Formation sentence example

formation
  • Their formation is carboniferous limestone.
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  • The formation of a film is noted.
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  • In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.
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  • The increase in surface of the cell wall is thus duefirstly to the stretching caused by turgidity, and secondly to the formation and deposition of new substance upon the old.
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  • The next change observable after some hours is that the untouched cells below the cut grow larger, push tip the dead surface, and divide by walls tangential to it, with the formation of tabloid cork-cells.
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  • If the attack of a parasite is met by the formation of some substance in the protoplasm which is chemo- tactically repulsive to the invader, it may be totally incapable of penetrating the cell, even though equipped with a whole armoury of cytases, diastatic and other enzymes, and poisons which would easily overcome the more passive resistances offered by mere cell-walls and cell-contents of other plants, the protoplasm of which forms bodies chemotactically attractive to the Fungus.
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  • The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.
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  • The plant formation may be designated in technical language ph the termination -ion added to a stem denoting the habitat.
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  • The formation of starch may take place in.
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  • Whether the formation of the starch grain is due to a secretion from the plastid (Meyer, 1895) or to a direct transformation of the proteid of the plastid (Timberlake, 1901) has not been definitely established.
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  • HaberIandt has shown that in plant cells, when any new formation of membrane is to take place in a given spot, the nucleus is found in its immediate vicinity; and Klebs found that only that portion of the protoplasm of a cell which contains the nucleus is capable of forming a cell-wall; whilst Townsend has further shown that if the non-nucleated mass is connected by strands of protoplasm to the nucleated mass, either of the same cell or of a neighboring cell, it retains the power of forming a cell-membrane.
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  • It forms a part of the 1mm or plastin network of the nucleus and may become impregnated with varying quantities of chromatin stored up for use in the formation of the chromosomes and other nuclear activities.
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  • Nuclear Division.The formation of new cells is, in the case of tminucleate cells, preceded by or accompanied by the division of the nucleus.
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  • The formation of the spindle begins in the prophases of division.
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  • In the Thallophytes the cytoplasm may be segmented by constriction, due to the in-growth of a new cell wall from the old one, as in Spirogyra and Cladophora, or by the formation of cleavage furrows in which the new cell-wall is secreted, as occurs in the formation of the spores in many Algae and Fungi.
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  • Cell budding takes place in yeast and in the formation of the conidia of Fungi.
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  • In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.
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  • Fertilization.The formation of the zygote or egg-cell takes place usually by the fusion of the contents of two cells, and always includes, as -
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  • It is interesting to note that in many species the formation of new cell-walls is initiated before any indication of nuclear division is to he seen.
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  • The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.
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  • Sieve Tubes.The sieve tubes consist of partially fused rows of cells, the transverse cr lateral walls being perforated by minute openings, through which the contents of the cells are connected with each other, and which after a certain time become closed by,the formation of callus on the sieve plates.
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  • Similarly bud-scales can be caused to develop into foliage-leaves, if the buds to which they belong are caused to grow out in the year of, their formation by the removal of the existing foliage-leaves.
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  • Beyerinck was led to take up the decided position just mentioned by his researches into the conditions determining the formation of plant-galls as the result of injury by insects.
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  • Bougainville had first, to perform the unpleasant task of delivering up the Falkland Islands, where he had encouraged the formation of a French settlement, to the Spaniards.
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  • The actual position of sea-level lies so near the summit of the crust-heap that the varied relief of the upper portion leads to the formation of a complicated coast- The con- line and a great number of detached portions of land.
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  • The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.
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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
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  • The urine becomes dark green in colour owing to the formation of various oxidation products such as pyrocatechin.
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  • The symptoms of nerve-poisoning are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and there is no danger).
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  • The coprolitic stratum of the Speeton Clay, on the coast to the north of Flamborough Head, is included by Professor Judd with the Portland beds of that formation.
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  • The schizognathous formation is doubtless the most primitive, and its representatives form a tolerably natural FIG.
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  • The pectineal process is variable; it may grow entirely from the pubis, or both pubis and ilium partake of its formation, or lastly its pubic portion may be lost and the process is entirely formed by the ilium.
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  • Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.
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  • Propagation is by the formation of new corms from the parent corm, and by seeds.
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  • Such instruments are occasionally found in old collections of philosophical apparatus and they have been used in order to explain to students the formation of multiple images.
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  • In consequence of this composite formation, amethyst is apt to break with a rippled fracture, or to show "thumb markings," and the intersection of two sets of curved ripples may produce on the fractured surface a pattern something like that of "engine turning."
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  • The plains are covered by a formation similar to that of the Argentine pampas and by the alluvial deposits of the present rivers.
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  • Water decomposes it violently with formation of hydrochloric and sulphurous acids.
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  • It is readily decomposed by water with formation of sulphurous, sulphuric and thiosulphuric acids, with simultaneous liberation of sulphur.
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  • The dithionates are all soluble in water and when boiled with hydrochloric acid decompose with evolution of sulphur dioxide and formation of a sulphate.
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  • It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide and sulphur.
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  • In short, the shutting out of the old nobility was, if not the formation of a new nobility, at least the formation of a Civic new privileged class.
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  • The geological formation includes (like that of Java) three regions - the central volcanic, the southern peninsula of Tertiary limestone, and alluvial plains between the older formations.
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  • Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.
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  • The picturesque Bureya Mountains above the Amur, the forest-clad Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka belong, however, to quite another orographical construction, being the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau formation descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean.
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  • Taking their rise on the plateau formation, or in its outskirts, they flow first along lofty longitudinal valleys formerly filled with great lakes, next they cleave their way through the rocky barriers, and finally they enter the lowlands, where they become navigable, and, describing wide curves to avoid here and there the minor plateaus and hilly tracts, they bring into watercommunication with one another places thousands of miles apart.
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  • A broad depression - the Aral-Caspian desert - has arisen where the plateau formation reaches its greatest altitude, and at the same time suddenly changes its direction from N.W.
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  • In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.
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  • Russia witness the formation of numerous miniature canons, or ovraghi (deep ravines), the summits of which rapidly advance and ramify in the loose surface deposits.
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  • The methods adopted by the zemstvos for improving the condition of agriculture have included the formation of agricultural councils, the appointment of inspectors, and the founding of museums, meteorological stations and depots for the sale of agricultural machinery.
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  • Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
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  • As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.
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  • These " stone runs " are looked upon with great wonder by the shifting population of the Falklands, and they are shown to visitors with many strange speculations as to their mode of formation.
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  • Their origin is attributed by some to the moraine formation of former glaciers.
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  • Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation of a cabinet, and took for himself the post of minister of the interior.
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  • He resigned office in May 1899, but was again entrusted with the formation of the ministry.
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  • But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."
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  • The topography and the climate of Nevada have led to the formation of two kinds of lakes, the ephemeral and the perennial.
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  • Of these Nisyros alone is of volcanic origin; the others belong to the same limestone formation with the rocky headlands of the coast.
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  • Of these the most original and valuable is the Critical Period volume, a history of the consolidation of the states into a government, and of the formation of the constitution.
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  • If the consolidation took place with comparative uniformity we might then anticipate the formation of a vast multitude of small planets such as those we actually do find in the region between the orbit of Mars and that of Jupiter.
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  • The rotation of the planets on their axes is also explained as a consequence of the nebular theory, for at the time of the first formation of the planet it must have participated in the rotation of the whole nebula, and by the subsequent contraction of the planet the speed with which the rotation was performed must have been accelerated.
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  • This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the war between France and Austria, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland.
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  • If now it is required to find the heat of formation of the compound CO, which cannot be directly ascertained, we have merely to subtract the second equation from the first, each symbol representing constant intrinsic energy, and thus we obtain C+0 - 00= 26300 cal., or C+0=C0+26300 cal., that is, the heat of formation of a gramme-molecule of carbon monoxide is 26300 cal.
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  • This assumption has the great advantage, that the intrinsic energy of a compound relatively to its elements now appears as the heat of formation of the compound with its sign reversed.
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  • With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.
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  • Thus if we wish to ascertain the thermal effect of the action Mg+CaO =MgO+Ca, we may write, knowing the heats of formation of CaO and Mg0 to be 131000 and 146000 respectively, 0-131000 = 0-146000+x x =15000 cal.
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  • Since heats of formation afford such convenient data for calculation on the above method, they have been ascertained for as many compounds as possible.
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  • The relation between the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon and its heat of formation may be readily seen from the following example.
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  • Now we know the heats of formation of carbon dioxide (from diamond) and of liquid water to be 94300 cal.
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  • The above equation may consequently be written, if x is the heat of formation of methane, -x+0 = -94300-(2 X 68300) +213800 x =17000 cal.
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  • He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity, which Spain had never possessed since the fall of the Visigoth kingdom.
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  • The result of this alliance between a revolutionary and a Pharisee was the formation of the party of Zealots, whose influence - according to Josephus - brought about the great revolt and so led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70.
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  • All these are involved in the earth movements to which the mountains of the island owe their formation, but the Miocene beds (with Clypeaster) and later deposits lie almost undisturbed upon the coasts and the low-lying ground.
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  • The Eutaw formation is a strip about 5 to 12 m.
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  • The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.
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  • The siliceous Claiborne (or Tallahatta Buhrstone) formation lies south-westward from the last-named in a strip 10-30 m.
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  • The Jackson formation south-west of the Lisbon beds, is made up chiefly of grey calcareous clay marls, bluish lignitic clays, green-sand and grey siliceous sands.
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  • The minimum thickness of the formation is 240 ft.
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  • The Vicksburg formation lies next in order south-west, in a narrow strip of fairly regular width which alone of the Tertiary formations runs as far west as the Mississippi River; it is probably nowhere more than 110 ft.
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  • The older formation of the Quaternary period is the Lafayette (also called "Orange-sand" or "stratified drift"), which immediately overlies all the Cretaceous groups except the prairies of the Selma chalk, and all the Tertiary except the Porters Creek and Vicksburg formations and parts of the Jackson.
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  • The second Quaternary formation is the Port Hudson, occurring within 20 m.
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  • The territorial limits were extended on the north to the state of Tennessee in 1804 by the acquisition of the west cessions of South Carolina and Georgia, and on the south to the Gulf of Mexico by the seizure of West Florida in 1810-1813, 1 but were restricted on the east by the formation of the Territory of Alabama in 1817.
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  • Such " workers " are essential to the formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their wingless condition among the ants shows that their specialization has been carried further in this family than among the wasps and bees.
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  • He reported the gradual formation of an anticlinal or ridge extending longitudinally through the great Balkh plain of Afghan Turkestan, which effectually shuts off the northern affluents of that basin from actual junction with the river.
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  • The formation of this and of the other great mountain chains of central Asia resulted in the isolation of portions of the former central sea; and the same forces finally led to the elevation of the whole region and the union of the old continents of Angara and Gondwana.
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  • In the leeches, however, there seems to be the commencement of the formation of a syncerebrum.
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  • Vezhdovsky has lately seen reasons for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through pressure, which become lined with these cells.
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  • Bergh (for Lumbricus and Criodrilus), whose figures show a derivation of the entire nephridium from mesoblast, and an absence of any connexion between successive nephridia by any continuous band, epiblastic or mesoblastic. A midway position is taken up by Wilson, who asserts the mesoblastic formation of the funnel, but also asserts the presence of a continuous band of epiblast from which certainly the terminal vesicle of the nephridium, and doubtfully the glandular part of the tube is derived.
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  • But to use such terms for what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in geographical nomenclature.
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  • Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
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  • The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.
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  • The main distinction is the occurrence in the tissue of the fruit, or beneath the rind, of clusters of cells filled with hard woody deposit in the case of the pear, constituting the "grit," while in the apple no such formation of woody cells takes place.
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  • In the formation of the trees the same plan may be adopted as in the case of the apple.
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  • In 1901 the formation of the Agricultural Organization Society marked the first systematic attempt to organize co-operation among the farmers of Great Britain.
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  • A noteworthy feature of the closing decades of the 19th century was the formation of voluntary associations of stockbreeders, with the object of promoting the interests of the respective breeds of live stock.
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  • In our own time they have inspired both the formation of trade combinations and attempts to break them up, hostility to all forms of state interference and a belief in collectivism.
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  • But what more than any other point of strategy made the fight famous was that the Scots fought on foot in battalions with their spears outwards, in a circular formation serving the same purpose as the modern square.
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  • It has simply been traced as far as the formation of a diblastula which acquires a ciliated band, and becomes a nearly spherical trochosphere.
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  • As in other Molluscan groups, we find a wide variation in the early process of the formation of the first embryonic cells, and their arrangement as a diblastula, dependent on the greater or less amount of food-yolk which is present in the egg-cell when it commences its embryonic changes.
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  • C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the foot.
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  • E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.
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  • This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.
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  • The upper whorls of the shell are seen to be divided into separate chambers by the formation of successively formed " septa."
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  • It seems probable that it is identical with one of the open sacs in which each shell-plate of a Chiton is formed, and the series of plate-like imbrications which are placed behind the single shell-sac on the dorsum of the curious slug, Plectrophorus, suggest the possibility of the formation of a series of shellsacs on the back of that animal similar to those which we find in Chiton.
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  • The new Franco-Russian entente helped on the formation of the Armed Neutrality League and led to the concoction of schemes for the driving of the British from India.
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  • The British government, on hearing of his arrival at Plymouth, decided to send him to St Helena, the formation of that island being such as to admit of a certain freedom of movement for the august captive, with none of the perils for the world at large which the tsar's choice, Elba, had involved.
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  • Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups - the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans - and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
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  • The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central yolk, is formed.
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  • It has usually been regarded as representing both endoderm and mesoderm, and the groove which usually leads to its formation has been compared to the abnormally elongated blastopore of a typical gastrula.
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  • He finds that the endoderm arises may be readily distinguished, six of which subsequently enter into from an anterior and a posterior rudiment derived from the " endothe formation of the head, three going to the thorax and twelve to blast," that many of the cells of these rudiments wander into the the abdomen.
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  • Concomitant with this separation there is commencement of the formation of a new cuticle within the old one, so that when the latter is cast off the insect appears with a partly completed new cuticle.
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  • The number of imaginal disks in an individual is large, upwards of sixty having been discovered to take part in the formation of the outer body of a fly.
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  • These do not take a direct part in the formation of the new tissue, but it is believed merely yield their surplus acquisitions, becoming ordinary blood-cells or disappearing altogether.
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  • It cannot but suggest itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed inwards instead of outwards.
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  • But, though apparently without such a knowledge of the anatomy of birds as would enable him to apply it to the formation of that natural system which he was fully aware had yet to be sought, he seems to have been an excellent judge of the characters afforded by the bill and limbs, and the use he made of them, coupled with the extraordinary reputation he acquired on other grounds, procured for his system the adhesion for many years of the majority of ornithologists.'
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  • He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.
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  • These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.
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  • But the empire was vast and weak, and its capital lay far away; in practice, no doubt, the lagoon population enjoyed virtual independence, though later the Byzantine claim to suzerainty became one of the leading factors in the formation of the state.
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  • The rapid formation of this land empire, and the obvious intention to expand, called the attention not only of Italy but of Europe to this power which seemed destined to become supreme in north Italy, and eventually led to the league of Cambrai for the dismemberment of Venice.
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  • In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer resorts.
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  • In the American Presbyterian church he was a prominent figure; he worked for union with the Congregationalists and with the Dutch Reformed body; and at the synod of 1786 he was one of the committee which reported in favour of the formation of a General Assembly and which drafted "a system of general rules for.
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  • Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.
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  • Kovalevsky in 1871 first described the formation of the germinal layers in insects.
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  • This resulted in July in the formation of the University Settlements Association, and when Toynbee Hall was built shortly afterwards Mr Barnett became its warden.
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  • The uneasiness caused by the excessive dependence of Great Britain upon the United States for cotton, coupled with the Recent belief that shortages of supply are more frequent than R they ought to be, and the fear that diminishing returns attempts to open may operate in America, occasioned the formation in England of the British Cotton Growing Association on.
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  • Arrangements were concluded with the British South Africa Company for the formation of a small syndicate for working in Rhodesia.
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  • Much the same had been the ultimate outcome of the spasmodic attempt of the British government to bring about the introduction of cotton to new districts, after it had been pressed to take some action a few years prior to the formation of the Cotton Supply Association.
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  • It is found that transparent oils under the influence of light absorb oxygen, becoming deeper in colour and opalescent, while strong acidity and a penetrating odour are developed, these changes being due to the formation of various acid and phenylated compounds, which are also occasionally found in fresh oils.
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  • Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.
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  • The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.
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  • Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.
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  • It is either set in the first instance at some distance from the engine and well, or is subsequently removed sufficiently far away before the drill enters the oil-bearing formation, and until the oil and gas are under control, in order to minimize the risk of fire.
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  • He thinks that his principal aim was simply the formation of a compact Mahommedan state, which was, indeed, in the issue destined to be the instrument of the jihad,.
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  • In many cases it is obvious that the political antipathy of the natives to the Arabs has found expression in the formation of such sects.
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  • Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.
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  • The omnipresence of this connective tissue tends to exclude the formation of any perivisceral body cavity in Nemertines.
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  • He took a leading part in the formation of the party of the Centre in 1870-1871, but he did not become a member of it, fearing that his reputation as a follower of the king of Hanover would injure the party, until he was formally requested to join them by the leaders.
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  • The formation of a High Court of Justice rendered them obsolete.
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  • Work begun in Australia and New Zealand prospered, and the former country finally contributed over 1 i,000 members to the formation of the United Methodist Church of Australia, New Zealand with its 2600 members preferring to remain connected with the home country.
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  • Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.
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  • Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.
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  • Their formation is not due to a true process of saponification; but they occupy an important place in compound soaps.
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  • There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
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  • The significance of this act can only be realized when one recalls the tendencies toward the formation of national churches, which had been so powerful under the Merovingians.
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  • At this period there seemed a strong probability of the junction of the north-western and southeastern Sla y s, and the formation of a great Slavonic power to east of the German empire.
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  • The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
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  • On fusion with caustic potash it decomposes with formation of tetrahydroxy-benzophenone, which then breaks up into resorcin and hydroquinone.
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  • Until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861, Nagpur province, which consists of the present Nagpur division, Chhindwara and Chhatisgarh, was administered by a commissioner under the central government.
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  • Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
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  • These compounds also afford examples of the fact that, generally speaking, those compounds are most readily formed, and are most stable, in the formation of which the most heat is developed.
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  • For example, when a solution of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of ferric thiocyanate.
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  • At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.
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  • Baeyer supposes that in the formation of carbon, rings " the valencies become deflected from their positions, and that the tension thus introduced may be deduced from a comparison of this angle with the angles at which the strained valencies would meet.
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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
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  • From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.
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  • Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.
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  • Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.
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  • If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.
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  • The formation of this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while considerable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation based on Ladenburg's representation.
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  • When applied to benzene, a twofold conjugated system is suggested in which the partial valencies of adjacent atoms neutralize, with the formation of a potential double link.
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  • These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single and double linkages, the formation of three double links giving three bands, and of three single links another three; Baly and Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there are seven combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the benzene molecule.
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  • This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.
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  • When, as in the formation of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal centric form and become relatively inactive.
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  • Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability.
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  • The more important types are derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particularly to the formation of condensed nuclei.
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  • Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the formation of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is heated with copper oxide.
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  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.
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  • In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.
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  • The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group C. OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages in the molecule.
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  • It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.
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  • It is remarkable that the position of the halogen in the molecule has no effect on the heat of formation; for example, chlorpropylene and allylchloride, and also ethylene dichloride and ethylidene dichloride, have equal heats of formation.
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  • The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary amines.
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  • In many cases it may be connected with basic oxygen, and the salt formation is assumed to involve the passage of divalent into tetravalent oxygen.
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  • Solution in dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2.
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  • On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.
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  • It is remarkable that a great many polymorphous substances assume more symmetrical forms at higher temperatures, and a possible explanation of the increase in density of such compounds as silver iodide, &c., may be sought for in the theory that the formation of a more symmetrical configuration would involve a drawing together of the molecules, and consequently an increase in density.
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  • It is pleasantly situated on rising ground above the small river Cober, which, a little below the town, expands into a picturesque estuary called Looe Pool, the water being banked up by the formation of Looe Bar at the mouth.
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  • He declined to accept office under the earl of Derby; but on the formation of the coalition ministry under the earl of Aberdeen in January 18J3, he received the appointment of postmaster-general.
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  • The difference in formation between s and s is that the former is dental or alveolar, the latter is produced farther back and has .at least two varieties.
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  • It is of Tertiary formation (Miocene), and has a chain of volcanic elevations along the axis, reaching a height of 2600 ft.
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  • All the other islands are of post-Tertiary formation and of level surface.
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  • In 1814 Tassaert observed the spontaneous formation of a blue compound, very similar to ultramarine, if not identical with it, in a soda-furnace at St Gobain, which caused the Societe pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie to offer, in 1824, a prize for the artificial production of the precious colour.
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  • At the formation of the club each member assumed a colour, and also a letter, which he used as the initial of his dog's name.
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  • The progress of the club has been remarkable, and that its formation did much to improve the conditions of the various breeds of dogs, to encourage their use in the field by the promotion of working trials, and to check abuses which were common with regard to the registration of pedigrees, &c., cannot.
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  • From these structural and palaeontological evidences, geologists suppose that the formation of the cave was carried on simultaneously with the excavation of the valley; that the small streams, flowing down the upper ramifications of the valley, entered the western opening of the cave, and traversing the fissures in the limestone, escaped by the lower openings in the chief valley; and that the rounded pebbles found in the shingle bed were carried in by these streams. It would be only at times of drought that the cave was frequented by animals, a theory which explains the small quantity of animal remains in the shingle.
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  • Blocks of dressed stone overgrown by grass lie in regular formation; a series of parallel revetment walls on hills commanding passes exist, as do relics of ancient water-tanks.
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  • It must not be forgotten that either before or soon after the formation of the Union the Northern States - beginning with Vermont in 1777, and ending with New Jersey in 1804 - either abolished slavery or adopted measures to effect its gradual abolition within their boundaries.
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  • The government interpreted the application as implying a wish for the abolition of serfdom, and issued a rescript authorizing the formation of committees to prepare definite proposals for a gradual emancipation.
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  • The French army now moved forward with great rapidity in their usual formation of columns.
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  • The value of that work cannot be denied; the impulse which it gave to Platonic studies in Italy, and through them to the formation of the new philosophy in Europe, is indisputable.
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  • His work, Monumenti delle anti christiane primitive, is the first in which the strange misconception, received with unquestioning faith by earlier writers, that the catacombs were exhausted sand-pits adapted by the Christians to the purpose of interment, was dispelled, and the true history of their formation demonstrated.
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  • The igneous formation of which the greater part of the Roman Campagna is, in its superior portion, composed, contains three strata known under the common name of tufa, - the " stony," " granular," and " sandy " tufa, - the last being commonly known as pozzolana.
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  • We may then completely dismiss the notion of there being any studied secrecy in connexion with the early Christian cemeteries, and proceed to inquire into the mode of their formation.
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  • The first step would be the acquisition of a plot of ground either by gift or purchase for the formation of a tomb.
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  • To these stormy periods we may safely assign the alterations which may be traced in the staircases, which a.re sometimes abruptly cut off, leaving a gap requiring a ladder, and the formation of secret passages communicating with the arenariae, and through them with the open country.
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  • On the formation of the kingdom of Italy in 1860 they were reduced to the Comarca of Rome, the legation of Velletri, and the three delegations of Viterbo, Civita Vecchia and Frosinone; and in 1870 they disappeared from the political map of Europe.
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  • This Briatic world again gave rise to (3) the World of Formation, or Yetziratic World.
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  • The soil of the island is almost wholly of modern formation, mainly alluvial, with superficial limestones as another prominent feature.
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  • In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.
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  • The a-oxime, on long continued boiling with a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali, is partially decomposed with formation of some acetone and acetoxime (C. Harries, Ber., 1898, 31, pp. 1381, 1808; 18 99, 32, p. 1 33 1).
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  • The islands are of coral formation and low-lying.
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  • Their formation has been attributed to the effect of rotting vegetation on the rock, but without certainty.
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  • The coral reefs are of especial interest from their bearing on the general question of the formation of coral reefs.
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  • At the third Congress in 1905 it led to the formation of two parties, the Bolsheviks meeting in London, and the Mensheviks in Geneva.
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  • The arrival of the Spaniards at Constance necessitating the formation of a fifth nation, Pierre d'Ailly availed himself of the opportunity to ask either that the English nation might be merged in the German, or that each great nation might be allowed to divide itself into little groups each equivalent to the English nation.
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  • Napoleon caused these to be despatched to the front immediately after their formation.
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  • The moment news of their activity reached him, whilst still in pursuit of Sir John Moore, he despatched letters to all the members of the Confederation warning them that their contingents might soon be required, and at the same time issued a series of decrees to General Clarke, his war minister, authorizing him to call up the contingent of 1810 in advance, and directing him in detail to proceed with the formation of 4th and 5th battalions for all the regiments across the Rhine.
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  • Information about the Russians was very indifferent; it was only known that Prince Bagration with about 33,000 men lay grouped about Wolkowysk; Barclay de Tolly with 40,000 about Vilna; and on the Austrian frontier lay a small corps under Tormassov in process of formation, while far away on the Turkish frontiers hostilities with the sultan retained Tschitschagov with 50,000 more.
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  • At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of labour unions, and at the congress of working men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labour union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde.
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  • It is, however, likely that this formation occurs in Greenland, for in Dana Bay, Captain Feilden found a species of Spirifera and Productus mesolobus or costatus, though it is possible that these fossils represent the " Ursa stage " (Heer) of the Lower Carboniferous.
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  • Feilden notes as suggestive that, though the explorers have not met with this formation on the northern shores of Greenland, yet it was observed that a continuation of the direction of the known strike of the limestones of Feilden peninsula, carried over the polar area, passes through the neighbourhood of Spitsbergen, where the formation occurs, and contains certain species identical with those of the Grinnell Land rocks of this horizon.
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  • This formation, one of the most widely spread in polar lands, though the most local in Greenland, is also the best known feature in its geology.
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  • In the southern chain is found a limestone formation analogous to that in Bali, Lombok and Java.
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  • Sometimes a more rapid mode of formation is now adopted, the main shoots being from the first laid in nearly at full length, instead of being shortened.
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  • Glacial action determined the direction and character of the rivers, made numerous swamps, and, by scouring out rock basins, damming rivers and leaving morainal hollows, determined the character and formation of the lakes, of which Minnesota has upwards of io,000, a number probably exceeding that of any other state in the Union.
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  • On the 26th of August a convention met at Stillwater, where measures were taken for the formation of a separate territorial government, and Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891) was sent to Congress as a delegate of " Wisconsin Territory."
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  • There is much to be said in favour of the view entertained by some entomologists that the structural and developmental characteristics of may-flies are sufficiently peculiar to warrant the formation for them of a special order of insects, for which the names Agnatha, Plectoptera and Ephemeroptera have been proposed.
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  • Phosphates, necessary for the formation of skeletons and also for the nucleo-proteid of cells, are about as scarce as nitrogen.
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  • During recent years the controversies with regard to the modes of formation of these structures have entered on a new phase.
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  • The formation of casein involves the curdling of milk.
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  • In 1806 Sir Humphry Davy proved that the formation of acid and alkali when water was electrolysed was due to saline impurities in the water.
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  • We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
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  • If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
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  • On the formation of Mr. Lloyd George's Ministry in 1916 he retired from the Government.
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  • A French officer in the Egyptian service, of the name of Letellier, had anchored the vessels of Ibrahim and the Turkish admiral in a horseshoe formation, of which the points touched the entrance to the bay, and there were forts on the lands at both sides of the entry.
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  • At present the change of isoprene into caoutchouc is mainly of scientific interest in indicating possibilities with regard to the conversion of the liquid globules of the latex into rubber and to the formation of rubber by plants.
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  • The archipelago is of volcanic formation, Tamara and Factory islands forming part of a ruined crater, with Crawford Island as the cone.
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  • Lands and lordships thus bestowed constituted the appanages, which interfered so greatly with the formation of ancient France.
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  • He had joined his efforts to those of Francis Place, of Westminster, and other philanthropists, to relieve and improve the condition of the working classes, labouring especially to establish schools for them on the Lancasterian system, and promoting the formation of savings banks.
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  • The first effect of the roasting is the elimination of sulphur as sulphurdioxide, with formation of oxide and sulphate of lead.
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  • When kept fused in the presence of air lead readily takes up oxygen, with the formation at first of a dark-coloured scum, and then of monoxide PbO, the rate of oxidation increasing with the temperature.
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  • Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.
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  • Dilute nitric acid readily dissolves the metal, with formation of nitrate Pb(N03)2.
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  • It ignites when heated in air with the formation of the monoxide; dilute acids convert it into metallic lead and lead monoxide, the latter dissolving in the acid.
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  • Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.
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  • The Kassner process for the manufacture of oxygen depends upon the formation of calcium plumbate, Ca2Pb04, by heating a mixture of lime and litharge in a current of air, decomposing this substance into calcium carbonate and lead dioxide by heating in a current of carbon dioxide, and then decomposing these compounds with the evolution of carbon dioxide and oxygen by raising the temperature.
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  • By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
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  • Another process depends upon the formation of lead chloride by grinding together litharge with salt and water, and then treating the alkaline fluid with carbon dioxide until it is neutral.
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  • It dissolves in strong nitric acid with the formation of the nitrate and sulphate, and also in hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.
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  • An aqueous solution readily dissolves lead oxide, with formation of a strongly alkaline solution containing basic acetates (Acetum Plumbi or Saturni).
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  • But the most delicate precipitant for lead is sulphuretted hydrogen, which produces a black precipitate of lead sulphide, insoluble in cold dilute nitric acid, less so in cold hydrochloric, and easily decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid with formation of the characteristic chloride.
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  • The symptoms of acute poisoning are pain and diarrhoea, owing to the setting up of an active gastro-enteritis, the foeces being black (due to the formation of a sulphide of lead), thirst, cramps in the legs and muscular twitchings, with torpor, collapse, convulsions and coma.
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  • No less than thirteen historical personages bearing the name of William (Guillaume) have been thought by various critics to have their share in the formation of the legend.
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  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.
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  • A tendency is exhibited to the formation of a metasomatic as well as a prosomatic carapace by fusion of the tergal surfaces of the somites.
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  • This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.
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  • On the other hand, an unusually large tergal plate, whether terminal or in the series, is not always due to fusion of the dorsal plates of once-separate somites, but is of ten a case of growth and enlargement of a single somite without formation of any trace of a new somite.
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  • The Russian Government permitted the formation on July 13 1915 of a Lettish rifle division 50,000 men strong.
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  • The Baltic volunteers were defeated by the Bolsheviks on Dec. 29 at Hintzenberg; and since the agreement made on Dec. 29 by Ulmanis with the German representative, the Socialist Winnig, did not attract a sufficient number of volunteers from Germany for the formation of an Iron Div., Riga fell on Jan.
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  • The security offered by this treaty was further guaranteed by the formation of a regional league of the Baltic states against external aggression.
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  • After a period of wavering Mr Kossuth had consented to shelve for the time the question of the separate bank, and on the strength of this Dr Wekerle advised the crown to entrust to him the formation of a government.
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  • The encouragement of polite literature was more especially the object of the Kisfaludy Society, founded in 1836.4 Polite literature had received a great impulse in the preceding period (1807-1830), but after the formation of the academy and the Kisfaludy society it advanced with accelerated speed towards the point attained by other nations.
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  • Almost simultaneously with the formation of the above-mentioned committee of the academy, the " Natural Science Association " showed signs of renewed animation, and soon advanced with rapid strides in the same direction, but with a more popular aim than the academy.
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  • To this list we must add the short but incomparable feuilletons (tdrezalevelek) of Dr Adolf Agai (writing under the nom de plume of Porz6), whose influence on the formation of modern Hungarian literary prose is hardly less important than the unique esprit and charm of his writings.
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  • At first a Whig, he joined the Republican party at its formation, and was a Republican representative in Congress from 1859 to 1863.
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  • Unfortunately, while the new Czechoslovak army was recognized by Italy and took its place in the front line, Baron Sonnino, for political reasons, vetoed the formation of similar Yugoslav legions, though General Diaz had consented, and though the Yugoslays interned at Nocera and elsewhere were clamouring to be enrolled.
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  • The central authority in Austria was steadily breaking down, and the food crisis was rendered still more acute by the widespread formation of " Green Cadres " - well organized armed bands which held positions in the mountains and defied capture.
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  • In subsequent generations produced by self-fertilization of the hybrids it was found that the positive character was not present in all the individuals, but that a result was obtained showing that in the formation of the reproductive cells (ova and sperms) of the hybrid, half were endowed with the positive character and half with the negative.
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  • The general explanation of the formation of shadows may also be conveniently based upon Fresnel's zones.
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  • From the general formula (2), if A be the area of aperture, 102 = A2 / x2 f (7) The formation of a sharp image of the radiant point requires that the illumination become insignificant when, n attain small values, and this insignificance can only arise as a consequence of discrepancies of phase among the secondary waves from various parts of the aperture.
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  • In order to the formation of a well-defined corona it is essential that the particles be exclusively, or preponderatingly, of one size.
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  • The actual formation of On account of inequalities in the atmosphere giving a variable refraction, the light from a star would be irregularly distributed over a screen.
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  • The first of these equations is the condition for the formation of dark bands, and the second marks their situation, which is the same as that determined by the imperfect theory.
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  • The formation of bands thus requires that the retarding plate be held upon the side already specified, so that zs be positive; and that the thickness of the plate (to which z is proportional) do not exceed a certain limit, which we may call 2T 0.
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  • In the former case the function of the telescope is simply to increase the dispersion, and the formation of the bands is of course independent of the particular manner in which the dispersion arises.
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  • The formation of black bands is thus explained, and it requires that the plate be introduced upon one particular side, and that the amount of the retardation be adjusted to a particular value.
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  • The formation of the Great Central Railway, the Marylebone terminus of which, in Marylebone Road, was opened in 1899, caused an extensive demolition of .streets and houses in the west central district.
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  • Dilute sulphuric acid attacks it but slowly; hydrochloric acid, especially if strong, dissolves it readily, with the formation, more immediately, of a hyacinthcoloured solution of U 2 C1 6, which, however, readily absorbs oxygen from the air, with the formation of a green solution of UC1 4, which in its turn gradually passes into one of yellow uranyl salt, U02.
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  • A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.
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  • Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
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  • The conglomerate bands and quartzites contain large quantities of iron pyrites deposited subsequent to their formation, that in the conglomerates containing the gold.
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  • No fossils have been discovered, and except that they represent some portion or portions of rocks of the Pre-Cape formation the age of the upper Witwatersrand beds, as well as that of the lower division, remains an open question.
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  • Sandstones, quartzites, conglomerates and breccia make up the formation.
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  • Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
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  • In 1884 a concession to a number of Hollander and German capitalists of all rights to make railways led to the formation of the Netherlands Railway Company.
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  • In a night attack on Magersfontein hill the Highland brigade came under heavy fire while still in assembly formation, and lost its general, A.G.
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  • A wave of military enthusiasm arose throughout the empire, and as the formation of a seventh division practically drained the mother-country of trained men, a scheme for the employment of amateur soldiers was formulated, resulting in the despatch of Imperial Yeomanry and Volunteer contingents, which proved one of the most striking features of the South African campaign.
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  • Lord Selborne, who had during 1905 succeeded Lord Milner as high commissioner and governor of the Transvaal, entrusted General Botha with the formation of a ministry.
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  • Out of the civil parish, which has an area of 10,785 acres and had in 1 9 01 a population of 854, there was formed in 1907 the urban district, comprising 1611 acres, and with an estimated population at the date of formation of 812.
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  • The formation of the rainbow in the heavens after or during a shower must have attracted the attention of man in remote antiquity.
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  • Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.
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  • Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.
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  • This acid, H 2 Sn0 3, is readily soluble in acids forming stannic salts, and in caustic potash and soda, with the formation of orthostannates.
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  • The crystals are very soluble in cold water, and if the salt is really pure a small proportion of water forms a clear solution; but on adding much water most of the salt is decomposed, with the formation of a precipitate of oxychloride, 2Sn(OH)Cl H20.
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  • The word is of Armenian formation and signifies a son of Paulik or of little Paul; the termination -ik must here have originally expressed scorn and contempt.
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  • The Cerro de Oro series is the most important group of these beds and takes a considerable share in the formation of the mountain ranges.
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  • Fermentative changes are set up in it, characterized by the evolution of gas and the formation of products of suboxidation, some of which, being volatile, account for the characteristic odour.
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  • In the formation of these the tissues break down, and in course of time lose their characteristic histological features.
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  • Tumours Or New Growths The various definitions of the term " new growth " leave us with a definite conception of it as a new formation of tissue which appears to originate and to grow independently.
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  • These being freed from the normal inhibiting power of the neighbouring elements, multiply and go on to the formation of a new growth.
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  • Hansemann's "anaplasia " hypothesis seeks to find an explanation of the formation of new growths in the absence of the histological differentiation of the cell associated with a corresponding increase in its proliferative power and a suspension, or loss, of its functional activity.
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  • Some workers regard certain appearances in dividing cells found in cancer as evidence of a reversion of the somatic cell to the germcell type (heterotypical), otherwise found only in the process which results in the formation of an embryo.
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  • In certain pathological conditions an excessive formation and discharge of such material is usually associated with catarrhal changes in the epithelium.
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  • Haemosiderin in the normal process of haemolysis is stored up in the cells of certain organs until required by the organism for the formation of fresh haemoglobin.
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  • The gland spaces vary in size and many may show marked cystic formation.
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  • Starling does not accept this view, and cannot regard as an article of faith Heidenhain's dictum that normally filtration plays no part in the formation of lymph.
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  • This led to the formation of the Sadharana (Universal) Brahma Samaj, now the most popular and progressive of the three sections of the movement and conspicuous for its work in the cause of literary culture, social reform and female education in India.
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  • The hill called the "Anvil of Baracoa" (about 3000 ft.) is remarkable for its extremely regular formation.
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  • The dispersion of Greek science and intellectual activity through the world by the conquests of Alexander and his successors led to the formation of more than one learned centre, in which medicine among other sciences was represented.
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  • The movement led rather to the formation of schools or systems of thought, which under various names lasted on into the 18th century, while the belief in the utility or necessity of schools and systems lasted much longer.
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  • Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.
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  • The mouth of the main stream is obstructed by a bar of its own formation; the current is sluggish; there are many side channels, and the appearance of the lake gives no hint that a great river has joined its waters.
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  • The removal of the block led to the shrinkage of the lake and the formation of the Semliki, which found its way to the more northern lake - Albert Nyanza.
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  • The Rhine connects the highest Alps with the mud banks of Holland, and touches in its course the most varied geological periods; but the river valley itself is, geologically speaking, of comparatively recent formation.
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  • Rising amid the ancient gneiss rocks of the St Gotthard, the Rhine finds its way down to the Lake of Constance between layers of Triassic and Jurassic formation; and between that lake and Basel it penetrates the chalk barrier of the Jura.
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  • In the former he was one of the leading workers, in collaboration from 1879 to 1887 with Emile Edmond Sarasin (1843-1890), at the formation of minerals by artificial means, particularly in the wet way with the aid of heat and pressure, and he succeeded in reproducing a large number of the natural compounds.
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  • In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.
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  • The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams. On the formation of the London County Council there were thirteen tramway companies in existence.
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  • A new order of battle was adopted - the troops being massed in crescent formation, with a reserve in the shape of a parallelogram ready to strengthen the weakest point.
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  • McCall Theal states that the ancestors of the tribes living in what is now Natal and Zululand were acquainted with the regimental system and the method of attack in crescent shape formation in the 17th century.
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  • The formation of the coalition and the outbreak of war for a while raised his hopes, in spite of his lively distrust of the competence of Austrian ministers; but the hopes were speedily dashed by Austerlitz and its results.
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  • Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.
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  • Numerous derivatives of acridine are known and may be prepared by methods analogous to those used for the formation of the parent base.
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  • It is decomposed by cold water with the formation of silicoformic anhydride, H2S1203.
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  • The carbonates are decomposed by mineral acids, with formation of the corresponding salt of the acid, and liberation of carbon dioxide.
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  • Hence, supposing the crystals immediately after their formation to be in absolute contact with one another all round, then, in the case of Class II., such contact will be maintained on cooling, while in the case of Class I.
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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).
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  • In the case of group I the action is more or less violent, and the hydroxides formed are soluble in water and very strongly basic; metals of group 2 are only slowly attacked, with formation of relatively feebly basic and less soluble hydroxides.
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  • By the joint action of water and air, thallium, lead, bismuth are oxidized, with formation of more or less sparingly soluble hydroxides (ThHO, PbH 2 O 2, BiH303), which, in the presence of carbonic acid, pass into still less soluble basic carbonates.
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  • Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.
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  • Aqueous Sulphuric or Hydrochloric Acid readily dissolves groups I and 2, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides or sulphates.
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  • Of the several products, the chlorides of gold and platinum (AuC13 and PtC1 4) are the only ones which when heated beyond their temperature of formation dissociate into metal and chlorine.
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  • The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.
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  • Passed through a red-hot tube, benzene vapour yields hydrogen, diphenyl, diphenylbenzenes and acetylene; the formation of the last compound is an instance of a reversible reaction, since Berthelot found that acetylene passed through a red-hot tube gave some benzene.
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