Formations sentence example
At many of the mines at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, large quantities of ores of telluride of gold have been found in the lode formations.
The types of vegetation (tropical forests, sclerophyllous forest, temperate forests, tundra, &c.) thus briefly outlined are groups of Schimpers climatic formations.
The geological formation includes (like that of Java) three regions - the central volcanic, the southern peninsula of Tertiary limestone, and alluvial plains between the older formations.
The fossils are few, and in some cases probably derived from the underlying formations.
Teeth and jaws probably referable to the Condylarthra have been obtained in European early Tertiary formations.Advertisement
Ephemeridae belong to a very ancient type of insects, and fossil imprints of allied forms occur even in the Devonian and Carboniferous formations.
Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.
Even the Scotland series probably belongs to the Tertiary system, but owing to the want of characteristic fossils, it is impossible to determine with any degree of certainty the precise homotaxis of the several formations.
The formation is noted for its regularity as regards both the thickness and the gold-tenor of the ore-bearing reefs, in which respect it is unparalleled in the geology of the auriferous formations.
The Blue Clay forms, at the higher levels, a stratum impervious to water, and holds up the rainfall, which soaks through the spongy mass of the superimposed coralline formations.Advertisement
It occurs in such abundance in certain geological formations as to give rise to the name of green-sand.
Similar formations are found in the Mediterranean, where a dark mud predominates in the western part, passing into a grey, marly slime in the Tyrrhenian Basin and replaced by a typical calcareous ooze in the Eastern Basin.
Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
It varies in colour from a light brown in the newest lignites to a pure black, often with a bluish or yellowish tint in the more compact anthracite of the older formations.Advertisement
The uppermost portion of the Coal Measures consists of red sandstone so closely resembling that of the Permian group, which are next in geological sequence, that it is often difficult to decide upon the true line of demarcation between the two formations.
Fossils of both vertebrates and invertebrates are also common in the Permian and Jurassic formations.
West of the volcanic region, nearer to Lake Victoria and the Eastern province, ironstone, granite, gneiss and schistose formations predominate, with phonolite in places.
Gneiss, granite and quartz - the decomposed granite giving the red " African " clay - are the leading features in the formations of the Northern province, of Buganda, and of the Western province, with some sandstone in the littoral districts of Buganda and in Ankole, and eruptive rocks.
Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe; while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver, Trogontherium cuvieri, representing a genus by itself.Advertisement
They are found in formations of all ages from the Cambrian to those which are accumulating at the present day.
In the older formations the phosphates tend to become more and more mineralized by chemical processes.
A more durable and more beautiful stone for building is the reddish or reddish-brown Potsdam sandstone of which there are extensive formations on the N.W.
There are extensive formations of granitic rocks in the Adirondacks, in the.
The higher elevations are mostly either Archean or Paleozoic formations projecting above Tertiary deposits.Advertisement
Interesting fossil remains have also been found in Carboniferous formations in the south-west of the state.
The Lower Tertiaries are represented by three different formations known as the Thanet beds, the Woolwich and Reading beds, and the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds.
Lime is obtained from the Chalk and Greensand formations.
Slates belong mostly to the older geological systems, being commonest in Pre-Cambrian, Cambrian and Silurian districts, though they may be found of Carboniferous or even of Tertiary age, where mountain-building processes have folded and compressed these more recent formations.
Gulf of Gabes I o g Lemg.W.of Greenwicir 0 Longitude East of Greenwich B 4 D very complete sequence of formations from the Lias to those of recent date.Advertisement
At the close of the Lower Miocene period (beds with Ostrea crassissima) great modifications in the relief and limits of the Algerian formations took place.
In Italy, where shells of the subApennine formations were discovered in the extensive quarrying for the fortifications of cities, the close similarity between these Tertiary and the modern species soon led to the established recognition of their organic origin.
Geikie assigns high rank to Jean Etienne Guettard (1715-1786) for his treatises on fossils, although admitting that he had no clear idea of the sequence of formations.
Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750-1817), the famous exponent of the aqueous theory of earth formation, observed in successive geological formations the gradual approach to the forms of existing species.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.Advertisement
Observing for himself (1794-1800) the stratigraphic value of fossils, he began to distinguish the great Mesozoic formations of England (1801).
These and other early monographs on the Tertiary shells of the Paris basin, of the environs of Bordeaux, and of the sub-Apennine formations of Italy, brought out the striking distinctness of these faunas from each other and from other molluscan faunas.
The short-horned Asiatic goats of the genus Hemitragus receive mention in the article Tahr; but it may be added that fossil species of the same genus are known from the Lower Pliocene formations of India, which have also yielded remains of a goat allied to the markhor of the Himalayas.
They occur in the Lower Chalk formations, and in Tertiary times were widely diffused; the genus is represented in the Eocene flora of Great Britain, and in the succeeding Miocene period was widely distributed in Europe and western Asia.
The same Paiaeozoic formations that are folded in the belt of the Alleghany ridges lie nearly horizontal in the plateau district next north-west.Advertisement
Again, in Kentucky and Tennessee, there is a double alternation of sandstone and limestone in the plateau-making strata; and as the skyline of the plateau bevels across these formations, there are west-facing escarpments, made ragged by mature dissection, as one passes from the topographically strong sandstone to the topographically weak limestone.
An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
The Pocky The upturned stratified formations wrap around the Mountains.
Along the eastern side of the Front Range in Colorado most of the upturned stratified formations have been so well worn down that, except for a few low piedmont ridges, their even surface may now be included with that of the plains, and the crystalline core of the range is exposed almost to the mountain base.
The Plateau province, next west of the southern Rocky Mountains, is characterized for the most part by large-textured forms, developed on a great thickness of nearly horizontal Palaeozoic, The Plateau Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, and by a dry climate.Advertisement
The results of the first cycle of erosion are seen in the widespread exposure of the resistant Carboniferous limestone as a broad platform in the south-western area of greater uplift through central Arizona, where the higher formations were worn away; and in the development of a series of huge, south-facing, retreating escarpments of irregular outline on the edges of the higher formations farther north.
Gold occurs in quartz veins traversing various formations (some as young as Jurassic), and also in gravels, which were for the most part deposited previous to the uplift of the Sierra block.
All the great systems of rock formations are represented in the United States, though close correlation with the systems of Europe is not always possible.
Prolerozoic (Algonkian) Systems.The Proterozoic group of rocks (called also Algonkian) includes all formations younger than the Archean and older than the Palaeozoic rocks.
The Proterozoic formations have a wide distribution.Advertisement
The Proterozoic formations are unconformable on the Archean in most places where their relations are known.
The first of these differences between the two systems is significant of the dynamic changes suffered by the Archean before the beginning of that part of the Proterozoic era represented by known formations.
The Proterozoic formations have been studied in detail in few great areas.
One of these is about Lake Superior, where the formations have attracted attention on account of the abundant iron ore which they contain.
The Proterozoic formations in other parts of the continent cannot be correlated in detail with those of the Lake Superior region.
The Proterozoic formations have yielded a few fossils in several places, especially Montana and northern Arizona; but they are so imperfect, their numbers, whether of individuals or of species, are so small, and the localities where they occur so few, that they are of little service in correlation throughout the United States.
The Cambrian formations have not been notably metamorphosed, except in a few regions where dynamic metamorphism has been effective.
The succession of formations in that state is as follows Upper Ordovician (or J and Indiana).
There is in some places an unconformity between the Richmond beds (or their equivalent) and underlying formations, and this unconformity, together with certain palaeontological considerations, has raised the question whether the uppermost part of the system, as outlined above, should not be classed as Silurian (Upper Silurian).
Either this part of the continent was largely land at this time, or the Silurian formations here have been worn away or remain undifferentiated.
The formations most widely recognized are the Helderberg limestone, the Onondaga limestone and the Hamilton shale.
Here clastic rocks predominate, while limestone is more abundant in the interior, If the maximum thicknesses of all Devonian formations be added together, the total for the system is as much as 15,000 ft.; but such a thickness is not found in any one pluce.
The system is well developed in the Mississippi Basin, whence its name, Its formations are much more widespread than those of any other system since the Ordovician.
When deposition was renewed in the interior of the continent, the formations laid down were largely non-marine, and, over great areas, they rest upon the Mississippian unconformably.
The dominantly terrestrial formations of the eastern half of the country are in contrast with the marine formations of the west.
West of the Rocky Mountainf the Permian has not been very generally separated from overlying and underlying formations, though it has been differentiated in a few places, as in south-western Colorado and in some parts of Arizona.
The Upper Jurassic formations are much more widely distributed.
In this great bay formations of marine origin were laid down.
The Comanchean formations are found (I) on the inland border of the coastal plain of the Atlantic (Potomac series) and Gulf coasts (Tuscaloosa series at the east and Comanchean at the west); (2) along the western margin of the Great Plains and in the adjacent mountains; and (3) along the Pacific coast west of the Sierras.
In the first two of these positions, the formations show by their fossils that they are of terrestrial origin in some places, and partly of terrestrial and partly of marine origin in others.
Widespread changes at the end of the period exposed the areas where deposition has been in progress during the period to erosion, and the (Upper) Cretaceous formations rest upon the Comanchean unconformably in most parts of the country.
It is found (1) on the Atlantic coastal plain, where it laps up on the Comanchean, or over it to older formations beyond its inland margin; (2) on the coastal plain of the Gulf region in similar relations; (3) over the western plains; (4) in the western mountains; and (5) along the Pacific coast.
The formations are mostly incoherent, and have nearly their original position.
On the Pacific coast the Cretaceous formations are sometimes grouped together under the name of Chico.
The distribution of the Chico formations is similar to that of the Comanchean system in this region.
Tertiary Systems.The formations of the sevefl Tertiary peripds have many points of similarity, but in some respects they are sharply differentiated one from another.
They consist, in most parts of the country, of unconsolidated sediments, consisting of gravel, sand, clay, &c., together with large quantities of tuff, volcanic agglomerate, &c. Some of the sedimentary formations are of marine, some of brackish water, and some of terrestrial origin.
The marine Tertiary formations are confined to the borders of the continent, appearing along the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts.
The brackish water formations occur in some parts of the same general areas, while the terrestrial formations are found in and about the western mountains.
In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.
The thickness of the system in the west is great, the formations of each of the several stages mentioned above running into thousands of feet, as thicknesses are commonly measured.
The terrestrial Miocene formations of the western part of the country are similar in kind, and, in a general way, in distribution, to the Eocene of the same region.
The non-marine formations of the Pliocene are its most characteristic feature.
In origin and character, and to some extent in distribution, they are comparable with the Eocene and Miocene formations of the same region, and still more closely comparable with deposits now making.
In addition to these non-marine formations of the west, there is the widespread Lafayette formation, which covers niuch of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain, reaching far to the north from the western Gulf regio,1, and having uncertain limits, so far as now worked out, in various directions.
Under these conditions sediments from the high lands were washed out and distributed widely over the plains, giving rise to a thin but widespread formation of ill-assorted sediment, without marine fossils, and, for the most part, without fossils of any kind, and resting unconformably on Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene formations.
The careful study of these fluvial formations is likely to throw much light on the history of the deformative movements and changes in topography in the United States during the late stages of geological history.
On the Pacific coast marine Quaternary formations occur up to elevations of a few scores of feet, at least, above the sea.
The thicknesses, especially where the formations are metamorphosed, are uncertain.
It receives its name from its soil (weathered from the weak underlying limestone), which is black in colour, almost destitute of sand and loam, and rich in limestone and marl formations, especially adapted to the production of cotton; hence the region is also called the "Cotton Belt."
North of the mineral region is the "Cereal Belt," embracing the Tennessee Valley and the counties beyond, whose richest soils are the red clays and dark loams of the river valley; north of which are less fertile soils, produced by siliceous and sandstone formations.
Nearly 85% of the coal is produced in three counties (Jefferson, Walker and Bibb), though the coal-bearing formations cover about 40% of the northern half of the state.
The latter are represented in the Upper Cambrian formations, together with Lamellibranchia and Gastropoda, and there are no earlier Molluscan fossils than these.
It may be mentioned, however, that the distribution of these later Tertiary types accords very closely with that of their existing relatives; the families of South American hystricoids being represented by a number of extinct genera in the formations of Argentina and Brazil.
The whole island, composed as it is of various limestone formations, presents great diversity of surface, and the prospects from the more elevated spots are magnificent.
The chief geological formations belong to the Cretaceous system, backed towards the north and east by Jurassic and Triassic formations.
In this case the carbonaceous beds-coal-seams-naturally appealed most strongly to the imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in none of these does it play so prominent a part.
Hence vertical sections of the Carboniferous formations of Britain differ greatly according to the districts in which they are taken.
Besides the considerable exposed area of Carboniferous rocks in Great Britain, there is as much or more that is covered by younger formations; this is true particularly of the eastern side of England and the south-eastern counties, where the coal-measures have already been found at Dover.
Glacial deposits certainly do exist in the Permo-carboniferous formations, which are described under that head, but in the true Carboniferous system glaciation may be taken as not proven.
Within the Carboniferous rocks, but due to the action of various agencies long after their deposition, are important ore formations; such are the Rio Tinto ores of Spain, the lead and zinc ores and some haematite of the Pennine and Mendip hills and other British localities, and many ore regions in the United States.
These of course are the oldest of our ores, and from deposits of like age, especially those of the more readily decomposed silicates, has come the iron which now exists in the siderites and red and brown haematites of the later geological formations.
On the left bank this clay has been reached at a lower level, at the foot of the Pincian Hill, while in the Campagna it has been found to extend below the later volcanic formations.
The southern and larger part of the Rhine province, belonging geologically to the Devonian formations of the lower Rhine, is hilly.
Africa during the Cretaceous period (after the deposition of the Stormberg beds), and drilled these enormous craters through all the later formations.
The fluvio-marine deposits of the Upper Eocene and Oligocene formations contain an interesting mammalian fauna, proving that the African continent formed a centre of radiation for the mammalia in early Tertiary times.
In the south-western parts a succession of strata, described as the Brown Coal or Lignite formations, intervenes between the chalk and the boulder clay; its name is derived from the deposits of lignite which occur in it.
It is only on the island of Bornholm that older formations come to light.
There the boulder clay lies immediately on the primitive rock, except in the south-western corner of the island, where a series of strata appear belonging to the Cambrian, Silurian, Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, the true Coal formation, &c., being absent.
Coral formations on heights in the interior would indicate oscillations of the land in several periods, but a detailed geology of the island is wanting.
If in its extension to contain the new formations within it the embryo-sac remains narrow, endosperm formation proceeds upon the lines of a cell-division, but in wide embryo-sacs the endosperm is first of all formed as a layer of naked cells around the wall of the sac, and only gradually acquires a pluricellular character, forming a tissue filling the sac. The function of the endosperm is primarily that of nourishing the embryo, and its basal position in the embryo-sac places it favourably for the absorption of food material entering the ovule.
It is believed, however, that the Devonian fossil, Nematophycus, is a Laminarian alga, but it is not until the late Secondary and the Tertiary formations that fossil remains of algae become frequent.
These are covered by the successive formations of the Carboniferous system.
In process of time the whole of these deposits might be denuded from the area, and there might even remain no trace of the younger formations on which the valleys began and which guided their excavation.
Immense -sheets of dolerite, gabbro, or allied basic rocks indicate eruptive materials intruded as sills or poured out as lavas contemporaneously with the sedimentary formations among which they lie.
The presence of these fossils indicates that the eruptions were subaerial, and a comparison of them with those elsewhere found among Older Tertiary strata shows that they probably belong to the Oligocene stage of the Tertiary series of formations, and therefore that the basalt eruptions took place in early Tertiary time.
Fossil as well as living animals engaged his attention, and in his studies of the strata around Paris he was instrumental in establishing the Tertiary formations.
The glacial origin of the Pamir valleys is everywhere apparent in their terrace formations and the erratic blocks and boulders that lie scattered about their surface.
The Eocene beds are folded with the Cretaceous, and in many places the two formations have not yet been separately distinguished.
Gold is found both in alluvial and quartz formations, the quartz being especially rich.
It includes the Chul formations through which the Russo-Afghan boundary runs.
Between the debouchment of the Upper Murghab from the Firozkhoi uplands into the comparatively low level of the valley above Bala Murghab, extending eastwards in a nearly straight line to the upper sources of the Shibarghan stream, the Band-i-Turkestan range forms the northern ridge between the plateau and the sand formations of the Chul.
The Damuda series, the middle division of the Lower Gondwanas, is the chief source of coal in Peninsular India, yielding more of that mineral than all other formations taken together.
Where the volcanic formations were spread uniformly over the flanks of the mountains, the contrast between the canyons and the plain-like region of gentle slope in which they have been excavated is especially marked and characteristic. The eastern slope is very precipitous, due to a great fault which drops the rocks of the Great Basin region abruptly downward several thousand feet.
The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.
The former extension of Rhaetic, Liassic and Cretaceous formations in the island is indicated by the presence of fragments of these strata in a large volcanic vent on the plateau, on the south side of the road leading from Brodick to Shiskine.
Finally the basic dykes of dolerite, basalt and augite-andesite are abundant and traverse the various sedimentary formations and the granite.
Limestone occurs in thick formations near Lava Creek, and in the valley of the East Fork of the Yellowstone river; also near the summit of the Owl Creek range, and in the Wind River range.
The sedimentary deposits were formerly believed to be Palaeozoic, but Jurassic fossils have since been found in them, and it is probable that several different formations are represented.
Murchison naturally made the most of the fossils collected, and was soon able to show that the transition series could be recognized by them, just as younger formations had fossils peculiar to themselves; as he zealously worked on he followed the fossiliferous rocks further afield and continually lower in the series.
These formations lie at the base of the lowest Cambrian strata and may possibly be included in the pre-Cambrian, though in Norway they are clearly resting upon a striated floor of crystalline rocks.
Coral formations are abundant; immense reefs, both barrier and fringing, skirt both coasts, often enclosing wide channels between the reef and the land.
The "cascades" are wonderful formations like foaming cataracts caught in mid-air and transformed into milk-white or amber alabaster.
The shores of the Bosporus are composed in the northern portion of different volcanic rocks, such as dolerite, granite and trachyte; but along the remaining course of the channel the prevailing formations are Devonian, consisting of sandstones, marls, quartzose conglomerates, and calcareous deposits of various kinds.
Then the country came once more under the sea, and the debris of the previous formations, mixed with fragments from the volcanoes then situated in West Finland, formed the so-called Bothnian series.
The outline of the mountains is generally rounded, the rocks having been subjected to erosion from a very early geological age, but hard formations cause bold peaks at several points, as in Kebnekaise and the Sarjeksfj ?,ll.
Roman remains have been found in the vicinity; and, the geological formations exhibiting the process of silting up of a former river channel are exposed in the quarries, and contain large mammalian remains.
The names and words of the Scythians (Scoloti) in South Russia, which Herodotus has preserved, are for the most part perfectly transparent Iranian formations, identified by Zeuss and MUllenhoff; among them are many proper names in Arfis(Apto--) and aspa (horsecuriror; Zend, aspa).
The botryoidal formations hanging by thousands in Mary's Vineyard resemble mimic clusters of grapes, as the oulopholites resemble roses.
Neglecting second reserve formations, therefore, the paper dispositions gave Thrace 23 and Macedonia 22 divisions, to either of which might be added a further 18.
The Mitchelstown limestone caves, exhibiting beautiful stalactite formations, are 6 m.
The more ancient geological formations are scarcely met with in Schleswig-Holstein.
The rock formations are of sand stone and limestone, while the forests are either a tangled growth of pine and spruce or a scattered growth of small trees on a sandy soil.
The' four topographic belts of the state correspond very closely to the outcrops of its geological formations; the rocks of the Appalachian belt being of Palaeozoic age; the formation of the Highlands, Archaean; that of the Triassic Lowland, Triassic; that of the irregular hills of the Coastal Plain, Cretaceous and Tertiary.
In Palaeozoic formations, from the Upper Devonian onwards, numbers of shrimp-like forms are found which have been referred to the Schizopoda and the Decapoda, but here again the scanty information which may be gleaned as to the structure of the limbs rarely permits of definite conclusions as to their affinities.
He compared the fossil with the living organisms, and distinguished marine and fiuviatile formations.
Contemporary igneous outbursts are extremely common in some of the ancient formations, and add, by their resistance to atmospheric erosion, to the extreme ruggedness of the scenery.
Thus the Chalk appears to run in four diverging fingers from the centre or palm on Salisbury Plain, other formations lying wedge-like between them.
A few small elevations of gravel, or of underlying formations, rise above the level of 25 ft.; these were in former times islands, and now they form the sites of the infrequent villages.
But, on the other hand, the broad clay plains of all formations, the Cretaceous sandstones, and the Triassic plain, are peopled more densely than any other district without mineral wealth or sea trade.
Almost every one of the principal geological formations may be studied in England with comparative ease.
Its central core of Lower Carboniferous rock is broadly displayed towards the north, while southward it contracts; on either side lie the younger rocks, the coal-fields, the Permian strata and the Triassic formations, the last-named, while sweeping round the southern extremity of the Carboniferous axis of the uplift from its eastern and western flanks, spread out in a large sheet over the midland counties.
Again, in the Hampshire Basin and Isle of Wight, Eocene and Oligocene formations rest upon the Chalk.
And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer (Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become disintegrated and dislocated.
By the banks of the rivers occur the" gallery "formations; i.e.
There is evidence also that glacial moraine formations from time to time may have largely affected the catchment area of these tributary streams. It would be as rash to assert that from Lake Victoria no waters could ever have issued with an eastward flow as it would be to state that 'from Chakmaktin none ever flow westwards.
These ranges contain remarkable rock formations, towers, battlements and pinnacles crowning the hills.
Chief of these formations is a gigantic pillar some 450 ft.
Geologically, Banka resembles the Malay Peninsula, its formations being mainly granite, Silurian and Devonian slate, frequently covered with sandstone, laterite (red ironstone clay) of small fertility, and alluvium.
Lake Superior lies in a deep rift in rocks principally of Archean and Cambrian age, of the Laurentian, Huronian and Keweenaw formations, rich in minerals that have been extensively worked.
It contains many remarkable formations; and its display of helictites, or twisted stalactites, is unsurpassed.
The districts near the sea consist entirely of alluvial formations; and, indeed, it is stated that no substance so coarse as gravel occurs throughout the delta, or in the heart of the provinces within 400 m.
The general trend of the outcrops of the various formations is from south-west to north-east; the dip is south-easterly.
Its high crystalline rocks, covered with sedimentary formations, descend abruptly towards the delta, but more gradually towards the south, where the Bulgarian steppes encroach upon Rumanian soil.
Superficially, each is a simple rolling plateau, much broken by erosion (though considerable undissected areas drained by underground channels remain), especially in the east, and dotted with hills; some of these are residual outliers of the eroded Mississippian limestones to the west, and others are the summits of an archaean topography above which sedimentary formations that now constitute the valley-floor about them were deposited and then eroded.
Jacob's Cavern (q.v.), near Pineville, McDonald county, disclosed on exploration skeletons of men and animals, rude implements, &c. Crystal Cave, near Joplin, Jasper county, has its entire surface lined with calcite crystals and scalenohedron formations, from I ft.
The haematites are found not only in the archean porphyries but in Cambrian limestone and sandstone, and in the sub-Carboniferous formations; while the limonites are confined almost exclusively to the Cambrian.
Usually the changes are such that it is impossible even to recognize the formations in successive photographs.
The helium formations do not reach the sun's limb, and it is another puzzling detail that the spectrum of the disk shows no absorption line of anything like an intensity to correspond with the emission line of helium in the chromosphere.
They no doubt represent formations of widely different ages, but all that can be said is that they are greatly older than the Cape System.
Throughout the course of the river Severn, the head-waters of which are chiefly supplied from such formations, this rate does not materially change, even down to the city of Worcester, past which the discharge flows from 1,256,000 acres.
In the eastern and south-eastern counties of England even greater variety of dry weather flow prevails than in the west, and upon the chalk formations there are generally no surface streams, except such as burst out after wet weather and form the so-called " bournes."
Among the sedimentary rocks we have, for example, in the clay slates of the Silurian formations, rocks no less cracked and fissured than others, but generally quite impermeable by reason of the joints being packed with the very fine clay resulting from the rubbing of slate upon slate in the earth movements to which the cracks are due.
On a small scale, however, springs are fairly distributed over the United Kingdom, for there are no formations, except perhaps blown sand, which do not vary greatly in their resistance to the percolation of water, and therefore tend to produce overflow from underground at some points above the valley levels.
The principal water-bearing formations, utilized in Great Britain by means of deep wells, are the Chalk and the New Red Sandstone.
A well sunk in these formations without striking any fissure or water-bearing flint bed, receives water only at a very slow rate; but if, on the other hand, it strikes one or more of the natural water-ways, the quantity of water capable of being drawn from it will be greatly increased.
It is a notable peculiarity of the Upper and Middle Chalk formations that below their present valleys the underground water passes more freely than elsewhere.
In practice it is usual in chalk formations to imitate artificially the action of such underground watercourses, by driving from the well small tunnels, or " adits " as they are called, below the water-level, to intercept fissures and water-bearing beds, and thus to extend the collecting area.
Next in importance to the Chalk formations as a source of underground water supply comes the Trias or New Red Sandstone, consisting in Great Britain of two main divisions, the Keuper above and the Bunter below.
Hence it arises that, in sand formations, only shallow wells or small boreholes are commonly found.
Precisely the same thing happens in the actual crust of the earth, except that, in the formations usually met with, the strata are so irregularly permeable that no such uniform percolation occurs, and most of the water, instead of oozing out near the sea-level, meets with obstructions which cause it to issue, sometimes below the sea-level and sometimes above it, in the form of concentrated springs.
Representatives of all the Tertiary formations are met with in Turkestan; but while in the highlands the strata are coast-deposits, they assume an open sea character in the lowlands, and their rich fossil fauna furnishes evidence of the gradual shallowing of that sea, until at last, after the Sarmathian period, it became a closed Mediterranean.
The latter's elaborate plans go on the supposition that great masses of men, women and children could be moved about over the desert as easily as pawns on a chess-board; but even the greatest military leader the world has seen would have been unable to preserve such complicated formations amid the difficulties inevitable on a desert march; and the more carefully an intelligent reader has studied the details of P's plan, the more astonished will he be to read the statement in x.
Remains of extinct bisons, some of gigantic size, occur in the superficial formations of North America as far south as Texas.
Compared with these two systems, all other formations have an insignificant development.
All over Iceland, in both the basalt and breccia formations, there occur small intrusive beds and dikes of liparite, and as this rock is of a lighter colour than the basalt, it is visible from a distance.
It is not till Silesia that the Palaeozoic formations again rise to the surface.
It has floras of the plains, the hills and the mountains; an alpine flora, and an arctic flora; a flora of marshes, and a flora of steppes; floras peculiar to the clay, the chalk, the sandstone and the slate formations.
There are also found in both regions numerous masses of igneous rocks, both plutonic and volcanic, in some places of considerable extent, which pierce through and overflow the earlier formations.
The following formations are represented i.
Westward of and above these strata, the Middle and Upper Jurassic formations are found (Lias, Lower Oolite, Oxfordian, &c.), with well-marked and numerous fossils (Ammonites, Nerinaea, Natica, Astarte, Rhynchonella, Echinodermata, &c.); then the Cretaceous rocks, both these and the Jurassic series being largely developed, the Cretaceous fossils including Nautilus, Belemnites, Ostrea, Gryphaea, &c., and some very large Ammonites (Pachydiscus).
The formations older than the mesozoic are remarkably unfossiliferous, so that the determination of their age is frequently a matter of speculation, and in the following table the European equivalents of the pre-Karroo formations in many regions must be regarded as subject to considerable revision.
Along the coastal margins they underlie the newer formations and appear in the deep valleys and kloofs wherever denudation has laid them bare.
They are unfossiliferous, and in the absence of undoubted Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian strata in Africa they may be regarded as of older date than any of these formations.
The general occurrence of jasper-bearing rocks is of interest, as these are always present in the ancient pressure-altered sedimentary formations of America and Europe.
Some unfossiliferous conglomerates, sandstones and dolomites in South Africa and on the west coast are considered to belong to the Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian formations, but merely from their occurrence beneath strata yielding Devonian fossils.
The Devonian and Carboniferous formations are well represented in the north and south and in northern Angola.
Preserved in the formation known as the Dwyka Conglomerate, are evidences that at this time the greater portion of South Africa was undergoing extreme glaciation, while the same conditions appear to have prevailed in India Table Of Formations Sedimentary.
Except in northern Africa, the Tertiary formations only occur in a few isolated patches on the east and west coasts.
Whilst the later Secondary and Tertiary formations were being laid down in North Africa and around the margins of the rest of the continent, Africa received its last great accumulation of strata and at the same time underwent a consecutive series of earth-movements.
The geological formations for the most part extend in parallel belts, nearly in the line of the length of the county, from north to south, and succeed one another in ascending order from west to east.
To this succeed the Oolite formations.
The soils vary considerably, according to the geological formations; ten or twelve different kinds may be found in going across the country from east to west.
As the period advanced, along the very line that had been occupied by the nummulitic sea (Tethys) the crust began to be folded up, giving rise to the Alps, Carpathians, Caucasus, Himalayas and other mountains, some of the early Tertiary marine formations being now found raised more than 16,000 ft.
The primitive formations of the range, of which little beyond the French portions had previously been studied, are shown to be almost all continued diagonally on the Spanish side, and the central ridge thus presents the appearance of a series of wrinkles with an inclination.
The buttes are characteristically Arikaree or Gering formations topping Brule clay.
No Archean rocks are exposed in Nebraska, and the sedimentary formations are undisturbed in situ.
It was once generally supposed that the Pliocene epoch in Nebraska was distinguished by the activity of geysers; but the so-called geyserite " now known commonly and correctly as " natural pumice " and " volcanic ash," which is found in the Oligocene and later formations, has no connexion whatever with geysers, but is produced by the shattering of volcanic rock.
The Carboniferous formations carry only thin seams of coal, never thicker than about 2 ft., and rarely readily accessible, and they can never be of more than small and merely local importance.
Various volcanic rocks are the predominant formations, but beds of limestone also occur, giving rise to numerous stalactite grottoes all over the island.
In many cases, however, the placentas are formations from the axis (axile), and are not connected with the carpellary leaves.
During recent times the most destructive were those of, 8 r 1, 1820, 1840 and 1893; and, although the prevailing geological formations are sedimentary, chiefly calcareous, there seems no doubt that these disturbances are of igneous origin.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry, the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north.
They extend back through the Devonian, possibly to the Silurian system, but the systematic summary now to be given is based primarily on the rich materials afforded by the Carboniferous and Permian formations, from which our detailed knowledge of Palaeozoic plants has been chiefly derived.
The Cretaceous deposits just described are followed by a series of Tertiary formations, but in Europe the continuity between Cretaceous and Tertiary is not quite complete.
The Tertiary formations have been assigned to six periods; these are termed - Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and each has its own botanical peculiarities.
This circumstance makes it difficult to compare the flora with that of other formations, for not only is it uncertain which leaves and fruits belong to the same plant, but there is the additional source of doubt, that different elements of the same flora may be represented at different localities.
The hypothesis of the original nebular condition of the system, with the consequent explanation of the great phenomena of planetary formations and movements of the satellites and rings, is unquestionably to be assigned to Kant.
Many of them are derived from the glacial boulder-clays, or from the washing away of the finer materials contained in older clay formations.
Laminated clays of this sort are generally known as shales; they occur in many formations but are very common in the Carboniferous.
The hallmark lesions of these diseases are vacuoles and plaques, which are small round formations consisting of deposits of a protein called amyloid.
Finally black specs appear in my sights and I see three formations, possibly 18 twin-engined bombers.
This occurred concurrent with platform lengthening at the station's eastern end, allowing the station to accommodate twelve-vehicle electric formations.
Round the next corner were some highly congenial formations.
We are given a talk each morning on the day's activities, which includes a diatribe on geological formations of the canyon.
Outside the cell, collagen molecules become aligned in parallel formations, and then they link up laterally to form fibrils.
There is a noticeable absence of formations in this section of the cave, no doubt due to the effect of the seasonal floodwaters.
The groups were set tasks which required them to list geological formations that would be caused by given agents of erosion.
Observe the abundance of marine life that inhabit these tropical waters and marvel at the brilliant display of colorful coral formations.
The prisoners blasted through rock formations to form cuttings.
Dry stone walls and simple cloud formations can provide a pleasing picture.
Just outside look for Spur and Grove formations - narrow canyons of corals are great for spotting grouper and the occassionally eel.
The formations are magnificent and anyone interested in cave photography should have a heyday in there.
Here formations are fairly infrequent, apart from large stal flows cascading down from the old upper series passages.
The older formations can be upside down (tectonically inverted ).
A mineral compound, asbestos is the common name for a group of six naturally occurring fibrous minerals found in certain rock formations.
The 3 mudstone formations There are three different mudstone formations There are three different mudstone formations found in the study area.
We also saw nudibranches, arrow crabs, sea anemones, the rock formations - nothing big.
Socio-economic formations never appear in a chemically pure form.
Ahead, an ascending rift, covered in ' popcorn ', was not pushed further to avoid damage to formations.
Usually they fly in short " v " shaped formations with other V shapes tucked into the slipstream.
The formations started immediately at the entrance, huge stalagmites 40 to 50 foot high, massive flowstone.
A series of dramatic granitic pinnacles just break the surface and are the home for giant stingrays, reef sharks and pristine coral formations.
They include fantastic rock formations, karst cliffs and caves and terraces of calcareous tufa.
The geology of the earth actually is a beautiful mosaic of rock formations that confirm the historical veracity of Noah's Flood.
Little visited, this park has rushing waterfalls, extraordinary rock formations, and hidden caves.
Before proceeding further it may be mentioned that the remains of many of these mammals are very scarce, even in formations apparently in every -way suitable to the preservation of such fossils, and it hence seems probable that these creatures are stragglers from a country where primitive small mammals were abundant.
This range separates the Bay of Bengal from the Andaman Sea; and it contains much that is geologically characteristic of the Arakan Yoma, and formations common also to the Nicobars and to Sumatra and the adjacent islands.
The scrub of West and South Australia in its ecological aspect resembles so completely the other sclerophyllous formations that a description of it must seem a repetition.
As the shore line of the Gulf slowly receded southward and westward, the sediment at its bottom gradually came to the surface, and constituted the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations.
By his researches on the migration of the white corpuscles of the blood Cohnheim, on the bases laid by Virchow, brought the processes of inflammation within the scope of the normal, seeing in them but a modification of normal processes under perturbations of relatively external incidence; even the formation of abscess was thus brought by him within the limits of perversion of processes not differing essentially from those of health; and "new formations," "plastic exudations," and other discontinuous origins of an "essential" pathology, fell into oblivion.
From the pass it drops over the gradually decreasing grades of a wide sweep of Chol (which here happens to be locally free from the intersecting network of narrow ravines which is generally a distinguishing feature of Turkestan loess formations) for a distance of 35 m.
The Quaternary period includes an older stage containing fragments of fossils from the underlying formations; a later stage containing the bones of Hippopotamus, Elephas, Rhinoceros, Camelus, Equus; and finally the vast accumulations of sand which began to be formed in prehistoric times.
In the middle section, as already stated, the Great Valley is somewhat open on the east, by reason of the small height and broad interruptions of the narrow crystalline belt; on the west it is limited by the complex series of Alleghany ridges and valleys; in the north-east section the valley is strongly enclosed on the east by the New England uplands, and on the west by the Adirondacks and Catskills (see below); in the south-west section the valley broadens from the North Carolina highlands on the south-east almost to the Cumberland plateau on the north-west, for here also the ridge-making formations weaken, although they do not entirely disappear.
Traced eastward into north Germany, Thuringia and Silesia, the limestones pass into the detrital culm formations, which owe their existence to a southern uplifted massif, the complement of the synclines already mentioned.
Usually they fly in short " V " shaped formations with other V shapes tucked into the slipstream.
The cave contains a large amount of stalactite formations, much of which is stained by various other minerals.
The whole area is protected because of the amazing rock formations and stork colonies.
Thus it is fascinating to note that limestone aquifers are the major exception to crop formations occurring over chalk substrata.
The substratum of the soil is partially transition rock, and greywacke in all its various formations is prevalent.
Mr Sheppard said he has lost crops worth hundreds of pounds, trampled underfoot by people who swarm to see the crop formations.
The delicate travertine formations of upstream hall and the 15m high downstream cascade are worth to be seen.
The geology of the earth actually is a beautiful mosaic of rock formations that confirm the historical veracity of Noah 's Flood.
Geologists study the earth and the various rock formations.
The exquisite views of lover's beach and the rock formations are magnificent.
One of the first things to understand when you are trying to learn to play jazz guitar is that there are certain chord formations and chord types that make music sound "jazzy".
Take a walk with a loved one and share the beauty of nature such as flowers in a park, birdsong, or changing cloud formations.
You can also set up V formations so that moving one ball makes it the third in two diagonals, which results in all five balls bouncing out and your score going up.
Inherited conditions include too many or too few teeth, too much or too little space between teeth, irregular mouth and jaw size and shape, and atypical formations of the jaws and face, such as a cleft palate.
Crossovers and weaving motions are used in the dance to form intricate shapes and formations not found elsewhere.
It also added yet another version, the "tango hustle", created specifically for the film but turning into a very popular two-person dance, taking it out of the group formations.
While competition dance costumes are an important part of your routine, the most important element should remain the steps, figures, and formations that your team executes.
Form and Compass schools are complex systems of land formations and compass directions that are used for various calculations.
Red Rock Canyon and its fantastic rock formations, the forbidding yet fascinating Death Valley, and Hoover Dam and adjacent Lake Mead are all within a short drive from Las Vegas.
The area is known for its arid, desert-like climate, its dramatic rock formations, and its world-class sports fishing.
Uneven formations This is important not only for the overall look of your routine but also for the safety of your cheerleaders.
They can be seen sitting on twisted dead trees or wicked rock formations.
Bath bombs, or "fizzies," are small, solid, ball-shaped formations that effervesce in the water.
The key to finding a catalog is to think outside the box much as the majorette uniform has been re-thought to highlight the athleticism of the body, as well as the dance and movement formations that are performed.
The desert was flat, the rock formations and canyons plentiful.
Under the heading of Multituberculata will be found a brief account of certain extinct mammals from the Mesozoic formations of Europe and North America which have been regarded as more or less nearly related to the monotremes.
Dr Jack, late government geologist of Queensland, considers the extent of the coal-fields of that state to be practically unlimited, and is of opinion that the carboniferous formations extend to a considerable distance under the Great Western Plains.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
Mechnikov considered the plate thus formed at the base of the polyp as equivalent to the umbrella, and the body of the polyp as equivalent to the manubrium, of the medusa; on this view the marginal tentacles almost invariably present in medusae are new formations, and the tentacles of the polyp are represented in the medusa by the oral arms which may occur round the mouth, and which sometimes, e.g.
It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift.
The latter may develop stereom, and may also be the seat of origin of new formations of various kindse.g.
On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
Steppe and desert formations are of the open type.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
The pseudo-coprolites of the Suffolk Crag have been estimated by Herapath to be as rich in phosphates as the true ichthyo-coprolites and saurio-coprolites of other formations, the proportion of P 2 O 5 contained varying between 12.5 and 37.25%, the average proportion, however, being 32 or 33%.
Over the greater part of the Cambrian country the strata are still nearly as flat as when they were first laid down, and the deposits, even of the Cambrian period, are as soft as those of the Mesozoic and Tertiary formations in England.
The older formations are nearly all overlaid by deposits of the Quaternary period, which will be described last.
Wherever stratification is observed in these formations in Mississippi, it shows a dip west and south of 20 or 30 ft.
There are four formations of Cretaceous strata in Mississippi, defined by lines having the same general direction as the one just described.
Seven formations (or groups) of the Tertiary strata have been distinguished in Mississippi.
The Vicksburg formation lies next in order south-west, in a narrow strip of fairly regular width which alone of the Tertiary formations runs as far west as the Mississippi River; it is probably nowhere more than 110 ft.
The Grand Gulf group, of formations of different ages, consisting of sands, sandstones and clays, and showing a few fossil plants, but no marine fossils, extends southward from the last to within a few miles of the coast, and is 750-800 ft.
The older formation of the Quaternary period is the Lafayette (also called "Orange-sand" or "stratified drift"), which immediately overlies all the Cretaceous groups except the prairies of the Selma chalk, and all the Tertiary except the Porters Creek and Vicksburg formations and parts of the Jackson.
The unlookedfor discovery in France of remains which he has referred to, forms now existing it is true, but existing only in countries far removed from Europe, forms such as Collocalia, Leptosomus, Psittacus, Serpentarius and Trogon, is perhaps even more suggestive than the finding that France was once inhabited by forms that are wholly extinct, of which in the older formations there is abundance.
It should be pointed out that the deposits which have been hitherto of chief commercial importance occur in the old rocks (Carboniferous to Silurian) on the one hand, and in the comparatively new Tertiary formations on the other, the intermediate periods yielding but little or at any rate far less abundantly.
It is one of the most rapid and economical which can be employed in soft formations, but where hard rock is encountered it is almost useless.
The prevailing formations appear to be granites which are veined with white quartz, and underlie old sedimentary brown sandstone and limestone formations.
Important formations of chromite are found at Hagdale and the Heog Hills; steatite occurs at Kleber Geo, and many interesting minerals have been recorded from these islands.
Along the west frontier there appear broad and strongly marked zones of Cretaceous limestone, alternating with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by a strip of Palaeozoic formations running from the north-west corner of Bosnia.
Next, proceeding from this region in an easterly direction, are the Neogene freshwater formations, filling up the greatest part of the north-east of Bosnia, as also a zone of flysch intermingled with several strips of eruptive rock.
In the south-east of Bosnia the predominant formations are Triassic and Palaeozoic strata with red sandstone and quartzite.
Along the whole northern rim of Bosnia, as also in the fluvial and Karst valleys (poljes), are found diluvial and alluvial formations, interrupted at one place by an isolated granite layer.
Besides huge masses of old schists and sandstones, the range contains extensive limestone, marble, diorite, basalt and porphyry formations, while granite prevails on its southern slopes.
These new structures would rest uncomfortably upon eroded formations and this, Wayland Vaughan points out, is what we actually observe in the case of living and fossil coral reefs.
Volcanic formations, so far as is known, occur chiefly along the north-western border-range of the great plateau.
The coastal plain consists in great part of sandy beaches, detritus formations, and partially submerged areas caused by uplifted beaches and obstructed river channels.
It consists of a series of plateaus formed of sedimentary rocks which mainly belong to three formations of widely separated ages, and which rest on a platform of granitic and metamorphic rocks.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
Compared with other formations they occupy restricted areas, being only met with south of Johannesburg, around Wolmaransstad, Lichtenburg and east of Marico.
This, one of the most difficult problems of pathology, is being attacked by many able workers, who are all striving from different standpoints to elucidate the nature of these new formations, which spring from the normal tissues in which they develop and which they destroy.
Below Bingen the formations belong almost entirely to the PostTertiary period.
As in the case of similar formations generally, they are endowed with a sensitiveness to touch which enables them to grasp and coil themselves round any suitable object which comes in their way, and thus to support the plant.
On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water.
The Lias and Oolite formations are well represented, but the Sequanian and Kimmeridgian subdivisions are absent.
The Oligocene and Miocene formations are present, but the Upper Miocene is confined to the coast.
Besides the imposing proportions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resembling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals or human beings, the more grotesque being called by various fanciful appellations.
The series appears to be in line with Geology similar formations at Tripoli in Africa, Cagliari in and Water Sardinia, and to the east of Marseilles.
The geological formations thus exposed show that the plateaus are composed of a base of eruptive material, overlaid by enormous deposits of reddish sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites, exposed in parts to a depth of 2000 feet.
In the middle Eocene formations of North America occurs the more specialized Uintatherium (or Dinoceras), typifying the family Uintatheriidae, which also contains species sometimes Restored skeleton of Uintatherium (Dinoceras) mirabile.