Form sentence example

form
  • As she reached the tree, a large black furry form crashed into the trees ahead of her.
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  • Sofia saw the tears form in her gaze.
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  • Han asked, his form blurry in front of her.
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  • She placed the form in front of her on the counter and began filling it out.
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  • The worst of it was when I got that adoption form in the mail today.
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  • She hadn't expected it to form so fast or so strong.
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  • His servant handed him a half-cut novel, in the form of letters, by Madame de Souza.
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  • I just don't believe in hitting as a form of punishment.
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  • I then guided her hand to form the sentence, "Cat does drink milk."
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  • It does not react with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated temperatures.
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  • And then she saw the note clipped to the adoption form.
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  • This is a form of wealth.
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  • Weller rose, picking up a form from his desk.
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  • Their approximate form was only arrived at by excavations made during the later years of the 19th century.
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  • Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
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  • In this form the seventh day's rest was one of the few outward ordinances by which the Israelite could still show his fidelity to Yahweh and mark his separation from the heathen.
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  • These rocks form the greater part of the central range, and they are often - especially the granite - decomposed and rotten to a considerable depth.
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  • In 1874 the Malay state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States.
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  • The kasbah forms the apex of a triangle of which the quays form the base.
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  • In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded.
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  • A larger product of the vine was in the form of raisins and currants, of which quantities were exported to Russia.
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  • Cosmological materialism is that form of the doctrine in which the dominant motive is the formation of a comprehensive world-scheme: the Stoics and Epicureans were cosmological materialists.
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  • The highest form of the doctrine is scientific materialism, by which term is meant the doctrine so commonly adopted by the physicist, zoologist and biologist.
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  • It constituted the most common form of divination in ancient Babylonia, where it can be traced back to the 3rd millennium B.C. Among the Etruscans the prominence of the rite led to the liver being looked upon as the trade-mark of the priest.
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  • It has large coal mines, which form the south-western portion of the extensive Upper Silesian coal fields, the largest Austrian deposit.
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  • The lordship remained in the marches till the Act of Union 1536, when it was grouped with a number of others so as to form the shire of Brecknock.
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  • Coins of Ceos exhibit the head of Aristaeus and Sirius in the form of a dog crowned with rays.
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  • The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.
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  • The New Mosque (Jamaa-el-Jedid), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners.
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  • Tossett or Toppid and Turaw mountains command extensive prospects, and form striking features in the scenery of the county.
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  • The interior is in the form of a basilica, the double aisles being borne by ancient columns, and contains ambones and a candelabrum of 1311, the former resting on columns supported by lions, and decorated with reliefs and coloured marble mosaic. The castle at the highest point of the town was erected in the 14th century.
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  • The spreading branches have a tendency to assume a tortuous form, owing to the central shoots becoming abortive, and the growth thus being continued laterally, causing a zigzag development, more exaggerated in old trees and those standing in From Kotschy, op. cit.
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  • The catkins appear soon after the young leaves, usually in England towards the end of May; the acorns, oblong in form, are in shallow cups with short, scarcely projecting scales; the fruit is shed the first autumn, often before the foliage changes.
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  • The tree will continue to form wood for i 50 or 200 years before showing any symptoms of decay.
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  • A bitter principle to which the name of quercin has been applied by Gerber, its discoverer, has also been detected in the acorn of the common oak; the nutritive portion seems chiefly a form of starch.
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  • The leaves are large, often irregular in form, usually with a few deep lobes dilated at the end; they are of a bright light green on the upper surface, but whitish beneath; they turn to a violet tint in autumn.
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  • The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.
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  • Ballota, a closely allied species abundant in Morocco, bears large edible acorns, which form an article of trade with Spain; an oil, resembling that of the olive, is obtained from them by expression.
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  • The special form of government was not the important point, but its possibility and its acceptability.
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  • If every man should fight for the best form of government the state would come to desolation.
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  • About a hundred members who refused to engage not to attempt to change the form of government were excluded on the 12th of September.
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  • The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.
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  • Kossmat has shown that the Atlantic had substantially its present form during the Cretaceous period.
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  • From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.
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  • The chief uncertainty is as to whether he knew Justin's Syntagma, and also as to whether he had access to the Philosophumena of Hippolytus in their complete form.
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  • These zone observations afforded 3 6 3,93 2 separate places of stars, and form the groundwork of the catalogue of 133,659 stars between 2° and 23° south declination, which was published in 1886 as the eighth volume of the Bonn observations.
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  • Slave raiding has ceased, but domestic slavery in a mild form continues.
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  • Iap,apeta from the Hebrew "an outlook hill," or rather from the Aramaic form 7734, whence also comes the Assyrian form Samirina.
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  • It consists of four hemispherical cups, mounted one on each end of a pair of horizontal arms, which lie at right angles to each other and form a cross.
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  • Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube containing liquid with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of instrument has sprung.
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  • A bent spring possesses energy, for it is capable of doing work in returning to its natural form; a charge of gunpowder possesses energy, for it is capable of doingwork in exploding; aLeyden jar charged with electricity possesses energy, for it is capable of doing work in being discharged.
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  • There was, however, even before Newton's time, more than a suspicion that heat was a form of energy.
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  • "It is hardly necessary to add," he remarks, "that anything which any insulated body or system of bodies can continue to furnish without limitation cannot possibly be a material substance; and it appears to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communicated in the manner that heat was excited and communicated in these experiments, except it be motion."
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  • In 1768 he had published Institutiones metallurgicae, intended to give a scientific form to chemistry by digesting facts established by experiment into a connected series of propositions.
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  • There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.
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  • In every mature period of art it will be found that, however much the technical rules may be collected in one special category, every artistic category has a perfect interaction with all the others; and this is nowhere more perfectly shown than when the art is in its simplest possible form of maturity.
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  • It has precisely the same limitation as the treatment of form and emotion; it cannot change as the work proceeds.
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  • They are now by many systematists united with the Acanthocephala and the Nematomorpha to form the group Nemathelminthes.
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  • The spermatozoa differ from those of other animals in having the form of cells which sometimes perform amoeboid movements.
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  • The worm inhabits the lung of the frog and toad, and is hermaphrodite (Schneider) or parthenogenetic (Leuckart); the embryos hatched from the eggs find their way through the lungs into the alimentary canal and thence to the exterior; in a few days they develop into a sexual larva, called a Rhabditiform larva, in which the sexes are distinct; the eggs remain within the uterus, and the young when hatched break through its walls and live free in the perivisceral cavity of the mother, devouring the organs of the body until only the outer cuticle is left; this eventually breaks and sets free the young, which are without teeth, and have therefore lost the typical Rhabditis form.
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  • Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
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  • A third form, Microfilaria diurna, is found in the larval stage in blood, but only in the daytime.
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  • The adult stage of this form is the Filaria loa found in the subcutaneous tissues of the limbs.
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  • Though a distinct borough it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000.
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  • This simple form of crane thus embodies the essential elements of foundation, post, framework, jib, tie-rods and gearing.
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  • The whole number of this race is 620,229, and nowhere do they form a majority of the whole population in a state; but they are strongest, numerically, in the northern states and in Udaipur.
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  • Marriage retained the form of purchase, but was essentially a contract to be man and wife together.
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  • The restoration of goods appropriated, illegally bought or damaged by neglect, was usually accompanied by a fine, giving it the form of multiple restoration.
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  • Subsequently, in conjunction with Wheatstone, he introduced another form, in which five vertical index needles, each worked by a separate multiplier, were made to point out the letters on a dial.
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  • These vary in form, but essentially they consist of a stem of porcelain, coarse earthenware, glass or other non-conducting substance, protected by an overhanging roof or screen.
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  • The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.
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  • The tanks are nearly cylindrical in form and have a truncated cone fixed in the centre, as shown at C, fig.
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  • The form of Morse recorder almost universally used in Europe makes the record in ink- ink, and hence is sometimes called the "ink-writer.".
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  • The earliest successful form was " Bright's bell " sounder, which consisted of two bells of distinct tone or pitch, one of which was sounded when the current was sent in one [[International Code O]] --- 4 - 5 p-- - 6 R - 7 '...'
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  • This form of relay is largely used, but in Great Britain it has been entirely .flisplaced by the form shown in fig.
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  • One very great advantage in this method is that the instrument used between P and Q may be of any ordinary form, i.e.
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  • In the same way all the conducting sheets on the other side of the paper are connected together and form the earth-plate of this artificial cable, thus representing the sea.
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  • The operator actuates a typewriter form of perforator which punches varying groups of holes, representing the different characters, in a paper strip about one inch wide.
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  • This operation occupies about twelve seconds, giving a message written in column form ready for delivery.
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  • With this modified form somewhat greater speed was obtained, but it was found difficult to drive, requiring the use of steam or some such motive-power.
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  • Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
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  • The Baudot apparatus can have certain channels extended so as to form a means of continuous communication between one station and two or three others by means of one line.
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  • In the Murray system the messages are first prepared in the form of a strip of perforated paper about half an inch wide.
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  • The messages in the form of perforated tape are then passed through an automatic transmitter, something like a Wheatstone transmitter, at a speed of about 100 words a minute.
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  • This received perforated tape is then used to control what is known as the printer or automatic typewriter, a machine that translates the tape perforations into letters and prints the messages in Roman type in page form.
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  • Messages are thus typed upon a slip which is gummed to the telegraph form.
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  • The simplest form of receiving instrument (formerly much used) is known as the " mirror."
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  • These indications form the telegraph alphabet and are read in the same manner as in the case of the " single needle " instrument used on land.
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  • A very much simpler form of siphon recorder, constructed by Dr Muirhead, is now in general use.
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  • In what is known as the " hybrid " form of recorder the permanent magnets are provided with windings of insulated copper wire; the object of these windings is to provide a means of " refreshing " the magnets by means of a strong current temporarily sent through the coils when required, as it has been found that, owing to magnetic leakage and other causes, the magnets tend to lose their power, especially in hot climates.
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  • The heavier cores, with the consequent advance in speed of working attainable, have necessitated the introduction of automatic sending, the instruments adopted being in general a modification of the Wheatstone transmitter adapted to the form of cable signals, while the regularity of transmission thus secured has caused its introduction even on circuits where the speed cannot exceed that of the ordinary operator's hand signalling.
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  • In 1885 Preece and Heaviside proved by experiments made at Newcastle that if two completely insulated circuits of square form, each side being 440 yds., were placed a quarter of a mile apart, telephonic speech was conveyed from one to the other by induction, and signals could be perceived even when they were separated by 1000 yds.
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  • The difficulty of connecting lightships and isolated lighthouses to the mainland by submarine cables, owing to the destructive action of the tides and waves on rocky coasts on the wll- shore ends, led many inventors to look for a way out of the difficulty by the adoption of some form of inductive Smith.
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  • He constructed one form of his coherer of a glass tube a few inches long filled with iron borings or brass filings, having contact plates or pins at the end.
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  • This form of electric wave detector proved itself to be far more certain in operation and sensitive than anything previously invented.
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  • The antenna wire, connected to one spark ball of the induction coil, must be considered to form with the earth, connected to the other spark ball, a condenser.
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  • When the discharge takes place the ends of the lines of electric force abutting on the wire run down it and are detached in the form of semiloops of electric force which move outwards with their ends on the surface of the earth.
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  • Instead of inserting the sensitive tube between the receiving antenna and the earth, he inserted the primary coil of a peculiar form of oscillation transformer and connected the terminals of the tube to the secondary circuit of the transformer.
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  • It was also recognized that what is required at the transmitting end is the establishment of powerful electric oscillations in the sending antenna, which create and radiate their energy in the form of electric waves having their magnetic force component parallel to the earth's surface and their electric component perpendicular to it.
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  • This creates rapid variations in electric and magnetic force round the antenna and detaches energy from it in the form of an electric wave.
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  • These communicate their energy to the surrounding air, and this energy is conveyed away in the form of air waves.
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  • In this last form an endless band of hard iron wires passes slowly round two wooden pulleys driven by clockwork.
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  • Fleming, " A Note on a Form of Magnetic Detector for Hertzian Waves adapted for Quantitative Work," Proc. Roy.
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  • One form such a detector takes is the bolometer.
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  • Klemencig devised a form of thermal receiver depending on thermoelectricity.
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  • Another form of receiver can be made depending on the properties of mercury vapour.
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  • All of them make use of Marconi's antenna in some form both at the transmitting and at the receiving end, all of them make use of an earth connexion, or its equivalent in the form of a balancing capacity or large surface having capacity with respect to the earth, which merely means that they insert a condenser of large capacity in the earth connexion.
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  • At the receiving station the differences in these systems depend chiefly upon variations in the actual form of the oscillation detector used, whether it be a loose contact or a thermal, electrolytic or magnetic detector.
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  • Also he showed that if such an antenna had its horizontal part swivelled round into various directions the current created in a distant receiver antenna varied with the azimuth, and when plotted out in the form of a polar curve gave a curve of a peculiar figure-of-8 shape.
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  • Two parishes, East and West Teignmouth, form the town.
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  • Soon after the dialect had reached its latest form, the Latin alphabet was adopted.
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  • The cadmium molecule, as shown by determinations of the density of its vapour, is monatomic. The metal unites with the majority of the heavy metals to form alloys; some of these, the so-called fusible alloys, find a useful application from the fact that they possess a low melting-point.
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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
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  • The pitch of a musical sound depends on the number of cycles passed through by the fluctuations of the pressure per unit of time; the loudness depends on the amount or the amplitude of the fluctuation in each cycle; the quality depends on the form or the nature of the fluctuation in each cycle.
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  • A good example may be made with two cylindrical tin cups; the bottoms form the membranes and the cups the mouthpieces.
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  • He proposed to make the armature partake of the vibrations of the atmosphere either by converting it into a suitable vibrator or by controlling its vibrations by a stretched membrane of parchment armature had the form of a hinged lever one end, which pressed against the centre.
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  • The experiments with this form were not successful, and, with the view of making the moving parts as light as possible, he substituted for the comparatively heavy lever armature a small piece of clock spring, about the size of a sixpence, glued to the centre of the diaphragm.
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  • This answered sufficiently well to prove the feasibility of the plan, and subsequent experiments were directed to the discovery of the best form and arrangement of the parts.
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  • In another form the plumbago powder was worked into a button cemented together with syrup and other substances.
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  • When the sounding board was spoken to or subjected to sound-waves, the mechanical resistance of the loose electrode, due to its weight, or the spring, or both, served to vary the pressure at the contact, and this gave to the current a form corresponding to the sound-waves, and it was therefore capable of being used as a speaking-telephone transmitter.'
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  • The spring-jack used was a form of switch with two contact springs which pressed against each other, one being connected to the subscriber's line wire and the other to the annunciator, which was also earthed.
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  • This form of cable has been superseded by a type with paper insulation.
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  • As no practical process of telephone relaying has been devised, it is extremely important that the character of the line should be such as to favour the preservation of the strength and form of the telephone current.
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  • The early authorities represent the Stigmata not as bleeding wounds, the holes as it were of the nails, but as fleshy excrescences resembling in form and colour the nails, the head on the palm of the hand, and on the back as it were a nail hammered down.
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  • The official life of St Francis is St Bonaventura's Legenda, published in a convenient form by the Franciscans of Quaracchi (1898); Goetz's estimate of it (op. cit.) is much more favourable than Sabatier's.
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  • The east and north parts lie in the basin of the river Fulda, which near the north-eastern boundary joins with the Werra to form the Weser.
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  • In the terrestrial type a pair of well-developed wings traverse the length of the pitcher; in the tubular or funnelshaped form the wings are narrow or ridge-like.
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  • Though the Alps form throughout the northern boundary of Italy, the exact limits at the extremities of the Alpine chain are not clearly marked.
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  • Nor do the highest summits form a continuous ridge of great altitude for any considerable distance; they are rather a series of groups separated by tracts of very inferior elevation forming natural passes across the range, and broken in some places (as is the case in almost all limestone countries) by the waters from the upland valleys turning suddenly at right angles, and breaking through the mountain ranges which bound them.
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  • The Euganean hills form a small group extending for about 10 m.
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  • The lakes of Bolsena (Vulsiniensis), of Bracciano (Sabatinus), of Vico (Ciminus), of Albano (Albanus), of Nemi (Nemorensis), and other smaller lakes belong to this district; while between its south-west extremity and Monte Circello the Pontine Marshes form a broad strip of alluvial soil infested by malaria.
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  • The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
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  • Italians form about half of the total emigrants to America.
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  • These animals are much smaller in stature and more regular in form than the Podolians; they are mainly kept for dairy purposes.
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  • A law passed on the 22nd of March 1900 gave a B a, special impulse to this form of enterprise by fixing the ratio r naze.
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  • Schiavanza, either simple or with a share in the crops, is a form of contract similar to the boaria, but applied principally to large holdings.
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  • Other forms of contract are the piccola mezzadria, or sub-letting by tenants to under-tenants, on the half-and-half system; enfiteusi, or perpetual leases at low rentsa form which has almost died out; and mezzadria (in the provinces of Caserta and Benevento).
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  • Inquilinaggio is a form of lease by which the landlord, and sometimes the tenant, makes over to tenant or subtenant the sowing of corn.
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  • The finest glass is made in Tuscany and Venetia; Venetian glass is often colored and of artistic form.
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  • The terms of agrarian contracts and leases (except in districts where mezzadria prevails in its essential form), are in many regions disadvantageous to the laborers, who suffer from the obligation to provide guarantees for payment of rent, for repayment of seed corn and for the division of products.
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  • The decrease of the disease is a direct result of the efforts made to combat it, in the form of special hospitals or pellagrosarf, economic kitchens, rural bakeries and maize-drying establishments.
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  • The property and money thus obtained were used to form an ecclesiastical fund (Cassa Ecclesiastica) distinct from the finances of the state.
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  • New parishes were created, old parishes were improved, the property of the suppressed religious corporations was assigned to charitable and educational institutions and to hospitals, while property having no special application was used to form a charitable and religious fund.
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  • Appeal may be made from the sentences of the pretori to the tribunals, and from the tribunals to the courts of appeal; from the assize courts there is no appeal except on a point of form, which appeal goes to the court of cassation at Rome.
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  • In order to understand the future history of Italy, it is necessary to form a clear conception of the method pursued by the Lombards in their conquest.
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  • In Milan the citizens first form themselves into a Parlamento.
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  • Among the principal events of that reign must be reckoned the foundation of the two orders, Franciscan and Dominican, who were destined to form a militia for the holy see in conflict with the empire and the heretics of Lombardy.
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  • The Italians learn through their discords at this epoch that they form one community.
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  • Already the men of Reggio, Modena and Bologna had declared for a democratic policy, in which feudalism and clerical rule should have no place, and in which manhood suffrage, TahdeaCnIes~ together with other rights promised by Bonaparte Republin to the men of Milan in May 1796, should form the basis of a new order of things.
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  • At Milan, where there was a division of opinion between tha monarchists under Casati and the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration was formed and the question of the form of government postponed for the moment.
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  • The Mamiani ministry having failed to achieve anything, Pius summoned Pellegrino Rossi, a learned lawyer who had long been exiled in France, to form a cabinet.
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  • All reasonable men were now convinced that the question of the ultimate form of the Italian government was secondary, and that the national efforts should be concentrated on the task of expelling the Austrians; the form of government could be decided afterwards.
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  • In Rome, after the restoration of the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no attention to Louis Napoleons advice to maintain some form of constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the administration.
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  • There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
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  • Ferrara, successor of Scialoja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the Venetian debt, succeeded, with Sellas help, in forcing a Grist Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella could not entirely approve.
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  • Formerly a friend and disciple of Mazzini, with whom he had broken on the question of the monarchical form of government which Crispi believed indispensable to the unification of Italy, he had afterwards been one of Garibaldis most efficient coadjutors and an active member of the party of action.
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  • Nemesis came in the spring of 1881, in the form of the French invasion of Tunisia.
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  • Depretis took occasion to deny, in a form scarcely courteous, the probability of the visit.
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  • None of Rudinis public utterances justify the supposition that he assumed office with the intention of allowing the alliance to lapse on its expiry in May 1892; indeed, he frankly declared it to form the basis of his foreign policy.
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  • Shortly afterwards his term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the despatch of an Italian expedition, 2000 strong, to aid in repressing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests in the Far East (July 1900).
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  • His German sermons, of which seventy-one have been preserved, are among the most powerful in the language, and form the chief monuments of Middle High German prose.
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  • All leeches are very extensile and can contract the body to a plump, pear-shaped form, or extend it to a long and worm-like shape.
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  • Being intended for the Hotri's use, both these works treat exclusively of the hymns and verses recited by that priest and his assistants, either in the form of connected litanies or in detached verses invoking the deities to whom oblations are made, or uttered in response to the.
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  • The altar itself is constructed in the form of a bird, because Soma was supposed to have been brought down from heaven by the metre Gayatri which had assumed the form of an eagle.
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  • 14, 15 - the passage already referred to, under " Natural Religion " - as asserting " Natural Law "; St Paul's words suggest that form of thought and may conceivably have been suggested by it.
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  • That suggests pantheism, the usual form of such esoteric wisdom.
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  • If all knowledge is drawn from experience, statements universal in form are but generalizations, holding within the limits of actual experience, or advanced beyond them at our peril.
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  • The problem has altered its form.
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  • We must conceive nature as overruled by God not so much Later for the sake of man's happiness as for the sake of his form; moral development.
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  • If perfect knowledge be possible for us, it must take, the form of such a system as Hegel offers.
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  • Certainly history shows that theism has generally been associated with some reduced or limited form of philosophy, usually with the intuitionalist scheme.
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  • (3) If we accept the suggestion offered above - that a priori in Kant and later thinkers =necessary - we place ourselves on the track which leads from intuitionalism to some form of idealism.
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  • The English thinkers influenced by Hegel are inclined to assert mechanism unconditionally, as the very expression of reason - the only thinkable form of order.
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  • And, as the sympathizers with Hegel try to force mechanical necessity into the garb of absolute or ideal necessity, so they seek to show that moral necessity is only an inferior form of absolute or ideal or, we might say, mathematical necessity.
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  • The threatened dualism of ideal and material becomes for Aristotle mainly a contrast of matter and form; the lower stage in development desires or aims at the higher, matter more and more tending to pass into form, till God is form without any matter.
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  • He also gives us " natural law " 2 - a Stoic inheritance, preserving the form of an idealist appeal to systematic requirements of reason, while practically limiting its assumptions to those of intuitionalism.
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  • But the Christian bias is sure to make theologians, who borrow a doctrine of the Absolute, interpret it in a Christian sense; hence we may consider it something of an accident that even an Augustine fails exactly to put the argument in form.
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  • At least, idealist philosophy will hold that the substance if not the form of the argument is sound 4 though the question of its interpretation remains.
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  • Descartes's preliminary statement of the argument in somewhat popular form brings it very near the lines of the cosmological proof.
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  • This is a form of the cosmological argument, and ought to go with an intuitionalist not an empiricist doctrine of causality.
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  • He dissents as a realist from the Cosmological argument in the form' in which 'it concludes from " contingent " to " necessary " being.
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  • And the God he postulates is brought in ex machina like the God of the old Design argument in its roughest popular form.
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  • The extremest form of antagonism is pure scepticism or pure agnosticism, the assertion that nothing can be known.
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  • Once again, empiricism may lead to some qualified and restricted form of agnosticism, religious or antireligious.
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  • They are forty-eight in number, and on them Magna Carta was based, the work of converting them into a charter, which was regarded as a much more binding form of engagement, being taken in hand immediately.
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  • In its original form the text of Magna Carta was not divided into chapters, but in later times a division of this kind was adopted.
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  • It was regarded as having conferred upon the nation nothing less than the English constitution in its perfect and completed form.
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  • "Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights and the Bill of Rights form that code, which I call the Bible of the English Constitution."
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  • ==Geology== The Andaman Islands, in conjunction with the other groups mentioned above, form part of a lofty range of submarine mountains, 700 m.
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  • But it seems possible that the tradition of marine nomenclature had never perished; that the 'AyaOov SaL�ovos vijvos was really a misunderstanding of some form like Agdaman, while Ni crot Bapouavac survived as Lanka Balus, the name applied by the Arabs to the Nicobars.
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  • The Hydromedusae form a widespread, dominant and highly differentiated group of animals, typically marine, and found in all seas and in all zones of marine life.
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  • Just below the crown of tentacles, however, the body widens out to form a " head," termed the hydranth (a), containing a stomach-like dilatation of the digestive cavity.
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  • The epithelial layer consists of (1) so-called " indifferent " cells secreting the perisarc or cuticle and modified to form glandular cells in places; for example, the adhesive cells in the foot.
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  • (2) Sensory cells, which may be fairly numerous in places, especially on the tentacles, but which occur always scattered and isolated, never aggregated to form sense-organs as in the medusa.
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  • In the polyp the nervous tissue is always in the form of a scattered plexus, never concentrated to form a definite nervous system as in the medusa.
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  • The hydroid colony shows many variations in form and architec- ture which depend simply upon differences in the methods in which polyps are budded.
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  • In the first place, buds may be produced only from the hydrorhiza, which grows out and branches to form a basal stolon, typically net-like, spreading over the substratum to which the founderpolyp attached itself.
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  • The polyp may then form a second bud, which becomes the starting point of a new system, the beginning, that is, of a new branch; and even a third bud, starting yet another system, may be produced from the same polyp. Hence the colonies of Calyptoblastea may be com plexly branched, and the bud ding may be biserial through out, uniserial throughout, or partly one, partly the other.
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  • Or a polyp on the main stem, after having budded a second time to form a pinnule, may give rise to a third bud, which starts a new biserial FIG.
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  • The manubrium is absent altogether in the fresh-water medusa Limnocnida, in which the diameter of the mouth exceeds half that of the umbrella; on the other hand, the manubrium may attain a great length, owing to the centre of the sub-umbrella with the stomach being drawn into it, as it were, to form a long proboscis, as in Geryonia.
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  • The nematocysts of the ectoderm may be grouped to form batteries on the tentacles, umbrellar margin and oral lappets.
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  • In places the nematocysts may be crowded so thickly as to form a tough, supporting, " chondral " tissue, resembling cartilage, chiefly developed at the margin of the umbrella and forming streaks or bars supporting the tentacles (" Tentakelspangen," peronia) or the tentaculocysts (" Gehorspangen," otoporpae).
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  • The medial portion forms radiating tracts of fibres, the so-called " bell-muscles " running underneath, and parallel to, the radial canals; when greatly developed, as in Tiaridae, they form ridges, so-called mesenteries, projecting into the sub-umbral cavity.
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  • The distal portions form the muscles of the tentacles.
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  • The nervous system of the medusa consists of sub-epithelial ganglion-cells, which form, in the first place, a diffuse plexus of nervous tissue, as in the polyp, but developed chiefly on the subumbral surface; and which are concentrated, in the second place, to form a definite central nervous system, never found in the polyp. In Hydromedusae the central nervous system forms two concentric nerverings at the margin of the umbrella, near the base of the velum.
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  • The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
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  • - Tentaculocyst of Cunina lati- their simplest form as a ventris.
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  • The simple form of ocellus described in the foregoing paragraph may become folded into a pit or cup, the interior of which becomes filled with a clear gelatinous secretion forming a sort of vitreous Modified after Linko, Travaux Soc. Imp. Nat., St.
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  • The non-sexua 1 reproduction takes the form of fission, budding or sporogony, the details of which are described below.
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  • In some Leptomedusae the gonads are formed on the radial canals and form protruding masses resembling sporosacs superficially, but not in structure.
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  • It is convenient to distinguish buds that give rise to polyps from those that form medusae.
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  • The 'ej: ¦ buds that form polyps ?
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  • The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
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  • The result of cleavage in all cases is a typical blastula, which when set free becomes oval and develops a flagellum to each cell, but when not set free, it remains spherical in form and has no flagella.
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  • The polyp is regarded, on this view, as a form phylogenetically older than the medusa, in short, as nothing more than a sessile actinula.
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  • In some hydroids the founder-polyp, developed from a planula after fixation, throws out numerous outgrowths from the base to form the hydrorhiza; these outgrowths may be radially arranged so as to form by contact or coalescence a flat plate.
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  • This must not be taken to mean, however, that the medusa is derived from a sessile polyp; it must be regarded as a direct modification of the more ancient free actinula form, without primitively any intervening polyp-stage, such as has been introduced secondarily into the development of the Leptolinae and represents 'a revival, so to speak, of an ancestral form or larval stage, which has taken on a special role in the economy of the species.
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  • Polypodium hydriforme Ussow is a fresh-water form parasitic on the eggs of the sterlet.
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  • The daughter-individuals grow, form the full number of twenty-four tentacles and divide again.
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  • Tetraplatia volitans Viguier is a remarkable floating marine form.
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  • The polyps may be solitary, or form colonies, which may be of the spreading or encrusting type, or arborescent, and then always of monopodial growth and budding.
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  • Speaking generally, three principal types of hydranth can be distinguished, each with subordinate varieties of form.
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  • (b) Tentacles capitate, simple; type of Coryne and Syncoryne; Myriothela is an aberrant form with some of the tentacles modified as " claspers " to hold the ova.
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  • The tentacles may be scattered singly round the margin of the umbrella (" monerenematous ") or arranged in tufts (" lophonematous "); in form they may be simple or branched (Cladonemid type); in structure they may be hollow (" coelomerinthous "); or solid (" pycnomerinthous ").
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  • Pennaria, with a free medusa known as Globiceps, is a common Mediterranean form.
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  • Solitary polyps are unknown in this sub-order; the colony may be creeping or arborescent in form; if the latter, the budding of the polyps, as already stated, is of the sympodial type, and either biserial, forming stems capable of further branching, or uniserial, forming pinnules not capable of further branching.
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  • An important variation is seen, in the form of the hydrotheca itself, which may come off from the main stem by a stalk, as in Obelia, or may be sessile, without a stalk, as in Sertularia.
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  • - Trophosome unknown; gonosome, free medusae of deep form, with radial canals branched in a feathery manner, and After Haeckel, System der Medusen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
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  • - Hydrothecae sessile, biserial on the main stem, uniserial on the lateral branches or pinnules, which give the colony its characteristic feathery form; with nematophores.
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  • (After coralline may be regarded as a form of Moseley.) hydroid colony in which the coenosarc forms a felt-work ramifying in all planes, and in which the chitinous perisarc is replaced by a massive calcareous skeleton.
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  • Prolongations from the rim of chondral tissue may form clasps or peronia supporting the tentacles.
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  • It has been asserted that the tentaculocysts are entirely ectodermal and that either the family should be placed amongst the Leptomedusae, or should form, together with certain Leptomedusae, an entirely distinct order.
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  • The Narcomedusae exhibit peculiarities of form and structure which distinguish them at once from all other Hydromedusae.
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  • The coenosarc may consist of a single elongated tube or stolon, forming the stem or axis of the cormus on which, usually, the appendages are arranged in groups termed cormidia; or it may take the form of a compact mass of ramifying, anastomosing tubes, in which case the cormus as a whole has a compact form and cormidia are not distinguishable.
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  • The appendages show various types of form and structure corresponding to different functions.
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  • The orifice of invagination forms a pore which may be closed up or may form a protruding duct or funnel.
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  • In their most primitive form they are seen in Velella as " gonosiphons," which possess mouths like the ordinary sterile siphons and bud free medusae.
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  • Next the pit closes up to form a vesicle with a pore, and so gives rise to the pneumatophore.
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  • It may be regarded as derived from floating polyps similar to Nemopsis or Pelagohydra, which by budding produce a colony of polyps and also form medusa-buds.
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  • The polyp-individuals form the nutritive siphosome or trophosome.
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  • The cloisters connect the cathedral with the church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), a beautiful building in the form of a circle intersected by a cross, with a lofty vault, built 1127-1143, and said to be the oldest Gothic church in Germany.
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  • The doctrine of evolution in its finished and definite form is a modern product.
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  • Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
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  • Aristotle's distinction of form and matter, and his conception of becoming as a transition from actuality to potentiality, provides a new ontological way of conceiving the process of material and organic evolution.'
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  • In the later and developed form of the Kabbala, the origin of the world is represented as a gradually descending emanation of the lower out of the higher.
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  • Thus Avicebron approaches, as Salomon Munk observes,' a pantheistic conception of the world, though he distinctly denies both matter and form to God.
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  • Matter and form are here identified, and the evolution of the world is presented as the unfolding of the world-spirit to its perfect forms according to the plastic substratum (matter) which is but one of its sides.
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  • This process of change is conceived as a transformation, in appearance only, of the real unchanging substance (matter and form).
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  • More than this, Leibnitz supposes that the activity of the monads takes the form of a self-evolution.
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  • - Of Leibnitz's immediate followers we may mention Lessing, who in his Education of the Human Race brought out the truth of the process of gradual development underlying: human history, even though he expressed this in a form inconsistent with the idea of a spontaneous evolution.
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  • In the first place, his peculiar system of subjective idealism, involving the idea that time is but a mental form to which there corresponds nothing in the sphere of noiimenal reality, serves to give a peculiar philosophical interpretation to every doctrine of cosmic evolution.
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  • 4 Kant held it probable that other planets besides our earth are inhabited, and that their inhabitants form a scale of beings, their perfection increasing with the distance of the planet which they inhabit from the sun.
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  • Thus Kant, though he appropriated and gave new form to the idea of human progress, conceived of this as wholly distinct from a natural (mechanical) process.
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  • Nature to Hegel is the idea in the form of hetereity; and finding itself here it has to remove this exteriority in a progressive evolution towards an existence for itself in life and mind.
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  • Thus he ascribes eternity of existence to species under the form of the " Platonic ideas."
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  • " Every species (according to Schopenhauer) has of its own will, and according to the circumstances under which it would live, determined its form and organization, - yet not as something physical in time, but as something metaphysical out of time."
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  • It is a striking example of the difficulty of getting people to use their own powers of investigation accurately, that this form of the doctrine of evolution should have held its ground so long; for it was thoroughly and completely exploded, not long after its enunciation, by Caspar Frederick Wolff, who in his Theoria generationis, published in 1759, placed the opposite theory of epigenesis upon the secure foundation of fact, from which it has never been displaced.
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  • The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
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  • But, as knowledge advanced, this conception ceased to be tenable in the crude form in which it was first put forward.
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  • In fact, there is a period when, as Aristotle long ago said, the embryo of the highest animal has the form of a mere worm, and, devoid of internal and external organization, is merely an almost structureless lump of polype-substance.
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  • In its original form, the doctrine of " arrest of development," as advocated by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Serres, was no doubt an over-statement of the case.
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  • The method is simply the logical result of the fact that every existing form of life stands at the summit of a long branch of the whole tree of life.
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  • A form of apocentricity extremely common and often perplexing may be termed pseudocentric; in such a condition there is an apparent simplicity that tive anatomy.
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  • In its simplest form, this phrase implies such an obvious fact as that whatever be the future development of, say, existing cockroaches, it will be on lines determined by the present structure of these creatures.
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  • The accusations are frequently unfounded; but the trials are already conducted in a certain regular forensic form.
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  • The recursus ad principem, in some form or other of appeal or application to the sovereign or his lay judges, was at the end of the middle ages well known over western Europe.
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  • This recourse in England sometimes took the form of the appeal to the king given by the Constitutions of Clarendon, just mentioned, and later by the acts of Henry VIII.; sometimes that of suing for writs of prohibition or mandamus, which were granted by the king's judges, either to restrain excess of jurisdiction, or to compel the spiritual judge to exercise jurisdiction in cases where it seemed to the temporal court that he was failing in his duty.
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  • Discipline over ministers and other office-bearers was exercised by administrative methods in the form of trials before consistories or synods.
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  • In the lower jaw the incisors and canines are directed straight forwards, and are of small size and nearly similar form; the function of the canine being discharged by the first premolar, which is larger than the other teeth of the same series.
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  • The publication in book form (March 20, 1852) was a factor which must be reckoned in summing up the moving causes of the war for the Union.
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  • When Gotama the Buddha, himself a Kosalan by birth, determined on the use, for the propagation of his religious reforms, of the living tongue of the people, he and his followers naturally made full use of the advantages already gained by the form of speech current through the wide extent of his own country.
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  • When, in the generations after the Buddha's death, his disciples compiled the documents of the faith, the form they adopted became dominant.
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  • Franke also shows that there were local peculiarities in small matters of spelling and inflexion, and that the particular form of the language used in and about the Avanti district, of which the capital was Ujjeni (a celebrated pre-Buddhistic city), was the basis of the language used in the sacred texts as we now have them.
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  • There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
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  • All voyagers agree that for varied beauty of form and colour the Society Islands are unsurpassed in the Pacific. Innumerable rills gather in lovely streams, and, after heavy rains, torrents precipitate themselves in grand cascades from the mountain cliffs - a feature so striking as to have attracted the attention of all voyagers, from Wallis downwards.
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  • A closely related form is the well-known Lombardy poplar, P. fastigiata, remarkable for its tall, cypress-like shape, caused by the nearly vertical growth of the branches.
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  • The cotton-wood timber, though soft and perishable, is of value in its prairie habitats, where it is frequently the only available wood either for carpentry or fuel; it has been planted to a considerable extent in some parts of Europe, but in England a form of this species known as P. monilifera is generally preferred from its larger and more rapid growth.
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  • The native country of this form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many British nurseries as the "black Italian poplar," it is now well ascertained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the States, and is a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been first brought to England from Canada in 1772.
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  • In America it seldom attains the large size it often acquires in England, and it is there of less rapid growth than the prevailing form of the western plains; the name of "cotton-wood" is locally given to other species.
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  • The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
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  • None of these may be sold to any person who is unknown to the seller, unless introduced by a person known to the seller, and not until after an entry is made in a book kept for the purpose, stating, in the prescribed form, the date of sale, name and address of purchaser, the name and quantity of the article sold, and the purpose for which it is stated by the purchaser to be required.
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  • Molybdenum combines with oxygen to form many oxides, the most important of which are: the monoxide, MoO.n (H 2 O), the sesquioxide, M0203, the dioxide, MoO 2, and the trioxide, MoO 3.
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  • Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.
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  • The story in this form belongs to the time of Virgil, who first introduces the name of Aristaeus.
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  • The Bryophyta and Pteridophyta have sprung from the higher Thallophyta, and together form the larger group Archegoniatae, so-called from the form of the organ (archegonium) in which the egg-cell is developed.
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  • In general structure they approach the Phanerogams with which they form collectively the Vascular Plants as contrasted with the Cellular PlantsThallophyta and Bryophyta.
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  • The sporophyte is the plant which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root, which show a wonderful variety 01 form; the internal structure also shows increased complexity and variety as compared with the other group of vascular plants, the Pteridophyta.
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  • The fertile leaves or sporophylls are generally aggregated on special shoots to form rioweN which may contain one or both kinds The microspores are set free from the sporangiurn and carried generally by wind or insect agency to the vicinity of the macrospore, which never leaves the ovule.
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  • The ANGIOSFERMS, which are much the larger class, derive their name from the fact that the carpel or carpels form a closed chamber, the ovary, in which the ovules are developedassociated with this is the development of a receptive or stigmatic surface on which the pollen grain is deposited.
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  • The female gametophyte is extremely reduced; there is a sexual apparatus of naked cells, one of which is the egg-cell which, after fusion with a male cell, divides to form a large siispensorial cell and a terminal embryo.
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  • The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.
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  • This may have a radial stem-like organization, a central cell-thread giving off from every side a number of short sometimes unicellular branches, which together form a cortex round the central thread, the whole structure having a cylindrical form which only branches when one of the short cell-branches from the central thread grows out beyond the general surface and forms in its turn a new central thread, from whose cells arise new short branches.
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  • Or the thallus may have a leaf-like form, the branches from the central threads which form the midrib growing out mainly in one plane and forming a lamina, extended right and left of the midrib.
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  • In all cases, while the internal threads which bear the cortical branches consist of elongated cells with few chromatophores, and no doubt serve mainly for conduction of food substances, the superficial cells of the branches themselves are packed with chromatophores and form the chief assimilating tissue of the plant.
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  • Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
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  • These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
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  • Such differentiated water-conducting cells we call hydroids, the tissue they form hydrom.
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  • In many cases the cells bordering the leaf are produced into teeth, and very frequently they are thick-walled so as to form a supporting rim.
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  • These are elongated in the direction of the length of the leaf, are always poor in chlorophyll and form a channel for conducting the products of assimilation away from the leaf into the stem.
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  • In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.
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  • Other hairs consist of a chain of cells; others, again, are branched in various ways; while yet others have the form of a flat plate of cells placed parallel to the leaf surface and inserted on a stalk.
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  • In one type they may take the form of specially-modified single epidermal cells or multicellular hairs without any direct connection with the vascular system.
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  • This consists of elongated cells with cellulose walls, which are locall~ thickened along the original corners of the cells, reducing the lumer to a cylinder, so that a number of vertical pillars of cellulose con nected by comparatively thin walls form the framework of th~ tissue.
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  • In the leafPhloeo- blade it takes the form of special parenchymatous erma.
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  • The whole tissue system is known as the stelar system (from the way in which in primitive forms it runs through the whole axis of the plant in the form of a column).
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  • The xylem and phloem are nearly always found in close association in strands of various shapes in all the three main organs of the sporophyteroot, stem and leafand form a connected tissue-system running through the whole body.
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  • The pericycle and mesocycle together form the conjunctive tissue of the stele in these simplest types.
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  • I mesocycle joining with the corresponding outer segments to form a nearly concentric structure.
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  • In other cases the leaf-gaps are very broad and long, the meristeles separating them being reduced to comparatively slender strands, while there is present in each gap a network of fine vascular threads, some of which run out to the leaf, while others form cross-connections between these leaf-trace strands and also with the main cauline meristeles.
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  • In some solenostelic ferns, and in many dictyostelic ones additional vascular strands are present which do not form part of the primary vascular tube.
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  • In other species, however, a peculiar type of polystely is met with, in which the original diarch stele gives rise to se-called dorsal and ventral stelar cords which at first lie on the surface of the primary stele, but eventually at a higher level separate from it and form distinct secondary steles resembling the primary one.
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  • The xylem and phloem also, rarely form perfectly continuous layers as they do in a solenostelic fern.
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  • The inner layer of the cortex (phloeoterma) may form a well-marked endodermis, or differ in other ways from the rest of the cortex.
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  • The pericycle, medullary rays, endocycle and mesoderm all form parts of one tissue system, the external conjunctive, and are only topographically separable.
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  • The remaining bundles (compensation bundles) which go to make up the cylinder are such as have branched off from the leaf-traces, and will, after joining with others similarly given off, themselves form the traces of leaves situated at a higher level on the stem.
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  • The constitution of the stele of a flowering plant entirely from endarch collateral bundles, which are either themselves leaf-traces or will form leaf-traces after junction with other similar bundles, is the great characteristic of the stem-stele of flowering plants.
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  • In the blade of a typical leaf of a vascular plantessentially a thin plate of assimilating tissuethe vascular system takes the form of a number of separate, usually branching and anastomosing strands.
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  • These, with their associated Stelar stereom, form a kind of framework which is of great Tissueol Leaf and importance in supporting the mesophyll; but also, and R~t.
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  • This takes the form of long usually richly branched tubes which penetrate the other tissues of the plant mainly in a longitudinal direction.
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  • This usually has the form of a tetrahedron, with its points base occupying the surface of the body of the axis and its apex pointing towards the interior.
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  • The differentiation of the stelar stereom, which usually takes the form of a sclerized pericycle, and may extend to the endocycle and parts of the rays, takes place in most cases later than the formation of the primary vascular strand.
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  • These strands are not isolated, but form a connected network through the wood.
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  • Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.
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  • The in Stems. bundles of plants which form cambium are, on the contrary, called open.
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  • The interfascicular cambium may form nothing but parenchymatous tissue, producing merely continuations of the primary rays.
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  • Theoretically this branch of the subject should connect with and form the completion of morphological anatomy, but the field, has not yet been sufficiently explored to allow of the necessary synthesis.
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  • A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
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  • The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
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  • Fuchs and its allies, which form conspicuous members of the larger Algae, have their external cells much smaller, more closely put together, and generally much denser than the rest of their tissue.
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  • The second prominent differentiation which presents itself takes the form of a provision to supply the living substance with water.
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  • The difficulty is solved by the provision of a complete system of minute intercellular spaces which form a continuous series of delicate canals between the cells, extending throughout the whole substance of the plant.
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  • The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
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  • They do not, of course, deny the co-operation of the other forces which have been suggested, except so far as these are inconsistent with the motion of the water in the form of separate columns rather than a flowing stream.
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  • When the young sporophyte first begins its independent lifewhen, that is, it exists in the form of the embryo in the seedits living substance has no power of utilizing the simple inorganic compounds spoken of.
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  • They are mainly carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, proteids in the form of globulins or albumoses, and in many cases fats and oils, while certain other bodies of similar nutritive value are less widely distributed.
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  • Each is a small protoplasmic body, in the meshes of whose vubstance the green coloring matter chlorophyll is contained in some form of solution.
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  • The original hypothesis of Baeyer suggested that the course of events is the following: the carbon dioxide is decomposed into carbon monoxide and oxygen, while water is simultaneously split up into hydrogen and oxygen; the hydrogen and the carbon monoxide unite to form formaldehyde and the oxygen is exhaled.
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  • As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
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  • The nitrogen is absorbed by the plant in some form of combination from the soil.
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  • Mycorhizas.The most interesting cases, however, in which Fungi form symbiotic relationships with green plants have been discovered in connection with forest trees.
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  • In the first, which are called ectotropic, the fungal filaments form a thick felt or sheath round the root, either completely enclosing it or leaving the apex free.
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  • Some make their way through the cells of the outer part of the cortex towards the root-tip, and form a mycelium or feltwork of hyphae, which generally occupies two or three layers of cells.
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  • The food so absorbed passes to the outer cortical mycellum, and from this tc the inner hyphae, which appear to be the organs of the interchangi of substance, for they are attracted to the neighborhood of thi nuclei of the cells, which they enter, and iii which they form agglom erations of interwoven filaments.
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  • The prothalli of the Pterido phytes, which form similar symbioses, show a somewhat different mode of arrangement, the Fungi occupying the external or the lower layers of the thalloid body.
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  • Each species of green plant may form a mycorhiza with two or three different Fungi, and a single species of Fungus may enter into symbiosis with several green plants.
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  • Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
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  • Many writers in recent years, among whom may be named especially Heliriegel and Wilfarth, Lawes and Gilbert, and Schlcesing and Laurent, have shown that the Leguminosae as a group form conspicuous exceptions to this rule.
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  • It is not quite certain whether a true pepsin exists in plants, but many trypsins have been discovered, and one form of erepsin, at least, is very widespread.
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  • There is probably but little transformation of one form of kinetic energy into another in the plant.
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  • The liberated energy takes the form of heat, which raises the temperature of the fermenting wort.
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  • In such cells as are capable of absorbing it, by virtue oi their chlorophyll apparatus, the greater part of it is converted int< the potential form, and by the transport from cell to cell of th compounds constructed every part of the plant is put into possessiol of the energy it needs.
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  • This as, in nearly all cases, attended by a permanent change in form.
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  • As it gets older it gradually unfolds and expands into the adult form.
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  • The perception of direction or the influence of gravity presents greater difficulty, as we have no clear idea of the form which the force of gravity takes.
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  • The response to the stimulus takes the form of increasing the permeability of particular cells of the growing structures, and so modifying the degree of the turgidity that is the precursor of growth in them.
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  • The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.
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  • If a clean cut remains clean, the cambium and cortical tissues soon form callus over it, and in this callusregenerative tissuenew wood, &c., soon forms, and if the wound was a small one, no trace is visible after a few years.
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  • This subject brings the domain of pathology, however, into touch with that of variation, and we are profoundly ignorant as to the complex of external conditions which would decide in any given case how far a variation in form would be prejudicial or otherwise to the continued existence of a species.
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  • It should be recognized, however, at a halophyte, in fact, is one form of xerophyte (Warming, 09: 219).
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  • The identity of plant form of many of the conifers of both temperate and of warm temperate districts is probably a matter of phylogenetic and not of ecological importance.
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  • Warming (1909: 220) quotes Griffon (1898), to the effect that the assimilatory activity is less in the halophytic form than in the ordinary form of the same species.
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  • Again, acidic humus does not form in calcareous soils; and hence one does not expect to find plants characteristic of acidic peat or humus on calcareous soils.
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  • The epidermal, conducting and strengthening tissues show on the other hand considerable modifications both in form and structure.
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  • In some cases it shows, when submitted to a careful examination under the highest powers of the microscope, and especially when treated with reagents of various kinds, traces of a more or less definite structure in the form of a meshwork consisting of a clear homogeneous substance containing numerous minute bodies known as microsomes, the spaces being filled by a more fluid ground-substance.
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  • They are composed of a homogeneous proteid substance, and often contain albuminoid or proteid crystals of the same kind as those which form the pyrenoid.
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  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.
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  • Substances contained in the Protoplastn.Starch may be found in the chlorophyll bodies in the form of minute granules as the first visible product of the assimilation of carbon dioxide, and it occurs in large quantities as a reserve food material in the cells of various parts of plants.
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  • Starch exists, in the majority of cases, in the form of grains, which are composed of stratified layers arranged around a nucleus or hilum.
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  • Aleurone.Aleurone is a proteid substance which occurs in seeds especially those containing oil, in the form of minute granules or large grains.
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  • It may be in the form of an albumen crystal sometimes associated with a more or less spherical bodygloboid-composed of a combination of an organic substance with a double phosphate of magnesium and calcium.
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  • The nucleolus appears to form a part of t-he Linin network, but has usually also a strong affinity for nuclear stains.
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  • They are more easily seen, when the nucleus is about to undergo mitosis, at the ends of the spindle, where they form the centres towards which the radiating fibres in.
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  • (2) Metaphase.The chromosomes pass to the equator of the spindle and b,ecome attached to the spindle-fibres in such a way that they form a radiating starthaped figureAster-when seen from the pole of the spindle.
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  • As division proceeds, the filamentous nature of this cytoplasm becomes more prominent and the threads begin either to converge towards the poles of the nucleus, to form a bipolar spindle, or may converge towards, or radiate from, several different points, to form a multipolar spindle.
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  • The second ~r hoinotype division which immediately follows reverts to the normal type except that the already split chromosomes at once separate to form the daughter nuclei without the intervention of a resting stage.
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  • In the higher plants, after the separation of the daughter nuclei, minute granular swellingc appear, in the equatorial region, on the connecting fibres which still persist between the two nuclei, to form what is called the cell-plate.
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  • In the Fungi it is usually composed of a modified form of cellulose known as fungus cellulose, which, according to Mangin, consists of callose in combination either with cellulose or pectic compounds.
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  • The chromatin is distributed throughout the cytoplasm in the form of granules which may be regarded as a distributed nucleus corresponding to what Hertwig has designated, in protozoa, chromidia.
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  • The cells not only fuse together in longitudinal and transverse rows, but put out transverse projections, which fuse with others of a similar nature, and thus form an anastomosing network of tubes which extends to all parts of the plant.
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  • The companion cells are cut off from the same cells as those which unite to form the sieve tube.
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  • According to Lecointe, the young wall consists partly of cellulose and partly of a substance which is not cellulose, the latter existing in the form of slight depressions, which mark the position of the future pores.
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  • The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
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  • Joachim Jung, in his Isagoge phytoscopica (1678), recognized that the plant-body consists of certain definite members, root, stem and leaf, and defined them by their different form and by their mutual relations.
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  • The leaf (phyllome) is an appendicular member only borne by a stem, but differing from it more or less obviously in form and development, though co-ordinate with it in complexity of structure.
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  • But since the general adoption of the theory of evolution, similarity of descent, that is of p/iylogeny, has come to form an essential part of this conception; in other words, in order that their homology may be established the parts compared must be proved to be homogenetic.
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  • The object of the phylogenetic study of any organ is to trace it back to its primitive form.
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  • When two organs can be traced along the same line of descent to one primitive form, that is when they are found to be mono phyletic, their homology is complete; when, however, they are traceable to two primitive forms, though these forms belong to the same morphological series, they are polyphyletic and therefore only incompletely homologous.
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  • It was formerly assumed, and the view is still held, that the foliage-leaf was the primitive form from which all others were derived, mainly on the ground that, in ontogeny, the foliage-leaf generally precedes the sporophyll.
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  • The sepals are generally organs for the protection of the flower-bud; the petals, for attracting insects by their conspicuous form and color; the foliage-leaves, for the assimilation of carbon dioxide and other associated functions.
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  • Useful and suggestive as they often are, teratological facts played, at one time, too large a part in the framing of morphological theories; for it was thought that the monstrous form gave a clue to the essential nature of the organ assuming it.
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  • Just as every crystallizable chemical substance assumes a definite and constant crystalline form which cannot be accounted for otherwise than by regarding it as one of the properties of the substance, so every living organism assumes a characteristic form which is the outcome of the properties of its protoplasm.
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  • But whereas the crystalline form of a chemical substance is stable and fixed, the organized form of a living organism is unstable and subject to change.
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  • This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
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  • In other words, the plant must be irritable to the stimulus exerted from without, and be capable of responding to it by changes of form and structure.
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  • It was succeeded by the sessile-fruited oak, which was in turn supplanted by the pedunculate form of the same tree.
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  • Evergreen oaks and Conifers form the forests.
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  • In the Gnetaceous Welwitschia it possesses a vegetable type whose extraordinary peculiarities make it seem amongst contemporary vegetation much as some strange and extinct animal form would if suddenly endowed with life.
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  • By the same path it kis received a remarkable contribution from the North Temperate region; such familiar genera as Ranunculus, Epilobfum and Veronica form more than 9% of the flowering plants.
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  • Sahel thus understood comprises regions which form the inter mediate zone between the fertile lands of the Sudan and the desert.
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  • In its plural form, Swahili, the word has become the tribal name of the natives inhabiting the coast strip opposite Zanzibar.
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  • The Greek hippodrome was usually set out on the slope of a hill, and the ground taken from one side served to form the embankment on the other side.
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  • The fundamental conception of geography is form, including the figure of the earth and the varieties of crustal relief.
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  • He systematized the form of the land within the ring of ocean - the habitable world - by recognizing two continents: Europe to the north, and Asia to the south of the midland sea.
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  • (1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
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  • This was no new idea; it had been fami:iar for centuries in a less definite form, deduced from a priori considerations, and so far as regards the influence of surrounding circumstances upon man, Kant had already given it full expression.
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  • The " argument from design " had been a favourite form of reasoning amongst Christian theologians, and, as worked out by Paley in his Natural Theology, it served the useful purpose of emphasizing the fitness which exists between all the inhabitants of the earth and their physical environment.
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  • The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
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  • One of the crew of Enciso's ship, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the future discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, induced his commander to form a settlement on the other side of the Gulf of Darien.
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  • Admiral de Coligny made several unsuccessful endeavours to form a colony in Florida under Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Rene de Laudonniere and others, but the settlers were furiously assailed by the Spaniards and the attempt was abandoned.
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  • James Lancaster made a voyage to the Indian Ocean from 1591 to 1594; and in 1599 the merchants and adventurers of London resolved to form a company, with the object of establishing a trade with the East Indies.
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  • The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
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  • The fundamental geographical conceptions are mathematical, the relations of space and form.
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  • In the form known as Ferrell's Law this runs: " If a body moves in any direction on the earth's surface, there is a deflecting force which arises from the earth's rotation which tends to deflect it to the right in the northern hemisphere but to the left in the southern hemisphere."
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  • He says: " The surface of each of our great continental masses of land resembles that of a long and broad arch-like form, of which we see the simplest type in the New World.
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  • Although the apparent crust-waves are neither equal in size nor symmetrical in form, this complementary relationship between them is always discernible.
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  • The - - study of tidal strain in the earth's crust by Sir George Darwin has led that physicist to indicate the possibility of the triangular form and southerly direction of the continents being a result of the differential or tidal attraction of the sun and moon.
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  • The typical continental form is triangular as regards its sea-level outline.
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  • 3 In some cases a piece of land is only an island at high water, and by imperceptible gradation the form passes into a peninsula.
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  • The highest point of an elevation is termed a " height," if it does not form an island or one of the minor forms.
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  • From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
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  • The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
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  • The fundamental form-elements may be reduced to the six proposed by Professor Penck as the basis of his double system of classification by form and origin.'
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  • No one form occurs alone, but always grouped together with others in various ways to make up districts, regions and lands of distinctive characters.
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  • Many varieties of this fundamental form may be distinguished.
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  • The hollow or form produced by a land surface sloping inwards from all sides to a particular lowest place, the converse of a mount.
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  • A sandy beach or desert owes its character to the mobility of its constituent sand-grains, which are readily drifted and piled up in the form of dunes.
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