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fluids

fluids Sentence Examples

  • In the latter case, the densities of the fluids will be inversely proportional to the volumes thus displaced.

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  • With reference to the findings of the Malkowal commission the Institute were asked to report: (1) On the comparative efficacy of the standard and new fluids as a 1898, the mean mortality among the inoculated was 1.3%; among the uninoculated 13.2%.

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  • - The blood fluids of Limulus and Scorpio are very similar.

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  • The first volume of the Histoire et memoires de l'Academie (1733) contains many original papers by him upon a great variety of physical subjects, such as the motion of fluids, the nature of colour, the notes of the trumpet, the barometer, the fall of bodies, the recoil of guns, the freezing of water, &c.

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  • Adopting the hypothesis of two fluids, Coulomb investigated experimentally and theoretically the distribution of electricity on the surface of bodies by means of his proof plane.

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  • Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.

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  • The Memoirs of the Berlin Academy from 1761 to 1784 contain many of his papers, which treat of such subjects as resistance of fluids, magnetism, comets, probabilities, the problem of three bodies, meteorology, &c. In the Acta Helvetica (1752-1760) and in the Nova acta erudita (1763-1769) several of his contributions appear.

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  • The treatment is far from satisfactory, and consists in keeping up the strength and diluting the poison in the blood and in the urine by the administration of bland fluids, such as soda-water, milk and plain water, in quantities as large as possible.

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  • In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.

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  • His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."

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  • These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."

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  • They also occur in the fluids of the living organism.

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  • They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.

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  • Mucins occur in most of the slimy fluids of the body; they vary in composition with their source.

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  • In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.

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  • A magnetizable substance was supposed to consist of an indefinite number of spherical particles, each containing equivalent quantities of the two fluids, which could move freely within a particle, but could never pass from one particle to another.

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  • When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.

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  • Repair Of Injuries In the process of inflammation we have a series of reactions on the part of the tissues, and fluids of the body, to counteract the ill effects of irritation or injury, to get rid of the cause, and to repair its results.

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  • In resenting such insults, a remarkable uniformity and regularity in the processes is brought about by the different cells and fluids of the healthy tissues of the body.

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  • The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.

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  • Notwithstanding these inventions of the Alexandrian school, its attention does not seem to have been directed to the motion of fluids; and the first attempt to investigate this subject was made by Sextus Julius Frontinus, inspector of the public fountains at Rome in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.

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  • In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.

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  • It was more fully developed in his Traite des fluides, published in 1744, in which he gave simple and elegant solutions of problems relating to the equilibrium and motion of fluids.

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  • P. Hachette (1769-1834) in1816-1817published memoirs containing the results of experiments on the spouting of fluids and the discharge of vessels.

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  • Julius Weisbach (1806-1871) also made many experimental investigations on the discharge of fluids.

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  • A fluid, as the name implies, is a substance which flows, or is capable of flowing; water and air are the two fluids distributed most universally over the surface of the earth.

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  • Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.

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  • Haematemesis is vomiting of blood, the colour of which may be altered by digestion, as is also the case in melaena, or passage of blood with the faeces, in which the blood becomes dark and tarrylooking from the action of the intestinal fluids.

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  • Laennec, to whom we are indebted for the practice of auscultation, freely admits that the idea was suggested to him by study of Hippocrates, who, treating of the presence of morbid fluids in the thorax, gives very particular directions, by 1 " Hippocrates Cous, primus quidem ex omnibus memoria dignus, ab studio sapientiae disciplinam hanc separavit, vir et arte et facundia insignis " (Celsus, De medicina).

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  • After death the presence of alcohol can be detected in all the body fluids.

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  • In 1738 appeared his Hydrodynamica, in which the equilibrium, the pressure, the reaction and varied velocities of fluids are considered both theoretically and practically.

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  • We must remember that the ocean is a continuous sheet of water of a certain depth, and the conditions of continuity which hold good for all fluids require that there should be no vacant space within it; hence if a single water particle is set in motion, the whole ocean must respond, as Varenius pointed out in 1650.

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  • That the results do not agree even 1 " On the Cohesions of Fluids," Phil.

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  • Not only was he the first discoverer of the rotifers, but he showed "how wonderfully nature has provided for the preservation of their species," by their tolerance of the drying-up of the water they inhabit, and the resistance afforded to the evaporation of the fluids of their bodies by the impermeability of the casing in which they then become enclosed.

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  • Living at the time he did, when the doctrines of the humoral pathologists were carried to an extreme extent, and witnessing the ravages which disease made on the solid structures of the body, it was not surprising that he should oppose a doctrine which appeared to him to lead to a false practice and to fatal results, and adopt one which attributed more to the agency of the solids and very little to that of the fluids of the body.

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  • In 1714 Ditton published his Discourse on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; and The New Law of Fluids, or a Discourse concerning the Ascent of Liquids in exact Geometrical Figures, between two nearly contiguous Surfaces.

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  • The acetate and the citrate are valuable mild diuretics in Bright's disease and in feverish conditions, and by increasing the amount of urine diminish the pathological fluids in pleuritic effusion, ascites, &c. In tubal nephritis they aid the excretion of fatty casts.

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  • 15Swp, water, and p rpov, a measure), an instrument for determining the density of bodies, generally of fluids, but in some cases of solids.

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  • It is upon this principle that the hydrometer is constructed, and it obviously admits of two modes of application in the case of fluids: either we may compare the weights of floating bodies which are capable of displacing the same volume of different fluids, or we may compare the volumes of the different fluids which are displaced by the same weight.

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  • thermometer, since, fluids generally expanding more than the solids of which the instrument is constructed, the instrument will sink as the temperature rises.

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  • This action, at first sight somewhat obscure, is due to the extreme pupillary contraction which removes the mass of the iris from pressing upon the spaces of Fontana, through which the intraocular fluids normally make a very slow escape from the eye into its efferent lymphatics.

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  • p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."

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  • The quantity of substance which diffuses through unit area in one second may be taken as proportional to the difference in concentration between the fluids at that area and at another parallel area indefinitely near it.

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  • The second of these essays opens with the striking remark, "There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases"; further, after describing experiments to ascertain the tension of aqueous vapour at different points between 32° and 212° F., he concludes, from observations on the vapour of six different liquids, "that the variation of the force of vapour from all liquids is the same for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given force."

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  • In the fourth essay he remarks, "I see no sufficient reason why we may not conclude that all elastic fluids under the same pressure expand equally by heat and that for any given expansion of mercury, the corresponding expansion of air is proportionally something less, the higher the temperature..

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  • It seems, therefore, that general laws respecting the absolute quantity and the nature of heat are more likely to be derived from elastic fluids than from other substances."

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  • It may be noted that in a paper on the "Proportion of the gases or elastic fluids constituting the atmosphere," read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words - "The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity," but there is reason to suspect that this sentence was added some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published till 1805.

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  • The Stem and its' subdivisions or branches raise to the light and air the leaves and flowers, serve as channels for the passage to them of fluids from the roots, and act as reservoirs for nutritive substances.

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  • The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock.

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  • Latex-tubes abound in the tissues of Lactarius, Stereum, Mycena, Fistulina, filled with white or coloured milky fluids, and Istvanffvi has shown that similar tubes with fluid or oily contents are widely spread in other Hymenomycetes.

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  • Conduction, however, is generally understood to include diffusion of heat in fluids due to the agitation of the ultimate molecules, which is really molecular convection.

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  • In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.

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  • His experiments and his treatise (written before 1651, published 1663) on the equilibrium of fluids entitle him to rank with Galileo and Stevinus as one of the founders of the science of hydrodynamics.

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  • It is also a constituent of the blood, of milk, and other animal fluids.

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  • His published work includes Algemeene Theorie der VloeistojJen (General Theory of the Fluids, 1881).

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  • Subsequent papers by Dulong were concerned with " New determinations of the proportions of water and the density of certain elastic fluids " (1820, with Berzelius); the property possessed by certain metals of facilitating the combination of gases (1823 with Thenard); the refracting powers of gases (1826); and the specific heats of gases (1829).

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  • possessed opposite electricities, so that in charging the jar as much positive electricity is added to one side as negative to the other, led Franklin about 1750 to suggest a modification called the single fluid theory, in which the two states of electrification were regarded as not the results of two entirely different fluids but of the addition or subtraction of one electric fluid from matter, so that positive electrification was to be looked upon as the result of increase or addition of something to ordinary matter and negative as a subtraction.

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  • Canton (1 753, 1 754) When, for instance, a positively electrified body was found to induce upon another insulated conductor a charge of negative electricity on the side nearest to it, and a charge of positive electricity on the side farthest from it, this was explained by saying that the particles of each of the two electric fluids repelled one another but attracted those of the positive fluid.

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  • It was then assumed that each of the two constituents of the neutral fluid had an atomic structure and that the so-called particles of one of the electric fluids, say positive, repelled similar particles with a force varying inversely as a square of the distance and attracted those of the opposite fluid according to the same law.

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  • Frequent doses of a teaspoonful of tannin dissolved ' in water should be administered, together with strong tea and coffee and mucilaginous fluids.

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  • des Sciences, 1787, p. 506) asserted that " by supposing the adherence of the particles of a fluid to have a sensible effect only at the surface itself and in the direction of the surface it would be easy to determine the curvature of the surfaces of fluids in the neighbourhood of the solid boundaries which contain them; that these surfaces would be linteariae of which the tension, constant in all directions, would be everywhere equal to the adherence of two particles, and the phenomena of capillary tubes would then present nothing which could not be determined by analysis."

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  • Leslie's theory was afterwards treated according to Laplace's mathematical methods by James Ivory in the article on capillary action, under "Fluids, Elevation of," in the supplement to the fourth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1819.

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  • In 1804 Thomas Young (Essay on the " Cohesion of Fluids, " Phil.

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  • Theory Of Capillary Action When two different fluids are placed in contact, they may either diffuse into each other or remain separate.

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  • The conditions under which the thermal and mechanical equilibrium of two fluids, two mixtures,.

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  • All that we have to observe at present is that, in the cases in which the fluids do not mix of themselves, the potential energy of the system must be greater when the fluids are mixed than when they are separate.

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  • If three fluids which do not mix are in contact with each other, the three surfaces of separation meet in a line, straight or curved.

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  • For if in the triangle abc the side ab is taken so as to represent on a given scale the tension of the surface of contact of the fluids a and b, and if the other sides be and ca are taken so as to represent on the same scale the tensions of the surfaces between b and c and between c and a respectively, then the condition of equilibrium at 0 for the corresponding tensions R, P and Q is that the angle ROP shall be the supplement of abc, POQ of bca, and, therefore, QOR of cab.

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  • Thus the angles at which the surfaces of separation meet are the same at all parts of the line of concourse of the three fluids.

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  • If four fluids, a, b, c, d, meet in a point 0, and if a tetrahedron AB CD is formed so that its edge AB represents the tension of the surface of contact of the liquids a and b, BC that of b and c, and so on; then if we place this tetrahedron so that the face ABC is normal to the tangent at 0 to the line of concourse of the fluids abc, and turn it so that the edge AB is normal to the tangent plane at 0 to the surface of contact of the fluids a and b, then the other three faces of the tetrahedron will be normal to the tangents at 0 to the other three lines of concourse of the liquids, an the other five edges of the tetrahedron will be normal to the tangent planes at 0 to the other five surfaces of contact.

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  • When a solid body is in contact with two fluids, the surface of the solid cannot alter its form, but the angle at which the surface of contact of the two fluids meets the surface of the solid depends on the values of the three surface-tensions.

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  • If a and b are the two fluids and c the solid then the equilibrium of the tensions at the point 0 depends only on that of thin components parallel to the surface, because the surface-tensions normal to the surface are balanced by the resistance of the solid.

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  • If the tension of the surface between the solid and one of the fluids exceeds the sum of the other two tensions, the point of contact will not be in equilibrium, but will be dragged towards the side on which the tension is greatest.

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  • In this case the fluids must mix.

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  • Conversely, if two fluids mix, it would seem that T'12 must exceed the mean of T 1 and T2; otherwise work would have to be expended to effect a close alternate stratification of the two bodies, such as we may suppose to constitute a first step in the process of mixture (Dupre, Theorie mecanique de la chaleur, p. 372; Kelvin, Popular Lectures, p. 53).

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  • (48) ° and in general the functions 0, or 4), must be regarded as capable of assuming different forms. Under these circumstances there is no limitation upon the values of the interfacial tensions for three fluids, which we may denote by T12, T23, T31.

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  • If the three fluids can remain in contact with one another, the sum of any two of the 3 quantities must exceed the third, and T 31 I by Neumann's rule the directions of the interfaces at the common edge must be parallel to the sides of a triangle, taken proportional to T12, T23, T31.

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  • If the above-mentioned condition be not satisfied, the triangle is imaginary, and the three fluids cannot rest in contact, the two weaker tensions, even if acting in full concert, being incapable of balancing the strongest.

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  • For instance, if T31> T12+ T23, the second fluid spreads itself indefinitely upon the interface of the first and third fluids.

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  • We are thus led to the important conclusion that according to this hypothesis Neumann's triangle is necessarily imaginary, that one of three fluids will always spread upon the interface of the other two.

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  • For All Fluids And For All Similar Tubes Similarly Wetted, The Weight Of A Drop Would Then Be Proportional Not Only To The Diameter Of The Tube, But Also To The Superficial Tension, And It Would Be Independent Of The Density.

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  • The equilibrium of the fluids would now be unstable if it were not for the tension of the surface which separates them, and which, when the orifice of the vessel is not too large, continues to preserve the stability of the equilibrium.

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  • Plants appear to be less subject to their attacks - possibly, as has been suggested, because the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms are less suited for the development of Schizomycetes; nevertheless some are known to be parasitic on plants.

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  • In the first place, the extremely small size and isolation of the vegetative cells place the protoplasmic contents in peculiarly favourable circumstances for action, and we may safely conclude that, weight for weight and molecule for molecule, the protoplasm of bacteria is brought into contact with the environment at far more points and over a far larger surface than is that of higher organisms, whether - as in plants - it is distributed in thin layers round the sap-vacuoles, or - as in animals - is bathed in fluids brought by special mechanisms to irrigate it.

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  • W.) having given up the specializations of func tion impressed on them during evolution and simply carrying out the fundamental functions of nutrition, growth, and multiplication which mark the generalized activities of the bacterial cell, and at the same time rendered as accessible to the environment by isolation and consequent extension of surface, we should doubtless find them exerting changes in the fermentable fluids necessary to their life similar to those exerted by an equal mass of bacteria, and that in proportion to their approximation in size to the latter.

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  • Ciliary movements, which undoubtedly contribute in bringing the surface into contact with larger supplies of oxygen and other fluids in unity of time, are not so rapid or so extensive when compared with other standards than the apparent dimensions of the microscopic field.

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  • The tissues and fluids are treated by various histological methods, but, to speak generally, examination is made either in films smeared on thin cover-glasses and allowed to dry, or in thin sections cut by the microtome after suitable fixation and hardening of the tissue.

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  • The general principle in their preparation is to supply cutt;va- the nutriment for bacterial growth in a form as nearly g y similar as possible to that of the natural habitat of the organisms - in the case of pathogenic bacteria, the natural fluids of the body.

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  • To obtain growth of an anaerobic organism on the surface of a medium, in using the plate method, and also for cultures in fluids, the air is displaced by an indifferent gas, usually hydrogen.

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  • A considerable amount of work has been done in connexion with this subject, and many observers have found that fluids taken from the living body in which the organisms have been growing, contain toxic substances, to which the name of aggressins has been applied.

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  • We are, accordingly, justified in definitely concluding that their appearance in large amount in the blood, as the result of active immunization, represents an increased production of molecules which are already present in the body, either in a free condition in its fluids or as constituent elements of its cells.

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  • His first communication to the Royal Society, read in June 1801, related to galvanic combinations formed with single metallic plates and fluids, and showed that an electric cell might be constructed with a single metal and two fluids, provided one of the fluids was capable of oxidizing one surface of the metal; previous piles had consisted of two different metals, or of one plate of metal and the other of charcoal, with an interposed fluid.

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  • In 1821 he was busy with electrical experiments and in 1822 with investigations of the fluids contained in the cavities of crystals in rocks.

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  • The ship, in virtue of its being immersed in two fluids having different densities, can be steered and made to tack about in a horizontal plane in any given direction.

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  • He published numerous works on different branches of physics, including A Complete Treatise on Electricity (1777), Treatise on the Nature and Properties of Air and other permanently Elastic Fluids (1781), History and Practice of Aerostation (1785), Treatise on Magnetism (1787), Elements of Natural and Experimental Philosophy (1803), Theory and Practice of Medical Electricity (1780), and Medical Properties of Factitious Air (1798).

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  • Whilst very weak, its action is perfectly balanced throughout all nervous tissue, so much so that Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton has suggested its action to be due to its replacement of sodium chloride (common salt) in the fluids of the nervous system.

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  • absorbere) means literally "sucking up" or "swallowing," and thus a total incorporation in something, literally or figuratively; it is technically used in animal physiology for the function of certain vessels which suck up fluids; and in light and optics absorption spectrum and absorption band are terms used in the discussion of the transformation of rays in various media.

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  • But given time, all such compounds, if they contain enough bitumen to render them water-tight, appear to settle down even at ordinary temperatures as heavy viscous fluids, retaining their fluidity permanently if not exposed to the air.

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  • Considerable burns on the face or body may result from the application of sulphuric acid in the practice known as "vitriol-throwing," a brownish black eschar serving to distinguish the burns produced by this acid from those of other corrosive fluids.

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  • These had channels whereby fluids poured into the receptacles could be drained off.

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  • - Matter is studied under three physical phases - solids, liquids and gases, the latter two being sometimes grouped as "fluids."

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  • The study of the physical properties of fluids in general constitutes the science of hydromechanics, and their applications in the arts is termed hydraulics; the special science dealing with the physical properties of gases is named pneumatics.

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  • The practically obvious distinction between solids and fluids may be stated in dynamical language thus: - solids can sustain a longitudinal pressure without being supported by a lateral pressure; fluids cannot.

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  • But here we distinguish between fluids according as they are gases or liquids.

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  • Externally, it is not absorbed by the unbroken skin, but when applied to the broken skin, sores, ulcers and mucous surfaces, the ferric salts are powerful astringents, because they coagulate the albuminous fluids in the tissues themselves.

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  • These figures, originally studied on account of the light they were supposed to throw on the nature of the electric fluid or fluids, have reference to the distribution of electricity over the surface of non-conductors.

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  • While in the alimentary canal they are subjected to the action of the digestive fluids and the varied contents of the stomach and intestines, and after absorption they come under the influence of the constituents of the blood and lymph, and of the chemical action of the tissue cells.

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  • He managed to keep his body fluids up by frequent gulps to replenish his rapidly diminishing energy.

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  • adequate intake of fluids a more alkaline state will prevail, which is the base of all good health.

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  • adiabatic flow of Newtonian fluids.

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  • Orally Giving fluids by mouth will only help mildly affected rabbits.

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  • While flying, a person should drink plenty of fluids and avoid smoking, caffeine, and excessive alcohol.

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  • amalgam waste that has contacted human body fluids is handled.

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  • The body fluids which contain enough HIV to infect someone are blood, semen, vaginal fluids including menstrual blood, and breast milk.

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  • bodily fluids or something.

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  • body fluids which contain enough HIV to infect someone are blood, semen, vaginal fluids including menstrual blood, and breast milk.

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  • caddy systems suffer from the problem of smelly fluids collecting in the bottom of the container.

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  • Intoxication (e.g. carbon monoxide, organophosphates, mushrooms ): drug detected in body fluids.

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  • Within the cell the major cation is potassium; in contrast, in plasma and extra cellular fluids the major cation is predominantly sodium.

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  • cavitation in fluids and process control also support the research.

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  • colloidal dispersions in simple fluids.

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  • dermal exposure to metalworking fluids.

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  • dermal skin layer has two types of glands that produce fluids.

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  • The majority of children can be given dextrose free maintenance fluids.

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  • For intravenous drips, Solu-Cortef must be mixed only with suitable fluids (saline, dextrose, or dextrose in saline ).

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  • Simple treatment with fluids and atropine usually suffices, tho vasopressors (e.g. ephedrine) may be necessary.

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  • faecess designed to protect the skin from urine feces, other body fluids, adhesive trauma and friction.

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  • faecesd contact with surfaces contaminated with bird feces or fluids.

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  • A separate prescription sheet records the intravenous fluids given.

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  • Perhaps girls take your precious bodily fluids or something.

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  • Complex tectonic and volcanic forces involving icy viscous fluids combined to develop the deformed pattern of this landscape.

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  • Checks on standards at large users of metalworking fluids have resulted in the serving of Notices requiring improvements.

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  • Fluid inclusion studies will tell us about the pressures and temperatures of the pore fluid inclusion studies will tell us about the pressures and temperatures of the pore fluids during flow.

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  • However, sexual excitement stimulates the production of lubricating fluids, so prolonged foreplay can help prevent painful intercourse.

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  • Gages can be filled with a variety of fluids including glycerin, mineral oil and silicone oil.

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  • glycol based fluids.

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  • humoral immune responses antibodies appear in the body fluids and stick to and destroy antigens.

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  • hydrothermal fluids to electricity.

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  • hypotonic fluids at greater than maintenance rates.

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  • immiscible fluids like oil and water.

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  • Does heparin, when added to the fluids infused through a peripheral catheter, reduce local catheter-related problems and extend catheter life?

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  • isotope systematics will be compared to current knowledge of MOR hydrothermal fluids.

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  • Fluids to support the liver lemon water add a freshly squeezed lemon to a glass of hot water.

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  • Tears, nasal secretions and tissue fluids contain lysozymes which destroy invading ' foreign ' material.

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  • rotating fluids are often found in rotating machinery and process equipment.

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  • metalworking fluids, to help further implement the guidance.

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  • And, the HSC has said that the new occupational exposure limits cannot be derived for mineral or water-mix metalworking fluids.

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  • metamorphic fluids in the deep crust.

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  • mineralizeactures acted as a plumbing system for mineralizing fluids to exploit to form mineral bearing lodes.

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  • Intimate samples include blood, semen or other bodily fluids, dental impressions or a swab from any body orifice other than the mouth.

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  • plenty of fluids.

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  • Additionally, the sun can be quite intense and you should take care to drink plenty of fluids while on the beach.

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  • ethylene propylene seals are available for applications using phosphate ester based fluids and vegetable based brake fluid.

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  • pulsatile flows of non-Newtonian fluids are needed.

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  • rarefytheory of the universe was that it is composed of a series of increasingly rarefied fluids.

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  • remedyse note: children under 16 must not be given aspirin or ready-made ' flu remedies containing aspirin; drink plenty of fluids.

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  • A number are used as solvents in glues, paints, nail varnish removers, dry cleaning fluids and de-greasing compounds.

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  • replace lost fluids.

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  • rheology of complex fluids.

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  • The Bohlin Gemini rheometers from Malvern Instruments are an advanced range of modular and compact rheometers with ' fluids to solids ' capability.

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  • rheometer system with ' fluids to solids ' capability.

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  • The SR5 is a universal controlled stress rheometer suitable for use with complex fluids such as polymer melts, creams and lotions.

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  • serous fluids, each produced to various extents in various glands.

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  • It is therefore natural to study the macroscopic parameters of the fluids under different conditions, such as steady and oscillatory shear.

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  • Furthermore, if your child is sick be sure to replace lost fluids with frequent small sips of cold, still water.

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  • sips of fluids.

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  • Many materials behave both like elastic solids and viscous fluids, a phenomenon referred to as viscoelastic properties.

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  • spillage of body fluids during removal.

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  • spillage of blood or body fluids?

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  • Fluids to support the liver Lemon water add a freshly squeezed lemon to a glass of hot water.

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  • sugary foods, which can make you tired in the long run Drink plenty of fluids - water your brain!

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  • supercritical fluids spearheading a truly green alternative for the global chemical industry.

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  • The trace elements and isotope systematics will be compared to current knowledge of MOR hydrothermal fluids.

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  • tensiometer used to measure dynamic surface tension of fluids.

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  • A 20% loss is usually well tolerated provided fluids are given to maintain the circulating volume.

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  • Most neonatal units have feeding regimens for babies requiring formula milk or intravenous fluids.

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  • vibratecleaning machines used in conjunction with special cleaning fluids enhance the properties of the cleaning fluids by gently vibrating the coins.

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  • viscoelastic fluids.

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  • viscosity fluids are more suited for fork use.

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  • vitrifyware is highly vitrified and is hard and impervious to fluids.

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  • In his Memoire sur le refraction des corps solides (1741) he was the first to give a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon which is witnessed when a body passes from one fluid to another more dense in a direction not perpendicular to the surface which separates the two fluids.

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  • In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.

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  • Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.

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  • His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."

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  • These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."

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  • They also occur in the fluids of the living organism.

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  • They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.

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  • Mucins occur in most of the slimy fluids of the body; they vary in composition with their source.

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  • In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.

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  • 4 Poisson assumed the existence of two dissimilar magnetic fluids, any element of which acted upon any other distant element in accordance with Coulomb's law of the inverse square, like repelling and unlike attracting one another.

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  • A magnetizable substance was supposed to consist of an indefinite number of spherical particles, each containing equivalent quantities of the two fluids, which could move freely within a particle, but could never pass from one particle to another.

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  • When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.

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  • The general confirmation by experiment of Poisson's theoretical results created a tendency to regard his hypothetical magnetic fluids as having a real existence; but it was pointed out by W.

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  • - The blood fluids of Limulus and Scorpio are very similar.

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  • The Memoirs of the Berlin Academy from 1761 to 1784 contain many of his papers, which treat of such subjects as resistance of fluids, magnetism, comets, probabilities, the problem of three bodies, meteorology, &c. In the Acta Helvetica (1752-1760) and in the Nova acta erudita (1763-1769) several of his contributions appear.

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  • Wright and others, in recent work on opsonins, have shown that, by injecting dead cultures of the causal agent into subjects infected with the organism, there is produced in the body fluids a substance (opsonin) which apparently in favourable conditions unites with the living causal bacteria and so sensitizes them that they are readily taken up and destroyed by the phagocytic cells of tissues.

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  • Repair Of Injuries In the process of inflammation we have a series of reactions on the part of the tissues, and fluids of the body, to counteract the ill effects of irritation or injury, to get rid of the cause, and to repair its results.

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  • This acquired immunity is brought about by the development of a protective body as a result of the struggle of the cells and fluids of the body with the invading bacteria and their toxins.

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  • As soon as the fluids and the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes have :succeeded in diminishing the virulence of the micro-organism, the second line of defenders - the large mononuclear leucocytes (fig.

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  • In resenting such insults, a remarkable uniformity and regularity in the processes is brought about by the different cells and fluids of the healthy tissues of the body.

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  • The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.

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  • Some infections, however, seem to attack the mental fabric directly; intrinsic toxic processes which may be suspected on the detection of neurin and cholin in the fluids of the brain (F.

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  • u3po ajXavuta), the science of the mechanics of water and fluids in general, including hydrostatics or the mathematical theory of fluids in equilibrium, and hydromechanics, the theory of fluids in motion.

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  • Notwithstanding these inventions of the Alexandrian school, its attention does not seem to have been directed to the motion of fluids; and the first attempt to investigate this subject was made by Sextus Julius Frontinus, inspector of the public fountains at Rome in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.

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  • In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.

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  • His theory of the motion of fluids, the germ of which was first published in his memoir entitled Theoria nova de motu aquarum per canales quocunque fluentes, communicated to the Academy of St Petersburg as early as 1726, was founded on two suppositions, which appeared to him conformable to experience.

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  • It was more fully developed in his Traite des fluides, published in 1744, in which he gave simple and elegant solutions of problems relating to the equilibrium and motion of fluids.

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  • This calculus was first applied to the motion of water by d'Alembert, and enabled both him and Euler to represent the theory of fluids in formulae restricted by no particular hypothesis.

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  • Following in the steps of the Abbe Charles Bossut (Nouvelles Experiences sur la resistance des fluides, 1777), he published, in 1786, a revised edition of his Principes d'hydraulique, which contains a satisfactory theory of the motion of fluids, founded solely upon experiments.

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  • P. Hachette (1769-1834) in1816-1817published memoirs containing the results of experiments on the spouting of fluids and the discharge of vessels.

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  • Julius Weisbach (1806-1871) also made many experimental investigations on the discharge of fluids.

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  • A fluid, as the name implies, is a substance which flows, or is capable of flowing; water and air are the two fluids distributed most universally over the surface of the earth.

    0
    0
  • Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.

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  • The theorems of hydrostatics are thus true for all stationary fluids, however, viscous they may be; it is only when we come to hydrodynamics, the science of the motion of a fluid, that viscosity will make itself felt and modify the theory; unless we begin by postulating the perfect fluid, devoid of viscosity, so that the principle of the normality of fluid pressure is taken to hold when the fluid is in movement.

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  • Haematemesis is vomiting of blood, the colour of which may be altered by digestion, as is also the case in melaena, or passage of blood with the faeces, in which the blood becomes dark and tarrylooking from the action of the intestinal fluids.

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  • Laennec, to whom we are indebted for the practice of auscultation, freely admits that the idea was suggested to him by study of Hippocrates, who, treating of the presence of morbid fluids in the thorax, gives very particular directions, by 1 " Hippocrates Cous, primus quidem ex omnibus memoria dignus, ab studio sapientiae disciplinam hanc separavit, vir et arte et facundia insignis " (Celsus, De medicina).

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  • After death the presence of alcohol can be detected in all the body fluids.

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  • In 1738 appeared his Hydrodynamica, in which the equilibrium, the pressure, the reaction and varied velocities of fluids are considered both theoretically and practically.

    0
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  • We must remember that the ocean is a continuous sheet of water of a certain depth, and the conditions of continuity which hold good for all fluids require that there should be no vacant space within it; hence if a single water particle is set in motion, the whole ocean must respond, as Varenius pointed out in 1650.

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  • That the results do not agree even 1 " On the Cohesions of Fluids," Phil.

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  • Not only was he the first discoverer of the rotifers, but he showed "how wonderfully nature has provided for the preservation of their species," by their tolerance of the drying-up of the water they inhabit, and the resistance afforded to the evaporation of the fluids of their bodies by the impermeability of the casing in which they then become enclosed.

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  • Living at the time he did, when the doctrines of the humoral pathologists were carried to an extreme extent, and witnessing the ravages which disease made on the solid structures of the body, it was not surprising that he should oppose a doctrine which appeared to him to lead to a false practice and to fatal results, and adopt one which attributed more to the agency of the solids and very little to that of the fluids of the body.

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  • In 1714 Ditton published his Discourse on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; and The New Law of Fluids, or a Discourse concerning the Ascent of Liquids in exact Geometrical Figures, between two nearly contiguous Surfaces.

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    0
  • The acetate and the citrate are valuable mild diuretics in Bright's disease and in feverish conditions, and by increasing the amount of urine diminish the pathological fluids in pleuritic effusion, ascites, &c. In tubal nephritis they aid the excretion of fatty casts.

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  • 15Swp, water, and p rpov, a measure), an instrument for determining the density of bodies, generally of fluids, but in some cases of solids.

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  • It is upon this principle that the hydrometer is constructed, and it obviously admits of two modes of application in the case of fluids: either we may compare the weights of floating bodies which are capable of displacing the same volume of different fluids, or we may compare the volumes of the different fluids which are displaced by the same weight.

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  • In the latter case, the densities of the fluids will be inversely proportional to the volumes thus displaced.

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  • thermometer, since, fluids generally expanding more than the solids of which the instrument is constructed, the instrument will sink as the temperature rises.

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  • This action, at first sight somewhat obscure, is due to the extreme pupillary contraction which removes the mass of the iris from pressing upon the spaces of Fontana, through which the intraocular fluids normally make a very slow escape from the eye into its efferent lymphatics.

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  • p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."

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  • The quantity of substance which diffuses through unit area in one second may be taken as proportional to the difference in concentration between the fluids at that area and at another parallel area indefinitely near it.

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  • The second of these essays opens with the striking remark, "There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases"; further, after describing experiments to ascertain the tension of aqueous vapour at different points between 32° and 212° F., he concludes, from observations on the vapour of six different liquids, "that the variation of the force of vapour from all liquids is the same for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given force."

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  • In the fourth essay he remarks, "I see no sufficient reason why we may not conclude that all elastic fluids under the same pressure expand equally by heat and that for any given expansion of mercury, the corresponding expansion of air is proportionally something less, the higher the temperature..

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  • It seems, therefore, that general laws respecting the absolute quantity and the nature of heat are more likely to be derived from elastic fluids than from other substances."

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  • It may be noted that in a paper on the "Proportion of the gases or elastic fluids constituting the atmosphere," read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words - "The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity," but there is reason to suspect that this sentence was added some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published till 1805.

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  • The Stem and its' subdivisions or branches raise to the light and air the leaves and flowers, serve as channels for the passage to them of fluids from the roots, and act as reservoirs for nutritive substances.

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  • The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock.

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  • Latex-tubes abound in the tissues of Lactarius, Stereum, Mycena, Fistulina, filled with white or coloured milky fluids, and Istvanffvi has shown that similar tubes with fluid or oily contents are widely spread in other Hymenomycetes.

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  • Conduction, however, is generally understood to include diffusion of heat in fluids due to the agitation of the ultimate molecules, which is really molecular convection.

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  • In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.

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  • His experiments and his treatise (written before 1651, published 1663) on the equilibrium of fluids entitle him to rank with Galileo and Stevinus as one of the founders of the science of hydrodynamics.

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  • Normal butyric acid or fermentation butyric acid is found in butter, as an hexyl ester in the oil of Heracleum giganteum and as an octyl ester in parsnip (Pastinaca sativa); it has also been noticed in the fluids of the flesh and in perspiration.

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  • It is also a constituent of the blood, of milk, and other animal fluids.

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  • His published work includes Algemeene Theorie der VloeistojJen (General Theory of the Fluids, 1881).

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  • With reference to the findings of the Malkowal commission the Institute were asked to report: (1) On the comparative efficacy of the standard and new fluids as a 1898, the mean mortality among the inoculated was 1.3%; among the uninoculated 13.2%.

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  • Subsequent papers by Dulong were concerned with " New determinations of the proportions of water and the density of certain elastic fluids " (1820, with Berzelius); the property possessed by certain metals of facilitating the combination of gases (1823 with Thenard); the refracting powers of gases (1826); and the specific heats of gases (1829).

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  • The treatment is far from satisfactory, and consists in keeping up the strength and diluting the poison in the blood and in the urine by the administration of bland fluids, such as soda-water, milk and plain water, in quantities as large as possible.

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  • The first volume of the Histoire et memoires de l'Academie (1733) contains many original papers by him upon a great variety of physical subjects, such as the motion of fluids, the nature of colour, the notes of the trumpet, the barometer, the fall of bodies, the recoil of guns, the freezing of water, &c.

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  • Adopting the hypothesis of two fluids, Coulomb investigated experimentally and theoretically the distribution of electricity on the surface of bodies by means of his proof plane.

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  • possessed opposite electricities, so that in charging the jar as much positive electricity is added to one side as negative to the other, led Franklin about 1750 to suggest a modification called the single fluid theory, in which the two states of electrification were regarded as not the results of two entirely different fluids but of the addition or subtraction of one electric fluid from matter, so that positive electrification was to be looked upon as the result of increase or addition of something to ordinary matter and negative as a subtraction.

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  • Canton (1 753, 1 754) When, for instance, a positively electrified body was found to induce upon another insulated conductor a charge of negative electricity on the side nearest to it, and a charge of positive electricity on the side farthest from it, this was explained by saying that the particles of each of the two electric fluids repelled one another but attracted those of the positive fluid.

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  • It was then assumed that each of the two constituents of the neutral fluid had an atomic structure and that the so-called particles of one of the electric fluids, say positive, repelled similar particles with a force varying inversely as a square of the distance and attracted those of the opposite fluid according to the same law.

    0
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  • Frequent doses of a teaspoonful of tannin dissolved ' in water should be administered, together with strong tea and coffee and mucilaginous fluids.

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  • des Sciences, 1787, p. 506) asserted that " by supposing the adherence of the particles of a fluid to have a sensible effect only at the surface itself and in the direction of the surface it would be easy to determine the curvature of the surfaces of fluids in the neighbourhood of the solid boundaries which contain them; that these surfaces would be linteariae of which the tension, constant in all directions, would be everywhere equal to the adherence of two particles, and the phenomena of capillary tubes would then present nothing which could not be determined by analysis."

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  • Leslie's theory was afterwards treated according to Laplace's mathematical methods by James Ivory in the article on capillary action, under "Fluids, Elevation of," in the supplement to the fourth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1819.

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  • In 1804 Thomas Young (Essay on the " Cohesion of Fluids, " Phil.

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  • Theory Of Capillary Action When two different fluids are placed in contact, they may either diffuse into each other or remain separate.

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  • The conditions under which the thermal and mechanical equilibrium of two fluids, two mixtures,.

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    0
  • All that we have to observe at present is that, in the cases in which the fluids do not mix of themselves, the potential energy of the system must be greater when the fluids are mixed than when they are separate.

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  • If three fluids which do not mix are in contact with each other, the three surfaces of separation meet in a line, straight or curved.

    0
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  • For if in the triangle abc the side ab is taken so as to represent on a given scale the tension of the surface of contact of the fluids a and b, and if the other sides be and ca are taken so as to represent on the same scale the tensions of the surfaces between b and c and between c and a respectively, then the condition of equilibrium at 0 for the corresponding tensions R, P and Q is that the angle ROP shall be the supplement of abc, POQ of bca, and, therefore, QOR of cab.

    0
    0
  • Thus the angles at which the surfaces of separation meet are the same at all parts of the line of concourse of the three fluids.

    0
    0
  • If four fluids, a, b, c, d, meet in a point 0, and if a tetrahedron AB CD is formed so that its edge AB represents the tension of the surface of contact of the liquids a and b, BC that of b and c, and so on; then if we place this tetrahedron so that the face ABC is normal to the tangent at 0 to the line of concourse of the fluids abc, and turn it so that the edge AB is normal to the tangent plane at 0 to the surface of contact of the fluids a and b, then the other three faces of the tetrahedron will be normal to the tangents at 0 to the other three lines of concourse of the liquids, an the other five edges of the tetrahedron will be normal to the tangent planes at 0 to the other five surfaces of contact.

    0
    0
  • When a solid body is in contact with two fluids, the surface of the solid cannot alter its form, but the angle at which the surface of contact of the two fluids meets the surface of the solid depends on the values of the three surface-tensions.

    0
    0
  • If a and b are the two fluids and c the solid then the equilibrium of the tensions at the point 0 depends only on that of thin components parallel to the surface, because the surface-tensions normal to the surface are balanced by the resistance of the solid.

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    0
  • If the tension of the surface between the solid and one of the fluids exceeds the sum of the other two tensions, the point of contact will not be in equilibrium, but will be dragged towards the side on which the tension is greatest.

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  • In this case the fluids must mix.

    0
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  • Conversely, if two fluids mix, it would seem that T'12 must exceed the mean of T 1 and T2; otherwise work would have to be expended to effect a close alternate stratification of the two bodies, such as we may suppose to constitute a first step in the process of mixture (Dupre, Theorie mecanique de la chaleur, p. 372; Kelvin, Popular Lectures, p. 53).

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  • (48) ° and in general the functions 0, or 4), must be regarded as capable of assuming different forms. Under these circumstances there is no limitation upon the values of the interfacial tensions for three fluids, which we may denote by T12, T23, T31.

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  • If the three fluids can remain in contact with one another, the sum of any two of the 3 quantities must exceed the third, and T 31 I by Neumann's rule the directions of the interfaces at the common edge must be parallel to the sides of a triangle, taken proportional to T12, T23, T31.

    0
    0
  • If the above-mentioned condition be not satisfied, the triangle is imaginary, and the three fluids cannot rest in contact, the two weaker tensions, even if acting in full concert, being incapable of balancing the strongest.

    0
    0
  • For instance, if T31> T12+ T23, the second fluid spreads itself indefinitely upon the interface of the first and third fluids.

    0
    0
  • We are thus led to the important conclusion that according to this hypothesis Neumann's triangle is necessarily imaginary, that one of three fluids will always spread upon the interface of the other two.

    0
    0
  • We may, therefore, write for the pressure at a height y p= - pgy, T A b e ?; y t L - == --ti where p is the density of the liquid, or if there are two fluids the excess of the density of the lower fluid over that of the upper one.

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  • For All Fluids And For All Similar Tubes Similarly Wetted, The Weight Of A Drop Would Then Be Proportional Not Only To The Diameter Of The Tube, But Also To The Superficial Tension, And It Would Be Independent Of The Density.

    0
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  • The equilibrium of the fluids would now be unstable if it were not for the tension of the surface which separates them, and which, when the orifice of the vessel is not too large, continues to preserve the stability of the equilibrium.

    0
    0
  • Plants appear to be less subject to their attacks - possibly, as has been suggested, because the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms are less suited for the development of Schizomycetes; nevertheless some are known to be parasitic on plants.

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    0
  • In the first place, the extremely small size and isolation of the vegetative cells place the protoplasmic contents in peculiarly favourable circumstances for action, and we may safely conclude that, weight for weight and molecule for molecule, the protoplasm of bacteria is brought into contact with the environment at far more points and over a far larger surface than is that of higher organisms, whether - as in plants - it is distributed in thin layers round the sap-vacuoles, or - as in animals - is bathed in fluids brought by special mechanisms to irrigate it.

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  • W.) having given up the specializations of func tion impressed on them during evolution and simply carrying out the fundamental functions of nutrition, growth, and multiplication which mark the generalized activities of the bacterial cell, and at the same time rendered as accessible to the environment by isolation and consequent extension of surface, we should doubtless find them exerting changes in the fermentable fluids necessary to their life similar to those exerted by an equal mass of bacteria, and that in proportion to their approximation in size to the latter.

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  • Ciliary movements, which undoubtedly contribute in bringing the surface into contact with larger supplies of oxygen and other fluids in unity of time, are not so rapid or so extensive when compared with other standards than the apparent dimensions of the microscopic field.

    0
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  • The tissues and fluids are treated by various histological methods, but, to speak generally, examination is made either in films smeared on thin cover-glasses and allowed to dry, or in thin sections cut by the microtome after suitable fixation and hardening of the tissue.

    0
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  • The general principle in their preparation is to supply cutt;va- the nutriment for bacterial growth in a form as nearly g y similar as possible to that of the natural habitat of the organisms - in the case of pathogenic bacteria, the natural fluids of the body.

    0
    0
  • To obtain growth of an anaerobic organism on the surface of a medium, in using the plate method, and also for cultures in fluids, the air is displaced by an indifferent gas, usually hydrogen.

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  • A considerable amount of work has been done in connexion with this subject, and many observers have found that fluids taken from the living body in which the organisms have been growing, contain toxic substances, to which the name of aggressins has been applied.

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  • We are, accordingly, justified in definitely concluding that their appearance in large amount in the blood, as the result of active immunization, represents an increased production of molecules which are already present in the body, either in a free condition in its fluids or as constituent elements of its cells.

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  • His first communication to the Royal Society, read in June 1801, related to galvanic combinations formed with single metallic plates and fluids, and showed that an electric cell might be constructed with a single metal and two fluids, provided one of the fluids was capable of oxidizing one surface of the metal; previous piles had consisted of two different metals, or of one plate of metal and the other of charcoal, with an interposed fluid.

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  • In 1821 he was busy with electrical experiments and in 1822 with investigations of the fluids contained in the cavities of crystals in rocks.

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  • The ship, in virtue of its being immersed in two fluids having different densities, can be steered and made to tack about in a horizontal plane in any given direction.

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  • He published numerous works on different branches of physics, including A Complete Treatise on Electricity (1777), Treatise on the Nature and Properties of Air and other permanently Elastic Fluids (1781), History and Practice of Aerostation (1785), Treatise on Magnetism (1787), Elements of Natural and Experimental Philosophy (1803), Theory and Practice of Medical Electricity (1780), and Medical Properties of Factitious Air (1798).

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  • Whilst very weak, its action is perfectly balanced throughout all nervous tissue, so much so that Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton has suggested its action to be due to its replacement of sodium chloride (common salt) in the fluids of the nervous system.

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  • absorbere) means literally "sucking up" or "swallowing," and thus a total incorporation in something, literally or figuratively; it is technically used in animal physiology for the function of certain vessels which suck up fluids; and in light and optics absorption spectrum and absorption band are terms used in the discussion of the transformation of rays in various media.

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  • But given time, all such compounds, if they contain enough bitumen to render them water-tight, appear to settle down even at ordinary temperatures as heavy viscous fluids, retaining their fluidity permanently if not exposed to the air.

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  • Considerable burns on the face or body may result from the application of sulphuric acid in the practice known as "vitriol-throwing," a brownish black eschar serving to distinguish the burns produced by this acid from those of other corrosive fluids.

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  • ii&.p, water, bin apus, strength), the branch of hydromechanics which discusses the motion of fluids (see Hydromechanics).

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  • These had channels whereby fluids poured into the receptacles could be drained off.

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  • - Matter is studied under three physical phases - solids, liquids and gases, the latter two being sometimes grouped as "fluids."

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  • The study of the physical properties of fluids in general constitutes the science of hydromechanics, and their applications in the arts is termed hydraulics; the special science dealing with the physical properties of gases is named pneumatics.

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  • The practically obvious distinction between solids and fluids may be stated in dynamical language thus: - solids can sustain a longitudinal pressure without being supported by a lateral pressure; fluids cannot.

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  • But here we distinguish between fluids according as they are gases or liquids.

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  • Externally, it is not absorbed by the unbroken skin, but when applied to the broken skin, sores, ulcers and mucous surfaces, the ferric salts are powerful astringents, because they coagulate the albuminous fluids in the tissues themselves.

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  • These figures, originally studied on account of the light they were supposed to throw on the nature of the electric fluid or fluids, have reference to the distribution of electricity over the surface of non-conductors.

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  • While in the alimentary canal they are subjected to the action of the digestive fluids and the varied contents of the stomach and intestines, and after absorption they come under the influence of the constituents of the blood and lymph, and of the chemical action of the tissue cells.

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  • More experimental data for the pulsatile flows of non-Newtonian fluids are needed.

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  • His theory of the universe was that it is composed of a series of increasingly rarefied fluids.

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  • Increase your intake of fluids to rehydrate the skin.

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  • Please note: children under 16 must not be given aspirin or ready-made ' flu remedies containing aspirin; drink plenty of fluids.

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  • A number are used as solvents in glues, paints, nail varnish removers, dry cleaning fluids and de-greasing compounds.

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  • Make sure you are drinking enough water to replace lost fluids.

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  • Dr. Binding 's research interests encompass all aspects of the rheology of complex fluids.

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  • The Bohlin Gemini rheometers from Malvern Instruments are an advanced range of modular and compact rheometers with ' fluids to solids ' capability.

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  • Malvern will also be showing its Gemini modular and compact rheometer system with ' fluids to solids ' capability.

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  • The SR5 is a universal controlled stress rheometer suitable for use with complex fluids such as polymer melts, creams and lotions.

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  • Saliva is a mixture of mucus and serous fluids, each produced to various extents in various glands.

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  • It is therefore natural to study the macroscopic parameters of the fluids under different conditions, such as steady and oscillatory shear.

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  • Furthermore, if your child is sick be sure to replace lost fluids with frequent small sips of cold, still water.

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  • Once your bowel starts working again, you will be able to try sips of fluids.

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  • Many materials behave both like elastic solids and viscous fluids, a phenomenon referred to as viscoelastic properties.

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  • The impervious nature of the material ensures that there is no leakage or spillage of body fluids during removal.

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  • What should we do if there is a spillage of blood or body fluids?

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  • Avoid sugary foods, which can make you tired in the long run Drink plenty of fluids - water your brain !

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  • These groundbreaking studies could see supercritical fluids spearheading a truly green alternative for the global chemical industry.

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  • The pulsating bubble tensiometer used to measure dynamic surface tension of fluids.

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  • A 20% loss is usually well tolerated provided fluids are given to maintain the circulating volume.

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  • Most neonatal units have feeding regimens for babies requiring formula milk or intravenous fluids.

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  • Coin cleaning machines used in conjunction with special cleaning fluids enhance the properties of the cleaning fluids by gently vibrating the coins.

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  • Our results have appeared in four key papers, taking the analysis through increasingly complex flows for both viscous and viscoelastic fluids.

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  • The higher viscosity fluids are more suited for fork use.

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  • Stoneware is highly vitrified and is hard and impervious to fluids.

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  • Don't forget to drink lots of water during your hike to replenish the fluids you've lost.

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  • The nursing staff will also give your baby an IV for intravenous fluids as she may not be able to eat on her own.

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  • The baby also experiences hormonal shifts that help them absorb fluids into the body and away from the lungs during labor and delivery.

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  • The baby does not travel through the birth canal so the fluids are not pushed out of the lungs during the delivery, and the babies do not have the same hormonal changes as those who undergo vaginal births.

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  • Check all fluids: Oil should range from honey-colored to black.

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  • If your new vet was able to give him IV fluids in time, she may have been able to reverse the dehydration before it was too late.

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  • This form of FIP most often progressives very rapidly and the cat"s belly will swell due to the accumulation of fluids.

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  • Clay litter absorbs fluids and odors well.

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  • These range from household solvents such as paints, paint thinners and some cleaning fluids, to solvents used for personal care, including nail polish removers and perfumes.

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  • Fluids collect the earth's heat in the winter which the system transfers into your home.

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  • Nonpoint source pollution or run-off pollution includes apparently minor household contaminants such as lawn chemicals or car cleaning fluids.

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  • Automobile fluids: Recycle used antifreeze, motor oil, transmission and brake fluids.

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  • Bleaching in this manner has been known to cause teeth to become more sensitive, especially to hot and cold fluids.

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  • Vitamin C is water-soluble and will be effective in removing the free radicals from the fluids in your body.

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  • Fresh watermelon or oranges are also a good source of fluids to help your body stay properly hydrated.

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  • Making a point of drinking plenty of fluids each day will help your system to eliminate toxins.

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  • The truth of the matter is bodily fluids are exchanged during intercourse, causing a risk of pregnancy whether or not the guy happens to be a pull out champion.

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  • Potassium aids in digestive health, as well as maintaining bodily fluids and normal heart functions.

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  • Sprout seeds require an ample water supply to grow, but you must make sure your growing kit has unobstructed drainage holes to rid your trays of excess fluids.

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  • Since titanium doesn't react to sweat or other bodily fluids, it doesn't cause the body to break out in rashes or hives.

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  • If not, she's going to need a sub-Q saline injection to keep her fluids up until she recovers.

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  • Their function is to allow the exchange of nutrients, gases, and fluids between the body's tissues and lungs.

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  • Rest, plenty of fluids and time will have your working dog back on the agility course or at the weight pull competition in no time!

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  • Hydration: Since copious vomiting and diarrhea can quickly throw a pet into dehydration, it is of primary importance to replace the fluids being lost.

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  • Hydration is typically carried out by administering IV fluids containing a balance of electrolytes in a hospital setting.

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  • Like IV fluids, this medication is delivered intravenously to be most effective.

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  • Since copious vomiting and diarrhea can quickly lead to dehydration, the animal is typically hospitalized and rehydrated by administering IV fluids that contain a balance of electrolytes.

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  • Like IV fluids, this medication is most effective when it's delivered intravenously.

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  • One reason that fiberglass is such a popular choice for whelping boxes is the fact that the surface area is nonporous, keeping it from absorbing bodily fluids that may harbor unhealthy substances and making it is easy to clean.

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  • Puppies will rarely survive if they do not receive sufficient intravenous fluids.

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  • It has "seeped" some fluids, some of the partial leaves are still firm while others are completely withed, the most center leaf is still bright green and standing tall.

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  • The inserts are primarily responsible for absorbing the fluids produced by babies and toddlers; covers act as the waterproof barrier that prevents fluids from leaking.

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  • The fermentation will create a thick scum on top of the liquid, killing any pathogens and separating the seeds from their natural fluids.

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  • Workers who hold jobs where they may come into contact with bodily fluids must complete an approved blood borne pathogens training course every year.

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  • Other effects of OHS include visual blurring when the optical disk swells and strain on the heart as it tries to pump fluids through.

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  • Stay hydrated - Be sure to drink plenty of fluids throughout the day to avoid nighttime dehydration.

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  • Kidney failure - When the kidneys malfunction, body fluids including electrolytes go off balance, which can lead to muscle spasms.

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  • If the problem persists, there are special cloths and fluids that you can purchase to safely remove smudges from the lenses.

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  • Goggles can block sharp instruments or glass, preservation chemicals used in dissections, bodily fluids, dust, splatters, bacterium, or flying objects-all things you are likely to find in one type of science class or lab or another.

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  • Certain corrosive vapors trigger the body to flood the lungs with fluids, effectively drowning the person.

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  • Medical personnel will also provide supportive care as needed, such as intravenous fluids or mechanical ventilation.

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  • Calculi (pl.) can cause problems by lodging in and obstructing the proper flow of fluids, such as bile to the intestines or urine to the bladder.

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  • In addition, until about age two, children's kidneys are not able to concentrate urine and preserve body fluids as efficiently as adult kidneys.

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  • Obese individuals and those with poor circulation or who take medications to reduce excess body fluids (diuretics) can be at risk when conditions are hot and humid.

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  • Heat exhaustion is caused by exposure to high heat and humidity for many hours, resulting in excessive loss of fluids and salts through heavy perspiration.

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  • The child needs to continue drinking fluids and should be watched carefully for further signs of heat-related illnesses.

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  • Rest and replacement of fluids and salt is usually all the treatment that is needed, and hospitalization is rarely required.

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  • Breathing and heart rate are monitored, and fluids and electrolytes are replaced intravenously.

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  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water, and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages; drink frequently, even if not thirsty.

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  • Before the 1970s, some coaches felt it was good training to limit the amount of fluids athletes drank at practices.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Immunoglobulin type gamma, the most common type found in the blood and tissue fluids.

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  • Since the TORCH test is a screening or first-level test, the pediatrician may order tests of other body fluids or tissues to confirm the diagnosis of a specific infection.

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  • The child may be given additional fluids, possibly intravenously, to help remove the bilirubin.

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  • These include dressing the child lightly, applying cold washcloths to the face and neck, providing plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, and giving the child a lukewarm bath or sponging the child in lukewarm water.

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  • Kieldsberg. Cerebrospinal, Synovial, and Serous Body Fluids.

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  • In cases of severe blood loss, medical treatment may include the intravenous replacement of body fluids.

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  • Traumatic shock-A condition of depressed body functions as a reaction to injury with loss of body fluids or lack of oxygen.

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  • If the patient is dehydrated, intravenous fluids will be administered.

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  • Rest, a healthy diet, plenty of fluids, limiting heavy exercise and competitive sports, and treatment of aches with acetaminophen (Datril, Tylenol, Panadol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Nuprin, Motrin, Medipren) will help the illness pass.

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  • The infection is highly contagious and may lead to severe dehydration (loss of body fluids) and even death.

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  • Oral rehydration therapy (drinking enough fluids to replace those lost through bowel movements and vomiting) is the primary aim of the treatment.

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  • If the diarrhea becomes severe, it may be necessary to hospitalize the patient so that fluids can be administered intravenously.

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  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Immunoglobulin type gamma, the most common type found in the blood and tissue fluids.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • Bland fluids such as apple juice, liquid flavored gelatin, or lukewarm broth are easiest to drink.

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  • In the event of severe disease, the doctor may use intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration.

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  • Fluids such as water, breast milk or formula (if applicable), electrolyte replacement drinks, diluted juice, or clear broths should be encouraged.

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  • Herpes simplex virus is transmitted by infected body fluids (such as saliva) when they contact breaks in another person's skin or mucous membranes.

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  • Fluids are replenished by having the child consume clear liquids.

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  • A child too sick to drink may be hospitalized and given intravenous fluids.

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  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Immunoglobulin type gamma, the most common type found in the blood and tissue fluids.

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  • To help control migraines, the child should eat three balanced meals at regular intervals, take a multi-vitamin supplement to maintain adequate nutrient needs, and drink four to eight glasses of non-caffeinated fluids per day.

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  • Parents should make sure their child drinks enough fluids, eats three well-balanced meals each day, gets plenty of sleep, and balances activities to avoid an over-crowded schedule that may cause stress and lead to a headache.

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  • Electrolytes are salts (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate) that become ions when mixed with fluids in the body and blood and have the ability to conduct electricity.

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  • Restoration of fluids and electrolytes through intravenous means is the swiftest means to achieve fluid balance.

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  • Athletes who have over-exerted themselves in hot weather may also require rehydration with IV (intravenous) fluids.

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  • An IV for rehydration can be in place for several hours to several days and is generally used if a patient cannot drink fluids.

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  • Patients receiving IV therapy need to be monitored to ensure that the IV solutions are providing the correct amounts of fluids and minerals needed.

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  • Patients need to take fluids by mouth before an IV solution is discontinued.

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  • In most cases, the patient reports a burning or stinging sensation at the site of the needle or IV catheter, especially when new IV fluids are started or the speed of the IV drip is increased.

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  • Once the child can keep fluids down orally and urine output has returned to normal, then intravenous rehydration is discontinued.

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  • Most children don't relapse once they are home if they can continue taking fluids by mouth.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • Many health practitioners advise increasing fluids and breathing in warm, humidified air as ways of loosening chest congestion.

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  • In the hospital, the child will be given replacement fluids through an IV.

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  • This treatment is vital since a patient in shock will die unless those lost fluids are replaced quickly.

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  • Diarrhea is caused by infections or illnesses that either lead to excess production of fluids or prevent absorption of fluids.

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  • Parents should also call the doctor if a child is vomiting so often that he or she cannot keep fluids down, has a high fever, complains of severe abdominal pain, or shows no improvement in symptoms after 24 hours.

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  • Oral rehydration solution (ORS) or intravenous fluids are the choices; ORS is preferred if possible.

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  • To prevent dehydration, individuals suffering from diarrhea should take plenty of fluids, especially water.

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  • Replacement of fluids and electrolytes is important for people experiencing diarrhea.

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  • Parents should be sure that their children who experience diarrhea drink plenty of fluids and replace electrolytes with an oral rehydration solution.

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  • Children who require hospitalization receive fluids intravenously and supplemental oxygen through a mask or nasal cannulae (small tubes into the openings of the nostrils).

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  • Men leak fluids from their penises before and after ejaculation that can cause pregnancy and carry STDs.

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  • If there is any doubt as to the diagnosis, then a specimen of body fluids (mucus, urine) can be collected and combined with fluorescent-tagged measles virus antibodies.

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  • These tests allow direct detection of streptococcal antigens in body fluids such as urine or blood serum or from a throat swab.

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  • The individual does not need to avoid food or fluids before the test.

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  • Insulin is made by the pancreas and facilitates the movement of glucose from the blood and extracellular fluids into the cells.

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  • The mineral content of the body may be measured by testing samples of body fluids, most commonly blood plasma, red blood cells from whole blood, and urine.

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  • The affected person may also require treatment such as intravenous fluids for complications of poisoning such as shock, anemia, and kidney failure.

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  • Bed rest, fluids, and acetaminophen for pain and temperatures over 102°F (38.9°C) are usually all that is necessary.

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  • Fluids, nutrients, and drugs can be injected.

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  • For example, children are taught to use the bathroom before bedtime and to avoid drinking fluids after dinner.

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  • The lymphatic system also participates in the transport of fluids, fats, proteins, and other substances throughout the body.

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  • Following vigorous activities that involve sweating, lost fluids should be replaced by drinking water.

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  • Dehydration can be a problem, so children should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids.

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  • They also are given intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration.

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  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Immunoglobulin type gamma, the most common type found in the blood and tissue fluids.

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  • The affected child should be encouraged to drink fluids such as water, breast milk or formula (if applicable), electrolyte replacement drinks, or clear broths.

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  • Fluids and food are not taken by mouth until the mother's digestive function returns.

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  • Also, some vaccines, including those for influenza, measles, and mumps, are grown in the laboratory in fluids of chick embryos, and should not be given to children who are allergic to eggs.

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  • Severe dehydration requires medical treatment with intravenous (IV) fluids and may require hospitalization.

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  • Intravenous (IV) therapy-Administration of fluids or medications through a vein, usually in the hand or arm.

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  • Preventing dehydration by maintaining fluids in the body may help reduce the risk of renal vein thrombosis.

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  • It is important to try to encourage the child to take in adequate amounts of fluids, in the form of ice chips or Popsicles if other foods or liquids are too uncomfortable.

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  • Calculi (pl.) can cause problems by lodging in and obstructing the proper flow of fluids, such as bile to the intestines or urine to the bladder.

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  • As the distention increases, fluids continue to increase, and the intestine absorbs less.

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  • Intravenous fluids may be given to maintain fluid levels and urine output or to correct dehydration that already has occurred.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • Heat cramps are more likely to occur when the child has not taken in enough fluids before, during, and after the activity.

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  • Loss of fluids, salts, and minerals-especially sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium-can disrupt ion balances in both muscle and nerves.

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  • If the child has any signs of dehydration, generous amounts of fluids and an oral rehydrating solution containing glucose and electrolytes should be given.

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  • They are essential for replacing fluids, minerals, and salts.

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  • Prolonged, severe dehydration requires medical treatment with intravenous (IV) fluids and may require hospitalization.

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  • Fluids should be encouraged during all strenuous activities, especially in warm weather.

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  • Make sure the child drinks enough fluids before, during, and after sports and other activities.

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  • After the activity, encourage the child to continue drinking water to replace lost fluids.

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  • Fluids, nutrients, and drugs can be injected.

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  • Hepatitis B is a form of viral hepatitis that is also known as serum hepatitis, due to its ability to be spread through body fluids and blood.

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  • The best treatment is to ensure that the child drinks a lot of fluids and eats well.

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  • Parents can help children with their baths; encourage them to drink enough fluids; and prompt them to do deep breathing and muscle strengthening exercises.

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  • Blood tests may be required regularly to track levels of fluids and salts in the blood.

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  • Adequate nutrition and fluids improve the chances for a full recovery from encephalitis.

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  • It is important for the child to continue drinking fluids throughout the day to avoid dehydration from diarrhea or vomiting.

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  • Catheter-A thin, hollow tube inserted into the body at specific points in order to inject or withdraw fluids from the body.

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  • Breast milk or formula provides all the fluids a healthy baby needs.

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  • A powerful diuretic and fluids to restore normal sodium concentrations are administered rapidly at first.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • This supportive care includes bed rest, drinking extra fluids, gargling with warm salt water, and taking pain relievers.

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  • There are problems with the child holding food or fluids in the affected side of the mouth, resulting in drooling or difficulty swallowing.

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  • The realization of looking different-not being able to smile, close an eye or even hold fluids in the mouth properly is highly upsetting to parents, and embarrassing and frustrating for the child.

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  • Shock can occur when the released histamine causes the blood vessels to dilate, which lowers blood pressure; histamine also causes fluids to leak from the bloodstream into the tissues, lowering the blood volume.

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  • Pulmonary edema can result from fluids leaking into the alveoli (air sacs) of the lung.

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  • Other treatments may be given by medical personnel, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, breathing medications, and possibly more epinephrine.

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  • Intravenous fluids will be infused to prevent dehydration and to correct electrolyte imbalances that may have already occurred.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • Corticosteroids such as prednisone and intravenous (IV) fluids may be temporarily given while the child begins a GFD.

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  • Staph bacteria can spread through the air, but infection is almost always the result of direct contact with open sores or body fluids contaminated by these organisms.

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  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Immunoglobulin type gamma, the most common type found in the blood and tissue fluids.

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  • Intravenous fluids are given for several weeks while the bowel heals.

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  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Immunoglobulin type gamma, the most common type found in the blood and tissue fluids.

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  • Home care includes drinking plenty of fluids, resting, not smoking, increasing moisture in the air with a cool mist humidifier, and taking acetaminophen (Datril, Tylenol, Panadol) for fever and pain.

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  • Parents should encourage fluids by frequent offers of small amounts of the child's favorite liquids.

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  • The child is also be given fluids and possibly drug therapy to thin mucus secretions (mucolytic agents) or medication to open the airways of the lung (brochodilators).

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  • Hospitalized children may receive extra oxygen, respiratory therapy, and intravenous antibiotics and fluids.

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  • Aspiration-The process of removing fluids or gases from the body by suction.

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  • Cilia produce lashing or whipping movements to direct or cause motion of substances or fluids within the body.

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  • Consolidation-A condition in which lung tissue becomes firm and solid rather than elastic and air-filled, arising because of accumulated fluids and tissue debris.

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  • Kidney involvement requires monitoring and correction of blood fluids and electrolytes.

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  • Measures include taking the infant off mouth feedings and feeding him or her intravenously, administering antibiotics, and removing air and fluids from the digestive tract via a nasal tube.

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  • They may require fluids and nutrients to be administered through an intravenous line, in which a small needle is inserted into a vein in the hand, foot, arm, leg, or scalp.

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  • If a premature infant is unable to nurse at the breast or drink from a bottle, fluids and nutrients may be administered intravenously or with a tube in the nose or mouth that empties into the stomach (called gavage feeding).

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  • Surfactant-A protective film secreted by the alveoli in the lungs that reduces the surface tension of lung fluids, allowing gas exchange and helping maintain the elasticity of lung tissue.

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  • Dehydration can result from loss of fluids through persistent vomiting and diarrhea; it is one of the most frequent and serious complications of food poisoning.

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  • When more fluids are being lost than are replaced, dehydration may occur in the very young and in the elderly, as well as in individuals who take diuretics.

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  • Treatment of food poisoning, except for botulism, focuses on preventing or correcting dehydration by replacing critical fluids and electrolytes lost through vomiting and diarrhea.

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  • Electrolytes are mineral salts that form electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids; they help control body fluid balance and participate in many essential body functions.

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  • Pharmacists can recommend effective, pleasant-tasting, electrolyte replacement fluids that are available without a prescription.

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  • To prevent dehydration, a doctor may decide to give fluids intravenously.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • Make sure that the child drinks plenty of fluids but avoids acidic juices like orange juice because they irritate the throat.

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