A thin white line formed around his lips.
He's well formed, slender, not too tall, and strong - but bends with the wind.
A trail formed in any direction he wanted to walk.
He was not a very large man, but was well formed and had a beautiful face--calm and serene as the face of a fine portrait.
A middle-aged woman entered the room, her hands full of hamburger meat as she formed a patty.
Tears formed in her eyes at the heartbreaking sound of his pain.
Carmen formed the OK sign with her fingers and winked.
The people of Mangaboo now formed themselves into a procession and marched toward the glass city to escort their new ruler to her palace and to perform those ceremonies proper to the occasion.
The mating bond present last night formed anew the moment he healed her from the demon attack.
Tears formed in her eyes.
A tall perfectly formed and decorated Christmas tree stood beside the staircase.
Their truce was formed pre-Schism; they had no choice but to be friendly to one another.
Fire formed in her stomach, racing through her.
She leaned forward and he held her waist as she washed her hands and formed them into a cup.
A plan formed in her mind, and she cleared her throat.
The bronze features were smooth and perfectly formed - almost too perfect, and yet, not effeminate.
Six ladies, all carrying campaign signs, formed an honor guard around the vehicle.
Code breakers and linguists were consulted, chemists and biologists patched up their differences and worked together, and scientific groups were formed to share information and theories.
A lump formed in her throat and tears spilled from her eyes.
On each side of this is a curve formed of two rows of -HH a From Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
Its width is as a rule about 24 ft.; at present its surface is formed of rough cobbling, upon which there was probably a gravel layer, now washed away.
The name "flock" is given to a material formed of wool or cotton refuse, or of shreds of old woollen or cotton rags, torn by a machine known as a "devil."
As main arteries for this circulation of water through its system great canals, constituting in reality so many branches of the river, connected all parts of Babylonia, and formed a natural means both of defence and also of transportation from one part of the country to another.
They had evidently both formed the same resolution; the eyes of both shone with satisfaction and a confession that besides sorrow life also has joy.
The other guests, bored by his technical answers to her questions, formed their own pockets of conversations.
He was healthy and well formed with beautiful coloring.
A vision formed before him.
To her surprise, moonlight glinted off the water of the newly formed lake that filled the canyon.
Below the falls, a crescent rainbow gave color to the rising mist while sparkles of ice formed from the spray.
The warehouse was lit, but metal-framed partitions covered in sheeting formed a maze.
A large dimple formed in the upper part of his right cheek, lending character to the smooth features.
Not to be outdone, he already had another one formed and raised his hand to throw it at her.
A lump formed in her throat as she recognized Penny.
We formed our own networks along the river and joined forces with the Twelfth Army.
They walked towards the beach that had formed his prison for three days in the real world.
"I'm not sure that's all bad," her words formed with care through the slur in her voice.
It will be seen that they contain three vowel and six consonant elements, and these formed the foundation for her first real lesson in speaking.
When I first paddled a boat on Walden, it was completely surrounded by thick and lofty pine and oak woods, and in some of its coves grape-vines had run over the trees next the water and formed bowers under which a boat could pass.
His lips formed a hard line and his eyes turned cold.
The energy around them was lively; they were brothers whose bond was formed during their years in the bowels of hell.
One, chiefly masculine, had formed round the abbe.
One of the gates is formed by the quadrifrontal arch of Caracalla, a rare form of construction.
The creek flowed over a succession of rock ledges and formed pools at the edge where tadpoles swam.
Her thoughts went to Jonny, and she closed her eyes as tears formed.
He gathered his power, and an orb of light formed in his hands.
They formed a fog at her feet and trailed her toward the stairwell.
The two together formed a totally incompatible combination, yet Josh Mulligan, at least according to the curmudgeons, was a runner, too.
A new emotion formed.
What is of interest to you: the tumor in her head is formed around a soul.
The portal formed before she'd finished the sentence.
Fountains shot up from the newly formed lake nearby, and the ground rumbled again.
She tapped it against her thigh, deep in thought as an idea formed.
A mixed forest of deciduous and conifer trees formed a dense covering of mottled greens.
His shoulders and hips formed a triangle that rippled with movement.
Jenn wiped the tears that formed.
More tears formed, but she pushed them away.
The disulphide, IrS2, is formed when powdered iridium is heated with sulphur and an alkaline carbonate.
We have still to mention that aesthetics formed a principal and favourite study of Lotze's, and that he has treated this subject also in the light of the leading ideas of his philosophy.
The rival philosopher, who believes water to be continuous and without spaces between its particles, has a greater difficulty in accounting for the disappearance of the sugar; he would probably say that the sugar, and the water also, had ceased to exist, and that a new continuous substance had been formed from them, but he could offer no picture of how this change had taken place.
His opponent would be disposed to say that the iodine and the mercury ceased to exist when the red powder was formed, that they were components but not constituents of it.
He soon began to attract attention by the memoires which he read before his colleagues - papers which formed the first draft of his comprehensive work on ideology.
His ideology, he frankly stated, formed "a part of zoology," or, as we should say, of biology.
It is formed by the junction of the Bafing or Black river and the Bakhoy or White river, and its chief affluent is the Faleme.
Heated at 190-300° in a current of hydrogen it gives the oxide C0304, while at higher temperatures the monoxide is formed, and ultimately cobalt is obtained.
Cobalt dioxide, Co02, has not yet been isolated in the pure state; it is probably formed when iodine and caustic soda are added to a solution of a cobaltous salt.
The barium and magnesium salts of this acid are formed when baryta and magnesia are fused with cobalt sesquioxide.
The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.
Cobalt chloride, CoC1 2, in the anhydrous state, is formed by burning the metal in chlorine or by heating the sulphide in a current of the same gas.
Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.
Cobalt ammonium phosphate, CoNH4PO 4.12H 2 0, is formed when a soluble cobalt salt is digested for some time with excess of a warm solution of ammonium phosphate.
The hexammine salts are formed by the oxidizing action of air on dilute ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, especially in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride.
The pentammine purpureo-salts are formed from the luteo-salts by loss of ammonia, or from an air slowly oxidized ammoniacal cobalt salt solution, the precipitated luteosalt being filtered off and the filtrate boiled with concentrated acids.
They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.
He encouraged the cities, and not content with issuing proclamations against private war, formed alliances with the princes in order to enforce his decrees.
Batthyany, who formed the first responsible ministry, could not refuse to admit Kossuth, but he gave him the ministry of finance, probably because that seemed to open to him fewest prospects of engrossing popularity.
Rienzi's life and fate have formed the subject of a famous novel by Bulwer Lytton, of an opera by Wagner and of a tragedy by Julius Mosen.
But during the whole of this active life, many details of which are very interesting as illustrative of the life and manners of the time, he never lost sight of a design which he had formed at a very early period, of writing the history of those civil wars in France in which he had borne a part, and during which he had had so many opportunities of closely observing the leading personages and events.
I think that there is never any alcoholic fermentation without there being at the same time organization, development and multiplication of globules, or the continued consecutive life of globules already formed."
This body is being continually formed in the yeast cell, and decomposes the sugar which has diffused into the cell.
In most cases four spores are formed within the cell by free formation.
Duclaux found that acetic acid is formed in small quantities during fermentation; aldehyde has also been detected.
But he did not fulfil the expectations which had been formed on the strength`' of his colonial reputation; he took no very prominent part in debate, and gave little evidence of his undoubted oratorical gifts.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
These long-chinned mastodons must have had an extremely elongated muzzle, formed by the upper lip and nose above and the lower lip below, with which they were able to reach the ground, the neck being probably rather longer than in elephants.
Returning to Montevideo, he formed the Italian Legion, with which he won the battles of Cerro and Sant' Antonio in the spring of 1846, and assured the freedom of Uruguay.
Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword at the disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties with the Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 strong, but shortly after taking the field was obliged, by the defeat of Custozza, to flee to Switzerland.
Danae formed the subject of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Livius Andronicus and Naevius.
The beds are formed of horse-droppings which have been slightly fermented and frequently turned, and may be made 2 or 3 ft.
On the bank of the Tiretaine there is a remarkable calcareous spring, the fountain of St Allyre, the copious deposits of which have formed a curious natural bridge over the stream.
In some birds, such as the herons, certain down-feathers or plumulae break off into a fine dust as fast as they are formed and form tracts defined in size and situation and known as "powder-down patches."
Both the alb and its name are derived ultimately from the tunica alba, the white tunic, which formed part of the ordinary dress of Roman citizens under the Empire.
Ministers were naturally anxious to obtain the reversion to his vacant post, and Indian affairs formed at this time the hinge on which party politics turned.
With the rest of the north of England, Bridlington suffered from the ravages of the Normans, and decreased in value from £32 in the reign of Edward the Confessor, when it formed part of the possessions of Earl Morcar, to 8s.
In the new Tirard ministry formed to combat the Boulangist agitation he was minister of finance.
On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.
Thus a latent image of the " reseau-lines " will be formed on the sensitive plate, and, when the latter has been exposed to the sky in the telescope, we obtain, on development, a negative of the images both of the stars and of the reseau-lines.
The image of a normal reseau-square, as viewed in the microscope, shall exactly coincide with the square formed by the fixed webs - that is to say, the image of the sides of a normal reseau-square shall measure exactly io screw-revolutions.
The scales of the images formed in the focus of the eyepiece common to both microscopes shall be identical.
The Nerbudda river formed the boundary between the two empires.
infallibilitas, infallibilis, formed from fallor, to make a mistake), the fact or quality of not being liable to err or fail.
These professors formed the " Committee of Bonn," which organized the new Church.
BARTAN, more correctly Bartin, a town in the vilayet of Kastamuni, Asiatic Turkey, retaining the name of the ancient village Parthenia and situated near the mouth of the Bartan-su (anc. Parthenius), which formed part of the boundary between Bithynia and Paphlagonia.
Such are the various coast lagoons, formed at the mouths of streams ' See A.
in diameter; it has two or three niches, and a conical roof formed by the gradual inclination of the walls to the centre.
slabs or two small walls; the semicircular space thus formed has a diameter of about 45 ft., and was probably intended for sacrifices.
It remains, however, partly in force for Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine, which formed part of French territory in 1801.
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
In Connecticut the Susquehanna Land Company was formed in 1753 to colonize the valley, and the Delaware Land Company was formed in 1754 for the region immediately W.
A mile and a half northeast are the Falls of Bracklinn (Gaelic, "white-foaming pool"), formed by the Keltie, which takes a leap of 50 ft.
Meanwhile the king had formed an alliance with Henry VII.
After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy; but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513.
The noble buildings, contrasting strangely with the wharves adjacent and opposite to it, make a striking picture, standing on the low river-bank with a background formed by the wooded elevation of Greenwich Park.
The modern town of Megara is situated on two low hills which formed part of the ancient site; it is the chief town of the eparchy of Megaris; pop. about 6400.
It must be observed that from 639 there were generally separate mayors of Neustria, Austrasia and Burgundy, even when Austrasia and Burgundy formed a single kingdom; the mayor was a sign of the independence of the region.
It is one of the grandest hypotheses which ever have been formed to account by mechanical processes for the movements of the universe.
formed of the first two letters of the name of Christ.
He reappeared for a few months after General Pavia's coup d'Nat in January 1874, to join a coalition cabinet formed by Marshal Serrano, with Sagasta and Ulloa.
Until Trajan formed the port of Centumcellae (Civitavecchia) Ostia was the best harbour along the low sandy coast of central Italy between Monte Argentario and Monte Circeo.
The whole is still enclosed by the Byzantine walls, which follow the line of the cliffs and are carried along the sea-face; and the upper part of the level, which is separated from the lower by an inner cross wall, forms the castle; while at the highest point, where a sort of neck is formed between the two valleys, is the keep which crowns the whole.
Below the Shatt-el-Hai the country on both sides of the river is practically a swamp, except where the palm groves have formed land.
"The frolic went all over England," says Roger North; and the addresses of the Abhorrers which reached the king from all parts of the country formed a counterblast to those of the Petitioners.
The new city formed a rectangle, enclosed by a colossal mud rampart, the longer sides of which ran north and south.
The palace of the khan, with its gardens and lake, itself formed an inner enclosure fronting the south.
AISNE, a frontier department in the north-east of France, formed in 1790 from portions of the old provinces of Ile-de-France and Picardy.
She formed a deep and lasting attachment to the Chevalier d'Aydie, by whom she had a daughter.
Civil war was raging in France, and Clement became an ardent partisan of the League; his mind appears to have become unhinged by religious fanaticism, and he talked of exterminating the heretics, and formed a plan to kill Henry III.
MYAUNGMYA, a district in the Irrawaddy division of lower Burma, formed in 1893 out of a portion of Bassein district, and reconstituted in 1903.
Albanian is peculiarly interesting as the only surviving representative of the so-called Thraco-Illyrian group of languages which formed the primitive speech of the peninsula.
There are three declensions, each with a definite and indefinite form; the genitive, dative and ablative are usually represented by a single termination; the vocative is formed by a final o, as memmo from memme, " mother."
After the division of the Roman empire, the lands inhabited by the Albanian race became provinces of the Byzantine empire; northern Albania from Scutari to Berat formed the thema or province of Dyrrachium (Durazzo, Albanian Dourtz), southern Albania and Epirus the thema of Nikopolis.
In recent years attempts have been made by Albanians resident abroad to propagate the national idea among their compatriots at home; committees have been formed at Brussels, Bucharest, Athens and elsewhere, and books, pamphlets and newspapers are surreptitiously sent into the country.
The hills are formed by a short, broad, anticlinal fold, which is flat or nearly so on its summit.
In that year the newly formed Dominion of Canada bought from the company its territorial and.
io) is designed to allow more freedom of expansion and at the same time to withstand considerable pressure; one loose cast iron collar is used, and another is formed as a socket on the end of the pipe itself.
of not more than ten digits) which can be formed by the top digits of the bars when placed side by side.
They were spoken of as" the way."4 They took with them, into the new communities which they formed, the Jewish polity or rule and oversight by elders.
When a church was first formed the office bearers were elected by the people, but there the power of the congregation ceased.
In 1795, of course, everything was upset, and it was not until after the restoration of the Netherland States that a new organization was formed in 1816.
Similar associations or presbyteries were formed in London and in the midland and eastern counties; but the privy council was hostile.
Kirk-sessions were formed in four regiments, and the first regular The First presbytery was held at Carrickfergus on the Loth of Presbytery.
The commutation fund thus formed is a permanent memorial of a generous and disinterested act on the part of her ministry.
Huguenot churches were formed on Staten Island, New York, in 1665; in New York City in 1683; at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1686; at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1687; at New Rochelle, New York, in 1688; and at other places.
The union was not perfect; the presbytery of Donegal was for three years in revolt against the synod; and in 1762 a second presbytery of Philadelphia was formed; but the strength of the synod increased rapidly and at the outbreak of the War of Independence it had 11 presbyteries and 132 ministers.
But there were exceptions: Irish Presbyterians from Ulster formed a church at Londonderry, New Hampshire, which, about 1729, grew into a presbytery; the Boston presbytery, organized in 1745, became in 1774 the synod of New England with three presbyteries and sixteen ministers; and there were two independent presbyteries, that of "the Eastward" organized at Boothbay, Maine, in 1771, and that of Grafton, in New Hampshire, founded by Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers interested in Dartmouth College.
In 1847 the synod of the Free Presbyterian Church was formed by the anti-slavery secession of the presbytery of Ripley, O.
A loose union, called the "Federal Council of the Reformed Churches in America," was formed in 1894 by the churches mentioned (excepting the Southern Assembly) and the Dutch and German Reformed churches.
After the close of the war there was an influx of settlers from Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont; a town was laid out on the Van der Heyden farm, and in 1789 the name of Troy was selected in town meeting; and in 1791 the town of Troy was formed from part of Rensselaerwyck.
m.) formed part of the duchy, but it was transferred in 1847 to Modena in exchange for the communes of Bagnone, Filattiera, &c., which went to constitute the Lunigiana Parmense.
But what were islands when viewed by Overweg in 185r, formed in 1903 part of the mainland and new islands had arisen in the lake.
The members accidentally discovered that the fear of it had a great influence over the lawless but superstitious blacks, and soon the club expanded into a great federation of regulators, absorbing numerous local bodies that had been formed in the absence of civil law and partaking of the nature of the old English neighbourhood police and the ante-bellum slave patrol.
The White Camelia was formed in 1867 in Louisiana and rapidly spread over the states of the late Confederacy.
Forrest; each state was a Realm under a Grand Dragon; several counties formed a Dominion under a Grand Titan; each county was a Province under a Grand Giant; the smallest division being a Den under a Grand Cyclops.
The Cordillera, which bounds them on the west, is formed of folded beds, while the Sierras which rise in their midst, consist mainly of gneiss, granite and schist.
The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
During the Tertiary period the great volcanoes of the Andes were formed, and there were smaller eruptions in the Sierras.
On the 25th of May 1810 a great armed assembly met at Buenos Aires and a provisional junta was formed to supersede the authority of the viceroy and carry on the government.
A provisional government was formed under Urquiza, and the Brazilian and Uruguayan troops withdrew.
The dictator of Paraguay had quarrelled with Brazil for its intervention in the internal affairs of Uruguay, and he demanded free passage for his troops across refused, and alliance was formed between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, for joint action against Lopez.
broad-minded and upright, and was characterized as the " Tiro Nacional " was formed, with the avowed Nacional.
Subsidiary clubs affiliated to the central administration were formed throughout the length and breadth of the coilntry, and millions of leaflets and pamphlets were distributed broadcast to explain the importance of the movement.
Finding that the more conservative section of the union would not follow him, Alem formed a new association to which he gave the name of Union Civica Radical.
On the right the Loire receives the waters of the Furens, the Arroux, the Nivre, the Maine (formed by the Mayenne and the Sarthe with its affluent the Loir), and the Erdre, which joins the Loire at Nantes; on the left, the Allier (which receives the Dore and the Sioule), the Loiret, the Cher, the Indre, the Vienne with its affluent the Creuse, the Thouet, and the Svre-Nantaise.
Led to the ministry of commerce and industry or to that of public artment was chiefly formed.
Before I790 France was divided into thirty-three great and seven small military governments, often called provinces, which are, however, to be distinguished from the provinces formed under the feudal system.
The electoral districts so formed are expected to be equal in proportion to the number of inhabitants; but this method has led to much abuse in the past, through the making of unequal districts for partisan purposes.
The English names of the individual islands were probably given by buccaneers, for whom the group formed a convenient retreat.
It was formed in the traditional order of the galleys - a long line abreast, subdivided into the centre or "battle" commanded by Don John in person, the left wing under the proveditore Barbarigo, and the right under Gianandrea Doria.
In it we find the principles of a general interpretation, formed without the assistance of any particular philosophy, but consisting of observations and rules which, though already enunciated, and applied in the criticism of the profane writers, had never rigorously been employed in biblical exegesis.
The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.
In the lower jaw there are also one or two small and early deciduous premolars; third premolars of both jaws formed on the same type as that of the rat-kangaroos, but relatively much larger; molars rudimentary, tubercular.
These ancient opossums have been separated generically from Didelphys (in its widest sense) on account of certain differences in the relative sizes of the lower premolars, but as nearly the whole of the species have been formed .on lower jaws, of which some hundreds have been found, it is impossible to judge how far these differences are correlated with other dental or osteological characters.
The Tell el-Amarna letters show that, long before the invasion by Joshua, it was occupied by the Egyptians, and was probably a stronghold of considerable importance, as it formed a good strategical position in the hill country of southern Palestine.
of the Temple and probably formed the basis of the citadel built by Simon Maccabaeus, which again was succeeded by the fortress of Antonia, constructed by Herod the Great, and one of the most important positions at the time of the siege by Titus.
About the middle of the 12th century the country was subdued by the duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, who founded a bishopric at Ratzeburg, and after Henry's fall in 1180 it formed part of the smaller duchy of Saxony, which was governed by Duke Bernhard.
These formed a single building, which was still intact goo years ago, and was used as the mosque of the then existing city of Istakhr.
Boron bromide BBr 3 can be formed by direct union of the two elements, but is best obtained by the method used for the preparation of the chloride.
Boron nitride BN is formed when boron is burned either in air or in nitrogen, but can be obtained more readily by heating to redness in a platinum crucible a mixture of one part of anhydrous borax with two parts of dry ammonium chloride.
It is also formed when ortho-aminodiphenylamine is distilled over lead peroxide (0.
By the entrance of amino or hydroxyl groups into the molecule dyestuffs are formed.
It is obtained by the oxidation of orthophenylene diamine with ferric chloride; when a mixture of para-aminodimethylaniline and meta-toluylenediamine is oxidized in the cold, toluylene blue, an indamine, being formed as an intermediate product and passing into the red when boiled; and also by the oxidation of dimethylparaphenylene diamine with metatoluylene diamine.
It is formed by reducing diortho-dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150° C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid.
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily underwent an important modification when the local sanctuaries were abolished under the "Deuteronomic" reform, and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's time formed the essence of every act of religion were limited to the central altar, which most men could visit only at rare intervals.
The estimate to be formed of this reasoning has been well stated by Dr A.
It is perfectly straight, and formed of old houses, on which remain the armorial bearings of the members of the order.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The coal-seams must have been formed in wellwatered, lowland forests, at the foot of a high mountain range, built up by the Devonian earth movements.
The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.
These movements in the south-east formed the Great Valley of Victoria, which traverses nearly the whole of the state between the Victorian highlands to the north, and the Jurassic sandstones of the Otway Ranges and the hills of south Gippsland.
The sea encroached far on the land from the Great Australian Bight and there formed the limestones of the Nullarbor Plains.
The great monoclinal fold which formed the eastern face of the east Australian highlands, west of Sydney, is of later age.
Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.
Rough sculptures, too, were found, and two large square mounds formed of loose stones, and yet perfect parallelograms in outline, placed due east and west.
The bones are delicately formed, and there is the lack of calf usual in black races.
Their dwellings for the most part are either bowers, formed of the branches of trees, or hovels of piled logs, loosely covered with grass or bark, which they can erect in an hour, wherever they encamp. But some huts of a more substantial form were seen by Captain Matthew Flinders on the south-east coast in 1799, and by Captain King and Sir T.
A population of 30,000, three- New fourths of them convicts, formed the infant common- South wealth, whose attention was soon directed to the profit- wales.
The six colonies entering the Commonwealth were denominated original states, and new states might be admitted, or might be formed by separation from or union of two or more states or parts of states; and territories (as distinguished from Provisions states) might be taken over and governed under the legis- of the Act lative power of the Commonwealth.
This subsequently formed the first plank of the Labour platform.
The party is, however, formed on a broader basis than the state parties, the solidarity pledge extends only to votes upon which the fate of a government depends.
A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.
It was the same question that formed the chief subject of debate over the Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Act, which, after causing the defeat of more than one ministry, passed through the Commonwealth parliament in 1904.
He thus formed his style, which was artificial and conventionally decorative.
The island of Terschelling once formed a separate lordship, but was sold to the states of Holland.
which up to 1634 formed one 74 ?l )?
The king of the Belgians having formed an International African Society, de Lesseps accepted the presidency of the French committee, facilitated M.
Still more original and remarkable, however, was that part of his system, fully stated in his Laws of Thought, which formed a general symbolic method of logical inference.
While still an undergraduate he formed a league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the famous struggle of "d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation of Sir Isaac Newton.
The analytical society thus formed in 1813 published various memoirs, and translated S.
Here we are concerned only with their earlier history, which is put for convenience under this heading in order to separate the account of the period when they formed practically a single area for historical purposes from that of the time when Holland and Belgium became distinct administrative units.
Under Augustus, 15 B.C., the relations conquered territory was formed into an imperial with the province, Gallia Belgica, and the frontier line, the Romans.
The Batavians served with fidelity and distinction in all parts of the empire, and from the days of Augustus onwards formed a considerable part of the Praetorian guard.
This middle kingdom formed a long strip stretching across Europe from the North Sea to Naples, and embraced the whole of the later Netherlands with the exception of the portion on the left bank of the Scheldt, which river was made the boundary of West Francia.
In 879 East Francia acquired the whole; from 912 to 924 it formed part of West Francia.
By this instrument the deputies of Hainault, Artois and Douay formed themselves into a league for the defence of the Catholic religion, and, subject to his observance of the political stipulations of the Union of Brussels, professed loyal allegiance to the king.
Ulster (Uladh) was one of the early provincial kingdoms of Ireland, formed, according to the legendary chronicles, at the Milesian conquest of the island ten centuries before Christ, and given to the descendants of Ir, one of the sons of Mileadh.
It is to the collections formed by these baru-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles guiding the interpretation of the signs.
All the lakes of the state were formed by glaciation.
As a result, New York and New Hampshire formed a secret agreement to divide the state between themselves, the mountains to be the line of division.
A laboratory method is to mix solutions of sodium nitromethane, CH 2: NO(ONa), and mercuric chloride, a yellow basic salt being formed at the same time.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
Fermanagh was formed into a county on the shiring of Ulster in 1585 by Sir John Perrot, and was included in the well-known scheme of colonization of James I., the Plantation of Ulster.
Monoecious, and bearing their male flowers in catkins, they are readily distinguished from the rest of the catkin-bearing trees by their peculiar fruit, an acorn or nut, enclosed at the base in a woody cup, formed by the consolidation of numerous involucral bracts developed beneath the fertile flower, simultaneously with a cup-like expansion of the thalamus, to which the bracteal scales are more or less adherent.
The most durable of fences are those formed of small oaks, split lengthwise by the wedge into thin boards.
Some oaks are of indirect importance from products formed by their insect enemies.
Plots were formed for his assassination.
1 The treaty of Pinerolo withdrew the edict ordering the persecutions, but they were soon afterwards renewed, and in 1658 formed the subject of another remonstrance by Cromwell to Louis XIV.
Vevey was a Roman settlement [Viviscus] and later formed part of the barony of Vaud, that was held by the counts and dukes of Savoy till 1536, when it was conquered by Bern.
The port is formed by a stone reef running parallel with and a half-mile from the shore line, within which vessels of light draft find a safe anchorage, except from southerly gales.
5-20, may in most cases have formed part of the Greek original.
He regarded the world as formed by inferior spirits who are out of harmony with the supreme unity, knowledge of which is the true Gnosis.
Their territory formed part of the modern Croatia.
Under the empire Arvernia formed part of Prima Aquitania, and the district shared in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods.
At the time of the revolution it formed what was called a "government," with two divisions: Upper Auvergne (Aurillac), and Lower Auvergne (Clermont).
The coast is low and sandy and is formed by the detritus deposited by the sea current called Calema.
thick, and of irregular length, generally about 3 ft., probably formed and dried in situ."
The tertiary glycols are known as pinacones and are formed on the reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.
(I) In the former class the eggs are extruded with the faeces, and the young become fully formed within the egg, and when accidentally swallowed by their host are liberated by the solvent action of the gastric juice and complete their development.
Four graving docks were also formed, opening out of the first (Upnor) basin.
in founding a regular navy began to establish dockyards, and the harbour formed by the deep channel of the Medway was utilized by Elizabeth, who built a dockyard and established an arsenal here.
2 In the 15th century the custom became almost universal of following the procession with the performance of miracle-plays and mysteries, generally arranged and acted by members of the gilds who had formed part of the pageant.
Sometimes, especially in the case of overhead travelling cranes for very heavy loads, the chain is a special pitch chain, formed of flat links pinned together, and the barrel is reduced to a wheel provided with teeth, or " sprockets," which engage in the links.
Worm wheel gearing is of very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken on ball bearings.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
The married couple formed a unit as to external responsibility, especially for debt.
The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.
Assisted by the duke of Ossuna, viceroy of Naples, he formed a plan to bring the city into the power of Spain, and the scheme was to be carried out on Ascension Day 1618.
A coarse screw-thread is formed in the upper part of the inner cup, and this screws on to the end of the iron bolt by which it is supported.
Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.
13; in this arrangement the needle strikes against small tubes formed of tin-plate.
This slip is then passed through a transmitter fitted with brush contacts and connected to the two line wires of a metallic loop. One circuit is formed by the loop itself, and a second, quite independent, by the two wires in parallel, earthed at each end.
The writing, although not well formed, is sufficiently distinct for ordinary messages; the figures 3, 5, and 8 are, however, liable to be mistaken for each other, being very similar in appearance.
The keyboard has five keys similar to those of a piano, and the letters and figures are obtained by the different combinations which can be formed by the raised and depressed keys.
comparatively heavy moving parts of which the land line instruments are formed.
The Electric Telegraph Company, formed to undertake the business of transmitting telegrams, was incorporated in 1846.
Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
Even the London District Telegraph Company, which was formed in 1859 for the purpose of transmitting telegraph messages between points in metropolitan London, found that a low uniform rate was not financially practicable.
He proposed that one ship should be provided with the means of making an interrupted current in a circuit formed partly of an insulated metallic wire connected with the sea at both ends by plates, and partly of the unlimited ocean.
The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.
adjust the frequency so that it has the value of the normal time period of the circuit formed of the condenser and transformer secondary circuit, and thus it is possible to obtain condenser oscillatory discharges free from any admixture with alternating current arc. In this manner the condenser discharge can be started or stopped at pleasure, and long and short discharges made in accordance with the signals of the Morse FIG.
In England, in addition to the Marconi Company, the Lodge-Muirhead Syndicate was formed to operate the inventions of Sir Oliver Lodge and Dr Muirhead.
The electric arc is formed between cooled copper (positive) and carbon (negative) electrodes in an atmosphere of hydrogen or coal-gas.
Cadmium salts can be recognized by the brown incrustation which is formed when they are heated on charcoal in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe; and also by the yellow precipitate formed when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed though their acidified solutions.
This formed a local circuit at the transmitting station.
The Edison Telephone Company of London was formed.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868 out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866, namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main, parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the countship of HesseHomburg, together with certain small districts which belonged to Bavaria.
The mouth of the pitcher has a corrugated rim (peristome) formed by incurving of the margin, the convex surface of which is firm and shining.
Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.
entrusted the collection of this tax to Master Boiamund (better known as Bagimund) de Vitia, a canon of Asti, whose roll of valuation formed the basis of ecclesiastical taxation for some centuries.
p, Pistillate, s, staminate flowers; h, sterile flowers forming a circlet of stiff hairs closing the mouth of the chamber formed by the lower part of the spathe.
The hair imported into Europe is chiefly used in the manufacture of small brushes used by painters, while the thick hide is formed into a very durable leather.
The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.
They have been already noticed in connection with the rivers by which they are formed, but may be again enumerated in order of succession.
All the other lakes of Central Italy, which are scattered through the volcanic districts west of the Apennines, are of an entirely difierent formation, and occupy deep cup-shaped hollows, which have undoubtedly at one time formed the craters of extinct volcanoes.
The depression was probably formed during the later stages of the growth of the Alps.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
The army consists of 96 three-battalion regiments of infantry of the line and 12 of bersaglieri (riflemen), each of the latter having a cyclist company (Bersaglieri cyclist battalions are being (1909) provisionally formed); 26 regiments of cavalry, of which 10 are lancers, each of 6 squadrons; 24 regiments of artillery, each of 8 batteries; I I regiment of horse artillery of 6 batteries; I of mountain artillery of 12 batteries, and 3 independent mountain batteries.
From 1871 to 1894 it was assessed at 13.20% of taxable income, this quota being formed of 12% main quota and 1.20% as an additional tenth.
The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended sense of the term, as including the Ager Gallicus, along the coast of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated from Etruria on the west by the Tiber.
The arrangements thus established by Augustus continued almost unchanged till the time of Constantine, and formed the basis of all subsequent administrative divisions until the fall of the Western empire.
A race was formed strong enough to keep the empire itself in check, strong enough, except for its own internecine contests, to have formed a nation equal to its happier neighbors.
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.
These formed the aristocracy of the town, who by their wealth and birth held its affairs within their custody.
But, in the interval between his second and third visit, a league was formed against him in north-eastern Lombardy.
In April 1167 a new league was formed between Cremona, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua and Ferrara.
New houses rise into importance; a new commercial aristocracy is formed.
The first Italian who formed an exclusively Italian company was Alberico da Barbiano, a nobleman of Romagna, and founder of the Milanese house of Belgiojoso.
In his school the great condottieri Braccio da Montone and Sforza Attendolo were formed; and henceforth the battles of Italy were fought by Italian generals commanding native troops.
In 1032 be was obliged to act in concert with a senate, called pregadi; and in 1172 the grand council, which became the real sovereign of the state, was formed.
Formed for mercenary warfare, they proved a perilous instrument in the hands of those who used them, and were hardly less injurious to their friends than to their foes.
The Quadruple Alliance was formed, and the new king of Sicily was punished for his supposed adherence to Philip V.
Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were formed into a duchy for Don Philip, brother of Charles III.
The third coalition was formed between Great Britain, Russia and Austria, Naples soon joining its ranks.
At Milan, where there was a division of opinion between tha monarchists under Casati and the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration was formed and the question of the form of government postponed for the moment.
In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revel ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned exile Gioberti formed a new ministry.
A provisional government was formed, led by Ubaldino Peruzzi, and was strengthened on the 8th of May by the inclusion of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, a man of great force of character, who became the real head of the administration, and all through the ensuing critical period aimed unswervingly at Italian unity.
But on the I4th of June the municipality formed a provisional government and proclaimed annexation to Piedmont; L.
The municipality of Bologna formed a Giunta, to which Romagna and the Marches adhered, and invoked the dictatorship of Victor Emmanuel; at Perugia, too, a provisional government was constituted under F.
Bands of desperadoes Ri(re formed, commanded by the most infamous criminals and by h~s cigners who came to fight in what they were led to believe was 1 Italian Vende, but which was in reality a c~impaign of butchery cot 1 plunder.
Ever since Venetia had been ceded by ~ Austria to the emperor Napoleon, and by him to Italy, ~ after the war of 1866, secret revolutionary committees had been formed in the northern Italian provinces to prepare for the redemption of Trent and Trieste.
On 12th July Cairoli formed a new administration, only to resign on 24th November, and to reconstruct his cabinet with the help of Depretis.
A few days later he was succeeded in the premiership by the marquis di Rudini, leader of the Right, who formed a coalition cabinet with Nicotera and a part of the Left.
The Saracco administration, formed after the obstructionist crisis of 1899190o as a cabinet of transition and pacification, was ganar- overthrown in February 1901 in consequence of its dciii-.
At first they wrote in Greek, partly because a national style was not yet formed, and partly because Greek was the fashionable language amongst the educated, although Latin versions were probably published as well.
The same authority tells us that he was initiated by his father in those field sports, such as hunting and hawking, which formed one of his recreations in after life.
Only second in importance to this was the re-adjustment of the creed and liturgy of the church, which formed Cranmer's principal work during the latter half of his life.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
Becoming more violent Thistlewood formed other plots, talked of murdering the prince of Wales, and was sentenced to a year's imprisonment for challenging the home secretary, Lord Sidmouth, to a duel.
These speculations may be said to have formed the foundation on which the theory of the sacrifice, as propounded in the Brahmanas, has been reared.
Its provisions, real and imaginary, formed the standard towards which Englishmen must strive.
A committee is to be formed of twenty-five barons.
By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.
The villains, who formed the majority of the population, got very little from it; in fact the only clauses which protect them do so because they are property - the property of their lords - and therefore valuable.
A theory of a still continuing subsidence of the islands was formed by Kurz in 1866 and confirmed by Oldham in 1884.
Outrages on shipwrecked crews continued so rife that the question of occupation had to be taken up again; and in 1855 a project was formed for such a settlement, embracing a convict establishment.
(3) The gonads, whether formed in the polyp or the medusa, are developed in the ectoderm.
The entire nematocyst is enclosed in the cnidoblast which formed it.
A third point of dispute is whether the nematocysts ar:e formed in situ, or whether the cnidoblasts migrate with them to the region where they are most needed; the fact that in Hydra, for example, there are no interstitial cells in the tentacles, where nematocysts are very abundant, is certainly in favour of the view that the cnidoblasts migrate on to the tentacles from the body, and that like the genital cells the cnidoblasts are wandering cells.
on the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.
As a general rule polyp-buds are produced from the hydrorhiza and hydrocaulus, while medusa-buds are formed on the hydranth.
In some cases, however, medusabuds are formed on the hydro rhiza, as in Hydrocorallines.
- Diagram of sympodial 18) there is formed a main stem budding, uniserial type, shown on tithe i ma in t emeafh r m s polyp in four stages (1-4).
In this way are formed the familiar feathery colonies of Plumularia, in which the pinnules are all in one plane, while in the allied Antennularia the pinnules are arranged in whorls round the main biserial stem.
The laws of branch formed by similar budding from 1; budding in hydroids a 2 -d 2 from 2, and so forth.
As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
In the endoderm large concretions are formed (con.).
The process carrying the otolith outer side of a or concretion hk, formed by endoderm cells, is tentacle, two enclosed by an upgrowth forming the " vesicle," nerves run round which is not yet quite closed in at the top. the base of the (After Hertwig.) tentacle to it.
A similar ocellus is formed in Aurelia among the Scyphomedusae (q.v.).
In some Leptomedusae the gonads are formed on the radial canals and form protruding masses resembling sporosacs superficially, but not in structure.
formed as a perfora nal view.
43, A); in this the mouth is formed distally as a perforation (B); next the sides of the tube so formed bulge out laterally near the attachment to form the umbrella, while the distal undilated portion of the tube represents the manubrium (C); the umbrella now grows out into a number of lobes or lappets, and the tentacles and tentaculocysts grow out, the former in a notch between two lappets, the latter on the apex of each lappet (D, E); finally, the velum arises as a growth of the ectoderm alone, the whole bud shapes itself, so to speak, and the little medusa is separated off by rupture of the thin stalk connecting it with the parent (F).
Finally, a mouth is formed by breaking through at the apex of the manubrium, and the now fully-formed medusa becomes separated by rupture of the stalk of the bud and swims away.
The entocodon is usually formed, proving the medusoid nature of the bud, but in sporosacs the entocodon may be rudimentary or absent altogether.
45, C, ed.) may be formed over all, as in Garveia, &c.; or the entocodon may remain solid and without cavity until after the formation of the manubrium, or may never acquire a cavity at all, as described above for the gonophores.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
By a simple modification, the open pit becomes a solid ectodermal ingrowth, just as in Teleostean fishes the hollow medullary tube, or the auditory pit of other vertebrate embryos, is formed at first as a solid cord of cells, which acquires a cavity secondarily.
Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.
No regular follicle is formed, but the odcyte absorbs nutriment from the remaining odgonia.
When the blastula is oval and freeswimming the inner mass is formed by unipolar immigration from the hinder pole.
In Ieptolinae the embryonic development culminates in a polyp, which is usually formed by fixation of a planula (parenchymula), rarely by fixation of an actinula.
The medusa arises direct from the actinulastage and there is no entocodon formed, as in the budding described above.
Mechnikov considered the plate thus formed at the base of the polyp as equivalent to the umbrella, and the body of the polyp as equivalent to the manubrium, of the medusa; on this view the marginal tentacles almost invariably present in medusae are new formations, and the tentacles of the polyp are represented in the medusa by the oral arms which may occur round the mouth, and which sometimes, e.g.
manubrium and In C the marsupium (m) is formed as finger-like another below the process from the summit of the blastostyle, en closing the acrocyst; b, medusa-buds on the radial canal in blastostyle.
The living tissues at the surface are cut off from the underlying dead portions by horizontal partitions termed tabulae, which are formed successively as the coenosteum increases in age and size.
The nearest approach to the Stylasteridae is perhaps to be found in Ceratella, with its arborescent trophosome formed of .anastomosing coenosarcal tubes supported by a thick perisarc and covered by a common ectoderm.
In Aeginopsis a planula is formed by multipolar immigration.
Cunoctantha fowleri Browne, buds are formed from the sub-umbrella on the under side of the stomach pouches, where later the gonads are developed.
It buds medusae from the margin of the mouth in May and June, and in August and September the gonads' are formed in the place where the buds arose.
In Microhydra no such protecting case is formed.
Haeckel regarded the whole structure as a glandular ectodermal pit formed on the exumbral surface of a medusa-person.
Hence the cavity of the air-sack is equivalent to a sub-umbral cavity in which no manubrium is formed, and the pore or orifice of invagination would represent the margin of the umbrella.
The endoderm of the planula now acquires a cavity, and at the narrower pole a mouth is formed, giving rise to the primary siphon.
The northern horn of the bay is formed by Filey Brigg, a narrow and abrupt promontory, continued seaward by dangerous reefs.
All living and sentient things are formed out of insentient atoms.
The worlds, or systems of worlds, which fill infinite space are continually being formed and destroyed.
A system begins to be formed, and the secular arm supports empire the decrees of the Church.
For the episcopal churches of Sweden and Finland the first constitution or " Church order " was formed in 1571.
After 1714 it formed part of the Austrian Netherlands, and in 1794 became the capital of the French department of the Scheldt.
They numbered 40,000 to 50,000 infantry, and formed the greater part of the Russian armies in the wars of the 16th and 17th centuries.
They are formed of trachyte, dolerite and basalt.
in length, planted beside a stream, formed in twelve years trunks io in.
Soon after the apothecaries were formed into a separate company they took into consideration means to prevent the frauds and adulterations practised by the grocers and druggists, and, to remedy the evil, established a manufactory of their own in 1626 so that they might make preparations for their own members.
With the erection of Maesyfed into the shire of Radnor in 1536 Rhayader was named as assize-town for the newly formed county in conjunction with New Radnor; but in 1542, on account of a local riot, the town was deprived of this privilege in favour of Presteign.
2 2 a latter case with the formation of a blue solution which on heating, becomes colourless, molybdenum trioxide being formed with the liberation of sulphur dioxide.
Molybdenum sesquioxide, Mo 2 O 3, a black mass insoluble in acids, is formed by heating the corresponding hydroxide in vacuo, or by digesting the trioxide with zinc and hydrochloric acid.
Molybdenum dioxide, Mo02, is formed by heating sodium trimolybdate, Na2M03010, to redness in a current of hydrogen (L.
south-west of Lucknow, and formed from early times a frontier outpost of the people of Oudh and Bengal against their northern neighbours.
What characterizes a tadpole is the conjoined globular head and body, so formed that it is practically impossible to discern the limit between the two, sharply set off from the more or less elongate compressed tail which is the organ of propulsion.
The skeleton is cartilaginous, and the skull is remarkable for the very elongate suspensorium of the lower jaw; the tail remains in the notochordal condition, no cartilages being formed in this organ, which is destined to disappear with the gills.
The fore limbs grow simultaneously, and even more rapidly, but remain concealed within a diverticulum of the branchial chambers until fully formed, when they burst through the skin (unless the left spiraculum be utilized for the egress of the corresponding limb).
by Haute-Marne; it was formed in 1790 from Basse-Champagne, and a small portion of Burgundy.
The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.
In GY~~1NospERMsso-called because the ovules (and seeds) are borne on an open sporophyll or carpelthe microsporophylls and macrosporophylls are not as a rule associated in the same shoot and are generally arranged in cone-like structures; one or two small prothallial cells are formed in the germination of the microspore; the male cells are in some older members of the group motile though usually passive.
The ovule is not enclosed in an ovary, and the usually solitary macrospore becomes filled with a prothallus, in the upper part of which are formed several rudimentary archegonia.
Other pits, connecting cells not belonging to the same branch, are, however, formed at a later stage.
a solid mass of cells, formed by cell division in all directions of space.
The whole of the tissue of the plant is formed by the division of this apical cell.
In whatever way the tissues are originally formed, however, the main features of their differentiation are the same.
The simpler Fungi, like the simpler Green Algae, consist of single cells or simple or branched cell-threads, but among the higher kinds a massive body is often formed, particuTissue t~Jf larly in con nexion with the formation of spores, and, er~n,~,onthiS may exhibit considerable tissue-differentiation.
It always consists of true parenchyma, and is entirely formed by the cutting off of segments from an apical cell.
These three concentric tissue mantles are evidently formed by the conjoined bases of the leaf traces, each of which is composed of the same three tissues.
The sharp, broken end penetrates the skin, and into the slight wound thus formed the formic acid contained by the hair is injected.
This tissue remains living and is usually formed quiti early, just below the epidermis, where it provides the first periphera support for a still growing stem or petiole.
Sclerenchyma may bi formed later in various positions in the cortex, according to loca needs.
The whole of the middle lamella or originally formed cell-wall separating one from another disappears before the adult state is reached, so that the walls of the hydroids consist of a framework of lignified bars, with open communication between the cell cavities.
The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls.
The structure formed by a number of such cells placed end to end is called a sieve-tube (obviously comparable with a xylem-vessel), and the end-wall or area of endwall occupied by a group of perforations, a sseve-plate.
1, v.), so that the endodermal cells cannot be split apart to admit of the formation of intercellular spaces, and an air-tight sheath is formed round the cylinder.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.
The gaps in the outer tubular stele, however, are formed by the departure of aerial branch-traces, instead of leaf-traces as in the ferns.
The first formed portion of the stern in all species of Selaginella which have been investigated possesses an exarch haplostele.
Leaf-gaps are formed in essentially the same way as in the ferns, but when in the case of a plurifascicular trace the bundles are distributed at intervals round the cylinder it is obvious that several gaps must be formed as the different bundles leave the stele.
In other cases the reduction goes much further, till the endodermis eventually comes to surround nothing but an intercellular channel formed in place of the stelar tissue.
20) mission,) which are formed from rows of menFie.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
In many Pteridophytes thi first leaf is formed very early, and the first vascular strand i!
developed at its base, usually becoming continuous with the cylinde of the root; the strand of the second leaf is formed in a similar wa~ and runs down to join that of the first, so that the stem stele is forme.
In the seed-forming plants (Phanerogams) one or more primary leaves (cotyledons) are already formed in the resting embryo.
When a given initial cell of the cambium has once begun to produce cells of this sort it continues the process, so that a radial plate of parenchyma cells is formed stretching in one plane through the xylem and phloem.
The fibrous bands are generally formed towards the end of the years growth in thickness.
The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.
Heart-wood is first formed at very different epochs in the life of a tree, according to the speciese.g.
In many annual plants no cambium is formed at all, and the same is true of most perennial Pteridophytes and Monocotyledons.
In that case either very little secondary tissue is formed, as in the gourds, some Ranunculaceae, &c., or a considerable amount may be produced (clematis, barberry, ivy).
If this division occurs by means of a localized secondary meristem connecting the cambial layers of adjacent bundles, an inlerfascicular is formed in addition to the fascicular cambium.
In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.
Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed.
An ordinary cambium is scarcely ever found in the Monocotyledons, but in certain woody forms a secondary meristem is formed outside the primary bundles, and gives rise externally to a little secondary cortex, and internally to a secondary parenchyma in which are developed numerous zones of additional bundles, usually of concentric structure, with phloem surrounded by xylem.
In either case, narrow, secondary rays are formed at intervals, just as in the stem.
Cork is also formed similarly in the root after the latter has passed through its primary stage as an absorptive organ, and its structure is becoming assimilated to that of the stem.
The internal tissue formed by the phellogen is known as phelloderm, and consists usually of ordinary parenchyma.
The lenticels of the stem are usually formed beneath stomata, whose function they take up after the stomata have been ruptured and cast off with the rest of the epidermis.
Eventually the new phellogens reach the level of the secondary phloem, and are formed in the parenchyma of the latter, keeping pace in their inward march with the formation of fresh secondary phloem by the cambium.
A layer of cork is regularly formed in most Phanerogams across the base of the petiole before leaf fall, so as to cover the wound caused by the separation of the leaf from the stem.
Special wound-cork is also often formed round accidental injuries so as to prevent the rotting of the tissues by the soaking in of rain and the entrance of fungal spores and bacteria.
A peculiar modification of periderm is formed by the phellogen in the submerged organs (roots or stems) of many aquatic or marsh-loving plants.
He produced a solid body of accurately described facts which has formed the secure groundwork of subsequent advance.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
If formed, as it probably is, it is immediately changed into some more complex combination, and so rendered incapable of exerting its poisonous action.
Nor is the nature of the first formed sugar certain; the general opinion has been that it is a simple hexose such as glucose or fructose, C6Hi2O,.
Its very prompt appearance, as soon as the apparatus became active, led to the opinion formerly held, that the work of the latter was complete only when the starch was formed.
Opinions are conflicting also as to the conditions, under which proteids are formed.
The relations of the Alga and the Fungus, which have formed a close associationship in the structure known as the Lichen, were established many years ago.
The other constructive processes, which arc dependent partly upon the oxidation of the carbohydrates so formed and therefore upon an expenditure of part of such energy, also mar]~ the storage of energy in the potential form.
The root is continually growing and so the sensitive part is continually changing its composition, cells being formed, growing and becoming permanent tissue.
The nervous mechanism thus formed is very rudimentary, but in.
The layer of cork thus formed cuts out the dead debris and serves to, protect the uninjured cells below.
The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.
The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.
Evidence is not wanting, however, that the cytoplasm must be regarded as, fundamentally, a semifluid, homogeneous substance in which by its own activity, granules, vacuoles, fibrils, &c., can be formed as secondary structures.
The outermost, newly formed layer is composed of a more homogeneous, denser substance than the inner one, and can be distinguished in all starch-grains that are in process of development.
2, L), a nucleolus appears, a nuclear membrane is formed, and daughter nuclei are thus constituted which possess the same structure and staining reactions as the mother nucleus.
Hartog has endeavoured to show that it can only he formed by a dual force, analagous to that of magnetism, the spindle-fibi es being comparable to the lines of force in a magnetic field and possibly due to electrical differences in the cell.
In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.
In Fucus and allied forms the spindle-fibres between the daughter nuclei disappear early and the new cell-wall is formed in the cytoplasm.
The growth of the cell-wall takes place by the addition of new layers to those already formed.