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formation

formation Sentence Examples

  • Next the legislature of the " Reorganized " government on the 13th of May gave its consent to the formation of the new state.

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  • Their formation is carboniferous limestone.

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  • - The formation of buds which separate to form new cells.

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  • His action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led to the formation of a league against him by the Rhenish archbishops and the count palatine of the Rhine; but aided by the towns, he soon crushed the rising.

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  • The carrying out of Federalist principles led, however, to the formation in the republic of a number of quasiindependent military states, and Dorrego only ruled in Buenos Aires.

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  • Each of these companies was allotted a definite sphere of influence, and was granted a concession for ninety-nine years from its date of formation, the concessions thus terminating at various dates between 1950 and 1960.

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  • Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.

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  • But how can we explain the formation of this poetic wisdom, which, albeit the work of ignorant men, has so deep and intrinsic a philosophic value?

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  • Hansen showed that the microscopic appearance of film cells of the same species of Saccharomycetes varies according to the temperature of growth; the limiting temperatures of film formation, as well as the time of its appearance for the different species, also vary.

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  • Moulds have been isolated which occasion the formation of citric acid from glucose.

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  • She looked again at the spinning ground, waiting until she was able to make out a rock formation clearly before engaging the thrusters.

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  • Military science, seeing in history innumerable instances of the fact that the size of any army does not coincide with its strength and that small detachments defeat larger ones, obscurely admits the existence of this unknown factor and tries to discover it--now in a geometric formation, now in the equipment employed, now, and most usually, in the genius of the commanders.

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  • On the formation of the kingdom of Italy he returned to Tuscany and was elected member of parliament; he died in 1862.

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  • Cobalt salts may be readily detected by the formation of the black sulphide, in alkaline solution, and by the blue colour they produce when fused with borax.

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  • The infusion of a considerable Scottish element into the population necessitated the formation of a congenial church.

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  • Liz plopped a straw hat with a red, white, and blue band on Dean's head just as three jets in close formation screamed overhead, buzzing the town in a deafening roar.

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  • Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.

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  • The absence in the army of the Confederate sympathizers helps to explain the small vote against the formation of the new state.

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  • That unknown quantity is the spirit of the army, that is to say, the greater or lesser readiness to fight and face danger felt by all the men composing an army, quite independently of whether they are, or are not, fighting under the command of a genius, in two--or three-line formation, with cudgels or with rifles that repeat thirty times a minute.

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  • In 1801, on the formation of the Addington administration, he was appointed solicitor-general, and in 1802 he became attorneygeneral.

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  • It has oversight of all the congregations within its bounds; hears references from kirk-sessions or appeals from individual members; sanctions the formation of new congregations; superintends the education of students for the ministry; stimulates and guides pastoral and evangelistic work; and exercises discipline over all within its bounds, including the ministers.

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  • For Piedmont, completed in 1836 and 1841; was suppressed, like all other Italian concordats, by the formation of the kingdom of Italy.

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  • Immediately on the‘ formation of the Canadian Pacific railway company branch lines were begun at Winnipeg and there are eight radial lines running from this centre to all parts of the country.

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  • By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.

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  • Various groups of people formed and dissolved, the coming formation and dissolution of kingdoms and displacement of peoples was in course of preparation.

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  • For Tuscany; lasted until the formation of the kingdom of Italy.

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  • This is a formation form Med.

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  • There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."

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  • At Kufstein, down to which point it has still pursued a north-easterly direction, it breaks through the north Tirol limestone formation, and, now keeping a northerly course, enters at Rosenheim the Bavarian high plateau.

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  • But a reserve squadron was placed behind the centre under the marquess of Santa Cruz, and the eight lumbering galeasses were stationed at intervals in front of the line to break the formation of the Turks.

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  • All that can be done is to form a continuous account in accord with the ancient histories, and with the original formation of the ground, so far as this has been identified by modern exploration.

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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 17-18° C., and is readily decomposed by water with formation of boric and hydrochloric acids.

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  • In December 1797 he joined his brother and some others in the formation of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home," in building chapels or "tabernacles" for congregations, in supporting missionaries, and in maintaining institutions for the education of young men to carry on the work of evangelization.

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  • He wrote letters to the cities of Italy, asking them to send representatives to an assembly which would meet on the 1st of August, when the formation of a great federation under the headship of Rome would be considered.

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  • The prevailing winds in this region, which the sea traverses longitudinally, are westerly, but the sea itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturbances frequently develop, while in summer the region comes under the influence of the polar margin of the tropical high pressure belt.

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  • The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.

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  • it may be noted that Cranmer favoured a proposal for the formation of a council of presbyters in each diocese, and for provincial synods.

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  • A division by fission followed by Endogenous spore formation, characteristic of the Schizosaccharomycetes.

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  • The desire for union which led to the formation of the alliance has, since 1875, borne remarkable fruit.

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  • Alkaline carbonates give precipitates of basic carbonates, the formation of which is also retarded by the presence of ammonium salts.

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  • Endospore formation, the conditions for which are as follows: (1) suitable temperature, (2) presence of air, (3) presence of moisture, (4) young and vigorous cells, (5) a food supply in the case of one species at least is necessary, and is in no case prejudicial.

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  • Originally, however, its formation was very different, as it was intersected by a deep valley, called Tyropoeon by Josephus, which, starting from a point N.W.

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  • It forms slightly coloured small crystals possessing a strong disagreeable smell, and is rapidly decomposed by water with the formation of boric acid and sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The Mediterranean is all that remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe along a line of latitude.

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  • He was one of the leaders of the emeutes of the 20th of June and the 10th of August 1792, played an important part in the formation of the revolutionary commune which assured the success of the latter coup, and was made procureur of the commune.

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  • The formation of a film is noted.

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  • On the formation of the Commonwealth a Labour party was established in the federal houses.

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  • This " coagulation " leads to the formation of the river-sludges that form deltas.

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  • It was not until the formation of the "country party," in opposition to the policy of the Cabal and Charles's FrenchCatholic plots, that Russell began to take an active part in affairs.

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  • 5), Dracaena and Cordyline include arborescent species in which the stem increases in thickness continually by a centrifugal formation of new tissue; an extreme case is afforded by Dracaena Draco, the dragon-tree of Teneriffe.

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  • He resigned the premiership on the 27th of April 1909, but was not finally relieved of his office until the formation of the KhuenHedervary cabinet on the 17th of January 1910.

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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].

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  • They react with hydroxylamine and phenylhydrazine, with the formation of aldoximes and hydrazones.

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  • Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.

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  • Paraldehyde is oxidized by dilute nitric acid, with formation of much glyoxal, (CHO) 2.

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  • From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.

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  • It has, indeed, been subject to oscillations, but the movements have been regional in character and have not been accompanied by the formation of any mountain chain or any belt of intense folding.

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  • They are quite distinct in their formation from the coral reefs of the same coast.

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  • After the Disruption in 1843, and the formation of the Free Church, New College was founded in connexion with it for training students in theology.

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  • His speech in 1835 in support of the motion for inquiry into the Irish Church temporalities with a view to their partial appropriation for national purposes (for disestablishment was not then dreamed of as possible) contains much terse argument, and no doubt contributed to the fall of Peel and the formation of the Melbourne cabinet.

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  • From this renewal dates the formation of the new order or monte dei riformatori, the title henceforth bestowed on all citizens, of both the less and the greater people, who had reformed the government and begun to participate in it in 1368.

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  • The terrace formation of the land characteristic of other coast regions of South Africa prevails in Natal.

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  • During the seven years between the formation of the league and its final triumph, he devoted himself wholly to the work of promulgating his economic doctrines.

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  • Among his other papers may be mentioned those dealing with the formation of fairy rings (1807), a synoptic scale of chemical equivalents (1814), sounds inaudible to ordinary ears (1820), the physiology of vision (1824), the apparent direction of the eyes in a portrait (1824) and the comparison of the light of the sun with that of the moon and fixed stars (1829).

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  • When reduced by the Sabatier and Senderens' method (Comptes rendus, 1902, 135, p. 225) they are converted into amines, provided the temperature be kept at 150°-200° C., a higher temperature leading to the formation of paraffins and ammonia.

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  • A characteristic feature of cancer is the carrying of the epithelial cells (which are the essential element of the growth) to the nearest lymphatic glands, and in cancer of the stomach the secondary implication of the glands may cause the formation of large masses between the stomach and the liver, which may press upon the large veins and give rise to dropsy.

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  • These are composed chiefly of Triassic beds, but Jurassic and Cretaceous beds take some share in their formation.

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  • During the formation of the Schlier the plain was covered by an inland sea or series of salt lakes, in which evaporation led to the concentration and finally to the deposition of the salts contained in the water.

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  • It was pristine and white, rising out of the ground like a natural formation.

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  • This is especially true of the flood plains where the annual inundations prevent the formation of humus and retard forest growth.

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  • In most cases four spores are formed within the cell by free formation.

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  • the formation of nitrites and nitrates from ammonia and its compounds in the soil, was formerly held to be a purely chemical process, until Schloesing and Mintz suggested in 1877 that it was biological.

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  • In this sea were laid down the shales of the Rolling Downs formation.

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  • The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.

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  • Tasmania and Victoria were separated by the foundering of Bass Strait, and at the same time the formation of the rift valley of Spencer Gulf, and Lake Torrens, isolated the South Australian highlands from the Eyre Peninsula and the Westralian plateau.

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  • The clays of the Rolling Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover.

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  • As the plains on the Rolling Downs formation are mostly waterless, the discovery of this deep reservoir of water has been of great aid in the development of central Australia.

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  • The well-water was supposed to have percolated underground, through the Blythesdale Braystone, which outcrops in patches on the eastern edge of the Rolling Downs formation.

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  • Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value by their proximity to coal-beds.

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  • It has been ascertained from recent explorations that the area of carboniferous formation in that state extends from the Irwin northwards to the Gascoyne river, about 300 m., and probably all the way to the Kimberley district.

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  • The finest opal known is obtained in the Upper Cretaceous formation at White Cliffs, near Wilcannia, New South Wales, and at these mines about 700 men find constant employment.

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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.

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  • This has greatly facilitated the formation of large estates devoted chiefly to grazing purposes, contrary to the policy of the legislature, which has everywhere sought to encourage tillage, or tillage joined to stock-rearing, and to discourage large holdings.

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  • To the Labour party in that state are admitted only persons who have worked for their living at manual labour, and this qualification of being an actual worker is one that was strongly insisted upon at the formation of the party and strictly adhered to, although the temptation to break away from it and accept as candidates persons of superior education and position has been very great.

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  • The Labour party held power in the Commonwealth for a short period, and has had the balance of power in its hands ever since the formation of the Commonwealth.

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  • Lord Palmerston's death in October 1865 was followed by the formation of the RussellGladstone ministry and the introduction of the Reform Bill of 1866.

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  • Carnero, Historia de las guerras civiles que ha avido en los estados de Flandres des del anno 1559 hasta el de 1609, y las Archduke already in course of formation, and not even the Matthias.

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  • On the formation of the Wirth ministry in May 1921 he was appointed Minister of Reconstruction, and in that capacity negotiated with the French minister, Loucheur, a convention for supplying German materials for the restoration of the devastated area in France, and thus paying in kind part of the reparation which the German Reich had undertaken to pay in gold.

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  • Cosmological materialism is that form of the doctrine in which the dominant motive is the formation of a comprehensive world-scheme: the Stoics and Epicureans were cosmological materialists.

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  • The formation during recent years of such lectureships as the "Lyman Beecher" course at Yale University has resulted in increased attention being given to homiletics, and the published volumes of this series are the best contribution to the subject.

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  • The country is covered with limestone in many parts, and large isolated bluffs of this formation stand up in the plains both on the eastern and the western slopes.

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  • They are all of limestone formation.

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  • He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.

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  • The formation of the Pinacoteca Vannucci has impaired the interest of several churches but in others it remains undiminished.

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  • The next geological formation which is represented is the Eocene, consisting of nummulitic limestone, sandstone and schist.

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  • The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.

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  • Cadmium vapour decomposes water at a red heat, with liberation of hydrogen, and formation of the oxide of the metal.

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  • It is a basic oxide, dissolving readily in acids, with the formation of salts, somewhat analogous to those of zinc.

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  • Ann., 1859, 106, 513), probably owing to the formation of complex ions; the abnormal behaviour apparently diminishing as the solution becomes more and more dilute, until, at very high dilutions the salts are ionized in the normal manner.

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  • At the time of the formation of the various telephone companies the enterprises were regarded as speculative, and much of the capital was raised at a discount.

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  • Many of the islands are of volcanic formation; and a well-defined volcanic chain bounds the Cretan Sea on the north, including Milo and Kimolos, Santorin (Thera) and Therasia, and extends to Nisyros.

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  • Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.

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  • All the other lakes of Central Italy, which are scattered through the volcanic districts west of the Apennines, are of an entirely difierent formation, and occupy deep cup-shaped hollows, which have undoubtedly at one time formed the craters of extinct volcanoes.

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  • These are three in number Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone; while Ventotene (also of volcanic formation) is about midway between Ponza and Ischia.

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  • The Apulian volcanic formation consists of the great mass of Monte Volture, which rises at the west end of the plains of Apulia, on the frontier of Basilicata, and is surrounded by the Apennines on its south-west and north-west sides.

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  • The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.

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  • A more recent law provides for the formation of a central body, with provincial commissions under it.

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  • The formation of a Latin empire in the East increased the popes prestige; while at home it was his policy to organize Countess Matildas heritage by the formation of Guelph leagues, over which he presided.

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  • The result was the formation of an assembly at Modena which abolished feudal dues and customs, declared for manhood suffrage and established the Cispadane Republic (October 1796).

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  • In Piedmont itself it was at first less successful; and Cavour, although he aspired ultimately to a united Italy with Rome as the capital,1 openly professed no ambition beyond the expulsion of Austria and the formation of a North Italian kingdom.

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  • The fall of Cairoli, and the formation of a second Depretis cabinet in 1878, brought no substantial change in the attitude of the government towards Irredentism, nor was the position improved by the return of Cairoli to power in the following July.

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  • The crisis dragged for three months, and before its definitive solution by the formation of a Depretis-Crispi ministry, Robilant succeeded (I 7th March 1887) in renewing the triple alliance on terms more favorable to First re- Italy than those obtained in 1882.

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  • to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.

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  • Modified a first time within five months of its formation (July 1896) in.

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  • Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.

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  • As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.

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  • In the formation of arbores cent colonies, two sharply FIG.

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  • The first step towards the formation of a mixed hydroid colony is undoubtedly a hastening of the sexual maturity of the medusaindividual.

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  • By budding is understood the formation of a new individual from a fresh growth of undifferentiated material.

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  • It is marked by the formation in the bud of a characteristic structure termed the entocodon (Knospenkern, Glockenkern).

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  • - Diagrams of Medusa budding with the formation of an entocodon.

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  • 44, with solid Entoby concrescence to codon (Ge.) and formation of an ectotheca (ect.).

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  • 45, C, ed.) may be formed over all, as in Garveia, &c.; or the entocodon may remain solid and without cavity until after the formation of the manubrium, or may never acquire a cavity at all, as described above for the gonophores.

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  • To sum up, the entocodon is a precocious formation of the umbrella, closing over to protect the organs in the umbrellar cavity.

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  • The budding of this medusa has been worked out in detail by Chun (Hydrozoa, [1]), to whom the reader must be referred for the interesting laws of budding regulating the sequence and order of formation of the buds.

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  • III, Hypothetical transition from II to the indirect method with an entocodon; the formation of the manubrium is retarded, that of the umbrella hastened (IIIa, b).

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  • Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.

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  • B, The lower layer forms a solid G,H, Formation of the medusae.

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  • Formation of archenteron and blastopore may, however, be deferred till a later stage (actinula or after).

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  • - Diagrams to show the mode of formation of the Hydrotheca and Gonotheca in Calyptoblastic Hydroids.

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  • - Diagrams to show the mode of formation of an Acrocyst and a Marsupium.

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  • The exhibition of 1844, which was attended by more than a million pilgrims, aroused protests, resulting in the formation of the sect of German Catholics.

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  • It required for its formation an amount of scientific knowledge which could only be very gradually acquired.

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  • Their fundamental conception is that of Democritus; they seek to account for the formation of the cosmos, with its order and regularity, by setting out with the idea of an original (vertical) motion of the atoms, which somehow or other results in movements towards and from one another.

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  • Gassendi, with some deviations, follows Epicurus in his theory of the formation of the world.

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  • Heinrich Steffens, in his Anthropologie, seeks to trace out the origin and history of man in connexion with a general theory of the development of the earth, and this again as related to the formation of the solar system.

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  • This process is an upward one, through the formation of the solar system and of our earth with its inorganic bodies, up to the production of man.

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  • Essai sur la formation des corps organises, 1751, xiv.

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  • Seats, seat rents, pews, the union and disjunction of parishes and formation of district parishes are of secular jurisdiction.

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  • Nevertheless, under some of these flows remains of plants and insects of species now living in the islands have been found - a proof that the formation as well as the denudation of the country is, geologically speaking, recent.

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  • Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber."

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  • 2 2 a latter case with the formation of a blue solution which on heating, becomes colourless, molybdenum trioxide being formed with the liberation of sulphur dioxide.

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  • Nagel (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2009), this oxide does not exist, the reaction leading to the formation of an hydroxide according to the equation: Mo 3 C1 4 (OH) 2 + 4KHO 3H 2 O = 3Mo(OH) 3 -l-4KBr+3H.

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  • The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.

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  • The simpler Fungi, like the simpler Green Algae, consist of single cells or simple or branched cell-threads, but among the higher kinds a massive body is often formed, particuTissue t~Jf larly in con nexion with the formation of spores, and, er~n,~,onthiS may exhibit considerable tissue-differentiation.

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  • A characteristic feature of the fungal vegetative plantbody (mycelium) is its formation from independent coenocytic tubes or cell-threads.

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  • By the formation of numerous cross-walls the resemblance to parenchyma is increased.

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  • The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.

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  • 1, v.), so that the endodermal cells cannot be split apart to admit of the formation of intercellular spaces, and an air-tight sheath is formed round the cylinder.

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  • In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.

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  • Later, the axis branches by the formation of new growing-points, and in this way the complex system of axes forming the body of the ordinary vascular plant is built up. In the flowering plants the embryo, after developing up to a certain point, stopf growing and rests, enclosed within the seed.

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  • This i correlated with the comparatively late formation and small development of the first leaves.

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  • When the leaves are developed early, they often quite overshadow thi actual apex of the stem, and the rapid formation of leaf-tissui disturbs the obviousness of, and perhaps actually destroys, th~ stratified arrangement of the shoot initials.

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  • In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele.

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  • In this case the formation of the primary bundle passes straight over into the formation of secondary tissue by a cumbium, and no line can be drawn between the two processes.

    0
    0
  • The differentiation of the stelar stereom, which usually takes the form of a sclerized pericycle, and may extend to the endocycle and parts of the rays, takes place in most cases later than the formation of the primary vascular strand.

    0
    0
  • The formation of secondary tissues is characteristic of most woody plants, to whatever class they belong.

    0
    0
  • Every great group or phylum of vascular plants, when it has become dominant in the vegetation of the world, has produced members with the tree habit arising by the formation of a thick woody trunk, in most cases by the activity of a cambium.

    0
    0
  • In stems with open bundles the formation of cambium and secondary tissue may be confined to these, when it is sard to be entirely fascicular.

    0
    0
  • The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.

    0
    0
  • The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem.

    0
    0
  • Sometimes the activity of the successive cambiums simply results in the formation of concentric rings or arcs of secondary xylem and phloem.

    0
    0
  • This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.

    0
    0
  • In the former case the formation of phelloderm is trivial in amount; in the latter, considerable, since this tissue has to replace the cast-off cortex, as a metabolic and particularly a storage tissue.

    0
    0
  • Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels.

    0
    0
  • Eventually the new phellogens reach the level of the secondary phloem, and are formed in the parenchyma of the latter, keeping pace in their inward march with the formation of fresh secondary phloem by the cambium.

    0
    0
  • In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.

    0
    0
  • They laid great stress on the nitrogenous nature of protoplasm, and noted that it preceded the formation of the cell-membrane.

    0
    0
  • We have the formation of numerous mechanisms which have arisen in connection with the question of food supply, which may not only involve particular cells, but also lead to differentiation in the protoplasm of those cells, as in the development of the chloroplastids of the leaves and other green parts.

    0
    0
  • The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.

    0
    0
  • The increasing development of the wood as the tree grows older is largely due to the demands for the conduction of water and mineral matters dissolved in it, which are made by the increased number of leaves which from year to year it bears, and which must each be put into communication with the central mass by the formation of new vascular bundles.

    0
    0
  • The corky layers which take so prominent a share in the formation of the bark are similarly modified and subserve the same purpose.

    0
    0
  • The formation of formaldehyde has till recently not been satisfactorily proved, though it has been obtained from certain leaves by distillation.

    0
    0
  • Recent investigations have confirmed Baeyers view of the formation of formaldehyde, but a different explanation has been recently advanced.

    0
    0
  • The first chemical change suggested is an interaction between carbon dioxide and water, under the influence of light acting through chlorophyll, which leads to the simultaneous formation of formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide.

    0
    0
  • We have seen that the starch is preceded by the formation of sugar, and its appearance is now interpreted as a sign of stfrplus manufacture.

    0
    0
  • After making its way into the interior, the intruder sets up a considerable hyper trophy of the tissue, causing the formation of a tubercle, which soon shows a certain differentiation, branches of the vascular bundles of the root being supplied to it.

    0
    0
  • The formation of living substance is a process of building up from simple or relatively simple materials; the construction of its cellulose framework and supporting substance is done by the living substance after its own formation is completed, and is attended by a partial decomposition of such living substance.

    0
    0
  • In the lowliest plants growth may be co-extensive with the plantbody; in all plants of any considerable size, however, it is localized in particular regions, and in them it is associated with the formation of new protoplasts or cells.

    0
    0
  • (3) The supply of water must be associated with the formation of osmotic substances in the cell, or it cannot be made to enter it.

    0
    0
  • The increase in surface of the cell wall is thus duefirstly to the stretching caused by turgidity, and secondly to the formation and deposition of new substance upon the old.

    0
    0
  • The next change observable after some hours is that the untouched cells below the cut grow larger, push tip the dead surface, and divide by walls tangential to it, with the formation of tabloid cork-cells.

    0
    0
  • Such healing by cork formation is accompanied by a rise of temperature: the active growth of the dividing cells is accompanied by vigorous metabolism and respiration, and a state of wound fever supervenes until the healing is completed.

    0
    0
  • If the attack of a parasite is met by the formation of some substance in the protoplasm which is chemo- tactically repulsive to the invader, it may be totally incapable of penetrating the cell, even though equipped with a whole armoury of cytases, diastatic and other enzymes, and poisons which would easily overcome the more passive resistances offered by mere cell-walls and cell-contents of other plants, the protoplasm of which forms bodies chemotactically attractive to the Fungus.

    0
    0
  • The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.

    0
    0
  • Wounds.The principal phenomena resulting from a simple wound, and the response of the irritated c~lls in healing by cork and in the formation of callus, have been indicated abeve.

    0
    0
  • The plant formation may be designated in technical language ph the termination -ion added to a stem denoting the habitat.

    0
    0
  • an ins, a sand dune formation may be termed an Arenarion.

    0
    0
  • as Chotts; and on the saline soils surrounding the Chotts, a salt marsh formation occurs, with species of Salicornia, some of which are undershrubs.

    0
    0
  • The cytoplasm is largely concerned in the formation of spindle fibres and centrosomes, and such structures as the cell membrane, cilia, or flagella, the coenocentrum, nematoplasl~ or vibrioids and physodes are also products of its activity.

    0
    0
  • The formation of starch may take place in.

    0
    0
  • Whether the formation of the starch grain is due to a secretion from the plastid (Meyer, 1895) or to a direct transformation of the proteid of the plastid (Timberlake, 1901) has not been definitely established.

    0
    0
  • HaberIandt has shown that in plant cells, when any new formation of membrane is to take place in a given spot, the nucleus is found in its immediate vicinity; and Klebs found that only that portion of the protoplasm of a cell which contains the nucleus is capable of forming a cell-wall; whilst Townsend has further shown that if the non-nucleated mass is connected by strands of protoplasm to the nucleated mass, either of the same cell or of a neighboring cell, it retains the power of forming a cell-membrane.

    0
    0
  • It forms a part of the 1mm or plastin network of the nucleus and may become impregnated with varying quantities of chromatin stored up for use in the formation of the chromosomes and other nuclear activities.

    0
    0
  • Nuclear Division.The formation of new cells is, in the case of tminucleate cells, preceded by or accompanied by the division of the nucleus.

    0
    0
  • The formation of the spindle begins in the prophases of division.

    0
    0
  • The formation of the spindle differs in details in different plants.

    0
    0
  • In the Thallophytes the cytoplasm may be segmented by constriction, due to the in-growth of a new cell wall from the old one, as in Spirogyra and Cladophora, or by the formation of cleavage furrows in which the new cell-wall is secreted, as occurs in the formation of the spores in many Algae and Fungi.

    0
    0
  • Cell budding takes place in yeast and in the formation of the conidia of Fungi.

    0
    0
  • In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.

    0
    0
  • This is known as free cell formation.

    0
    0
  • Fertilization.The formation of the zygote or egg-cell takes place usually by the fusion of the contents of two cells, and always includes, as -

    0
    0
  • structure and mode of formation, the spermatozoids of animals.

    0
    0
  • It is interesting to note that in many species the formation of new cell-walls is initiated before any indication of nuclear division is to he seen.

    0
    0
  • The formation of the conducting tubes or secretory sacs which occur in all parts of the higher plants is due either to the elongation of single cells or to the fusion of cells together in rows by the absorption of the cell-walls separating them.

    0
    0
  • Cases of complete fusion occur in the formation of laticiferous vessels, and in the spiral, annular and reticulate vessels of the xylem.

    0
    0
  • The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.

    0
    0
  • Sieve Tubes.The sieve tubes consist of partially fused rows of cells, the transverse cr lateral walls being perforated by minute openings, through which the contents of the cells are connected with each other, and which after a certain time become closed by,the formation of callus on the sieve plates.

    0
    0
  • The mode of formation of the sieve plate is not certainly known; but from the fact that delicate connecting threads of protoplasm are present between the cells from their first development it is probable that it is a special case of the normal protoplasmic continuity, the sieve pores being produced by a secondary enla~gement of the minute openings through which these delicate strands pass.

    0
    0
  • (1898); Sargant, The Formation of the Sexual Nuclei in Liiium Martagon, I.

    0
    0
  • Similarly bud-scales can be caused to develop into foliage-leaves, if the buds to which they belong are caused to grow out in the year of, their formation by the removal of the existing foliage-leaves.

    0
    0
  • Beyerinck was led to take up the decided position just mentioned by his researches into the conditions determining the formation of plant-galls as the result of injury by insects.

    0
    0
  • Bougainville had first, to perform the unpleasant task of delivering up the Falkland Islands, where he had encouraged the formation of a French settlement, to the Spaniards.

    0
    0
  • The actual position of sea-level lies so near the summit of the crust-heap that the varied relief of the upper portion leads to the formation of a complicated coast- The con- line and a great number of detached portions of land.

    0
    0
  • Plains of aeolian formation.

    0
    0
  • The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.

    0
    0
  • When phenol is passed through a red-hot tube a complex decomposition takes place, resulting in the formation of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, &c. (J.

    0
    0
  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

    0
    0
  • The urine becomes dark green in colour owing to the formation of various oxidation products such as pyrocatechin.

    0
    0
  • The symptoms of nerve-poisoning are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and there is no danger).

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    0
  • thick, containing rolled fossil bones, cetacean and fish teeth, and shells of the Crag period, with nodules or pebbles of phosphatic matter derived from the London Clay, and often investing fossils from that formation.

    0
    0
  • The coprolitic stratum of the Speeton Clay, on the coast to the north of Flamborough Head, is included by Professor Judd with the Portland beds of that formation.

    0
    0
  • The schizognathous formation is doubtless the most primitive, and its representatives form a tolerably natural FIG.

    0
    0
  • The pectineal process is variable; it may grow entirely from the pubis, or both pubis and ilium partake of its formation, or lastly its pubic portion may be lost and the process is entirely formed by the ilium.

    0
    0
  • Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.

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  • the numerous fossils of the Santa Cruz formation), and also the nearest resemblance to the fauna of Austrogaea.

    0
    0
  • Propagation is by the formation of new corms from the parent corm, and by seeds.

    0
    0
  • Such instruments are occasionally found in old collections of philosophical apparatus and they have been used in order to explain to students the formation of multiple images.

    0
    0
  • at Rio de Janeiro led to a separatist revolution for the formation of a new state, to be called the Federagao do Equador.

    0
    0
  • In consequence of this composite formation, amethyst is apt to break with a rippled fracture, or to show "thumb markings," and the intersection of two sets of curved ripples may produce on the fractured surface a pattern something like that of "engine turning."

    0
    0
  • At this point we begin to encounter sulphur springs and bitter streams redolent with bitumen, a formation which reaches its climax at Hit, where a small stream (the " river of Ahava " of Ezra viii.

    0
    0
  • The iron formation is widely spread.

    0
    0
  • The plains are covered by a formation similar to that of the Argentine pampas and by the alluvial deposits of the present rivers.

    0
    0
  • It may be condensed and yields a solid which melts at - 55° C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes it with formation of hydrofluoric acid and liberation of sulphur.

    0
    0
  • Water decomposes it violently with formation of hydrochloric and sulphurous acids.

    0
    0
  • It is readily decomposed by water with formation of sulphurous, sulphuric and thiosulphuric acids, with simultaneous liberation of sulphur.

    0
    0
  • Water decomposes it with formation of sulphuric acid and oxygen: 25207 + 4H 2 0 = 4H 2 SO 4 + 02.

    0
    0
  • The dithionates are all soluble in water and when boiled with hydrochloric acid decompose with evolution of sulphur dioxide and formation of a sulphate.

    0
    0
  • It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide and sulphur.

    0
    0
  • The formation of the pentathionic acid may be represented most simply as follows: 5S0 2 -15H 2 S = H 2560 6 + 5S -{ - 4H 2 0.

    0
    0
  • In short, the shutting out of the old nobility was, if not the formation of a new nobility, at least the formation of a Civic new privileged class.

    0
    0
  • The geological formation includes (like that of Java) three regions - the central volcanic, the southern peninsula of Tertiary limestone, and alluvial plains between the older formations.

    0
    0
  • of the great plateau formation of the old continent - the backbone of Asia - which stretches with decreasing altitude and width from of Asia.

    0
    0
  • Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.

    0
    0
  • higher portions of the plateau formation the empire has only comparatively recently planted its foot on the Pamir, and it was only a few years earlier that it established itself firmly on the highlands of Armenia.

    0
    0
  • A broad belt of hilly tracts - in every respect alpine in character, and displaying the same variety of climate and organic life as alpine tracts usually do - skirts the plateau formation throughout its entire length on the N.

    0
    0
  • The picturesque Bureya Mountains above the Amur, the forest-clad Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka belong, however, to quite another orographical construction, being the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau formation descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean.

    0
    0
  • Taking their rise on the plateau formation, or in its outskirts, they flow first along lofty longitudinal valleys formerly filled with great lakes, next they cleave their way through the rocky barriers, and finally they enter the lowlands, where they become navigable, and, describing wide curves to avoid here and there the minor plateaus and hilly tracts, they bring into watercommunication with one another places thousands of miles apart.

    0
    0
  • A broad depression - the Aral-Caspian desert - has arisen where the plateau formation reaches its greatest altitude, and at the same time suddenly changes its direction from N.W.

    0
    0
  • In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.

    0
    0
  • all the older subdivisions are represented, the deposits having the characters of a deep-sea formation in the Aral-Caspian region and on the Caucasus.

    0
    0
  • Russia witness the formation of numerous miniature canons, or ovraghi (deep ravines), the summits of which rapidly advance and ramify in the loose surface deposits.

    0
    0
  • The methods adopted by the zemstvos for improving the condition of agriculture have included the formation of agricultural councils, the appointment of inspectors, and the founding of museums, meteorological stations and depots for the sale of agricultural machinery.

    0
    0
  • Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.

    0
    0
  • As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.

    0
    0
  • 2.6 in.) radius; width of formation, 3.50 m.

    0
    0
  • These " stone runs " are looked upon with great wonder by the shifting population of the Falklands, and they are shown to visitors with many strange speculations as to their mode of formation.

    0
    0
  • Their origin is attributed by some to the moraine formation of former glaciers.

    0
    0
  • Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation of a cabinet, and took for himself the post of minister of the interior.

    0
    0
  • He resigned office in May 1899, but was again entrusted with the formation of the ministry.

    0
    0
  • But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."

    0
    0
  • The topography and the climate of Nevada have led to the formation of two kinds of lakes, the ephemeral and the perennial.

    0
    0
  • Of these Nisyros alone is of volcanic origin; the others belong to the same limestone formation with the rocky headlands of the coast.

    0
    0
  • Of these the most original and valuable is the Critical Period volume, a history of the consolidation of the states into a government, and of the formation of the constitution.

    0
    0
  • If the consolidation took place with comparative uniformity we might then anticipate the formation of a vast multitude of small planets such as those we actually do find in the region between the orbit of Mars and that of Jupiter.

    0
    0
  • The rotation of the planets on their axes is also explained as a consequence of the nebular theory, for at the time of the first formation of the planet it must have participated in the rotation of the whole nebula, and by the subsequent contraction of the planet the speed with which the rotation was performed must have been accelerated.

    0
    0
  • This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the war between France and Austria, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland.

    0
    0
  • For the method of their formation see Joyce, op. cit.

    0
    0
  • Upon the formation of the Zanardelli cabinet (Feb.

    0
    0
  • Thus the heat of formation of anhydrous zinc sulphate, ZnSO 4j which cannot be determined directly, may be arrived at by summation (in Hess's units) as follows: Heats of formation are still determined for the most part in a precisely similar manner.

    0
    0
  • Heat of Formation.

    0
    0
  • - For thermochemical calculations it is of great importance to know the heat of formation of compounds from their elements, even when the combination cannot be brought about directly.

    0
    0
  • If now it is required to find the heat of formation of the compound CO, which cannot be directly ascertained, we have merely to subtract the second equation from the first, each symbol representing constant intrinsic energy, and thus we obtain C+0 - 00= 26300 cal., or C+0=C0+26300 cal., that is, the heat of formation of a gramme-molecule of carbon monoxide is 26300 cal.

    0
    0
  • This assumption has the great advantage, that the intrinsic energy of a compound relatively to its elements now appears as the heat of formation of the compound with its sign reversed.

    0
    0
  • With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.

    0
    0
  • Thus if we wish to ascertain the thermal effect of the action Mg+CaO =MgO+Ca, we may write, knowing the heats of formation of CaO and Mg0 to be 131000 and 146000 respectively, 0-131000 = 0-146000+x x =15000 cal.

    0
    0
  • Since heats of formation afford such convenient data for calculation on the above method, they have been ascertained for as many compounds as possible.

    0
    0
  • The relation between the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon and its heat of formation may be readily seen from the following example.

    0
    0
  • Now we know the heats of formation of carbon dioxide (from diamond) and of liquid water to be 94300 cal.

    0
    0
  • The above equation may consequently be written, if x is the heat of formation of methane, -x+0 = -94300-(2 X 68300) +213800 x =17000 cal.

    0
    0
  • This heat of formation, like that of most hydrocarbons, is comparatively small: the heat of formation of saturated hydrocarbons is always positive, but the heat of formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is frequently negative.

    0
    0
  • He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity, which Spain had never possessed since the fall of the Visigoth kingdom.

    0
    0
  • Fecamp, Le Poeme de Gudrun, ses origines, sa formation et son histoire (1892); F.

    0
    0
  • 4 His approach was the signal for the formation of a coalition, which was overthrown in 738.

    0
    0
  • prior or posterior to the formation of the exclusive Judaean community, &c.).

    0
    0
  • The result of this alliance between a revolutionary and a Pharisee was the formation of the party of Zealots, whose influence - according to Josephus - brought about the great revolt and so led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70.

    0
    0
  • All these are involved in the earth movements to which the mountains of the island owe their formation, but the Miocene beds (with Clypeaster) and later deposits lie almost undisturbed upon the coasts and the low-lying ground.

    0
    0
  • The constitution authorizes the formation of a militia (7roXerocvXaKr)) to be enrolled by conscription, but in existing circumstances the embodiment of this force seems unnecessary.

    0
    0
  • The oldest, bordering the Lower Carboniferous, is the Tuscaloosa formation of clays and sands arranged as follows: dark clays, thin lignite seams, lignitic clays, sands and chert, and light clays; this formation is 5-15 m.

    0
    0
  • The Eutaw formation is a strip about 5 to 12 m.

    0
    0
  • The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.

    0
    0
  • The Wilcox formation (called Lignitic by Hilgard, and named by Safford the Lagrange group) lies to the west of the last, and its western limit is from about 32° 12' on the Alabama boundary about due north-west; in its north-westernmost part it is on the western edge of the Tertiary in this state.

    0
    0
  • The siliceous Claiborne (or Tallahatta Buhrstone) formation lies south-westward from the last-named in a strip 10-30 m.

    0
    0
  • The Jackson formation south-west of the Lisbon beds, is made up chiefly of grey calcareous clay marls, bluish lignitic clays, green-sand and grey siliceous sands.

    0
    0
  • The minimum thickness of the formation is 240 ft.

    0
    0
  • The Vicksburg formation lies next in order south-west, in a narrow strip of fairly regular width which alone of the Tertiary formations runs as far west as the Mississippi River; it is probably nowhere more than 110 ft.

    0
    0
  • The older formation of the Quaternary period is the Lafayette (also called "Orange-sand" or "stratified drift"), which immediately overlies all the Cretaceous groups except the prairies of the Selma chalk, and all the Tertiary except the Porters Creek and Vicksburg formations and parts of the Jackson.

    0
    0
  • The second Quaternary formation is the Port Hudson, occurring within 20 m.

    0
    0
  • The territorial limits were extended on the north to the state of Tennessee in 1804 by the acquisition of the west cessions of South Carolina and Georgia, and on the south to the Gulf of Mexico by the seizure of West Florida in 1810-1813, 1 but were restricted on the east by the formation of the Territory of Alabama in 1817.

    0
    0
  • Stolypin was for some time in sympathy with that programme, and even contemplated the formation of a Ministry strengthened by leaders of public opinion, of whom Guchkov, Count Heyden and N.

    0
    0
  • Such " workers " are essential to the formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their wingless condition among the ants shows that their specialization has been carried further in this family than among the wasps and bees.

    0
    0
  • above the present level of the Caspian, gives support to this hypothesis, which is further advanced by the ascertained nature of the Kara-kum sands, which appear to be a purely marine formation exhibiting no traces of fluviatile deposits which might be considered as delta deposits of the Oxus.

    0
    0
  • He reported the gradual formation of an anticlinal or ridge extending longitudinally through the great Balkh plain of Afghan Turkestan, which effectually shuts off the northern affluents of that basin from actual junction with the river.

    0
    0
  • The formation of this and of the other great mountain chains of central Asia resulted in the isolation of portions of the former central sea; and the same forces finally led to the elevation of the whole region and the union of the old continents of Angara and Gondwana.

    0
    0
  • In the leeches, however, there seems to be the commencement of the formation of a syncerebrum.

    0
    0
  • Vezhdovsky has lately seen reasons for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through pressure, which become lined with these cells.

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  • Bergh (for Lumbricus and Criodrilus), whose figures show a derivation of the entire nephridium from mesoblast, and an absence of any connexion between successive nephridia by any continuous band, epiblastic or mesoblastic. A midway position is taken up by Wilson, who asserts the mesoblastic formation of the funnel, but also asserts the presence of a continuous band of epiblast from which certainly the terminal vesicle of the nephridium, and doubtfully the glandular part of the tube is derived.

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  • But to use such terms for what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in geographical nomenclature.

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  • Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.

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  • The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.

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  • The main distinction is the occurrence in the tissue of the fruit, or beneath the rind, of clusters of cells filled with hard woody deposit in the case of the pear, constituting the "grit," while in the apple no such formation of woody cells takes place.

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  • In the formation of the trees the same plan may be adopted as in the case of the apple.

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  • In 1901 the formation of the Agricultural Organization Society marked the first systematic attempt to organize co-operation among the farmers of Great Britain.

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  • A noteworthy feature of the closing decades of the 19th century was the formation of voluntary associations of stockbreeders, with the object of promoting the interests of the respective breeds of live stock.

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  • In our own time they have inspired both the formation of trade combinations and attempts to break them up, hostility to all forms of state interference and a belief in collectivism.

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  • On this subject many monographs and larger works have been published in recent years, but dealing rather with such questions as trade unionism, co-operation and factory legislation, than the structure and organization of particular industries, or the causes and the results of the formation of the great combinations, peculiarly characteristic of the United States, but not wanting in England, which are amongst the most striking economic phenomena of modern times.

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  • But what more than any other point of strategy made the fight famous was that the Scots fought on foot in battalions with their spears outwards, in a circular formation serving the same purpose as the modern square.

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  • It has simply been traced as far as the formation of a diblastula which acquires a ciliated band, and becomes a nearly spherical trochosphere.

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  • As in other Molluscan groups, we find a wide variation in the early process of the formation of the first embryonic cells, and their arrangement as a diblastula, dependent on the greater or less amount of food-yolk which is present in the egg-cell when it commences its embryonic changes.

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  • C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the foot.

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  • E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.

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  • This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.

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  • The upper whorls of the shell are seen to be divided into separate chambers by the formation of successively formed " septa."

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  • It seems probable that it is identical with one of the open sacs in which each shell-plate of a Chiton is formed, and the series of plate-like imbrications which are placed behind the single shell-sac on the dorsum of the curious slug, Plectrophorus, suggest the possibility of the formation of a series of shellsacs on the back of that animal similar to those which we find in Chiton.

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  • The new Franco-Russian entente helped on the formation of the Armed Neutrality League and led to the concoction of schemes for the driving of the British from India.

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  • The British government, on hearing of his arrival at Plymouth, decided to send him to St Helena, the formation of that island being such as to admit of a certain freedom of movement for the august captive, with none of the perils for the world at large which the tsar's choice, Elba, had involved.

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  • Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups - the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans - and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.

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  • The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central yolk, is formed.

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  • - Diagram showing Formation of the ectoderm.

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  • It has usually been regarded as representing both endoderm and mesoderm, and the groove which usually leads to its formation has been compared to the abnormally elongated blastopore of a typical gastrula.

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  • He finds that the endoderm arises may be readily distinguished, six of which subsequently enter into from an anterior and a posterior rudiment derived from the " endothe formation of the head, three going to the thorax and twelve to blast," that many of the cells of these rudiments wander into the the abdomen.

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  • Concomitant with this separation there is commencement of the formation of a new cuticle within the old one, so that when the latter is cast off the insect appears with a partly completed new cuticle.

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  • The changes have been found to be made up of two sets of processes: histolysis, by which the whole or part of a structure disappears: and histogenesis, or the formation of the new structure.

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  • The number of imaginal disks in an individual is large, upwards of sixty having been discovered to take part in the formation of the outer body of a fly.

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  • These do not take a direct part in the formation of the new tissue, but it is believed merely yield their surplus acquisitions, becoming ordinary blood-cells or disappearing altogether.

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  • It cannot but suggest itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed inwards instead of outwards.

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  • But, though apparently without such a knowledge of the anatomy of birds as would enable him to apply it to the formation of that natural system which he was fully aware had yet to be sought, he seems to have been an excellent judge of the characters afforded by the bill and limbs, and the use he made of them, coupled with the extraordinary reputation he acquired on other grounds, procured for his system the adhesion for many years of the majority of ornithologists.'

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  • He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.

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  • These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.

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  • It melts at 70° C.and at higher temperatures decomposes, with evolution of carbon dioxide and formation of aceto-nitrile, CH 3 CN.

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  • But the empire was vast and weak, and its capital lay far away; in practice, no doubt, the lagoon population enjoyed virtual independence, though later the Byzantine claim to suzerainty became one of the leading factors in the formation of the state.

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  • The rapid formation of this land empire, and the obvious intention to expand, called the attention not only of Italy but of Europe to this power which seemed destined to become supreme in north Italy, and eventually led to the league of Cambrai for the dismemberment of Venice.

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  • In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer resorts.

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  • In the American Presbyterian church he was a prominent figure; he worked for union with the Congregationalists and with the Dutch Reformed body; and at the synod of 1786 he was one of the committee which reported in favour of the formation of a General Assembly and which drafted "a system of general rules for.

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  • Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.

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  • Kovalevsky in 1871 first described the formation of the germinal layers in insects.

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  • This resulted in July in the formation of the University Settlements Association, and when Toynbee Hall was built shortly afterwards Mr Barnett became its warden.

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  • The uneasiness caused by the excessive dependence of Great Britain upon the United States for cotton, coupled with the Recent belief that shortages of supply are more frequent than R they ought to be, and the fear that diminishing returns attempts to open may operate in America, occasioned the formation in England of the British Cotton Growing Association on.

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  • Arrangements were concluded with the British South Africa Company for the formation of a small syndicate for working in Rhodesia.

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  • Much the same had been the ultimate outcome of the spasmodic attempt of the British government to bring about the introduction of cotton to new districts, after it had been pressed to take some action a few years prior to the formation of the Cotton Supply Association.

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  • It is found that transparent oils under the influence of light absorb oxygen, becoming deeper in colour and opalescent, while strong acidity and a penetrating odour are developed, these changes being due to the formation of various acid and phenylated compounds, which are also occasionally found in fresh oils.

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  • Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.

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  • The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.

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  • Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.

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  • It is either set in the first instance at some distance from the engine and well, or is subsequently removed sufficiently far away before the drill enters the oil-bearing formation, and until the oil and gas are under control, in order to minimize the risk of fire.

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  • He thinks that his principal aim was simply the formation of a compact Mahommedan state, which was, indeed, in the issue destined to be the instrument of the jihad,.

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  • In many cases it is obvious that the political antipathy of the natives to the Arabs has found expression in the formation of such sects.

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  • Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.

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  • The omnipresence of this connective tissue tends to exclude the formation of any perivisceral body cavity in Nemertines.

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  • He took a leading part in the formation of the party of the Centre in 1870-1871, but he did not become a member of it, fearing that his reputation as a follower of the king of Hanover would injure the party, until he was formally requested to join them by the leaders.

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  • The formation of a High Court of Justice rendered them obsolete.

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  • Work begun in Australia and New Zealand prospered, and the former country finally contributed over 1 i,000 members to the formation of the United Methodist Church of Australia, New Zealand with its 2600 members preferring to remain connected with the home country.

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  • Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.

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  • Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.

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  • Their formation is not due to a true process of saponification; but they occupy an important place in compound soaps.

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  • There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.

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  • The significance of this act can only be realized when one recalls the tendencies toward the formation of national churches, which had been so powerful under the Merovingians.

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  • At this period there seemed a strong probability of the junction of the north-western and southeastern Sla y s, and the formation of a great Slavonic power to east of the German empire.

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  • The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.

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  • On fusion with caustic potash it decomposes with formation of tetrahydroxy-benzophenone, which then breaks up into resorcin and hydroquinone.

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  • Until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861, Nagpur province, which consists of the present Nagpur division, Chhindwara and Chhatisgarh, was administered by a commissioner under the central government.

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  • Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.

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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.

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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.

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  • These compounds also afford examples of the fact that, generally speaking, those compounds are most readily formed, and are most stable, in the formation of which the most heat is developed.

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  • For example, when a solution of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of ferric thiocyanate.

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  • At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.

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  • A third hydroxyl group may be introduced into the - CH: 0 residue with the formation of the radical - C(OH) :0; this is known as the carboxyl group, and characterizes the organic acids.

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  • Thus the thio-alcohols or mercaptans (q.v.) contain the group - CH2 SH; and the elimination of the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen between two molecules of a thio-alcohol results in the formation of a thio-ether or sulphide, R 2 S.

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  • Oxidation of thio-ethers results in the formation of sulphoxides, R2: S: 0, and sulphones, R2: S02; oxidation of mercaptans yields sulphonic acids, R S0 3 H, and of sodium mercaptides sulphinic acids, R S0(OH).

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  • Baeyer supposes that in the formation of carbon, rings " the valencies become deflected from their positions, and that the tension thus introduced may be deduced from a comparison of this angle with the angles at which the strained valencies would meet.

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  • The readiness with which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will be drawn out of its position through 2.109° 28'.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.

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  • C. Graebe (Ann., 1869, 149, p. 22) orientated the ortho-compound or phthalic acid from its formation from naphthalene on oxidation; the meta-compound or isophthalic acid is orientated by its production from mesitylene, shown by A.

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  • Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.

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  • Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.

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  • If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.

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  • The formation of this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while considerable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation based on Ladenburg's representation.

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  • Kekule also urged that the formation of trichlorphenomalic acid, shown by him and O.

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  • When applied to benzene, a twofold conjugated system is suggested in which the partial valencies of adjacent atoms neutralize, with the formation of a potential double link.

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  • These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single and double linkages, the formation of three double links giving three bands, and of three single links another three; Baly and Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there are seven combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the benzene molecule.

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  • This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.

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  • When, as in the formation of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal centric form and become relatively inactive.

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  • Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability.

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  • The more important types are derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particularly to the formation of condensed nuclei.

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  • Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.

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  • Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the formation of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is heated with copper oxide.

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  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.

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  • In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.

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  • The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group C. OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages in the molecule.

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  • It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.

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  • It is remarkable that the position of the halogen in the molecule has no effect on the heat of formation; for example, chlorpropylene and allylchloride, and also ethylene dichloride and ethylidene dichloride, have equal heats of formation.

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  • methylene oxide if we assign to it the formula H 2 C O CH 2, but if the formula H 2 C O CH 2 (which assumes the presence of two free valencies) be accepted, the calculated and observed heats of formation are in agreement.

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  • The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary amines.

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  • [[Coch 3 0ch 3 Nhcoch 3 Nh2 N(Ch3)2 N]](C2H5)2 - 0.260 1.459 1'949 3.821 8.587 8.816 The phenomena attending the salt formation of coloured and colouring substances are important.

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  • In many cases it may be connected with basic oxygen, and the salt formation is assumed to involve the passage of divalent into tetravalent oxygen.

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  • Solution in dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2.

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  • On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.

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  • It is remarkable that a great many polymorphous substances assume more symmetrical forms at higher temperatures, and a possible explanation of the increase in density of such compounds as silver iodide, &c., may be sought for in the theory that the formation of a more symmetrical configuration would involve a drawing together of the molecules, and consequently an increase in density.

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  • It is pleasantly situated on rising ground above the small river Cober, which, a little below the town, expands into a picturesque estuary called Looe Pool, the water being banked up by the formation of Looe Bar at the mouth.

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  • He declined to accept office under the earl of Derby; but on the formation of the coalition ministry under the earl of Aberdeen in January 18J3, he received the appointment of postmaster-general.

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  • The difference in formation between s and s is that the former is dental or alveolar, the latter is produced farther back and has .at least two varieties.

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  • Reduction of this ester leads to the formation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, and dimethyl pyrrol dicarboxylic ester, C(CH3): C C02R HN< C(CO 2 R) :C CH3.

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  • It is of Tertiary formation (Miocene), and has a chain of volcanic elevations along the axis, reaching a height of 2600 ft.

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  • All the other islands are of post-Tertiary formation and of level surface.

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  • In 1814 Tassaert observed the spontaneous formation of a blue compound, very similar to ultramarine, if not identical with it, in a soda-furnace at St Gobain, which caused the Societe pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie to offer, in 1824, a prize for the artificial production of the precious colour.

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  • At the formation of the club each member assumed a colour, and also a letter, which he used as the initial of his dog's name.

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  • The progress of the club has been remarkable, and that its formation did much to improve the conditions of the various breeds of dogs, to encourage their use in the field by the promotion of working trials, and to check abuses which were common with regard to the registration of pedigrees, &c., cannot.

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  • From these structural and palaeontological evidences, geologists suppose that the formation of the cave was carried on simultaneously with the excavation of the valley; that the small streams, flowing down the upper ramifications of the valley, entered the western opening of the cave, and traversing the fissures in the limestone, escaped by the lower openings in the chief valley; and that the rounded pebbles found in the shingle bed were carried in by these streams. It would be only at times of drought that the cave was frequented by animals, a theory which explains the small quantity of animal remains in the shingle.

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  • Blocks of dressed stone overgrown by grass lie in regular formation; a series of parallel revetment walls on hills commanding passes exist, as do relics of ancient water-tanks.

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  • It must not be forgotten that either before or soon after the formation of the Union the Northern States - beginning with Vermont in 1777, and ending with New Jersey in 1804 - either abolished slavery or adopted measures to effect its gradual abolition within their boundaries.

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  • The government interpreted the application as implying a wish for the abolition of serfdom, and issued a rescript authorizing the formation of committees to prepare definite proposals for a gradual emancipation.

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  • The French army now moved forward with great rapidity in their usual formation of columns.

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  • The value of that work cannot be denied; the impulse which it gave to Platonic studies in Italy, and through them to the formation of the new philosophy in Europe, is indisputable.

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  • His work, Monumenti delle anti christiane primitive, is the first in which the strange misconception, received with unquestioning faith by earlier writers, that the catacombs were exhausted sand-pits adapted by the Christians to the purpose of interment, was dispelled, and the true history of their formation demonstrated.

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