There is evidence that about three centuries ago elephants wandered in the forests of Malwa and Nimar, while they survived to a later date in the Chanda district of the Central Provinces.
There are great forests in the vicinity.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
In Great Britain wild cats survive only in some of the Scottish forests, and even there it is difficult to decide whether pure-bred specimens are extant.
The favourite haunts of the wild cat are mountain forests where masses or rocks or cliffs are interspersed with trees, the crevices in these rocks or the hollow trunks of trees affording sites for the wild cat's lair, where its young are produced and reared.
The higher regions produce cork trees, oaks, pines, chestnuts, &c., but the forests have been largely destroyed by speculators, who burned the trees for charcoal and potash, purchasing them on a large scale from the state.
There are valuable forests in the mountainous districts, a part of which has been set aside for preservation under the name of the Luquillo forest reserve.
Large tracts of the department are under wood; the chief forests are those of Nouvion and St Michel in the north, Coucy and St Gobain in the centre, and Villers-Cotterets in the south.
They are all inhabitants of the open plains or the forests of the tropical and temperate parts of South America, with the exception of a few species which range as far north as Texas.
The largest species is the giant armadillo (Priodon gigas), measuring nearly a yard long, from the forests of Surinam and Brazil; while one of the smallest is Dasypus minutes, a near ally of the larger D.
The splendid forests, of which there are.
There are valuable forests in the mountainous districts, a part of which has been set aside for preservation under the name of the Luquillo forest reserve.
They are all inhabitants of the open plains or the forests of the tropical and temperate parts of South America, with the exception of a few species which range as far north as Texas.
The splendid forests, of which there are.
He looked out over the forests to the north, the destruction of the south, and the meadow to the east.
Several species of monkeys inhabit the forests from the Parana, to the Bolivian frontier.
Of the forests of the country approximately one-third belongs to the state, communes and public institutions.
The oak forests near Dibra, where charcoal-making is a considerable industry, and the beech-woods of the Prishtina district, are especially remarkable.
Verdant forests stretched to the steely sky, a swath of green, brown, and grey.
We are wont to forget that the sun looks on our cultivated fields and on the prairies and forests without distinction.
In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.
The provinces of Santa Fe, Cordoba and Santiago del Estero are only partially wooded; large areas of plains are intermingled with scrubby forests of algarrobo (Prosopis), quebracho-blanco (Aspido-sperma quebracho), tala (Celtis tala, Sellowiana, acuminata), acacias and other genera.
In Tucuman and eastern Salta the same division into forests and open plains exists, but the former are of denser growth and contain walnut, cedar, laurel, tipa (Machaerium fertile) and quebracho-colorado (Loxopterygium Lorentzii).
The Department of Waters i and Forests (Administration des Eaux et Forts) forms a branch of the min istry of agriculture.
tered by a director-general, who has his headquarters at Paris, assisted by three administrators who are charged with the working of the forests, Nord and Pas-de- 3 Valei questions of rights and law, finance Calais..
tered by a director-general, who has his headquarters at Paris, assisted by three administrators who are charged with the working of the forests, Nord and Pas-de- 3 Valei questions of rights and law, finance Calais..
And fairer still were the faraway blue mountains beyond the river, the nunnery, the mysterious gorges, and the pine forests veiled in the mist of their summits...
The snow was thawing in the sunshine, the horses galloped quickly, and on both sides of the road were forests of different kinds, fields, and villages.
Bogucharovo lay in a flat uninteresting part of the country among fields and forests of fir and birch, which were partly cut down.
She knew that for the Penza estates and Nizhegorod forests she could demand this, and she received what she demanded.
Forests and fields beyond the camp, unseen before, were now visible in the distance.
The forests are under an English official.
There are many forests which clothe the slopes of the plateau.
The forests here are heavier.
The plateau portion of West Virginia is largely covered by hardwood forests, but along the Ohio river and its principal tributaries the valuable timber has been removed and considerable areas have been wholly cleared for farming and pasture lands.
Consequently, during the hot season in Upper India, and at all times except during the rains in the more southern districts, elephants keep much to the denser parts of the forests.
The tanning, currying and finishing of leather, an industry largely dependent on the plentiful supply of oak and hemlock bark for tanning, is centralized in the northern and eastern parts of the state, near the forests.
The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.
The soil, chiefly alluvial, though in some places arenaceous, is generally fertile and well cultivated, but a great portion is covered with forests, interspersed with lakes.
These forests were formerly very thick, but they are now greatly thinned by the Turks, who cut them down and take no care to plant others in their place.
The coal-seams must have been formed in wellwatered, lowland forests, at the foot of a high mountain range, built up by the Devonian earth movements.
The red gum forests of the Murray valley and the pine forests bordering the Great Plains are important and valuable.
The extensive and valuable forests, of which 75% consist of coniferous trees, occupy 42% of the entire area.
About 42% of the forests belong to the state and about 33% to public bodies and institutions, leaving only 25% for private owners.
Only an insignificant fraction of these forests has ever been visited by human beings, the Malays and even the aboriginal tribe having their homes on the banks of the rivers, and never, even when travelling from one part of the country to another, leaving the banks of a stream except for a short time when passing from one river-system to another.
The forests literally swarm with insects of all kinds, from cicadae to beautiful butterflies, and from stickand leaf-insects to endless.
Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.
alba and its more abundant production of acorns, it will probably be much planted as the natural forests are destroyed.
coccinea, often confounded with the red oak, but with larger leaves, with long lobes ending in several acute points; they change to a brilliant scarlet with the first October frosts, giving one of the most striking of the various glowing tints that render the American forests so beautiful in autumn.
castaneaefolia, diameter, not uncommon in most forests one-third natural size.
Marienbad is enclosed on all sides except the south by gently sloping hills clad with fragrant pine forests, which are intersected by lovely walks.
There are considerable forests of oil palms, rubber trees and vines, and timber and dyewood trees.
The province is not notably well suited to agriculture, but in forests it is the richest in Prussia, and the timber trade is large.
Throughout this tract the Apennines are generally covered with extensive forests of chestnut, oak and beech; while their upper slopes afford admirable pasturage.
The range is, however, continued through the province now called Calabria, to the southern extremity or toe of Italy, but presents in this part a very much altered character, the broken limestone range which is the true continuation of the chain as far as the neighbourhood of Nicastro and Catanzaro, and keeps close to the west coast, being flanked on the east by a great mass of granitic mountains, rising to about 6000 ft., and covered with vast forests, from which it derives the name of La Sila.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
Woods and forests play an important part, especially in regard to the consistency of the soil and to the character of the water~ courses.
The chestnut is of great value for its wood and ~ is furnished by the oak and beech, and pine and fir forests ~ S~ of the Alps and Apennines.
This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over the forests, and to some extent to excessive taxation, which led the proprietors to cut and sell the trees and then abandon the ground to the Treasury.
This was refused, and although some of the bishops entered a mild protest, the question was allowed to drop. Regarding another matter also, the extent of the royal forests, the prelates made a protest.
The customs necessary for the preservation of the forests must remain in force.
John undertakes to disforest all forests which have been made in his time, and also to give up such river banks as he has seized for his own use when engaged in sport.
Twelve knights in each county are to make a thorough inquiry into all evil customs connected with the forests, and these are to be utterly abolished.
He promises also to do right concerning forests, abbeys and the wardship of lands which belong lawfully to others.
This promise was carried out, but two charters appeared, one being a revised issue of Magna Carta proper, and the other a separate charter dealing with the forests, all references to which were omitted from the more important document.
The general character of the forests is Burmese with an admixture of Malay types.
Like so many lemurs, it is completely nocturnal in its habits, living either alone or in pairs, chiefly in the bamboo forests.
Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests.
Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.
Scierophyllous formations, e.g., garigues, maquis, and forests I
md difficult to regard coniferous forests as a natural ecological group. At much higher altitudes, in the south-west of the Mediterranean region, forests occur of the Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica).
The forests of these subtropical and warm temperate regions are situated near the sea or in mountainous regions, and (as already stated) are characterized by winter rains.
In these islands, we find forests i or woods of oak (Quercus Robur and Q.
In central Scotland, forests occur of Pinus sylvestris; and, in south-eastern England, extensive plantations and self-sown woods occur of the same species.
Cold Temperate and Frigid Districts.In the coldest portion of the north temperate zone, forests of dwarfed trees occur, and these occasionally spread into the Arctic region itself (Schimper, 1904: 685).
The types of vegetation (tropical forests, sclerophyllous forest, temperate forests, tundra, &c.) thus briefly outlined are groups of Schimpers climatic formations.
An interesting special case of hygrophytes is seen with regard to plants which live in the shade of forests.
That wrought by man in destroying forests and cultivating the land will be no less effective, and already specimens in our herbaria alone represent species no longer to be found in a living state.
Evergreen oaks and Conifers form the forests.
The Argan tree (A rgania Sideroxylon), which forms forests in Morocco, is a remarkable survivor of a tropical family (Sapotaceae).
In the eastern forests the prevalence of Magnoliaceae and of Clethra and Rhododendron continues the alliance with eastern Asia.
On the west coast Cupressus Lawsoniana replaces the northern Thuya gigantea, and a laurel (Umbellularia of isolated affinity) forms forests.
Elsewhere it is only represented by P. occidentalis, the largest tree of the Atlantic forests from Maine to Oregon, and by P. oriental is in the eastern Mediterranean.
In Malaya and eastward the forests are rich in arborescent figs, laurels, myrtles, nutmegs, oaks and bamboos.
Myrtaceae comes next with Eucalyptus, which forms three-fourths of the forests, and Melaleuca; both are absent from New Caledonia and New Zealand; a few species of the former extend to New Guinea and one of the latter to Malaya.
(3) The temperate forests of evergreen or deciduous trees, according to circumstances, which occupy those parts of both temperate zones where rainfall and sunlight are both abundant.
In tropical forests primitive tribes depend on the collection of wild fruits, and in a minor degree on the chase of wild animals, for their food.
On the fertile low grounds along the margins of rivers or in clearings of forests, agricultural communities naturally take their rise, dwelling in villages and cultivating the wild grains, which by careful nurture and selection have been turned into rich cereals.
East of the Ain, forests of fir and oak abound on the mountains, the lower slopes of which give excellent pasture for sheep and cattle, and much cheese is produced.
This region is locally known as the mattas (forests).
The mountains are covered with one of the noblest redwood forests of the state - the only one south of San Francisco; two groves, the Sempervirens Park (4000 acres) and the Fremont Grove of Big Trees, 5 m.
They are described as light-eyed and red-haired, and lived by hunting in their thick forests.
It was then in the midst of dense forests and was wholly unconnected by roads with other parts of the state.
The rubber trade is controlled by the Liberian Rubber Corporation, which holds a special concession from the Liberian government for a number of years, and is charged with the preservation of the forests.
In these forests are found the two-horned rhinoceros, the elephant, lion, panther, numerous apes and antelopes, while the crocodile and hippopotamus frequent the rivers.
The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government.
The distribution of many groups of beetles is restricted in correspondence with their habits; the Cerambycidae (longhorns), whose larvae are wood-borers, are absent from timberless regions, and most abundant in the great tropical forests.
This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Vast areas in Russia are quite unfit for cultivation, 19% of the aggregate surface of European Russia (apart from Poland and Finland) being occupied by lakes, marshes, sand, &c., 39% by forests, 16% by prairies, and only 26% being under cultivation.
The distribution of all these is, however, very unequal, and the five following subdivisions may be established: - (T) the tundras; (2) the forest region; (3) the middle region, comprising the surface available for agriculture and partly covered with forests; (4) the black-earth (chernozyom) region; and (5) the steppes.
Drainage finding no outlet through the thick clay, the soil of the forest region is often hidden beneath extensive marshes, and the forests themselves are often mere thickets choking marshy ground; large tracts of sand appear in the W., and the admixture of boulders with the clay in the N.W.
On the Arctic coast the forests disappear, giving place to the tundras.
limit of the forests, which closely follows the coastline, with deviations towards the N.
than this, and coniferous forests extend farther S., advancing even to the border-region of the steppes.
of this line the forests are of great extent and densely grown, more frequently diversified by marshes than by meadows or cultivated fields.
Vast and impenetrable forests, impassable marches and thickets, numerous lakes, swampy meadows, with cleared and dry spaces here and there occupied by villages, are the leading features of this region.
Forests are still numerous where they have not been destroyed by the hand of man, but their character has changed.
The forests are composed of the birch, oak and other deciduous trees, the soil is dry, and the woodlands are divided by green prairies.
The coniferous forests of the north contain, besides conifers, the birch (Betula alba, B.
appears the lime tree, which multiplies rapidly and, notwithstanding the rapidity with which it is being exterminated, constitutes entire forests in the east (central Volga, Ufa).
Human cultivation has destroyed the abundant forests which sixty years ago made deer-hunting possible at Khersones.
In the forests not many animals which have disappeared from W.
On the other hand, the hare, grey partridge (Perdix cinerea), hedgehog, quail, lark, rook and stork find their way into the coniferous region as the forests are cleared.
In the ante-steppe the forest species proper, such as Pteromys volans and Tamias striatus, disappear, but common squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), weasel and bear are still met with in the forests.
The avifauna, of course, becomes poorer; nevertheless, the woods of the steppe, and still more the forests of the ante-steppe, give refuge to many 1 Bibliography of Flora: Beketov, Appendix to Russian translation of Griesebach and Reclus's Geogr.
(1884); Regel, Flora Rossica (1884); Brown, Forestry in the Mining Districts of the Urals (1885); Reports by Commissioners of Woods and Forests in Russia (1884) birds, even to hazel-hen (Tetrao bonasa), capercailzie (T.
The destruction of the forests and the advance of wheat into the prairies are rapidly thinning the steppe fauna.
The forests have been sold, and only those landlords are prospering who exact rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments.
All over Russia there is a network of such artels - in the cities, in the forests, on the banks of the rivers, on journeys and even in the prisons.
Broadly speaking, the forests here yield to steppes, and the soil is very fertile; but the whole region suffers periodically from drought.
Apart from hunting and fishing, the exploitation of the forests provides the principal occupation of the inhabitants.
The actual distribution of arable land, forests and meadows, in European Russia and Poland is shown in the following table The land in European Russia and Poland (Caucasia being excluded) is divided amongst the different classes of owners as follows Down to January 1st 1903, the peasants had actually redeemed out of the land allotted to them in 1861 a total of 280,530,516 acres..
Measures are being taken by the zemstvos to increase the very low productivity of the forests.
These cover a considerable area, as may be seen by the following table for 1904: - The distribution of forests is very unequal, the area covered by them in the various governments varying from 70% of the total area in the Ural governments of Perm and Ufa, and 68% in Olonets and Archangel, down to 2% in the S.E.
The state is the chief owner of forests (almost exclusive owner in Archangel), and owns no less than 289,226,000 acres in European Russia and Poland (235,000,000 acres of good forests), while private persons own 171,800,000 acres, the peasant communities 67,250,000 and the imperial family 22,400,000 acres.
The other part comprehends inner Persis lying northwards; it enjoys a pleasant climate and has fertile and well-watered plains, gardens with trees of all kinds, rich pasturages and forests abounding with game; with the exception of the olive all fruits are produced in profusion, particularly the vine.
Straggling forests, mainly of conifers, characterize the high plateaus of central Utah.
The Samoan forests are remarkable for the size and variety of their trees, and the luxuriance and beauty of tree-ferns, creepers and parasites.
In January 1910 there were seven national forests in the state, created since July 1908 and chiefly in 1909, containing 7983.76 sq.
Owing to the noxious exhalations of the surrounding forests the town is so extremely unhealthy during the hot weather as to have acquired the title of the "Abode of the Plague."
Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.
Near the town are iron mines and quarries of limestone, and on the neighbouring mountains are forests containing valuable hardwood timber.
The most important product of the district was the wood from the forests of the Sila, and the pitch produced from it.
Its chief home is in the mountains near Coban in Vera Paz, but it also inhabits forests in other parts of Guatemala at an elevation of from 6000 to 9000 ft.
The forests which once covered the mountains have for the most part disappeared and the slopes are now desolate wastes.
Chestnut woods are found in the Selino district, and forests of the valonia oak in that of Retimo; in some parts the carob tree is abundant and supplies an important article of consumption.
districts, as well as the greater part of the Sierra Alta, are destitute of large trees; but the coast-lands on both sides towards Tabasco and British Honduras enjoy a sufficient rainfall to support forests containing the mahogany tree, several valuable cabinet woods, vanilla, logwood and other dye-woods.
Logwood forests fringe all the lagoons and many parts of the seaboard, which are flooded during the rainy season.
The forests throughout most of the state have a luxuriant undergrowth consisting of a great variety of shrubs, flowering plants, grasses, ferns and mosses, and the display of magnolias, azaleas, kalmias, golden rod, asters, jessamines, smilax, ferns and mosses is often one of unusual beauty.
The destruction of pine forests to meet the demands for naval stores, and the introduction and increased use of the refrigerator car, resulted in much attention to the growth of garden produce for Northern markets.
Kunz; Report of the Secretary of Agriculture in Relation to the Forests, Rivers and Mountains of the Southern Appalachian Region (Washington, 1902); Climatology of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1892); and H.
The reckless destruction of forests along the watercourses also adds to the barren aspect of the country.
This zone has an abundant rainfall, dense forests and a fertile soil.
The country is generally well cleared, and forests are, as a rule, found only along the flanks of the mountains, where the fall of rain is most abundant.
The mountain-sides are commonly clothed with pine forests, and the plains with grasses or shrubs.
The impenetrable shady forests of the Malay peninsula and eastern Bengal, of the west coast of the Indian peninsula, and of Ceylon, offer a strong contrast to the more loosely-timbered districts of the drier regions of central India and the north-western Himalaya.
It is found in greatest perfection in the forests of the west coasts of Burma and the Indian peninsula, where the rainfall is heaviest, growing to a height of too or 150 ft., mixed with other trees and bamboos.
Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
The mountains are clothed, where the fall of rain is abundant, with forests of Quercus, Fagus, Ulmus, Acer, Carpinus and Corylus, and various Coniferae.
About 55% of the whole is under tillage, while 16% consists of meadow and pasture and 21% is covered by forests.
Their architecture in wood, however, was excellent; and the teak forests of their country afforded the finest timber for building and for carving.
Towards the foothills of the Caucasus they are clothed with thick forests, while in the west they merge into the steppes of south Russia or end in marshy ground, choked with reeds and rushes, in the delta of the Kuban.
The slopes of the Armenian highlands are clothed with fine forests, and the vine is grown at their base, while on the wide-stretching steppes the Turko-Tatars pasture cattle, horses and sheep. The lower part of the Kura valley assumes the character of a dry steppe, the rainfall not reaching 54 in.
The more important of the carnivores which haunt the forests, valleys and mountain slopes are the bear (Ursus arctos), wolf, lynx, wild cat and fox (Vulpes melanotus).
The aurochs (Bos urns) appears to exist still in the forests of the western Caucasus.
The forests of Peak and Duffield had their separate courts and officers, the justice seat of the former being in an extra-parochial part at equal distances from Castleton, Tideswell and Bowden, while the pleas of Duffield Forest were held at Tutbury.
The country, mountainous in its southern portion, possesses extensive forests, fertile valleys, producing rice, wheat and other grains in abundance, and rich pasturages.
But while the province in many parts presents a landscape of luxuriant beauty, it is a prey to the ravages of disease, principally malarial fevers due to the extensive swamps formed by waters stagnating in the forests, and to the frequent incursions of the Goklan and Yomut Turkomans, who have their camping-grounds in the northern part of the province, and until about 1890 plundered caravans sometimes at the very gates of Astarabad city, and carried people off into slavery and bondage.
Cultivated pears, whose number is enormous, are without doubt derived from one or two wild species widely distributed throughout Europe and western Asia, and sometimes forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests.
In the lower districts of Sweden it is the predominant tree in most of the great forests that spread over so large a portion of that country.
Great tracts of low country along the southern shores of the Baltic and in northern Russia are covered with forests of spruce.
In the most prevalent variety of the Norway spruce the wood is white, apt to be very knotty when the tree has grown in an open place, but, as produced in the close northern forests, often of fine and even grain.
It forms extensive forests in Vancouver Island, British Columbia and Oregon, whence the timber is exported, being highly prized for its strength, durability and even grain, though very heavy; it is of a deep yellow colour, abounding in resin, which oozes from the thick bark.
Many of the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes tha.t are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
This ridge is thickly clothed with forests, chiefly beech.
Bears, wolves, bison, deer, wild turkeys and wild pigeons were common in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long ago disappeared.
Forests cover nearly 15% of the total area.
50% is occupied by meadows and gardens, 5.18% by pastures, while 44.24% is covered by forests, almost exclusively pine-forests.
Other trades are the manufacture of paper, leather, cement and the exploitation of forests.
Whole forests, vast quarries of granite, and hills of gravel were used in fringing the water margins, constructing wharves, piers and causeways, redeeming flats, and furnishing piling and solid foundations for buildings.
They occur up mountain slopes as far as vegetation extends, in tropical valleys and forests, in open grassy plains, in sandy deserts, and even in fresh-water ponds and between tide-marks on the seashore.
Palestine, being less shut in and enjoying a comparatively large general rainfall, would be still a land " flowing with milk and honey " had its forests not been destroyed, and the terracing, which used to hold up soil on the highlands, been maintained.
The forests cover approximately 37,700 sq.
The most important industries were those that depended upon the forests, their product amounting to nearly 45% of the entire manufactured product of the state.
The manufacture of turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900, the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half.
r-II): he had houses, vineyards, gardens, parks, ponds, forests, servants, flocks and herds, treasures of gold and silver, singers, wives; all these he set himself to enjoy in a rational way - indeed, he found a certain pleasure in carrying out his designs, but, when all was done, he surveyed it only to see that it was weary and unprofitable.
The greater part of the territory is mountainous, with fertile, well-watered valleys and valuable forests.
5% by vineyards, while 27.4% are forests.
The Cephisus, rising in Pentelicus, enters the sea at New Phalerum; in summer it dwindles to an insignificant stream, while the Ilissus, descending from Hymettus, is totally dry, probably owing to the destruction of the ancient forests on both mountains, and the consequent denudation of the soil.
An ascent made by Dr Honda of the imperial university of Japan showed that, up to a height of 6000 ft., the mountain is clothed with primeval forests of palms, banyans, cork trees, camphor trees, tree ferns, interlacing creepers and dense thickets of rattan or stretches of grass higher than a man's stature.
But some of the most valuable products of the island, as camphor and rattan, are to be found in the upland forests, and the Chinese, whenever they ventured too far in search of these products, fell into ambushes of hill-men who neither gave nor sought quarter, and who regarded a Chinese skull as a specially attractive article of household furniture.
In ancient times it was surrounded by dense forests, and was the centre of many legends.
As the immediate result of this change the offices of heads of departments in Berar, except the j udicial commissionership and the conservatorship of forests, were amalgamated with the corresponding appointments in the Central Provinces, and Berar is now treated as one of the divisions of that province for purposes of revenue administration, with a divisional commissioner as its immediate head.
The Mussulman invaders of the Deccan passed it by, not caring to enter its mountain fastnesses and impenetrable forests; though occasional inscriptions show that parts of it had fallen from time to time under the dominion of one or other of the great kingdoms of the north, e.g.
This post he held till January 1846; and from January to July of that year, when the Peel administration was broken up, Lord Canning filled the post of commissioner of woods and forests.
In places there are forests of these trees.
On the summit of the Golis range the cedars form forests.
The region, which abounds in valuable rubber forests, was settled by Bolivians between 1870 and 1878, but was invaded by Brazilian rubber collectors during the next decade and became tributary to the rubber markets of Manaos and Para.
Trees become more numerous also northward in the province, until in the region north of the North Saskatchewan river forests are again met with.
On the north side of the Saskatchewan river forests prevail for scores and even hundreds of miles.
above sea-level, and covered nearly everywhere with forests.
of reserved forests in the XX.
The lower parts of the Riesengebirge are clad with forests of oak, beech, pine and fir; above 1600 ft.
They are comparatively inactive at all seasons; indeed, the action of the tides and back-waters and the tangle of vegetation in the sombre swamps and forests through which they run, often render their currents almost imperceptible at ordinary water.
On drier and higher soils are the persimmon, sassafras, red maple, elm, black haw, hawthorn, various oaks (in all 10 species occur), hickories and splendid forests of longleaf and loblolly yellow pine.
These forests are the greatest and finest of their kind remaining in the United States.
Nevertheless, in 1900 the cypress forests remained practically untouched, only slight impression had been made upon the pine areas, and the hard-wood forests, except that they had been culled of their choicest oak, remained in their primal state (U.S. census).
The cypress forests of the alluvial and overflowed lands in the S.
Near the coast runs a continuous belt of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and mountains.
The spurs of the central range are a highly intricate complex, covered with dense forests of superb woods.
The scenery in the oriental portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and tropical forests.
The beautiful ceiba (Bombax ceiba L., Ceiba pentandra) or silk cotton tree is the giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150 ft.
grow wild in the forests.
West of the Narenta, their flanks are in places covered with forests of beech and pine, but north-east of that river they present for the most part a scene of barren desolation.
Pine forests surround the town, and oaks and elms of more than a century's growth shade its streets.
For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.
To prevent the gradual destruction of the forests by unskilful management and depredations, schools of forestry have been founded, and means have been taken for regulating the cutting of wood and for replanting districts that have been partially denuded.
In the second were comprised tithes, mine-royalties, forests and domains, customs, sheep-tax, tobacco, salt, spirits, stamps and " various.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
Thus it is explained in the preface to the budget that the revenues " proceeding from the deposed sultan " are not classed together under one heading, but that they have been apportioned to the various sections under which they should fall " whether taxes on house property or property not built upon, tithes, aghnam, forests, mines, cadastre, sport, military equipment, private domains of the state, various receipts, proceeds of sales, rents " - a truly comprehensive list which by no means set a limit to the private resources of Abd-ul-Hamid II., who looked upon the customs also as a convenient reserve on which he could, and did, draw when his privy purse was short of money.
No researches are permitted in boroughs and villages or in forests, pasturages, &c., if it be considered that they would interfere with public convenience.
But in forests and snowdrifts the French made such slow progress that no sufficient deployment could be made until darkness put a stop to the fighting.
Again the emperor had to admit that his troops could do no more, and bowing to necessity, he distributed them into winter quarters, where, however, the enterprise of the Cossacks, who were no strangers to snow and to forests, left the outposts but little repose.
Juniper forests are said to exist on the higher mountains.
The northern sides and tops of the lower heights are often covered with dense forests of oak, cork, pine, cedar and other trees, with walnuts up to the limit of irrigation.
Both slopes are wooded, and its forests are the only parts of Morocco where the lion still survives.
The study of these plant and insect remains shows that forests containing a vegetation very similar to that of California and the southern United States, in some instances even the species of trees being all but identical, flourished in 70° N.
Plains alternating with forests occupy the northern zone of the department, while the central and western regions form an undulating and well-watered plateau.
A large area is under forests, the oak, beech, fir, birch and hornbeam being the principal trees.
m., and like the river inundates the marshes and forests on its borders.
Furthermore, in order to encourage the growth and preservation of the forests, and to create systematically forest reserves, the legislature established in 1899 a State Forestry Board.
When their country was first invaded they fled into the forests, and the Spaniards, coming upon their huts, the doorways of which are built excessively low, supposed them to be dwarfs: hence the name.
From 1912 to 1914 he was also Commissioner of Woods and Forests, and from 1914 to 1916 president of the Board of Trade.
Until recently rubber was obtained almost exclusively from the tropical forests of S.
The forests of tropical America have suffered similarly, trees having been injured or destroyed and in some cases cut down in order to secure the immediate increase of supply which was called for by a considerable rise in value.
" Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.
The tree grows most abundantly in a sporadic manner in the dense moist forests of the basin of the Rio San Juan, where the rain falls for nine months in the year.
Many of the trees in the accessible forests of W.
In Assam and in upper Burma there are extensive forests of Ficus elastica, but to a large extent the trees have been damaged by careless tapping.
Dawei, which are found in the forests FIG.
3 From this northern limit to the Aral-Caspian and Mongolian steppes stretches all over Siberia the forest region; the forests are, however, very unequally distributed, covering from 50 to 99% of the area in different districts.
myrtillus) and the arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus) extend very far northward; raspberries and red and black currants form a luxuriant undergrowth in the forests, together with Ribes dikusha in East Siberia.
As the Gobi desert is approached the forests disappear, the ground becomes covered chiefly with dry Gramineae, and Salsolaceae make their appearance.
As in all uncultivated countries, the forests and prairies of Siberia become almost uninhabitable in summer because of the mosquitoes.
von Wrangel); the various coloration of many animals according to the composition of the forests they inhabit (the sable and the squirrel are well-known instances); the intermingling northern and southern faunas in the Amur region and the remarkable consequences of that intermixture in the struggle for existence; - all these render the study of the Siberian fauna most interesting.
Later on serfdom, religious persecutions and conscription were the chief causes which led the peasants to make their escape to Siberia and build their villages in the most inaccessible forests, on the prairies and even on Chinese territory.
Nearly 20,000 men (40,000 according to other estimates) are living in Siberia the life of brodyagi (runaways or outlaws), trying to make their way through the forests to their native provinces in Russia.
Although agriculture is carried on on the upper Amur, where land has been cleared from virgin forests, it really prospers only below Kumara and on the fertile plains of the Zeya and Silinji.
The forests on the Amur yielded a rich return of furs during the first years of the Russian occupation, and the Amur sable, although much inferior to the Yakutsk and Transbaikalian, was largely exported.
It contains luxuriant forests of palmtrees, which constitute the chief wealth of the people.
and W., however, the surface gradually rises into long undulating tracts; rice lands and swamps give way to a region of low thorny jungle or forest trees; the hamlets become smaller and more scattered, and nearly disappear altogether in the wild forests along the western boundary.
All contracts of lease, exploitation of forests, waters and natural riches are cancelled.
It is divided into four sanjaks - Kastamuni, Boli, Changra and Sinope - is rich in mineral wealth, and has many mineral springs and extensive forests, the timber being used for charcoal and building and the bark for tanning.
This great chapadao is in many respects the best part of Brazil, having a temperate climate,- extensive areas of fertile soil, rich forests and a regular rainfall.
Its chapadas are covered with extensive campos, its shallow valleys with open woodlands, and its deeper valleys with heavy forests.
hares gencia Victoria do Brazil, having an abundant rainfall, extensive forests of valuable timber, and large areas of fertile soil.
It is noteworthy, also, for the large number of species having arboreal habits, the density and extent of the Amazon forests favouring their development rather than the development of those of terrestrial habits.
Another interesting species is the toucan (Ramphastos), whose enormous beak, awkward flight and raucous voice make it a conspicuous object in the great forests of northern Brazil.
In the northern temperate zone we find forests of a single species, others of three or four species; in this great tropical forest the habit of growth is solitary and an acre of ground will contain hundreds of species - palms, myrtles, acacias, mimosas, cecropias, euphorbias, malvaceas, laurels, cedrellas, bignonias, bombaceas, apocyneas, malpigias, lecythises, swartzias, &c. The vegetation of the lower river-margins, which are periodically flooded, differs in some particulars from that of the higher ground, and the same variation is to be found between the forests of the upper and lower Amazon, and between the Amazon and its principal tributaries.
The Amazon region has a comparatively narrow frontage on the Atlantic. In Maranhao, which belongs to the coast region, open spaces or campos appear, though the state is well wooded and its forests have the general characteristics of the lower Amazon.
South-east of the Parnahyba the coast region becomes dryer and more sandy and the forests disappear.
Between Parahyba and southern Bahia forests and open plains are intermingled; thence southward the narrow coastal plain and bordering mountain slopes are heavily forested.
Many species of indigenous palms abound, and in places the forests are indescribably luxuriant.
Further inland the higher country becomes more open and the forests are less luxuriant.
In general, the carrasco growth extends over the whole central plateau, and heavy forests are found only in the deep river valleys.
On the temperate uplands of the southern states there are imposing forests of South American pine (Araucaria brasiliensis), whose bare trunks and umbrella-like tops give to them the appearance of open woodland.
These forests extend from Parana into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found in Minas Geraes.
The southern districts and the Amazon and its tributaries were often raided by slave-hunting expeditions, and their Indian populations were either decimated, or driven farther into the inaccessible forests.
The harvest comes in January and February, in the rainy season, and the nut-gatherers often come one or two hundred miles in their boats to the best forests.
The range of Taygetus is well watered and was in ancient times covered with forests which afforded excellent hunting to the Spartans, while it had also large iron mines and quarries of an inferior bluish marble, as well as of the famous rosso antico of Taenarum.
Flowers which bloom in the early spring are abundant, especially on the edges of forests.
The ferns are most common in the midland zone and in the heavy timber forests.
Valuable timber is obtained from the forests.
it is, covered with gravel, and presents the appearance of a dry prairie devoid of forests.
This same character is also exhibited by the bottoms of the broad valleys, while the more elevated and hilly portions of the territory, especially on their northern slopes, are covered with larch, cedar, pine and deciduous trees belonging to the Siberian flora; where the forests fail they are marshy or assume the character of Alpine meadows - e.g.
The forests decrease as one travels southwards.
are covered with forests, the Tannu-ola and the Khangai Mountains have woods on their northern faces only, and the Ektagh Altai is quite devoid of woods, even on its northern slope.
Of the productive area of Hungary 26.60% is occupied by forests, which for the most part cover the slopes of the Carpathians.
The forests are chiefly composed of oak, fir, pine, ash and alder.
Other revenues yielded as follows: stamp taxes and dues, £3,632,000; state railways, £3,545,000; post and telegraphs, £710,000; state landed property and forests, £250,000.
The monks cleared the forests, cultivated the recovered land, and built villages for the colonists who flocked to them, teaching the people western methods of agriculture and western arts and handicrafts.
In the forests and mountains dwell tribes of savages, chiefly of Indonesian origin, classed by the Annamese under the name Mois or " savages."
Along the Brazilian frontier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the eastern slops of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes broken with grassy campos.
Among the pachyderms the tapir is found in the forests of the Orinoco.
The bell-bird (Chasmorhynchus carunculatus) is common in the forests of the Orinoco.
The cacau is at its best in the humid forests of this region and is cultivated in the rich alluvial valleys, and the banana thrives everywhere, as well as the exotic orange and lemon.
The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.
The manakins are peculiar to the Neotropical Region and have many of the habits of the titmouse family (Paridae), living in deep forests, associating in small bands, and keeping continually in motion, but feeding almost wholly on the large soft berries of the different kinds of Melastoma.
In its lower course it meanders through pleasant pastures, bogland and pine forests in succession, receives the waters of various mountain streams, passes close by Bunzlau and through Sagan, and finally, after a course of 160 m., joins the Oder at Crossen.
The love-sick mood and romantic temperament of the young Irishman found congenial soil in the wild surroundings of unexplored Canadian forests, and the enthusiasm thus engendered for the "natural" life of savagery may have been already fortified by study of Rousseau's writings, for which at a later period Lord Edward expressed his admiration.
It is the terminus of some important narrow-gauge mining railways and steam tramways, which place it in communication with the mining districts of Guipuzcoa and Navarre, and with the valuable oak, pine and beech forests of both provinces.
" Coast forests " grow in small patches along the lower courses of the rivers, at their mouths, and on the sandhills along the coast.
The upland regions are those of high timber forests, the trees including the yellow-wood and iron-wood.
The most noteworthy timber forests are those of Nkandhla and Kyudeni and that near Eshowe.
The Burma forests are divided into three circles each under a conservator, with twenty-one deputy conservators.
Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.
The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise.
The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding, and indeed it was the demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma.
There are naturally very many trees in these forests besides the teak.
In 1870-1871 the state reserved forests covered only 133 sq.
The total rcceipts from the forests then amounted to Rs.7,72,400.
In 1889-1890 the total area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq.
At the end of 1892 the reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq.
At the close of 1899 the area of the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq.
65), assigns the discovery of glass to Syria, and the geographical position of that country, its forests as a source of fuel, and its deposits of sand add probability to the tradition.
The district is watered by the Geuk Su (Calycadnus and its tributaries), and is covered to a large extent by forests, which still, as of old, supply timber to Egypt and Syria.
It is still common in the dense forests which clothe the mountain ranges as high as 8000 feet.
The forests of a comparatively small tract on the east coast of Madagascar form its home.
The district generally is destitute of trees, and the forests which formerly clothed the Sahyadri hills have nearly disappeared; efforts are now being made to prevent further destruction, and to reclothe some of the slopes.
It is not uncommon in the forests of the isthmus of Panama, and Salvin says (Proc. Zool.
Except in the mountainous districts, the country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius.
There are no crown lands nor forests.
Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.
The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.
Considerable forests are said to exist in Asir, and Burton found a few fine specimens which he regarded as the remains of an old forest, on the Tehama range in Midian.
as the common gnat (Culex pipiens), are rarely found away from human habitations; others seldom or never enter houses, but are met with either in more or less open country, or in the recesses of forests and woods.
There are also large forests on the higher slopes of the Taurus and Anti-Taurus mountains.
The deodar forms forests on the mountains of Afghanistan, North Beluchistan and the north-west Himalayas, flourishing in all the higher mountains from Nepal up to Kashmir, at an elevation of from 5500 to 12,000 ft.; on the peaks to the northern side of the Boorung Pass it grows to a height of 60 to 70 ft.
But in the Majerda Mountains there are dense primeval forests lingering to the present day, and consisting chiefly of the cork oak (Quercus ruber), and two other species of oak (Quercus mirbeckii and Q.
The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
The montana is the region of tropical forests within the valley of the Amazon, and skirts the eastern slopes of the Andes.
The climate of Piura is modified by the lower latitude, and also by the vicinity of the forests of Guayaquil.
before entering the forests.
The third division of Peru is the region of the tropical forests, at the base of the Andes, and within the basin of the Amazon.
above sea level), and the Huallaga through that of Chasuta, enter the forests and unite after separate courses of about 600 and 400 m., the united flood then flowing eastward to the Brazilian frontier.
The forests drained by the Maranon, Huallaga and Ucayali form the northern portion of the Peruvian montana.
long from the Maranon to the Bolivian frontier, is naturally divided into two sections, the sub-tropical forests in the ravines and on the eastern slopes of the Andes, and the dense tropical forests in the Amazonian plain.
The most valuable species, called C. Calisaya, is found in the forests of Caravaya in south Peru and in those of Bolivia.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
In the vast untrodden forests farther east there are timber trees of many kinds, incense trees, a great wealth of rubber trees of the Hevea genus, numerous varieties of beautiful palms, sarsaparilla, vanilla, ipecacuanha and copaiba.
The abundant and varied fauna is the same as that of the Brazilian forests.
Others had withdrawn into the mountains and forests, and in the native villages under Spanish administration the birth rate had dropped to a small part of what it had been because the great bulk of the male population had been segregated in the mines and on the estates of the conquerors.
In addition to these are the tribes of wild Indians of the montana region, or eastern forests, who were never under Inca rule and are still practically independent.
These Indians are generally described as Cholos, a name sometimes mistakenly applied to the mestizos, while the tribes of the eastern forests are called Chunchos, barbaros, or simply Indians.
forests: jebe (also written hebe) or seringa, and caucho- the former being collected from the Hevea guayanensis, or H.
The forests of eastern Peru are rich in fine cabinet woods, but their inaccessibility renders them of no great value.
Forests cover nearly r z million acres, yielding valuable timber (teak, sandalwood, &c.), and affording grazing-ground for cattle.
Its lower flanks are clothed with forests of beech, conifers and oak.
seven villages were partially wrecked; forests were levelled or the trees entirely denuded of bark; rivers were blocked up, and lakes were formed.
Forests of cherry-trees, plumtrees, magnolia trees, or hiyaku-jikko (Lagerstroemia indica), banks of azalea, clumps of hydrangea, groups of camelliasuch have their permanent places and their foliage adds notes of color when their flowers have fallen.
The same is true of Japanese forests.
Forests of Europe 33 genera and 85 species.
A greater proportion of Baden than of any other of the south German states is occupied by forests.
This species inhabits forests, and ascends hills to considerable elevations; it is shy and timid, but easily tamed even when adult.
Of its total area 47-49% is covered with fine forests.
They were the original inhabitants of the country whom the Aryan conquerors had driven back into the barren hills and unhealthy forests.
It grows to a length of 6 ft., lives in swamps, plantations, forests, on the plains and on the hills, and is very prolific, producing dozens of young, which at birth are 10 in.
In 1920 the territory administered by the Lithuanian Government (5,200,000 hectares out of 8,500,000 hectares) yielded As regards live-stock raising there were in 1920 in the same area: Forests.
- Twenty-five per cent of the whole extent of Lithuanian territory is covered by forests, 80% of which consist of needle-bearing and 20% of leaf-bearing trees.
Amboyna wood, of great value for ornamental work, is obtained from the hard knots which occur on certain trees in the forests of Ceram.
The New Forest is one of the five forests mentioned in Domesday.
The chief officer of this, as of other forests, was the justice in eyre who held the justice seat, the highest forest court and the only court of record capable of entering and executing judgments on offenders; the lower courts were the Swainmote and Wodemote, the former of which is still held, in a modified form, in the Verderers' Hall of the King's House at Lyndhurst.
The circuit of the justices in eyre, or their deputies, continued down to 1635; they were virtually ended by the Act for the Limitation of Forests (1640), though Charles II.
They are a monotonous sandstone range, covered with extensive forests, which up to the sources of the rivers Ung and San are also called the eastern Beskids, and are formed of small parallel ranges.
The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft.
The flax and forests of its extensive territory are mentioned by classical authors, and we find Tarquinii offering to furnish Scipio with sailcloth in 195 B.C. A bishop of Tarquinii is mentioned in A.D.
of which, covering a large part of the state, are magnificent forests of long-leaf pine, and lesser lowland growths of oak, ash, magnolia, cypress and other valuable timber.
On the plateau there are but few hills; the streams run slowly and the country is a mixture of plain and undulating ground covered by dense sdl forests.
Vancouver lies in a region of extensive forests and of fruitgrowing and farming lands; among its manufactures are lumber products, barrels, condensed milk, flour, beer and canned f_uit.
The forests of Bhutan abound in many varieties of stately trees.
Elephants are so numerous as to be dangerous to travellers; but tigers are not common, except near the river Tista, and in the dense reed jungle and forests of the Dwars.
Some of the mountains are almost entirely composed of naked calcareous rock, but most of them wereformerly covered to their summits with forests of oaks, chestnuts, or pine trees, now destroyed to provide fuel.
There are forests in the W.
The destruction of its forests has led to the loss of all its alluvial soil, and now it is for the most part a brown and barren rock, covered at best with scanty aromatic scrub, pastured by sheep and goats.
Originally great herds of bison roamed over the Texas plains, and deer, bears and wolves were numerous, especially in the forests.
Cottontail rabbits, raccoons (including the Mexican variety), and squirrels are common in the forests.
In the broad river valleys of the eastern part of the Prairie Plains region are forests and isolated groves consisting principally of pecan, cypress, cottonwood and several species of oak.
The upper slopes of some of the mountains in the Trans-Pecos region are clothed with forests of large pines, cedars and other trees.
Forests and Timber.-About 64,000 sq.
The area of yellow pine forests (the stand is estimated at 67,568.5 million ft.), and the lesser one of hardwood, together with considerable softwood, represent lumber-producing possibilities of much economic importance.
The pine and hardwood forests are of great economic value because of the density of their growth, and there are at hand the means of profitable development of this industry in the numerous watercourses which make logging cheap and expeditious.
The former forests of the state were of two general classes: on the bottom lands along the rivers grew cottonwood, willow, honey-locust, coffee trees, black ash, and elm; on the less heavily wooded uplands were oaks (white, red, yellow and bur), hickory (bitternut and pignut), white and green ash, butternut, ironwood and hackberry.
The forests which it once possessed have been destroyed by the inhabitants for the manufacture of charcoal.
Calymnus (pop. about 7000) was once covered by forests - (Ovid, A.A.
A large part of the area is covered with forests, which yield teak and other timber.
Its height above the plains and the neighbourhood of extensive forests moderate the heat, and render the temperature pleasant throughout the greater part of the year.
The chief wealth of the country is derived from agriculture and the produce of the forests.
From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
The protectorate, with a singularly diversified surface of lofty plateaus, snow-capped mountains, vast swamps, dense forests and regions of desolate aridity (valley of Climate.
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
There are luxuriant tropical forests in the coast region of Buganda, in Busoga, west Elgon, western Unyoro, eastern Toro, the central Semliki valley and north-west Ankole.
The upper regions of Mt Elgon, Mt Debasien and Mt Agoro are clothed with forests of conifers - juniper and yew - and witch-hazels (Trichocladus).
These are also found in part of the Semliki forests.
The pigmies are generally known as Bambute or Bakwa in the Semliki forests.
The natives are ordinarily under the direct rule of their own recognized chiefs, but in all the organized districts the governor alone has the power of life or death, of levying taxes, of carrying on war, of controlling waste lands and forests, and of administering justice to non-natives.
Lugard little thought that in bringing these Sudanese, already (some of them) infected with the sleeping-sickness of the Congo forests, he was to introduce a disease which would kill off some 250,000 natives of Uganda in eight years.
Trees were imported and land set aside for planting forests.
Most of the foreshores of New Guinea are eucalyptusdotted grass lands; iri the interior dense forests prevail to a height of many thousand feet.
Forests cover only 2% of the area.
To the east the valley is characterized by swamps and forests, but to the west the natural depressions freely carry off the surface drainage.
Only 57% of the area is occupied by arable land and pasture; forests, one-tenth of which are coniferous, occupy 38%.
Many of the mountains are clothed with forests of oak, chestnuts, beeches and other trees, and contain iron, copper, lead and marble.
For many years Massachusetts controlled a vast lumber trade, drawing upon the forests of Maine, but the growth of the west changed the old channels of trade, and Boston carpenters came to make use of western timber.
The soil is very fertile, and there are forests of palms and bamboos.
Occupying 135 degrees of latitude, living on the shores of frozen or of tropical waters; at altitudes varying from sea-level to several thousands of feet; in forests, grassy prairies or deserts; here starved, there in plenty; with a night here of six months' duration, there twelve hours long; here among health-giving winds, and there cursed with malaria - this brown man became, in different culture provinces, brunette or black, tall or short, long-headed or short-headed, and developed on his own hemisphere variations from an average type.
WOCHUA (ACHUA), a pygmy people of Africa, living in the forests of the Mabode district, south of the Welle.
There are, however, extensive oak, pine and beech forests in the highlands, and many beautiful oases in the deeply sunk valleys, and along the rivers, especially beside the Ebro, which is, therefore, often called the "Nile of Aragon."
Provisions are cheap and abundant, but there is a lack of forests and timber trees.
It is thus evident that park-cattle are an albino offshoot from the ancient Pembroke black breed, which, from their soft and well-oiled skins, are evidently natives of a humid climate, such as that of the forests in which dwelt the wild aurochs.
terrestris, the common tapir of the forests and lowlands of Brazil and Paraguay; and T.
They are solitary, nocturnal, shy and inoffensive, chiefly frequenting the depths of shady forests and the neighbourhood of water, to which they frequently resort for the purpose of bathing, and in which they often take refuge when pursued.
are classed as "productive" (forests covering 172 sq.
The edges of the plateaus are gapped by deep valleys; the hilly tract between the Dvina and its tributary the Livonian Aa has received, from its picturesque narrow valleys, thick forests and numerous lakes, the name of "Livonian Switzerland."
Forests cover about two-fifths of the surface.
Under Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius it appears to have been a flourishing city, the district, now desolate, being then very fertile and covered with forests of olives.
Owing to the varied and beautiful scenery, this is a favourite summer resort; the game of the forests and the fishing in the streams and in the multitude of lakes serve as further attractions.
In the peripheral ring farming increases, especially dairying; and manufacturing industries connected with the products of forests, farms and mines are developed.
The forests of the W.
Of the fur and game animals which were inhabitants of the primeval forests few of the larger species remain except in the Adirondack region.
Maple sugar is an important by-product of the forests, and in the production of this commodity New York ranks second only to Vermont; 3,623,540 lb were made in 1900.
In 1777 General John Burgoyne succeeded in taking Ticonderoga, but in the swampy forests southward from Lake Champlain he fought his way against heavy odds, and in the middle of October his campaign culminated disastrously in his surrender at Saratoga.
There are no forests.
Buried in this clay-marl are found large deposits of the fossil resin which becomes the kauri gum of commerce; and on the surface extensive forests are still a great though diminishing source of wealth.
Though much of the timber is of commercial value - notably the kauri, totara, puriri, rimu, matai and kahikatea - this has not saved the forests from wholesale, often reckless, destruction.
Hobson landed in the Bay of Islands on the 22nd of January 1840, hoisted the Union Jack, and had little difficulty in inducing most of the native chiefs to accept the queen's sovereignty at the price of guaranteeing to the tribes by the treaty of Waitangi possession of their lands, forests and fisheries.
The forests are rich in palm-tree products, rubber and mahogany, which constitute the chief articles of export.
Arable land and gardens occupy 55.6% of the area, meadows and pastures 12.9%, forests 21.7%, and the rest is mostly waste.
Whiteand black-tailed deer and black bear inhabit the densest forests.
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
Near the Pacific Coast the forests consist principally of hemlock, cedar and Sitka spruce.
slope of the Cascades and most of the Okanogan Highlands are clothed with light forests consisting chiefly of yellow pine, but containing also Douglas fir, cedar, larch, tamarack and a very small amount of oak.
The state forests give about one-ninth of the whole.
Meantime his father had removed to a small tract of wild land in the dense forests of Western Pennsylvania, 30 m.
m., more than three-fourths of this total, had been set apart in the following " national forests ": Absaroka (980,440 acres), Beartooth (685,293 acres), Beaverhead (1,506,680 acres in Montana; and a smaller area.
Nor was the concentration of wealth the only danger of this policy; it led to the destruction of forests, the exhaustion of farming soils and the wasteful mining of coal and minerals, since the desire for quick profits, even when they entail risk to permanency of capital, is always a powerful human motive.
Game is fairly abundant; hares and partridges are found in the plains to the north-west, capercailzie in the neighbourhood of Tharandt and Schwarzenberg, and deer in the forests near Dresden.
The forests of Saxony are extensive and have long been well cared for both by government and by private proprietors.
The chief sources of income are taxes, state-railways and public forests and domains.
The oak forests for which it was renowned in Roman times have entirely disappeared.
the charge of the foreshores belonging to the crown, formerly managed by the commissioners of woods and forests, and the protection of navigable harbours and channels, long under the control of the admiralty, provisional orders under the General Pier and Harbour Acts and under the Pilotage Acts, and the settlement of by-laws made by harbour authorities.
In its neighbourhood, surrounded by pine forests, are the baths of Bartfa, with twelve mineral springs - iodate, ferruginous and alkaline - used for bathing and drinking.
The streams flowing from the central area have cut deep gorges and canons, and among the ridges the granitic rocks have assumed many strange forms. Though rising from a semi-arid plateau, these mountains have sufficient rainfall to support an abundant plant growth, and have derived their name from the fact that their slopes are dark with heavy forests.
All the higher lands of this area are covered by forests; but the Red Valley, lying between the outer ridges and the main uplift, is treeless.
Two national forests contained (1910) 2022 sq.
Doubtless the coureurs du bois who at this time began to frequent the Wisconsin forests, touched at the bay many times within the succeeding years as the place was known to be a favourite rendezvous of the Fox (or Outagamie) Indians.
The inside cleaning of windows belongs to the lord chamberlain's department, but the outer parts must be attended to by the office of woods and forests, so that windows remain dirty unless the two departments can come to an understanding."
The Ye-u reserved forests are much more valuable than those to the east on the Minwun and the Mudein.
Several quiescent volcanic peaks, reaching 5700 ft., occupy most of the island, and are covered with forests.
Here too are found petrified forests and other evidences of a vegetable growth that has long ago disappeared.
There are no mountains, forests or large bodies of water to moderate the extremes of summer and winter, and the uniformity of topography makes the ranges of temperature for different parts of the state very nearly the same.
Only a remnant of the defenders succeeded in gaining the forests of Mount Zygos, where most of them perished.
In the temperate uplands of the interior, as about Luang Prabang, Himalayan and Japanese species occur - oaks, pines, chestnuts, peach and great apple trees, raspberries, honeysuckle, vines, saxifrages, Cichoraceae, anemones and Violaceae; there are many valuable timber trees - teak, sappan, eagle-wood, wood-oil (Hopea), and other Dlpterocarpaceae, Cedrelaceae, Pterocarpaceae, Xylia, ironwood and other dye-woods and resinous trees, these last forming in many districts a large proportion of the more open forests, with an undergrowth of bamboo.
The extraction of teak from the forests of northern Siam employs a large number of people.
A Forest Department, in which experienced officers recruited from the Indian Forest Service are employed, has for many years controlled the forests of Siam.
823,000 Lands, forests, mines, capitation..
Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
Forests of conifers (Picea obovata) and deciduous trees - Przhevalsky's poplar, birch, mountain ash, &c., and a variety of bushes - are common everywhere.
In the central Nan-shan it is only the north-eastern slopes that bear forests.
Forests cover an area of nearly 5000 sq.
are classed as "productive" (forests covering 9.9 sq.
Some one-third-of the entire surface of the country is covered by forests.
The national debt amounted to some 40 billion crowns, against which the state itself possessed assets in the shape of forests, coal mines, the former domains of the Habsburgs, mineral, naphtha, radium and other sources of natural wealth, besides the State-owned railways.
It would seem, from a somewhat obscure passage in the chronicle compiled from older the progenitors of the Poles, originally established on the Danube, were driven from thence by the Romans to the still wilder wilderness of central Europe, settling finally among the virgin forests and impenetrable morasses of the basin of the upper waters of the Oder and the Vistula.
The Polish princes opposed a valiant but ineffectual resistance; the towns of Sandomir and Cracow were reduced to ashes, and all who were able fled to the mountains of Hungary or the forests of Moravia.
This interesting people, whose origin is to this day the most baffling of ethnographical puzzles, originally d welt amidst the forests and marshes of the Upper Niemen.
It is in great part occupied by mountains and forests, but has valleys and districts near the sea-coast of great fertility.
The country between them and the coast, covered with forests and traversed by few lines of route, is still imperfectly known.
But the broad tract which projects towards the west as far as the shores of the Bosporus, though hilly and covered with forests - the Turkish Aghatch Denizi, or "The Ocean of Trees" - is not traversed by any mountain chain.
Its vast forests would furnish an almost inexhaustible supply of timber, if rendered accessible by roads.
Archilochus described Thasos as "an ass's backbone crowned with wild wood," and the description still suits the mountainous island with its forests of fir.
Wild boars are found in the oak forests, and brown bears in the uplands.
of the mountainous country near the coast are covered with forests of various species of oak, pine, fir, cedar, elm, ash, maple, olive, many of them of gigantic size, and other trees; and on the slopes of the mountains up to 3800 ft.
The forests suffer great damage from fires, occasioned in part by the custom of burning up the grass every autumn, and in part by incendiarism.
The lands of the state - other than woods and forests - but especially the barren lands and brushwoods situated in the plains, were offered for colonization, to be disposed of (I) by sale at a fixed price, (2) by auction, and (3), in certain cases, by agreement.
In a very lengthy speech, which had to be interrupted for half an hour while he recovered his voice, he ended by describing it as a "war budget" against poverty, which he hoped, in the result, would become "as remote to the people of this country as the wolves which once infested its forests."
oak, ash, elm, &c.; the articles FIR and Pine treat of two large groups of conifers; general information is provided by the articles Plants and Gymnosperms; tree cultivation will be found under Forests And Forestry and Horticulture; and the various types of tree whose wood is useful for practical purposes under Timber.
Forests and alpine meadows cover their northern slopes.
The climate is so dry, and the rains are so scarce, that an absence of forests and Alpine meadows is characteristic of the ridge; but when heavy rain falls simultaneously with the melting of the snows in the mountains, the watercourses become filled with furious torrents, which create great havoc. The main glaciers (12) are on the north slope, but none creeps below io,000 to 12,000 ft.
Extensive forest areas still remain both in the east and the west, In the east oak, maple, beech, chestnut, elm, tulip-tree (locally " yellow poplar "), walnut, pine and cedar trees are the most numerous; in the west the forests are composed largely of cypress, ash, oak, hickory, chestnut, walnut, beech, tulip-tree, gum and sycamore trees.
Forests and Timber.-More than one-half of the state (about 22,200 sq.
The planing mill industry is increasing rapidly, as it is found cheaper to erect mills near the forests; between 1900 and 1905 the capital of planing mills in the state increased 117'2% and the value of products increased 142.8%.
Manufactures.--Kentucky's manufactures are principally those for which the products of her farms and forests furnish the raw material.
2 The " Barrens " were in the north part of the state west of the Blue Grass Region, and were so called merely because the Indians had burned most of the forests here in order to provide better pasturage for buffaloes and other game.
Owing to the pine forests pitch and tar were important manufactures in early times.
Coleonyx elegans in forests of Central America and Mexico.
Corythophanes and Laemanctus, with only a few species, are rare inhabitants of the tropical forests of Central America and Mexico.
Some are entirely arboreal, dwellers in forests, while others, like Cnemidophorus and Asneiva, are strictly terrestrial, with great running powers; a few dwell below the surface and are transformed into almost limbless ' For anatomical detail and experiments, see R.
The tjus frequent forests and plantations and are carnivorous, eating anything they can overpower.
Anelytropsis papillosus, of which only three specimens are known, from the humus of forests in the state of Vera Cruz.
Although 13.71% of the soil is unproductive and 32.4% is covered with forests, Salzburg is one of the principal pastoral regions of Austria.
All the fossil plants and animals of every kind are brought from this continent into a great museum; the latitude, longitude and relative elevation of each specimen are precisely recorded; a corps of investigators, having the most exact and thorough training in zoology and botany, and gifted with imagination, will soon begin to restore the geographic and physiographic outlines of the continent, its fresh, brackish and salt-water confines, its seas, rivers and lakes, its forests, uplands, plains, meadows and swamps, also to a certain extent the cosmic relations of this continent, the amount and duration of its sunshine, as well as something of the chemical constitution of its atmosphere and the waters of its rivers and seas; they will trace the progressive changes which took place in the outlines of the continent and its surrounding oceans, following the invasion§ of the land by the sea and the re-emergence of the land and retreatal of the seashore; they will outline the shoals and deeps of its border seas, and trace the barriers which prevented intermingling of the inhabitants of the various provinces of the continent and the surrounding seas.
Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
One is supposed to have lived in the forests along the stream borders, and the other in the open plains.
The analysis of continental faunas into those inhabiting rivers, lowlands, forests, plains or uplands, affords a key to physiographic conditions all through the Tertiary.
of roads and forests in Italy.
Add to this the light rainfall on the plateau and a lack of forests, and we have conditions which make large rivers impossible.
The great fertility of these regions and the marvellous wealth of their forests are irresistible attractions to industrial and commercial enterprise, but their unhealthiness restricts development and is a bar to any satisfactory increase in population.
The arboreal life of the tropical forests has developed the treeclimbing habit among snakes as well as among frogs and toads, and also the habit of mimicry, their colour being in harmony with the foliage or bark of the trees which form their " hunting-grounds."
These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.
On the southern slopes of the Ajusco and other sierras considerable forests of the " ahuehuete " or cypress (Taxodium distichum) are to be found.
Its forests are not composed of one or a few dominating species, as in the cold temperate zone, but of countless genera and species closely interwoven together - a confused mass of giant trees, lianas and epiphytes struggling to reach the sunlight.
Mexico has suffered much from the reckless destruction of her forests, not only for industrial purposes but through the careless burning of grassy areas.
Then follows the creation, when the creators said " Earth," and the earth was formed like a cloud or a fog, and the mountains appeared like lobsters from the water, cypress and pine covered the hills and valleys, and their forests were peopled with beasts and birds, but these could not speak the name of their creators, but could only chatter and croak.
The notion that the ruined cities now buried in the Central-American forests were of great antiquity and the work of extinct nations has no solid evidence; some of them may have been already abandoned before the conquest, but others were inhabited by the ancestors of the Indians who now build their mean huts and till their patches of maize round the relics of the grander life of their ancestors.
Though the country is generally mountainous, with dense forests of oak and walnut, there are some deep, well-watered valleys, and the climate is mild.
The primeval forests have nearly disappeared, but much of the N.
The hermit thrush, veery, song sparrow, red-eyed vireo, bunting, warbler and wren are among the song birds of the forests.
In the southern part of the state there is in the aggregate nearly as large an area of young forests on lands, most of which were until about 1850 used for agricultural purposes.
The principal merchantable timber of the state is red spruce, and this is found chiefly in the virgin forests which remain in the north, especially in those on the steep mountain slopes between elevations of 1800 ft.
Most of the virgin forests of the northern section were cut in the latter half of the 19th century, while abandoned farms in the south were becoming reforested, and the value of the state's lumber and timber products increased from $1,099,492 in 1850 to $4,286,142 in 1870, and to $9,218,310 in 1900 and then decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905; since 1890 large quantities of wood, chiefly spruce, have also been used in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. In 1909 a forestry commission was established.
Paper and wood pulp, for the manufacture of which the spruce forests of the state are so largely used, increased in value from $1,282,022 in 1890 to $7,244,733 in 1900, or 465.1%, and to $8,930,291 in 1905; and this industry rose from ninth in rank in 1890 to fifth in 1900 and to fourth in 1905.
It is evident, however, from the extent of the beds of these streams and of others now permanently dry, and from remains of ancient forests, that at a former period the country must have been abundantly watered.
There are remains of ancient forests consisting of wild olive trees and the camel thorn, near which grows the ngotuane, a plant with a profusion of fine, strongly scented yellow flowers.
Of the total area 43% is occupied by arable land and gardens, 18% by meadows and pastures and 28% by forests.
Chhattisgarh, or "the thirty-six forts," is a low-lying plain, enclosed on every side by hills and forests, while a rocky barrier shuts it off from the Nagpur plain on the west.
Professor Sargent describes it as the most valuable timber tree of the forests of Pacific North America.
above the sea, and forms extensive forests, or, in the northern part of the area, isolated groves, such as the Calaveras Grove, the Mariposa Grove, and others.
There are extensive deer forests in Lewis-withHarris, Skye, Mull and Jura.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.