible, and in consequence the general tendency is towards increased weight as well as increased speed.

    0
    0
  • This coupling gear is placed centrally between a pair of buffers; formerly these were often left " dead " - that is, consisted of solid prolongations of the frame of the vehicle, but now they are made to work against springs which take up the shocks that occur when the wagons are thrown violently .against one another in shunting.

    0
    0
  • It is supposed to be the Camanes of Ptolemy, and was formerly a very flourishing city, the seat of an extensive trade, and celebrated for its manufactures of silk, chintz and gold stuffs; but owing principally to the gradually increasing difficulty of access by water, owing to the silting up of the gulf, its commerce has long since fallen away, and the town has become poor and dilapidated.

    0
    0
  • Port Louis, formerly the seat of government, is at the head of Berkeley Sound, but the anchorage there having been found rather too exposed, about the year 1844 a town was laid out, and the necessary public buildings were erected on Stanley Harbour, a sheltered recess within Port William.

    0
    0
  • The Levites, who formerly ministered in the high places, now discharge the subordinate offices of gate-keepers and slaughterers of the sacrificial victims.

    0
    0
  • As it bears clipping well, it was formerly much used in geometric gardening.

    0
    0
  • By the euhemeristic Hellespontine Greeks Herodotus was told that Zalmoxis was really a man, formerly a slave of Pythagoras at Samos, who, having obtained his freedom and amassed great wealth, returned to Thrace, and instructed his fellow-tribesmen in the doctrines of Pythagoras and the arts of civilization.

    0
    0
  • The Michaelskirche, 12th-century Romanesque (restored), on the Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of a Benedictine monastery secularized in 1803, which now contains the Biirgerspital, or alms-house, and the museum and municipal art collections.

    0
    0
  • The royal lyceum, formerly a Jesuit college, contains notable collections and the royal library of over 300,000 volumes.

    0
    0
  • The New Palace (1698-1704) was formerly occupied by the prince-bishops, and from 1864 to 1867 by the deposed King Otto of Greece.

    0
    0
  • During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.

    0
    0
  • Ober-Ingelheim, formerly an imperial town, is still surrounded by walls.

    0
    0
  • The oldest of these trunk lines, the Southern Pacific (formerly the Central Pacific), follows the course of the Humboldt and Truckee rivers.

    0
    0
  • North of this is the deep bay called in ancient times the Gulf of Iasus (now known as the Gulf of Mendeliyah), and beyond this again was the deeper inlet which formerly extended inland between Miletus and Priene, but of which the outer part has been entirely filled up by the alluvial deposits of the Maeander, while the innermost arm, the ancient Latmic Gulf, is now a lake.

    0
    0
  • Glaciation was formerly much more extensive, old moraines being observed down to 12,000 ft.

    0
    0
  • The critical examination of the nature and growth of this compilation has removed much that had formerly caused insuperable difficulties and had quite unnecessarily been made an integral or a relevant part of practical religion.

    0
    0
  • Formerly thought to be the third of the name.

    0
    0
  • There were formerly (till the early 18th century) two sovereigns; the higher of these, called Tui Tonga (chief of "Tonga), was greatly reverenced but enjoyed little power.

    0
    0
  • There are some ancient stone remains in Tongatapu, burial places (feitoka) built with great blocks, and a remarkable monument consisting of two large upright blocks morticed to carry a transverse one, on which was formerly a circular basin of stone.

    0
    0
  • The cultivation of silk cocoons, formerly a flourishing industry, has greatly declined in recent years, but efforts are now being made to revive it.

    0
    0
  • There are 5 nomoi or prefectures (formerly sanjaks) each under a prefect (voyapxos), and 23 eparchies (formerly kazas) each under a sub-prefect (g irapxos).

    0
    0
  • While he was in London he had a personal interview with the king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish universities from the money formerly applied to the support of the bishops.

    0
    0
  • During Charles's second state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university.

    0
    0
  • Baena is picturesquely situated near the river Marbella, on the slope of a hill crowned with a castle, which formerly belonged to the famous captain Gonzalo de Cordova.

    0
    0
  • Holmes (Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 1899), who comes to the conclusion that "when the Reman delegates told Caesar that the Belgae were descended from the Germans, they probably only meant that the ancestors of the Belgic conquerors had formerly dwelt in Germany, and this is equally true of the ancestors of the Gauls who gave their name to the Celtae; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible that in the veins of some of the Belgae flowed the blood of genuine German forefathers."

    0
    0
  • The restored church of St Michael, formerly a parish church, but standing on a hill about 2 m.

    0
    0
  • It formerly had a large trade with the Sudan.

    0
    0
  • Barfurush was formerly called Mamatir.

    0
    0
  • The greatest relative advance between 1889 and 1899 in any branch of agriculture was made in the growth of market-garden produce and small fruits; for old pine lands, formerly considered useless, had been found valuable for the purpose.

    0
    0
  • Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910.

    0
    0
  • Niriz was formerly known for its manufacture of steel from iron ore brought from Parpa, 40 m.

    0
    0
  • The town was formerly surrounded by massive ancient walls, but these have now been for the most part replaced by boulevards; many of its streets are narrow and irregular.

    0
    0
  • Japan appears to have been formerly inhabited by the Ainus, who have traditions of an older but unknown population, but was invaded in prehistoric times by a race akin to the Koreans, which was possibly mingled with Malay elements after occupying the southern part of the islands.

    0
    0
  • Clearly such alterations as the construction of railways in nearly all parts of the continent, and the establishment of peace over formerly disturbed areas like India, are of enormous importance, and must change the life of the people.

    0
    0
  • He was imprisoned from 1825 to 1828 for coining, though apparently on insufficient evidence, and in 1833 came to push his claims in Paris, where he was recognized as the dauphin by many persons formerly connected with the court of Louis XVI.

    0
    0
  • The many historical associations of Southwark, contemporary memorials of which are almost wholly swept away, centre upon the district bordering the river, and formerly known as Bankside.

    0
    0
  • Another well-known bed, formerly known as the "Bristol" or "Lias" Bone Bed, exists in the form of several thin layers of micaceous sandstone, with the remains of fish and saurians, which occur in the Rhaetic Black Paper Shales that lie above the Keuper marls in the south-west of England.

    0
    0
  • The name of Holborn was formerly derived from Old Bourne, a tributary of the Fleet, the valley of which is clearly seen where Holborn Viaduct crosses Farringdon Street.

    0
    0
  • This is the vascular or haemal system (formerly and unnecessarily termed pseudhaemal).

    0
    0
  • At the least there is no doubt that the genital funnels are developed precisely where the nephridial funnels formerly existed.

    0
    0
  • Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rheingrafenstein (12th century), formerly a seat of the count palatine of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Hutten, to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins in 1889.

    0
    0
  • About a mile and a half east of Kano is Nassarawa, formerly the emir's suburban residence, but since 1902 the British Residency and barracks.

    0
    0
  • Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who, after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent (the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m.

    0
    0
  • He was formerly identified with an Egyptian priest who, after the destruction of the pagan temple at Alexandria (389), fled to Constantinople, where he became the tutor of the ecclesiastical historian Socrates.

    0
    0
  • Another of the intimates of Rufinus was John, bishop of Jerusalem, and formerly a Nitrian monk, by whom he was ordained to the priesthood in 39 0.

    0
    0
  • There are indeed many Mahratta chiefs still resident in the country, members of the aristocracy which formerly enjoyed much wealth and power.

    0
    0
  • Vauban's Dime royale was formerly wrongly attributed to him.

    0
    0
  • The court of the Honour of Peverel, held at Basford in Nottinghamshire, which formerly exercised jurisdiction in the hundreds of Scarsdale, the Peak and Wirksworth, was abolished in 1849.

    0
    0
  • Derbyshire has always been mainly a mining and manufacturing county, though the rich land in the south formerly produced large quantities of corn.

    0
    0
  • This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium.

    0
    0
  • Of the writers of this period, therefore, it is necessary to notice only such as describe some improvement in the modes of culture, or some extension of the practices that were formerly little known.

    0
    0
  • Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.

    0
    0
  • Of corn crops other than cereals, beans and peas are both less cultivated than formerly.

    0
    0
  • Whilst much grass land has been laid down with the intention from the outset that it should be permanent, at the same time some considerable areas have through stress of circumstances been allowed to drift from the temporary or rotation grass area to the permanent list, and have thus still further diminished the area formerly under the dominion of the plough.

    0
    0
  • In the cattle classes, aged beasts of huge size and of considerably over a ton in weight used to be common, but in recent years the tendency has been to reduce the upper limit of age, and thus to bring out animals ripe for the butcher in a shorter time than was formerly the case.

    0
    0
  • In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland.

    0
    0
  • Coal-mines were worked in Bewdley as early as 1669, and the town was formerly noted for making caps.

    0
    0
  • The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.

    0
    0
  • Comparative anatomy and embryology prove that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in individual development.

    0
    0
  • The next three families form the group formerly known as Thecosomatous Pteropods.

    0
    0
  • The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.

    0
    0
  • In reference to their first observer they were formerly called " Stiebel's canals."

    0
    0
  • As he had formerly had dealings with the house of Alexander Severus, so now he entered into a correspondence with the emperor Philip the Arabian and his wife Severa.

    0
    0
  • The bounds of the thus enlarged Cisalpine Republic were afterwards extended eastwards to the banks of the Adige by the terms of the treaty of Campo Formio; and in November 1797 Bonaparte added the formerly Swiss district of the Valtelline, north-east of Lake Como, to its territory.

    0
    0
  • The powers formerly vested in elective bodies were now to be wielded by prefects and sub-prefects, nominated by the First Consul and responsible to him.

    0
    0
  • The Italian republic (formerly the Cisalpine republic) became the kingdom of Italy.

    0
    0
  • In order to strengthen this compact, he arranged a marriage between the daughter of the king of Bavaria and Eugene Beauharnais; and he united the daughter of the Elector of Wurttemberg in marriage to Jerome Bonaparte, who had now divorced his wife, formerly Miss Paterson of Baltimore, at his brother's behests.

    0
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  • The necessity of devising compromises with men who had formerly been his tools fretted him both in mind and body.

    0
    0
  • If we are to accept and profit by Dorpfeld's nomenclature, we must be satisfied that, in their later historic habitats, both Lycians and Carians showed unmistakable signs of having formerly possessed the civilizations attributed to them in prehistoric times - signs which research has hitherto wholly failed to find.

    0
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  • Various summaries, controversial articles, &c., formerly quoted, are now superseded by recent discoveries.

    0
    0
  • Formerly it was said that the head consisted of four the whole digestive tract may be ectodermal.

    0
    0
  • Includes the single family of the Perlidae (Stone-flies), formerly grouped with the Neuroptera.

    0
    0
  • Formerly comprised among the Neuroptera.

    0
    0
  • See Neuroptera, among which these insects were formerly comprised.

    0
    0
  • The sub-imago of the Ephemeroptera suggests that a moult, after the wings had become functional, was at one time general among the Hexapoda, and that the resting nymph of the Thysanoptera or the pupa of the Endopterygota represents a formerly active stage in the life-history.

    0
    0
  • The combination of these three facts will of itself explain some defects, or even retrogressions, observable in Nitzsch's later systematic work when compared with that which he had formerly done.

    0
    0
  • Formerly known as Karanovats, Kralyevo received its present name, signifying "the King's Town," from King Milan (1868-1889), who also made it a bishopric, instead of Chachak, 22 m.

    0
    0
  • Both the central library and museum and the Akroyd museum and art gallery occupy buildings which were formerly residences, the one of Sir Francis Crossley (1817-1872) and the other of Mr Edward Akroyd.

    0
    0
  • The body of St Mark formerly rested here, but is now within the high altar.

    0
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  • In it are the Scoville Memorial Library (about 8000 volumes in 1910); the Hotchkiss preparatory school (opened in 1892, for boys); the Salisbury School (Protestant Episcopal, for boys), removed to Salisbury from Staten Island in 1901 and formerly St Austin's school; the Taconic School (1896, for girls); and the Connecticut School for Imbeciles (established as a private institution in 1858).

    0
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  • The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'

    0
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  • Forty different kinds of cloth were formerly manufactured in this district, the bulk of which during many years was made from English twist, country thread being used only for the finest muslins.

    0
    0
  • The Walscher Hof, formerly a royal residence and mint, was built at the end of the 13th century, and the Gothic Steinerne Haus, which since 1849 serves as town-hall, contains one of the richest archives in Bohemia.

    0
    0
  • It was formerly supposed that this custom was peculiar to a single species, which was called the "gossamer" spider from the fact that the floating webs, when brought to the earth by rain or intercepted by bushes and trees, coat the foliage or grass with a sheeting of gossamer-like silk; but the habit is now known to be practised by the newly-hatched young of a great variety of species belonging to several distinct families.

    0
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  • But his aunt was anxious for him to be a minister, as he himself desired, and therefore in 1752, when his health had improved, he went to Daventry to attend the Nonconformist academy formerly carried on by Dr P. Doddridge at Northampton.

    0
    0
  • In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.

    0
    0
  • Margate (Meregate, Mergate), formerly a small fishing village, was an ancient and senior non-corporate member of Dover.

    0
    0
  • Among the public buildings and places of interest are the three churches on the Green, built in 5854; Center Church (Congregational), in the rear of which is the grave of John Dixwell (1608-1689), one of the regicides; United (formerly known as North) Church (Congregational), and Trinity Church, which belongs to one of the oldest Protestant Episcopal congregations in Connecticut.

    0
    0
  • Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

    0
    0
  • Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.

    0
    0
  • Cyprus has a soil and climate suited to cotton, which was formerly grown here on a large scale.

    0
    0
  • Cotton was formerly cultivated profitably in Palestine.

    0
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  • It is interesting to find that a rude pipe-line formerly existed in this field for conveying the crude oil from the wells to the river; this was made of bamboos, but it is said that the loss by leakage was so great as to lead to its immediate abandonment on completion.

    0
    0
  • The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.

    0
    0
  • Formerly, they were gener ally arranged amongst the Platyelminthes as 2 a sub-order in the order of the Turbellarians, but with the advance of our knowledge of these lower worms it has been found desirable to separate them from the Turbellarians and to look upon the Nemertina as a separate phylum.

    0
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  • Affinities.-The position of the Nemertines in the animal kingdom is now looked upon as more isolated than was formerly thought, and recent writers have been inclined to treat them as a separate phylum.

    0
    0
  • Four legati juridici (or simply juridici) of consular rank were appointed for Italy, who took over certain important judicial functions formerly exercised by local magistrates (cases of fideicommissa, the nomination of guardians).

    0
    0
  • Decrepit prisoners were formerly leased, but in 1906 the lease excluded such as were thought unfit by the state prison physician.

    0
    0
  • Before 1905 the state provided for higher education by the Florida State College, at Tallahassee, formerly the West Florida Seminary (founded in 1857); the University of Florida, at Lake City, which was organized in 1903 by enlarging the work of the Florida Agricultural College (founded in 1884); the East Florida Seminary, at Gainesville (founded 1848 at Ocala); the normal school (for whites) at De Funiak Springs; and the South Florida Military Institute at Bartow; but in 1905 the legislature passed the Buckman bill abolishing all these state institutions for higher education and establishing in their place the university of the state of Florida and a state Agricultural Experiment Station, both now at Gainesville, and the Florida Female College at Tallahassee, which has the same standards for entrance and for graduation as the state university for men.

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  • It was formerly believed that these violent outbursts were to be attributed to madness pure and simple, and some cases of amok can certainly be traced to this source.

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  • Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenzande, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas.

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  • The favours he received from the sovereign excited the jealousy of the vizier, and he was driven back to Africa (1364), where he was received with great cordiality by the sultan of Bougie, Abu Abdallah, who had been formerly his companion in prison.

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  • Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.

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  • In this way curd, mottled or marbled soap is formed, and such mottled appearance was formerly highly valued as an indication of freedom from excess of water or other adulteration, because in fitted soaps the impurities are either washed out or fall to the bottom of the mass in cooling.

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  • Formerly the fakirs were always nude and smeared with ashes; but now they are compelled to wear some pretence of clothing.

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  • The weaving and bleaching of cloth, which is of less importance than formerly, the manufacture of vehicles, and tanning are carried on; there is a large trade in the horses of the district, and granite is worked in the neighbourhood.

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  • The supreme importance of a study of Greek antiquities on the spot, long understood by scholars in Europe and in America, has gradually come to be recognized in England, where a close attention to ancient texts, not always adequately supplemented by a course of local study and observation, formerly fostered a peculiarly conservative attitude in regard to the problems of Greek archaeology.

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  • Adjoining it to the east are the remains of a large rectangular building, which was apparently fronted by a colonnade; this has been identified with the XaXKO011Ki, a storehouse of bronze implements and arms, which was formerly supposed to lie against the north wall near the Propylaea.

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  • Formerly of some importance, the harbour can no longer be entered by large vessels, and goods are transhipped into flat-bottomed lighters for conveyance ashore.

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  • It was formerly believed to have been introduced into Britain by the Romans, but there is no doubt that it is a native.

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  • The principal other buildings are the court house, government buildings (formerly a Jesuit monastery), episcopal palace, grammar school (once attended by Erasmus), a prison, hospitals, arsenal and barracks.

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  • Amlwch is the terminus of the branch railway from Gaerwen to Amlwch, formerly the Anglesey Central Railway Company.

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  • Its naturally strong position was formerly fortified, and part of the walls, serving as a promenade, remain.

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  • The silk industry, formerly important, still employs about 300 women and girls in four spinning establishments.

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  • Gases formerly considered to be identical came to be clearly distinguished, and many new ones were discovered.

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  • Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.

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  • Formerly, when floods resulted from this obstruction, the townsfolk of Helston acquired the right of clearing a passage through it by presenting leathern purses containing three halfpence to the lord of the manor.

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  • The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.

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  • It was formerly, but is no longer, a military cantonment.

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  • The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had different boundaries and areas at different times.

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  • Havelberg was formerly a strong fortress, but in the Thirty Years' War it was taken from the Danish by the imperial troops in 1627.

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  • Fuenterrabia formerly possessed considerable strategic importance, and it has frequently been taken and retaken in wars between France and Spain.

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  • Formerly it was the title given to individual members of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this is not now common.

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  • Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central meridian or the equator.

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  • Busch, of Limburg (1656-1664), manufactured a globe for Duke Frederick of Holstein, formerly at Gottorp, but since 1713 at Tsarskoye Zelo.

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  • Mere outline maps, such as formerly satisfied the public, suffice no longer.

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  • A plan, the engraving of which formerly took two years, can now be produced in two days.

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  • The promised dowry had not been paid, and the county of Angouleme, which had formerly belonged to Jeanne of Navarre, was now in the possession of the French king's favourite, the constable Charles la Cerda.

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  • The Pomeranian dog is a close ally of the Eskimo breed and was formerly used as a wolfdog, but has been much modified.

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  • The smaller variety, sometimes known as the Spitz, was formerly in some repute as a fancy dog, a white variety with a black tip to the nose and a pure black variety being specially prized.

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  • Staghounds are close derivatives of the bloodhound, and formerly occurred in England in two strains, known respectively as the northern and southern hounds.

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  • Bulldogs were formerly employed in bull-baiting, and the tenacity of their grip is proverbial.

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  • There is not now the sharp distinction which formerly existed between Friends and other non-sacerdotal evangelical bodies; these have, in theory at least, largely accepted the spiritual message of Quakerism.

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  • Formerly the system was double, the men and women meeting separately for their own appointed business.

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  • The church of St Giles, formerly a chapel of ease to All Saints, but made parochial in the 18th century, is'of Norman date, but most of the present structure is modern.

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  • The mullah and his chief adviser, a Haji Sudi, formerly an interpreter on a British warship, were not at the battle, and with his Ali Gheri followers he now fled north across the Sorl, apparently intending, if further pressed to retreat to Illig.

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