Former sentence example

former
  • She felt too bad for the former goddess to walk away.
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  • Prince Vasili, who still occupied his former important posts, formed a connecting link between these two circles.
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  • I'm a former deity.
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  • How sick was the man who kept his former enemy as a slave?
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  • The city police is established on its former footing, and better order already prevails in consequence of its activity.
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  • The former and the latter were alike familiar and his own.
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  • For now, your former mate is safe.
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  • His face again resumed its former stiff and cold expression.
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  • And there was the former agitation and obscurity.
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  • Jule was gazing at the former vamp hard.
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  • He tried not to change his former way of life, but his strength failed him.
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  • Despite news of the capture of the fleches, Napoleon saw that this was not the same, not at all the same, as what had happened in his former battles.
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  • He was received with great rejoicings and quickly regained his former position of power.
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  • There he passed nine studious years, chiefly devoted to classical reading, Plato and Tacitus being his favourite authors, because "the former described the ideal man, and the latter man as he really is."
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  • Stolypin, stuttering, broke into the conversation and began excitedly talking of the abuses that existed under the former order of things--threatening to give a serious turn to the conversation.
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  • All their former disharmony and her own jealousy recurred to her mind.
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  • Negotiating with Gabriel over who gets your former mate.
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  • They both spent weeks with the Black God, after the teenage godslayer took out the former Black God and took his place.
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  • To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
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  • In the former the upper tusks are bent down so as to cross the tips of the short and chisel-like lower pair.
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  • But as soon as the prince had gone her face resumed its former cold, artificial expression.
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  • And not only was Napoleon not afraid to extend his line, but he welcomed every step forward as a triumph and did not seek battle as eagerly as in former campaigns, but very lazily.
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  • Everything that reminded him of his past was repugnant to him, and so in his relations with that former circle he confined himself to trying to do his duty and not to be unfair.
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  • That city is taken; the Russian army suffers heavier losses than the opposing armies had suffered in the former war from Austerlitz to Wagram.
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  • At the rare moments when the old fire did kindle in her handsome, fully developed body she was even more attractive than in former days.
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  • The thought of letting him run those hands wherever he wanted thrilled the human in her and terrified the former goddess.
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  • In desperation, the goddess made a series of deals with the former Dark One, Fate, Darkyn and others to alter the series of events that might see her with anyone but Gabriel.
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  • Gabriel suspected the Dark One wasn't going to let his little human out of Hell, especially not to see her former mate.
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  • He had named them Roman patricians; the latter he had placed in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and Urbino, he had taken with himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy.
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  • At Geneva the mountain was in former days named the Montagne 1Vlaudite, but the present name seems to have been always used locally.
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  • Chauveau points to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the former at no great height.
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  • The cathedral contains other 14th-century and early Renaissance paintings, the former including some Passion scenes, the only certain work of Barna da Siena, and some fine choir stalls.
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  • According to the former, all gods are but men; or, some men have been erroneously supposed to become gods.
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  • But a careful study of the seventh poem of the last book, in which Propertius gives an account of a dream of her which he had after her death, leads us to the belief that they were once more reconciled, and that in her last illness Cynthia left to her former lover the duty of carrying out her wishes with regard to the disposal of her effects and the arrangements of her funeral.
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  • The dock and victualling yards occupy together an area of some i oo acres spread over the shores on both sides of those arms of the great harbour known as "Dockyard" and "French" creeks, the dockyard being partly on the former, but principally on the latter creek.
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  • In front of the former, as in front of those of Heracles and Zeus, stood a huge altar for burnt offerings, as long as the facade of the temple itself.
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  • The former are generally found close to, or at least in sight of, the nuraghe to which they belong.
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  • While his wife's influence could not increase the latter, it was successfully exerted to foment and embitter the former.
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  • Upon the replacing of the Rump by the army, after the breaking up of Richard's parliament, Cooper endeavoured unsuccessfully to take his seat on the ground of his former disputed election for Downton.
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  • Cooper was at once placed on the privy council, receiving also a formal pardon for former delinquencies.
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  • In accordance with his former action on all questions of religious toleration he opposed the shameful Five Mile Act of 1665.
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  • The emperor Frederick III., and King Matthias of Hungary, Podebrad's former ally, joined the insurgent Bohemian nobles.
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  • After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
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  • The city was again rebuilt, suffered again at the hands of the Mongols (1269) and from another great earthquake (1280), and never again rose to its former greatness.
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  • In 1688 Mannheim, which had in the meantime recovered from its former disasters, was captured by the French, and in 1689 it was burned down.
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  • Since in all domesticated cats retaining the colouring of the wild species the soles of the hind-feet correspond in this particular with the Egyptian rather than with the European wild cat, the presumption is in favour of their descent from the former rather than from the latter.
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  • Apart from the above-mentioned division of the striped members of both groups into two types according to the pattern of their markings, the domesticated cats of western Europe are divided into a short-haired and a long-haired group. Of these, the former is the one which bears the closest relationship to the wild cats of Africa and of Europe, the latter being an importation from the East.
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  • As to long-haired cats, there appear originally to have been two closely-allied strains, the Angora and the Persian, of which the former has been altogether replaced in western Europe by the latter.
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  • It seems possible that the road at first led to Tusculum, that it was then prolonged to Labici, and later still became a road for through traffic; it may even have superseded the Via Latina as a route to the S.E., for, while the distance from Rome to their main junction at Ad Bivium (or to another junction at Compitum Anagninum) is practically identical, the summit level of the former is 725 ft.
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  • Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
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  • His fathers took a prominent part in Athenian politics, and in 479 held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale; through his mother, the niece of Cleisthenes, he was connected with the former tyrants of Sicyon and the family of the Alcmaeonidae.
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  • His system of theology is contained in the former.
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  • The former moves in a world of "values," and judges things as they are related to our "fundamental self-feeling."
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  • At the point of entering the alluvial plain the bed of the Tigris seems to be lower than that of the Euphrates, so that the canals run from the latter to the former stream.
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  • Wachsmuth holds the former view and regards the Tholos as merely a dining-room for the Prytaneis in the old democratic period.
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  • The name of Alkmaar, which means "all sea," first occurs in the 10th century, and recalls its former situation in the midst of marshlands and lakes.
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  • The country in the neighbourhood of Tubingen is very attractive; one of the most interesting points is the former Cistercian monastery of Bebenhausen, founded in 1185, and now a royal hunting-château.
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  • The treaty of Tubingen is the name given in German history to an arrangement made in 1514 between Duke Ulrich and his subjects, by which the latter acquired various rights and privileges on condition of relieving the former of his debts.
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  • The former abbot's house at Seyney Park is a half-timbered building of the 15th century.
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  • A proposal to confine the Drin to its former course by means of a dyke, and to ease the downflow of the Boyana by a canal opening navigation to Lake Scutari, has long been considered by the Turkish authorities.
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  • The Albanians, both Ghegs and Tosks, call themselves Shkiipetar, and their land Shkiipenia or Shkiiperia, the former being the Gheg, the latter the Tosk form of the word.
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  • The natural antipathy between the two sections of the race, though less evident than in former times, is far from extinct.
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  • Jerome describes Idumaea as extending from Beit Jibrin to Petra, and ascribes the great caves at the former place to cavedwellers like the aboriginal Horites.
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  • It contains a few handsome monuments to its former bishops, but until 1890, when a monument was erected, had nothing to preserve the memory of the illustrious Dr George Berkeley, who held the see from 1734 to 1753.
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  • The former established himself in 64 at Panticapaeum, and was planning new campaigns against the Romans when his own troops revolted, and, after vainly trying to poison himself, he ordered a Gallic mercenary to kill him.
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  • Its glory shall be greater than that of the former temple, and in this place He will give peace.
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  • Not far from Badnur is Kherla, the former residence of the Gond rajas, where there is an old fort, now in ruins, which used to be held by them.
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  • Shortly afterwards another convention was held at Edinburgh, and it was resolved that the delegates sent to Jedburgh should again meet the king at Linlithgow and repeat their former instructions.
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  • The former translated the work into English, but he died in 1615, and the translation was published by his son Samuel Wright in 1616.
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  • The former are received of ter special instruction and profession of faith; the latter on presenting a certificate of church membership from the church which they have left.
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  • The former are held at prearranged intervals.
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  • The presbytery fixes the former for specific business; the latter is summoned by the moderator, either on his own initiative or on the requisition of two or more members of presbytery, for the transaction of business which has suddenly emerged.
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  • Though the jus divinum of presbytery is not now insisted upon as in some former times, Presbyterians claim that it is the church polity set forth in the New Testament.
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  • Cases of discipline are now comparatively rare, and, when they do occur, are not characterized by the bigoted severity which prevailed in former times and was rightly denounced as unchristian.
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  • The former enterprise was soon abandoned, and the colonists of the latter were massacred by the Spaniards.
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  • During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries Parma had its full share of the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles, in which it mainly took the part of the former, and also carried on repeated hostilities with Borgo San Donnino and Piacenza.
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  • But this, like his former victories, stimulated Justinian's envy.
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  • It is served by the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway and by the Orange branch of the Erie (the former having three stations in the city - Grove Street, East Orange and Brick Church), and is connected with Newark, Orange and West Orange by electric line.
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  • One of the ancient trade routes across the Sahara - that from Tripoli to Kuka in Bornu - strikes the lake at its northwest corner, but this has lost much of its former importance.
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  • He was admitted after an altercation, and found a warm welcome at the hands of his former teacher.
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  • The former began in 1865 in Pulaski, Tennessee, as a social club of young men.
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  • In some communities they fell into the control of violent men and became simply bands of outlaws, dangerous even to the former members; and the anarchical aspects of the movement excited the North to vigorous condemnation.'
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  • In Tucuman and eastern Salta the same division into forests and open plains exists, but the former are of denser growth and contain walnut, cedar, laurel, tipa (Machaerium fertile) and quebracho-colorado (Loxopterygium Lorentzii).
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  • The principal centres of the system are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca, with La Plata as a secondary centre to the former, and from these the lines radiate westward and northward.
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  • Of the former the remnants are now seen in Brittany and the Ardennes; of the latter the Cvennes and the Montagne Noire are the last traces visible on the surface.
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  • Calvados the former was 904,000, as against 857,000 in the Cantal latter year, the diminution being acconipanied by Charente a decrease in the annual number of deaths.
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  • Oats and barley are generally cultivated, the former more especially in the Parisian region, the latter in Mayenne and one or two of the neighboring departments.
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  • As before, the sums paid out in respect of guaranteed dividend were to be regarded as advances which were to be paid back to the state out of the profits made, when these permitted, and when the advances were wiped out, the profits, after payment of a certain dividend, were to be divided between the state and the railway, two-thirds going to the former and one-third to the latter.
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  • The Ouest-Etat, a combination of the West and state systems. The former traversed Normandy in every directionand connected Paris with thetowns of Brittany.
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  • Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
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  • The Laws of 1882 and 1886 laicized the schools of this class, the former suppressing religious instruction, the latter providing that only laymen should be eligible for masterships.
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  • About 292, thanks to his friend Theophrastus, he was able to return to Attica, and took up his abode in the country with a former associate, Proxenus.
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  • The presence of these giant reptiles on the group is the chief fact on which a former land connexion with the continent of America may be sustained.
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  • The Via Appia here, as at Capua, abandons its former S.E.
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  • The ordinary business of the ports was conducted in two courts known respectively as the court of brotherhood and the court of brotherhood and guestling, - the former being composed of the mayors of the seven principal towns and a number of jurats and freemen from each, and the latter including in addition the mayors, bailiffs and other representatives of the corporate members.
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  • The narrow Svendborg Sund separates Fiinen from the lesser islands of Taasinge and Turb, of which the former rises to 245 ft.
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  • There are numerous modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington.
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  • It is also interesting to note that fossil remains indicate the former occurrence of thylacines and Tasmanian devils on the Australian mainland.
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  • In 1203 it was conquered by Waldemar II., king of Denmark, but in 1227 it reverted to Albert, a son of its former duke.
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  • The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
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  • The former would be an exact submultiple of the 30-day month, but the exact relation of seven days to the month is not very clear.
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  • Rhodes was famed in ancient times for its delightful climate, and it still maintains its former reputation.
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  • Four years later the inhabitants for the most part abandoned their former residences and concentrated in the newly founded city of Rhodes.
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  • On the north coast are Melville and Bathurst Islands; the former, which is 75 m.
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  • Just as we have evidence of a former mild climate in the arctic regions, so a similar mild climate has been postulated for Antarctica.
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  • The islands of Torres Strait have been shown to be the denuded remnant of a former extension of Cape York peninsula in North Queensland.
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  • In Queensland the fields were all showing development in 1891, when the output exhibited a very large increase compared with that of former years; but, as in the case of Victoria, the production of the metal seems to have ceased.
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  • Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale.
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  • This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.
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  • The intelligence was made known in April or May; and then began a rush of thousands, - men leaving their former employments in the bush or in the towns to search for the ore so greatly coveted in all ages.
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  • There are salt-works at Salzungen and Neusulza, the former the most important in Thuringia; and the mineral water of Friedrichshall is well known.
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  • It was the general disaster produced by the speculative policy of his former guardians which first called forth his sterling qualities and hardened him into a premature manhood.
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  • The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland by shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria vadosa of the Romans.
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  • He had contracted a second marriage in 1869 with Mlle Autard de Bragard, daughter of a former magistrate of Mauritius; and eleven out of twelve children of this marriage survived him.
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  • The former Royal Dockyard was made over to the War Office in 1872 and converted into stores, wharves for the loading of troopships, &c. The Royal Artillery Barracks, facing Woolwich Common, originally erected in 1775, has been greatly extended at different times, and consists of six ranges of Brick building, including a church in the Italian Gothic style erected in 1863, a theatre, and a library in connexion with the officers' mess-room.
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  • The well-known Treatise on Differential Equations appeared in 1859, and was followed, the next year, by a Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences, designed to serve as a sequel to the former work.
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  • The former of these two appendixes plays an especially important part in hepatoscopy, and, according to its shape and peculiarities, furnishes a good or bad omen.
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  • On both the east and the west coast the islands are thickly wooded, but whereas the former are surrounded by beautiful sands and beaches, the latter are fringed by mangrove-swamps.
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  • There is considerable reason to think, however, that the more frequent ports of call in the Straits of Malacca were situated in Sumatra, rather than on the shores of the Malay Peninsula, and two famous medieval travellers, Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta, both called and wintered at the former, and make scant mention of the latter.
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  • Though this industry has lapsed, there are brine baths, much used in cases of rheumatism, gout and general debility, and the former private mansion of Shrewbridge Hall is converted into a hotel with a spa.
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  • The greatest development was between 1900 and 1905; the total value of textiles in the former year was $5,407,217 (woollen goods, $2,572,646; hosiery and knit goods, $1,834,685; cotton goods, $999,886) and in the latter was $7,773, 612 (woollen goods, $4,698,405; hosiery and knit goods, $1,988,685; and cotton goods, $1,086,522).
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  • The enforcement of the first Book of Common Prayer had also been part of his official duties; and the fact that Bonner made no such protest against the burning of heretics as he had done in the former case shows that he found it the more congenial duty.
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  • It contains two islands, Bisentina and Martana, the former containing a church constructed by Vignola, the latter remains of the castle where Amalasuntha, the daughter of Theodoric, was imprisoned and, strangled.
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  • Grampound (Ponsmure, Graundpont, Grauntpount, Graundpond) and the hundred, manor and vill of Tibeste were formerly so closely associated that in 1400 the former is found styled the vill of Grauntpond called Tibeste.
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  • A former woollen trade is extinct.
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  • The interior is in the form of a basilica, the double aisles being borne by ancient columns, and contains ambones and a candelabrum of 1311, the former resting on columns supported by lions, and decorated with reliefs and coloured marble mosaic. The castle at the highest point of the town was erected in the 14th century.
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  • The wood is very heavy and hard, weighing 70 lb the cubic foot; the colour is dark brown; it is used in Spain and Italy for furniture, and in the former country for firewood and charcoal.
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  • The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
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  • Cromwell hastened to the House, and at the last moment, on the bill being put to the vote, whispering to Harrison, "This is the time; Y must do it," he rose, and after alluding to the former good services of the parliament, proceeded to overwhelm the members with reproaches.
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  • Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.
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  • Damme, although long neglected, preserves some remains of its former prosperity, thanks to its remoteness from the area of international strife in the Low Countries.
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  • Camille Lemonnier has given in one of his Causeries a striking picture of this faded scene of former greatness, now a solitude in which the few residents seem spectres rather than living figures.
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  • The most remarkable inundations were those of 1537 and 1740; in the former year the water rose to 8 ft.
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  • In the early years of the 20th century the town was much decayed, numerous ruins of castles, palaces and churches indicating its former importance.
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  • The former contributed nothing new to the system except a more emphatic statement of the distinction between psychology and physiology.
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  • Radermacher assigns the Asinaria to a date as early as 212 B.C. Of the extant plays the Cistellaria and the Stichus must be associated with the Miles as comparatively early works; for the former was clearly produced before (though not long before) the conclusion of the Second Punic War, see 1.201 seq.; and the Stichus is proved by its didascalia to have been produced in 200 B.C. The Pseudolus and the Truculentus fall within the last seven years of his life.
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  • In 1616 appeared his Treatise on the Love of God, which teaches that perfection of the spiritual life to which the former work is meant to be the "Introduction."
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  • Eventually a new commission was issued in 1656, and on its report, into which were inserted nineteen of the former depositions, the "servant of God" was beatified in 1661.
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  • Jib cranes can be subdivided into fixed cranes and portable cranes; in the former the central post or pivot is firmly fixed in a permanent position, while in the latter the whole crane is mounted on wheels, so that it may be transported from place to place.
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  • A man who bought a slave abroad, might find that he had been stolen or captured from Babylonia, and he had to restore him to his former owner without profit.
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  • Both the series and the branching methods of multipling are recognized at the present time as standard methods, although the former is only employed in comparatively small exchanges.
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  • It is now divided into the governments of Cassel and Wiesbaden, the second of which consists mainly of the former territory of Nassau (q.v.).
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  • The war began on the 3 1st of May 1468, but, as early as the 27th of February 1469, Matthias anticipated an alliance between George and Frederick by himself concluding an armistice with the former.
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  • This great valley—one of the most considerable on the southern side of the Alps—has attracted special attention, in ancient as well as modern times, from its leading to two of the most frequented passes across the great mountain chain—the Great and the Little St Bernard—the former diverging at Aosta, and crossing the main ridges to the north into the valley of the Rhone, the other following a more westerly direction into Savoy.
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  • Few towns of any importance are found either on their northern or southern declivity, and the former region especially, though occupying a tract of from 30 to 40 m.
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  • The modes of life and standards of comfort and morality in north Italy and in Calabria are widely different; the former being far in front of the latter.
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  • The Sicilians and Sardinians have something of Spanish dignity, but the former are one of the most mixed and the latter probably one of the purest races of the Italian kingdom.
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  • The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
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  • Rome is an exception to the former rule and imports garden produce largely from the neighborhood of Naples and from Sardinia.
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  • The former two show a very large decrease and the latter a large increase on the export figures for 1882.
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  • In the former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are fixed beforehand.
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  • A third difficulty is the comparatively small tonnage and volume of Italian exports relatively to the imports, the former in 1907 being about one-fourth of the latter, and greatl out of proportion to the relative value; while a fourth is the lac of facilities for handling goods, especially in the smaller ports.
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  • In addition to the regular charitable institutions, the communal and provincial authorities exercise charity, the former (in 1899) to the extent of 1,827,166 and the latter to the extent of 919,832 per annum.
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  • The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
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  • The personnel on active service consisted of 1799 officers and 25,000 men, the former being doubled and the latter trebled since 1882.
    0
    0
  • The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
    0
    0
  • Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, for an under-secretary of state) was only 500 per annum.
    0
    0
  • The former qualifications for electorship in local government elections have been modified, and it is now sufficient to pay five lire annually in, direct taxes, five lire of certain communal taxes, or a certain rental (which varies according to the population of a commune), instead of being obliged to pay, as previously, at least five lire annually of direct taxes to the state.
    0
    0
  • The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.
    0
    0
  • The former total is more than double add the latter more than treble the sum in 1873, while there is an increase of 62% in the former and 26% in the latter over the totals for 1882.
    0
    0
  • In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
    0
    0
  • Neither Swablan Lothar nor Conrad was strong at home; the former emperors.
    0
    0
  • While the former faction gained in Lombardy by the massacre of Ezzelino, the latter revived in Tuscany after the battle of Montaperti, which in 1260 placed Florence at the discretion of the Ghibellines.
    0
    0
  • The former he held by inheritance, together with that of Aragon.
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    0
  • The former possessed the rich duchies Frecch of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while Revolu through a marriage alliance with the house of Este UoI, of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme.
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    0
  • Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
    0
    0
  • Milan and Piedmont were comparatively well governed; but repugnance to Austrian rule in the former case, and the contagion of French Jacobinical opinions in the latter, brought those populations into increasing hostility to the rulers.
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    0
  • Her former rival, Genoa, bad also been compelled, in June 1797, to bow before the young conqueror, and had undergone at his hands a remodelling on the lines already followed at Milan.
    0
    0
  • To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
    0
    0
  • The pope, Pius VII., who had long been kept under restraint by Napoleon at Fontainebleau, returned to Rome in May 1814, and was recognized by the congress of Vienna (not without some demur on the part of Austria) as the sovereign of all the former possessions of the Holy See.
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    0
  • In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
    0
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  • Capponi resigned in October 1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Following the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded to vote on union with Rome and eventually with the rest of Italy.
    0
    0
  • The cardinals thereupon overruled their former decision, and the conclave was held in Rome, the new pope, Cardinal Pecci, being elected on the 20th of February 1878 without let or hindrance.
    0
    0
  • The former at Pavia (15th October I 2878), and the latter at Arco (3rd November), declared publicly that Irredentist manifestations could not be prevented under existing laws, but gave no hint of introducing any law to sanction their prevention.
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    0
  • Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
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    0
  • Kalnky desired that both the terms of the treaty and the fact of its conclusion should remain secret, but Bismarck and Mancini hastened to hint at its existence, the former in the Reichstag on the 12th of June 1882, and the latter in the Italian semi-official press.
    0
    0
  • The latter, indeed, prosecuted the former for libel and for abuse of his position when premier, but after many vicissitudes, including the flight of Giolitti to Berlin in.
    0
    0
  • Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
    0
    0
  • The latter was so wide in its scope that it might fairly be held to supersede the former in so far as the two were inconsistent.
    0
    0
  • The setting up, by a householder, of a set of three sacrificial fires of his own constitutes the first ceremony of the former class, the Agny-adhana (or (?) Agny-adheya).
    0
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  • Or is it simply a reiteration of his sceptical contrast between phenomena and noumena, and of his confinement of (valid) knowledge to the former?
    0
    0
  • He quotes pages from Mansel's Bampton Lectures in favour of his own type of agnosticism, which is to make peace between religion and science by permanently silencing the former.
    0
    0
  • It is, however, very much longer than the former charter and somewhat longer than the Articles.
    0
    0
  • The Treveran territories on the right bank of the Rhine were secularized and given to Nassau-Weilburg in 1803, and in 1814 nearly the whole of the former electoral dominions were given to Prussia.
    0
    0
  • The former distinctly argues against the idea of a deterioration of man in the past.
    0
    0
  • In fact, while holding firmly by the former, Bonnet more or less modified the latter in his later writings, and, at length, he admits that a " germ " need not be an actual miniature of the organism, hut that it may be merely an " original preformation " capable of producing the latter.4 But, thus defined, the germ is neither more nor less than the "particula genitalis" of Aristotle, or the "primordium vegetale" or " ovum " of Harvey; and the " evolution " of such a germ would not be distinguishable from " epigenesis."
    0
    0
  • A visit to southern Italy, where many of the princes did homage to the emperor, was cut short by the death of the pope, to whose chair Otto then appointed his former tutor Gerbert, who took the name of Sylvester II.
    0
    0
  • The latter was treated as a mere delegate, from whom an appeal could be made to the bishop. The former had one consistory with the bishop, so that appeals from him had to be made to the court of the metropolitan.
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    0
  • Close to it is the former Cloth-hall, a Gothic building of 1325.
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    0
  • On the left bank of the Lys is the Oudeburg (s'Gravenstein, Château des Contes), the former castle of the first counts of Flanders, dating from 1180 and now restored.
    0
    0
  • The former belongs to the north-west, the others to the centre of India, and all three may be dated vaguely in the first or second centuries A.D.
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    0
  • In Parnell is the former residence of Bishop Selwyn, who, arriving in the colony in 1842, assisted to draw up the constitution of the Anglican church.
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    0
  • The hill is terraced with former native fortifications.
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    0
  • Another charter, confirming former liberties but altering the constitution of the corporation, was granted in 1611.
    0
    0
  • The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
    0
    0
  • The Spermatophyta fall into two classes, Gymncsperms (q.v.) and Angiosperms; the former are the more primitive group, appearing earlier in geological time and showing more resemblance in the course of their life-history to the Pteridophyta.
    0
    0
  • All the surviving forms, however, have a completely established double system with the specific characters alluded to, and since there is every reason to believe that the conditions of evolution of the primitive Pteridophyte must have been essentially similar to those of the Bryophytes, the various stages in the evolution of the conducting system of the latter (p. 732) are very useful to compare with the arrangements met with in the former.
    0
    0
  • In the former case the formation of phelloderm is trivial in amount; in the latter, considerable, since this tissue has to replace the cast-off cortex, as a metabolic and particularly a storage tissue.
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    0
  • The former often has its cells lignified, and may consist of alternate layers of hard and soft cells.
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    0
  • We have nothing structural which corresponds to the former of these.
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    0
  • Among the simplest examples of the former are the hairs which follow the irritation of the cells by mites.
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  • The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.
    0
    0
  • In the former case the nature of the organism is such that it yields readily, when subjected to certain conditions, and all or nearly all the individuals become modified in the same way.
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    0
  • In the former they run from east to west; I in the latter from north to south.
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    0
  • The former is poor in Cruciferae, Caryophyllaceae, Umbelliferae, Primulaceae and Labiatae; but for the occurrence of Calluna in Newfoundland it would have no heaths.
    0
    0
  • The former support a copious herbaceous flora, the characteristics of which in the Old and New Worlds have been already briefly summarized.
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  • In the former that of Europe and of Central Asia are continuous.
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    0
  • We may therefore regard the Himalayan flora as a westward extension of the Chinese rather than the latter as a development of the former.
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  • The eastern and western halves ale contrasted in climate-the former being moist and the latter dryand have been distinguished by some zoologists as distinct subregions.
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  • Myrtaceae comes next with Eucalyptus, which forms three-fourths of the forests, and Melaleuca; both are absent from New Caledonia and New Zealand; a few species of the former extend to New Guinea and one of the latter to Malaya.
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  • Of Cycads, Australia and New Caledonia have Cycas, and the former the endemic Macrozamia and Bowenia.
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    0
  • Alexander had planned to amalgamate the former rulers of the world with his Macedonians; but his death was followed by a Macedonian reaction.
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    0
  • These soon became so serious that a league was formed to crush him, and Maurice of Saxony led an army against his former comrade.
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  • In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
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  • The former prohibition made it impossible far the unfortunate people to sell their goods which hence fell to the Inquisition.
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  • But almost at once he reverted to his former manner of life, and, although James failed to apprehend him, he was forced to take refuge in France about 1595.
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  • The city consists of the old inner town, the former ramparts of which have been converted into promenades, and the newer outer town and suburbs.
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  • The former, standing on the south side of the market square, is a Gothic structure, erected in 1353-1370 on the ruins of Charlemagne's palace.
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  • The iris contains a sphincter and a dilator muscle; the former, supplied by branches from the oculomotorius nerve, is under control of the will, whilst the dilator fibres belong to the sympathetic system.
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  • The former is morphologically the more primitive condition, and is found in the overwhelming majority of birds, including many Passeriformes.
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  • The most extraordinary feature is unquestionably the former existence of the gigantic Dinornithes or moas and, another family of Ratitae, the weird-looking kiwis or Apteryges, which are totally unlike any other existing birds.
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  • There is a general tendency among these insular birds to vary more or less from their continental representatives, and this is especially shown by the former having always darker plumage and stronger bills and legs.
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  • The town was the capital of the former duchy of Zweibrucken, and the Alexander-Kirche contains the tombs of the dukes.
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  • The former came from Paul's pen, but it did not belong originally to this epistle.
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  • In the modern church of St Stephen (1854) are preserved tiles from the former Cistercian abbey of Bordesley, founded in 1138, of which the site may be traced at Bordesley Park, 2 m.
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  • He was the son of William and Martha Arnold, the former of whom occupied the situation of collector of customs at Cowes.
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  • The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the Sao Francisco River, and several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic. The former are the Moxoto, Ema, Pajehu, Terra Nova, Brigida, Boa Vista and Pontai, and are dry channels the greater part of the year.
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  • On the Mesopotamian side there would seem, from the accounts of Xenophon and Ptolemy, to have been an affluent which joined the Euphrates between Deir and `Ana, called Araxes by the former, Saocoras by the latter; but no trace of such a stream has been found by modern explorers and the country in general has always been uninhabited.
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  • Between `Ana and Hit there were anciently at least four island cities or fortresses, and at the present time three such towns, insignificant relics of former greatness, Haditha, Alus or el-`Uzz and Jibba still occupy the old sites.
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  • It is easy to distinguish the great primitive watercourses from the lateral ducts which they fed, the latter being almost without banks and merely traceable by the winding curves of the layers of alluvium in the bed, while the former are hedged in by high banks of mud, heaped up during centuries of dredging.
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  • Down to this point, the bed of the Euphrates being higher than that of the Tigris, the canals run from the former to the latter, but below this the situation is reversed.
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  • There are remains of a Moorish fort on the hill commanding the town; and the north gateway - the Puerta del Colegio - is a fine lofty arch, surmounted by an emblematic statue and the city arms. The most prominent buildings are the episcopal palace (1733), with a frontage of a 600 ft.; the town house (1843), containing important archives; and the cathedral, a small Gothic structure built on the site of a former mosque in the 14th century, and enlarged and tastelessly restored in 1829.
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  • The former are for the most part concerned with questions relating to the theory of light, arising out of his professorial lectures, among which may be specially mentioned his paper "On the Diffraction of an Object-Glass with Circular Aperture."
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    0
  • By means of an electric installation between the log register aft and the electric register in the chart room, every tenth of a mile indicated by the former is recorded by the latter.
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    0
  • The former bears a general resemblance to the Cherub log, but the dial plate is horizontal and the faces turn upwards.
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    0
  • The former was professor of mathematics at Bologna, and published, among other works, a treatise on the infinitesimal calculus.
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  • But since the Russians became masters of this region, its former inhabitants (Circassian tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now only thinly inhabited.
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  • The former are of great commercial importance, being, in most cases, valuable ores, e.g.
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  • A former Jesuit monastery is now used for a grammar school and seminary.
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  • On this theory the yellowbird or NorthAmerican "goldfinch," C. tristis, would seem, with its immediate allies, to rank among the highest forms of the group, and the pinegoldfinch, C. pinus, of the same country, to be one of the lowest the cock of the former being generally of a bright yellow hue, with black crown, tail and wings - the last conspicuously barred with white, while neither hens nor young exhibit any striations.
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  • The series of revolutions already spoken of first made descent from former councillors a necessary qualification for election to the council; then election was abolished, and the council consisted of all descendants of its existing members who had reached the age of twenty-five.
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  • The former may be given in doses of an ounce and the latter in doses of a drachm.
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  • One of the former city gates (1615) remains, and there are a town hall, communal buildings (1863), court-house, weigh-house, synagogue and churches of various denominations, in one of which is the tomb of the naval hero of the 16th century, Lange, or Groote Pier (Long or Great Peter).
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  • The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
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  • Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation of Kant to Leibnitz.
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  • In the two former divisions the influence of wealth and birth predominated; the hillmen were poorly housed, poorly clad and unable to make use of the privileges which Solon had given them.'
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  • The word Rus, in former times wrongly connected with the tribal name Rhoxolani, is more probably derived from Ruotsi, a Finnish name for the Swedes, which seems to be a corruption of the Swedish rothsmenn, " rowers " or " seafarers."
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  • Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.
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  • The situation of the former serf-proprietors is also unsatisfactory.
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  • On the other hand, since 1861, and more especially since 1882, when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land, the former serfs, or rather their descendants, have between 1883 and 1904 bought about 19,500,000 acres from their former masters.
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  • The production of pig-iron nearly doubled between 1890 and 1900, increasing from 446,800 tons in the former year to 801,600 in the latter; but since 1900 the output has declined, the total for 1904 (inclusive of Siberia) being 644,000 tons.
    0
    0
  • The former had aimed simply at making annexations in Lithuania; 'Ivan' IV.
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    0
  • Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
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  • The former faction triumphed, and Catherine reigned for about a year and a half, after which the son of the cesarevich Alexius, Peter II., occupied the throne from 1727 to 1730.
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  • The greater part of the territory was formally incorporated into the empire, and the petty potentates, such as the khan of Khiva and the amir of Bokhara, who were allowed to retain a semblance of their former sovereignty, became obsequious vassals of the White Tsar.
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  • In the former there had been a fusion between the Radicals, supporters of the autonomy of Poland and a federal constitution for the empire, and the Independence party (Osvobozhdenya) formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903, the fusion taking the name of Constitutional Democrats, known (from a word-play on the initials K.D.) as " Cadets."
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    0
  • A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.
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  • The former extends from the sea to the central chain of hills and contains all the lowlands and many mountainous districts, some of the latter rising to an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 ft.
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    0
  • In the former the Railway and Canal Traffic Act of 1854 specially prohibited preferences, either in facilities or in rates.
    0
    0
  • The former is often a rich oil-gas, stored in steel reservoirs under the coaches at a pressure of six or seven atmospheres, and passed through a reducing valve to the burners; these used to be of the ordinary fish-tail type, but inverted incandescent mantles are coming into increasing use.
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  • As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.
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    0
  • The houses in many instances are built of stone (a circumstance which indicates the former wealth of the city, as the material had to be brought from a very considerable distance); and remains of a brick wall, 3 m.
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    0
  • In the former case the sacrificer is raised to a higher level; he enters into closer communion with the gods.
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    0
  • In the former case (a) individual animals might be distinguished by certain marks, or (b) the whole species.
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  • The change is marked in the rituals by the duplication of the liturgical forms. The prayers of intercession and oblation, which in earlier times are found only in connexion with the former offering, are repeated in the course of the same service in connexion with the latter.
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  • For, although the council of Trent recognized fully the distinction which has been mentioned above between the Eucharist and the sacrifice of the mass, and treated of them in separate sessions (the former in Session xiii., the latter in Session xxii.), it continued the medieval theory of the nature of the latter.
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  • Their origin is attributed by some to the moraine formation of former glaciers.
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    0
  • A former trade in oil and sealskin has decayed, owing to the smaller number of whales and seals remaining about the islands.
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  • The castle, which occupies the site of a former Cistercian monastery, was, from 1622 to 1779, the residence of the dukes of HolsteinSonderburg-Gliicksburg, passing then to the king of Denmark and in 1866 to Prussia.
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    0
  • Between Roberval and Descartes there existed a feeling of ill - will, owing to the jealousy aroused in the mind of the former by the criticism which Descartes offered to some of the methods employed by him and by Pierre de Fermat; and this led him to criticize and oppose the analytical methods which Descartes introduced into geometry about this time.
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  • Indeed both necromancer and the spirit that possessed him were sometimes identified, and the former was simply called obh.
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    0
  • Harbour and citadel have now quite disappeared, the latter having been used to fill up the former shortly after the British occupation; some gain to health resulted, but an irreparable loss to science.
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    0
  • Her former lover, the earl of Northumberland, left the court seized with sudden illness.
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  • In his ninth year (1746), during a " lucid interval of comparative health," he was sent to a school at Kingston-uponThames; but his former infirmities soon returned, and his progress, by his own confession, was slow and unsatisfactory.
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  • He renewed former acquaintance, however, with the " poet " Mallet, and through him gained access to Lady Hervey's circle, where a congenial admiration, not to say affectation, of French manners and literature made him a welcome guest.
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    0
  • His acceptance displeased some of his former political associates, and he was accused of "deserting his party."
    0
    0
  • Before Lightfoot's time commentaries, especially on the epistles, had not infrequently consisted either of short homilies on particular portions of the text, or of endeavours to enforce foregone conclusions, or of attempts to decide with infinite industry and ingenuity between the interpretations of former commentators.
    0
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  • Thus he was able often to recover the meaning of a passage which had long been buried under a heap of contradictory glosses, and he founded a school in which sobriety and common sense were added to the industry and ingenuity of former commentators.
    0
    0
  • The former episcopal see of Samland was founded by Pope Innocent IV.
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    0
  • As these lakes shrank after the return of an arid climate, they left elevated beaches and deposits of various minerals, which mark their former extent.
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  • The former, well restored by Ricci in1898-1900(except for the dome with its baroque frescoes which has not been altered), is a regular octagon, with a vestibule, originally flanked by two towers on the west, a choir added on the east, triangular outside and circular within; it is surrounded within by two galleries interrupted at the presbytery, and supported by eight large pillars, the intervals between which are occupied by open exedrae.
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  • He distinguished between an outward word of God and an inward, the former being the Scriptures and perishable, the latter the divine spirit and eternal.
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  • The means of accomplishing the former have been already pointed out, but they are obviously difficult to carry out on a large scale, particularly in native communities.
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  • In 1883 he resigned his seat in parliament owing to the reactionary measures of the government, which made it impossible for him to continue his former co-operation with Bismarck, but returned in 1887 to support the coalition of national parties.
    0
    0
  • The alliance between Owen Roe and Ormonde had been opposed by Phelim O'Neill, who after his kinsman's death expected to be restored to his former position of command.
    0
    0
  • It is customary to divide the Orthorrhapha into the two divisions Nematocera and Brachycera, in the former of which the antennae are elongate and in a more or less primitive condition, as described above, while in the latter these organs are short, and, as already explained, apparently composed of only three joints.
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  • When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
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    0
  • There were considerable Guelph and Ghibelline struggles even at Orvieto, the latter party being finally destroyed in 1313, and the representatives of the former, the Monaldeschi, obtaining the supreme power.
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  • Then (b) the former lost its independence towards the close of the 8th century B.C., when a number of its inhabitants were carried away; and the latter shared the fate of exile at the beginning of the 6th, but succeeded in making a fresh reconstruction some fifty or sixty years later.
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  • The former, however, is based upon the account of victories by the Ephraimite Joshua over confederations of petty kings to the south and north of central Palestine, apparently the specific traditions of the people of Ephraim describing from their standpoint the entire conquest of Palestine.
    0
    0
  • In the former a separate history of the northern kingdom has been combined with Judaean history by means of synchronisms in accordance with a definite scheme.
    0
    0
  • Although the latter have special late and unreliable features, they agree with the former in presenting the same general trend of past history.
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    0
  • Although no evidence is at hand, it is probable that Ahaz of Judah rendered service to Assyria by keeping the allies in check; possible, also, that the former enemies of Jerusalem had now been induced to turn against Samaria.
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  • Even members of the priestly families had intermarried with Tobiah and Sanballat; the former had his own chamber in the precincts of the Temple, the daughter of the latter was the wife of a son of Joiada the son of the high priest Eliashib.
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  • But the former gained the day, and, realizing that the only hope of maintaining a pure worship of Yahweh lay in a forcible isolation from foreign influence, its adherents were prepared to take measures to ensure the religious independence of their assembly.
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  • The great rabbinic academies at Sura and Nehardea, the former of which retained something of its dominant role till the rrth century, had been founded, Sura by Abba Arika (c. 219), but Nehardea, the more ancient seat of the two, famous in the 3rd century for its association with Abba Arika's renowned contemporary Samuel, lost its Jewish importance in the age of Mahomet.
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  • The church, it was conceived, needed defence against the synagogue at all hazards, and the fear that the latter would influence and dominate the former was never absent from the minds of medieval ecclesiastics.
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  • French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.
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  • Various customs, traditions and names of places also point to a former relation with Fiji.
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  • Candia, the former capital and the see of the archbishop of Crete (pop. in 1900, 22,501), is officially styled Herakleion; it is surrounded by remarkable Venetian fortifications and possesses a museum with a valuable collection of objects found at Cnossus, Phaestus, the Idaean cave and elsewhere.
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  • Alexander Zaimis, a former prime minister of Greece, arrived in Crete on the 1st of October.
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  • There were eserted cities falling into ruins, and others, like Chichen-itza, xmal and Tuloom, which were still inhabited by remnants of heir former Maya populations.
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  • In 649 there appears to have been a battle between the Britons and the Picts, but about this time the former must have become subject to the Northumbrian kingdom.
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  • In 711 and again in 717 we hear of further wars between the Britons and the Scots of Dalriada, the former being defeated in both years.
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  • The year is divided into two seasons - wet and dry - the former lasting from November to May.
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  • Agriculture and grazing have become the main dependence of the population - the former in the lower, forested region of the south-east, where coffee and sugar-cane - are the principal products, and the latter on the higher campos and river valleys, and on the mountain slopes, where large herds of cattle are to be found, and milk, butter and cheese are produced.
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  • It would appear probable, however, that the former of these words was derived from an Assyrian or Hebrew root, which signifies the west or setting sun, and the latter from a corresponding root meaning the east or rising sun, and that they were used at one time to imply the west and the east.
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  • The two great rivers of China, the Hwang-ho and the Yang-tsze-kiang take their rise from the eastern face of Tibet, the former from the north-east angle, the latter from the south-east.
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  • The formation of this and of the other great mountain chains of central Asia resulted in the isolation of portions of the former central sea; and the same forces finally led to the elevation of the whole region and the union of the old continents of Angara and Gondwana.
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  • The liquidambar and nutmeg may be noticed among the former; the first is one of the most conspicuous trees in Java, on the mountains of the eastern part of which the casuarina, one of the characteristic forms of Australia, is also abundant.
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  • Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
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  • The former comprised several dynasties of mixed Turki and Iranian race, but was wanting in coherency.
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  • Boo to loon attest the former prevalence of strong Hindu influence.
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  • For the rest, as regards the question of nomenclature, Reid everywhere unites common sense and reason, making the former "only another name for one branch or degree of reason."
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  • The Yarn Market, a picturesque octagonal building with deep sloping roof, in the main street, dates from c. 1600, and is a memorial of Dunster's former important manufacture of cloth.
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  • Of the former Inns of Chancery attached to these Inns of Court the most noteworthy buildings remaining are those of Staple Inn, of which the timbered and gabled Elizabethan front upon High Holborn is a unique survival of its character in a London thoroughfare; and of Barnard's Inn, occupied by the Mercer's School.
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  • Pancrazio (N.), both erected by the Pisans, the former in 1307, the latter in 1305.
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  • The province is officially divided into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and Koslin, but more historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former being applied to the territory to the west, and the latter to that to the east of the Oder.
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  • The former, however, is frequently FIG.
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  • The cavity of the former has nothing to do with coelom.
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  • As an example of the former it has been shown (Beddard) that a large median sac in Lybiodrilus is at first freely open to the coelom, that it later becomes shut off from the same, that it then acquires an external orifice, and, finally, that it encloses the ovary or ovaries, between which and the exterior a passage is thus effected.
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  • The former view has been extensively held, and it is supported by the fact that in Octochaetus the first segment of the body has a pair of nephridia which is exactly like those which follow, and, like them, persists.
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  • The former lodges the dorsal, the latter the ventral, bloodvessel.
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  • In favour of seeing in the lateral trunks and their branches a vascular system, is the contractility of the former, and the fact of the intrusion of the latter into the epidermis, matched among the Oligochaeta, where undoubted blood capillaries perforate the epidermis.
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  • In the former, the duct, leading from the ovarian sac, and swelling along its course into the spherical sac, the "spermatheca," is highly suggestive of the oviduct and receptaculum of the Eudrilidae.
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  • Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
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  • He elected to sit for the former city, and was present at the opening of the states-general on the 4th of May 1789.
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  • He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
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  • The completeness of Wolsey's fall enhanced his former appearance of greatness, and, indeed, he is one of the outstanding figures in English history.
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  • As the chief port of north-west Asia Minor, the place prospered greatly in Roman times, and the existing remains sufficiently attest its former importance.
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  • The former is divided into four parts, Ontosophy, Cosmosophy, Theosophy, Psychosophy, supplemented by a treatise on ethics and a dissertation on first causes.
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  • In 1775 he was superseded in the empress's graces by Zavadovsky; but the relations between Catherine and her former lover continued to be most friendly, and his influence with her was never seriously disturbed by any of her subsequent favourites.
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  • The princes appealed to the emperor and to the diet; but the previous wars had so exhausted the power of the former that nothing could be done to resist the aggression.
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  • In 1633, although still below the canonical age, he took holy orders, and, accepting the invitation of Thomas Risden, a former fellow-student, to supply his place for a short time as lecturer in St Paul's, he at once attracted attention by his eloquence and by his handsome face.
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  • Instead of replacing the former imposts, however, Desmarets simply added his dixieme to them; the experiment was naturally disastrous, and the idea was abandoned.
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  • This depression is supposed to be a relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system.
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  • Lower down the valley cattle-breeding is the chief source of wealth, while in the small towns and villages of the former Georgian kingdom various petty trades, exhibiting a high development of artistic taste and technical skill, are widely diffused.
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  • To the former belong the Black Sea littoral, where the rainfall averages 59 to 93 in.
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  • He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
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  • The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
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  • Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.
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  • The forests of Peak and Duffield had their separate courts and officers, the justice seat of the former being in an extra-parochial part at equal distances from Castleton, Tideswell and Bowden, while the pleas of Duffield Forest were held at Tutbury.
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  • Richmond has many fine monuments and statues of historic interest and artistic merit, the most noteworthy of the former being the Washington Monument, in Capitol Square.
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  • The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.
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  • These are Ariane (1672) and the Comte d'Essex, in the former of which Rachel attained success.
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  • Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
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  • They are in error who hold the opinion that the negligence and bad husbandry of the former owner is good for his successor.
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  • In the former treatise we have a clear and minute description of the rural practices of that period, and from the latter may be learned a good deal of the economy of the feudal system in its decline.
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  • Lime and marl are mentioned as common manures, and the former was sometimes spread on the surface to destroy heath.
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