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fluid

fluid

fluid Sentence Examples

  • He spat a stream of brown fluid at the ground and grinned at her.

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  • He stood in one fluid movement.

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  • They were so synchronized and fluid that Carmen asked Alex if they danced often.

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  • Mercury is a fluid, volatile, spiritual essence.

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  • I'm sure there's some lighter fluid around here but your grill is gas so you don't need it.

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  • Ambiotic fluid gushed out.

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  • His face was flushed, but his walk was as fluid as always.

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  • In some cases it shows, when submitted to a careful examination under the highest powers of the microscope, and especially when treated with reagents of various kinds, traces of a more or less definite structure in the form of a meshwork consisting of a clear homogeneous substance containing numerous minute bodies known as microsomes, the spaces being filled by a more fluid ground-substance.

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  • His necklace bounced against her chest as she struck and blocked with fluid, catlike movements.

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  • He was sparring with another warrior, his fluid, destructive movements far from the gentle ones he used with her.

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  • In one fluid motion, he mounted Ed.

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  • His movements were restrained and fluid, effortless like those of a great cat.

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  • fluid, the contractions alluded to send PS, Proboscidian sheath.

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  • In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.

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  • In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.

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  • In fluid movements, he shook out a noose, swung it a few times to get momentum and then threw it at the limb.

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  • Untying the reins, he threw the rope over the saddle horn and mounted in one fluid movement.

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  • Untying the reins, he threw the rope over the saddle horn and mounted in one fluid movement.

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  • This pressure leads to the filling of the vessels of the wood of both root and stem in the early part of the year, before the leaves have expanded, and gives rise to the exudation of fluid known as bleeding when young stems are cut in early spring.

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  • She landed on a topless bottle of oil and spit the fluid out as it sprayed across her face.

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  • She watched him move, his swordplay as graceful and fluid as it was lethal.

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  • In 1796, he extracted fluid from the pox on the hand of a dairymaid named Sarah Nelmes—who had caught the condition from her cow Blossom—and injected the fluid into a cut in eight-year-old James Phipps's arm.

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  • Being shaped somewhat like a large drop of fluid, the form has suggested the name.

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  • The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.

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  • One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.

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  • Several forms of cells float freely in the fluid of the coelom.

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  • The blood fluid does not flow in any definite direction; its movements are largely influenced by those of the muscular body-wall.

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  • A number of glands on the interior of the pitcher secrete a plentiful fluid which has digestive properties.

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  • Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.

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  • The innermost, the coprodaeum, is an oval dilatation of the end of the rectum, and attains its greatest size in those birds whose faeces are very fluid; it serves entirely as the temporary receptacle of the faeces and the urine.

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  • 9, G) is conspicuous on either side of the first of this membrane delicate sac containing fluid, connected with which are the actual nerve-endings.

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  • They seem to act as reservoirs into which the fluid of the tense, extended proboscis can withdraw when it is retracted, and from which the fluid can be driven out when it is wished to expand the proboscis.

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  • They seem to act as reservoirs into which the fluid of the tense, extended proboscis can withdraw when it is retracted, and from which the fluid can be driven out when it is wished to expand the proboscis.

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  • He shrugged, a slow fluid moment that was somehow sexy.

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  • From the shape and position of the phagocytic organs it is obvious that they form admirable strainers through which the fluid of the body-cavity filters (figs.

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  • Below the anther the surface of the column in front is hollowed out into a greenish depression covered with viscid fluid - this is the two united stigmas.

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  • It contains a colourless fluid, with flat, oval, nucleated corpuscles, as a rule colourless, but in some cases tinged with yellow or red haemoglobin.

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  • 32) defend themselves by ejecting drops of fluid from the knee-joints.

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  • For this purpose it is very largely used either as a suppository or in the fluid form (one or two drachms).

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  • 7); there o js yas 'IopShvns denotes the spirituallzing sanctifying fluid which pervades the world of light.

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  • this fluid to impinge against the anterior Pr, Proboscis.

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  • Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.

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  • Whether in the Metanemertines, where the blood fluid is often provided with haemoglobiniferous disks, the chief functions of the side organs may not rather be a sensory one needs further investigation.

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  • Almost without exception potash soaps, even if made from the solid fatty acids, are " soft," and soda soaps, although made with fluid olein, are " hard "; but there are considerable variations according to the prevailing fatty acid in the compound.

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  • The blood fluid does not flow in any definite direction; its movements are largely influenced by those of the muscular body-wall.

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  • They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.

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  • It contains a colourless fluid, with flat, oval, nucleated corpuscles, as a rule colourless, but in some cases tinged with yellow or red haemoglobin.

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  • In Plotus, the snakebird, the pyloric chamber of the stomach is beset with a mass of hair-like stiff filaments which permit nothing but fluid to pass into the duodenum.

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  • There is reason to suppose that, when a wound is inflicted by the central stylet, it is envenomed by the fluid secreted in the posterior proboscidian region being at the same time expelled.

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  • In this he showed that a homogeneous fluid mass revolving uniformly round an axis under the action of gravity ought to assume the form of an ellipsoid of revolution.

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  • I felt panic when I noticed our kerosene lamp, our only light, was but half full of fluid.

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  • Alex was an excellent dancer – strong, sure and fluid.

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  • There is no possibility that sperm and ova can escape by these tubes not in company with coelomic fluid.

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  • egg-capsules are formed they are often of large size, have tough walls, and in each capsule are several eggs floating in a viscid fluid.

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  • Vezhdovsky has lately seen reasons for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through pressure, which become lined with these cells.

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  • With excess of glycerin a fluid soap is formed, soap being soluble in that body, and such fluid soap has only feeble lathering properties.

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  • For use, the mixture is warmed to render it fluid, and applied by means of a camel's hair brush to the under side of the specimen, which is then laid neatly on paper.

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  • Thus rational mechanics, based on the Newtonian Laws, viewed as mathematics is independent of its supposed application, and hydrodynamics remains a coherent and respected science though it is extremely improbable that any perfect fluid exists in the physical world.

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  • Laticiferous Tissue.The laticiferous tissue consists of a network of branching or anastomosing tubes which contain a coagulable fluid known as latex.

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  • From this point there passes forward to the right side of the head a groove - the spermatic groove - down which the spermatic fluid passes.

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  • From these masses of ova dehisce into the body cavity and float in its fluid.

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  • These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."

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  • A remarkable change occurs when many albumins are boiled with water, or treated with certain acids, their solubility and general characters being entirely altered, and the fluid becoming coagulated.

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  • Egg-albumin is the chief constituent of the white of egg; this fluid also contains a globulin and a mucoid.

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  • When an electric current flows round a circuit, there is no accumulation of electricity anywhere in the circuit, hence the current strength is everywhere the same, and we may picture the current as analogous to the flow of an incompressible fluid.

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  • The latex is usually obtained from the bark or stem by making an incision reaching almost to the wood when the milky fluid flows more or less readily from the laticiferous vessels.

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  • It is, like milk, an emulsion, and when examined with the microscope is seen to consist of numerous globules suspended in a watery fluid.

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  • The watery fluid in which the globules are suspended holds certain proteids, carbohydrates and a small proportion of salts in solution.

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  • The coagulated rubber separated from the watery fluid is cut up into small pieces and passed through the grooved rollers of the washing machine, from which it issues in sheets, long crinkled ribbons or " crepe," which are then dried in hot air chambers or in a vacuum dryer, by which means the water is dissipated at a lower temperature.

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  • These often have the form of prisms of calcite surrounded by a cuti cular meshwork; the whole is nourished and kept alive by processes, which in Crania are branched; these perforate the shell and permit the access of the coelomic fluid throughout its substance.

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  • They contain the same fluid as the general coelom.

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  • The blood is a coagulable fluid.

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  • Another process depends upon the formation of lead chloride by grinding together litharge with salt and water, and then treating the alkaline fluid with carbon dioxide until it is neutral.

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  • Magnetic induction, like other fluxes such as electrical, thermal or fluid currents, is defined with reference to an area; it satisfies the same conditions of continuity as the electric current does, and in isotropic media it depends on the magnetic force just as the electric current depends on the electromotive force.

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  • Nagaoka and Honda, who employed a fluid dilatometer, found that the volume of several specimens of iron, steel and nickel was always slightly increased, no diminution being indicated in low fields; cobalt, on the other hand, was diminished in volume, and the amount of the change, though still very small, was greater than that shown by the other metals.

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  • As the temperature was raised up to 273°, gradually fell to-9.38 X 10 -6, rising suddenly when fusion occurred to - o 37X 10 -6, at which value it remained constant when the fluid metal was further heated.

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  • It is very probable that in Scorpio they do not serve merely to secrete a digestive fluid (shown in other Arthropoda to resemble the pancreatic fluid), but that they also become distended by the juices of the prey sucked in by the scorpion - as certainly must occur in the case of the simple unbranched gastric caeca of the spiders.

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  • The vomiting may take place every two or three days, enormous quantities of undigested food mixed with frothy, yeast-like mucous being thrown up. And whilst the stomach is slowly filling up again after one of these uncontrollable emptyings, sudden and violent movements of the individual may cause the fluid to give rise to audible "splashings."

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  • The vessels are only temporary channels by which is brought forward the food supply that is needed by the advancing army if it is suc-, cessfully to carry on its function; they probably also drain off the deleterious fluid substances formed by the cellular disintegration that has taken place in the part.

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  • The vitality of these cells being altered there is imbibition and accumulation of watery fluid in their cytoplasm, causing swelling and vacuolation of the cells.

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  • The free fatty acid radicle then unites with an alkali, and becomes transformed into a soluble soap which is then readily absorbed in this fluid condition by the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane.

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  • In extraneous pigmentation we have coloured substances either in a solid or fluid state, gaining entrance into the organism and accumulating in certain tissues.

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  • Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.

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  • Will (Ber., 1908, 7, p. 407), who obtained two isomeric dinitroglycerins, one of which is eminently crystallizable and the other fluid.

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  • It accumulates in the brain, and there generates the" nervous fluid "or pneuma - a theory closely resembling that of Mead on the" nervous liquor,"unless indeed Mead borrowed it from Hoffmann.

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  • " glare," " glow "), a hard substance, usually transparent or translucent, which from a fluid condition at a high temperature has passed to a solid condition with sufficient rapidity to prevent the formation of visible crystals.

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  • In the next stage of the process, the glass is raised to a high temperature in order to render it sufficiently fluid to allow of the complete elimination of these bubbles; the actual temperature required varies with the chemical composition of the glass, a bright red heat sufficing for the most fusible glasses, while with others the utmost capacity of the best furnaces is required to attain the necessary temperature.

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  • The stirring process is begun when the glass is perfectly fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally the stirring cylinder can scarcely be moved.

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  • Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than.

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  • Archimedes maintained that each particle of a fluid mass, when in equilibrium, is equally pressed in every direction; and he inquired into the conditions according to which a solid body floating in a fluid should assume and preserve a position of equilibrium.

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  • Taking advantage of these results, Henri Pitot (1695-1771) afterwards showed that the retardations arising from friction are inversely as the diameters of the pipes in which the fluid moves.

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  • He considered the horizontal strata of this hyperboloid as always in motion, while the remainder of the water was in a state of rest, and imagined that there was a kind of cataract in the middle of the fluid.

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  • He had discovered a contraction in the vein of fluid (vena contracta) which issued from the orifice, and found that, at the distance of about a diameter of the aperture, the section of the vein was contracted in the subduplicate ratio of two to one.

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  • He supposed that the surface of the fluid, contained in a vessel which is emptying itself by an orifice, remains always horizontal; and, if the fluid mass is conceived to be divided into an infinite number of horizontal strata of the same bulk, that these strata remain contiguous to each other, and that all their points descend vertically, with velocities inversely proportional to their breadth, or to the horizontal sections of the reservoir.

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  • He considered, at every instant, the actual motion of a stratum as composed of a motion which it had in the preceding instant and of a motion which it had lost; and the laws of equilibrium between the motions lost furnished him with equations representing the motion of the fluid.

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  • It remained a desideratum to express by equations the motion of a particle of the fluid in any assigned direction.

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  • These equations were found by d'Alembert from two principles - that a rectangular canal, taken in a mass of fluid in equilibrium, is itself in equilibrium, and that a portion of the fluid, in passing from one place to another, preserves the same volume when the fluid is incompressible, or dilates itself according to a given law when the fluid is elastic. His ingenious method, published in 1752, in his Essai sur la resistance des fluides, was brought to perfection in his Opuscules mathematiques, and was adopted by Leonhard Euler.

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  • Dubuat considered that if water were a perfect fluid, and the channels in which it flowed infinitely smooth, its motion would be continually accelerated, like that of bodies descending in an inclined plane.

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  • His object was to measure the contracted part of a fluid vein, to examine the phenomena attendant on additional tubes, and to investigate the form of the fluid vein and the results obtained when different forms of orifices are employed.

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  • (X.) Hydrostatics Hydrostatics is a science which grew originally out of a number of isolated practical problems; but it satisfies the requirement of perfect accuracy in its application to phenomena, the largest and smallest, of the behaviour of a fluid.

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  • All substance in nature falls into one of the two classes, solid and fluid; a solid substance, the land, for instance, as contrasted with a fluid, like water, being a substance which does not flow of itself.

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  • A fluid, as the name implies, is a substance which flows, or is capable of flowing; water and air are the two fluids distributed most universally over the surface of the earth.

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  • A liquid is a fluid which is incompressible or practically so, i.e.

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  • A gas is a compressible fluid, and the change in volume is considerable with moderate variation of pressure.

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  • Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.

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  • But when the smallest stress, if only continued long enough, will cause a perceptible and increasing change of form, the substance must be regarded as a viscous fluid, however hard it may be."

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  • Maxwell illustrates the difference between a soft solid and a hard liquid by a jelly and a block of pitch; also by the experiment of supporting a candle and a stick of sealingwax; after a considerable time the sealing-wax will be found bent and so is a fluid, but the candle remains straight as a solid.

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  • A fluid is a substance which yields continually to the slightest tangential stress in its interior; that is, it can be divided very easily along any plane (given plenty of time if the fluid is viscous).

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  • It follows that when the fluid has come to rest, the tangential stress in any plane in its interior must vanish, and the stress must be entirely normal to the plane.

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  • This mechanical axiom of the normality of fluid pressure is the foundation of the mathematical theory of hydrostatics.

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  • The pressure at any point cf a plane in the interior of a fluid is the intensity of the normal thrust estimated per unit area of the plane.

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  • This fundamental principle of hydrostatics follows at once from the principle of the normality of fluid pressure implied in the definition of a fluid in § 4.

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  • Take any two arbitrary directions in the plane of the paper, and draw a small isosceles triangle abc, whose sides are perpendicular to the two directions, and consider the equilibrium of a small triangular prism of fluid, of which the triangle is the cross section.

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  • It follows that the pressure of a fluid requires to be calculated in one direction only, chosen as the simplest direction for convenience.

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  • Any additional pressure applied to the fluid will be y transmitted equally to every point in the case of a liquid; this principle of the transmissibility of 1 1 pressure was enunciated by Pascal, 1653, and FIG.

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  • - In a fluid at rest under gravity the pressure is the same at any two points in the same horizontal plane; in other words, a surface of equal pressure is a horizontal plane.

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  • As gravity and the fluid pressure on the sides of the prism act at right angles to AB, the equilibrium requires the equality of thrust on the ends A and B; and as the areas are equal, the pressure must be equal at A and B; and so the pressure is the same at all points in the same horizontal plane.

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  • If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.

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  • (I) The principle is illustrated in the article Barometer, where a column of mercury of density a and height h, rising in the tube to the To:ricellian vacuum, is balanced by a column of air of density p, which may be supposed to rise as a homogeneous fluid to a height k, called the height of the homogeneous atmosphere.

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  • - A body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced, acting vertically upward through the centre of gravity of the displaced liquid.

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  • For if the body is removed, and replaced by the fluid as at first, this fluid is in equilibrium under its own weight and the thrust of the surrounding fluid, which must be equal and opposite, and the surrounding fluid acts in the same manner when the body replaces the displaced fluid again; so that the resultant thrust of the fluid acts vertically upward through the centre of gravity of the fluid displaced, and is equal to the weight.

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  • The resultant vertical thrust on any portion of a curved surface exposed to the pressure of a fluid at rest under gravity is the weight of fluid cut out by vertical lines drawn round the boundary of the curved surface.

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  • Analytical Equations of Equilibrium of a Fluid at rest under any System of Force.

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  • The resultant force is therefore in the direction of the steepest pressure-gradient, and this is normal to the surface of equal pressure; for equilibrium to exist in a fluid the lines of force must therefore be capable of being cut orthogonally by a system of surfaces, which will be surfaces of equal pressure.

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  • Ignoring temperature effect, and taking the density as a function of the pressure, surfaces of equal pressure are also of equal density, and the fluid is stratified by surfaces orthogonal to the lines of force; n ap, dy, P d z, or X, Y, Z (4) are the partial differential coefficients of some function P, =fdplp, of x, y, z; so that X, Y, Z must be the partial differential coefficients of a potential -V, such that the force in any direction is the downward gradient of V; and then dP dV (5) ax + Tr=0, or P+V =constant, in which P may be called the hydrostatic head and V the head of potential.

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  • - A plane area exposed to fluid pressure on one Side experiences a single resultant thrust, the integrated pressure over the area, acting through a definite point called the centre of pressure (C.P.) of the area.

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  • of the displaced fluid; for equilibrium these two forces must be equal and opposite in the same line.

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  • of the fluid, equal to the weight vertically upward through the movement of a weight P through a distance c will cause the ship to heel through an angle 0 about an axis FF' through F, which is conjugate to the direction of the movement of P with respect to an ellipse, not the momental ellipse of the water-line area A, but a confocal to it, of squared semi-axes a 2 -hV/A, b 2 - hV/A, (I) h denoting the vertical height BG between C.G.

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  • In considering the motion of a fluid we shall suppose it non-viscous, so that whatever the state of motion the stress across any section is normal, and the principle of the normality and thence of the equality of fluid pressure can be employed, as in hydrostatics.

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  • The practical problems of fluid motion, which are amenable to mathematical analysis when viscosity is taken into account, are excluded from treatment here, as constituting a separate branch called "hydraulics" (q.v.).

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  • In the Eulerian method the attention is fixed on a particular point of space, and the change is observed there of pressure, density and velocity, which takes place during the motion; but in the Lagrangian method we follow up a particle of fluid and observe how it changes.

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  • The first equation to be established is the equation of continuity, which expresses the fact that the increase of matter within a fixed surface is due to the flow of fluid across the surface into its interior.

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  • I n a straight uniform current of fluid of density p, flowing with velocity q, the flow in units of mass per second across a plane area A, placed in the current with the normal of the plane making an angle 0 with the velocity, is oAq cos 0, the product of the density p, the area A, and q cos 0 the component velocity normal to the plane.

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  • Generally if S denotes any closed surface, fixed in the fluid, M the mass of the fluid inside it at any time t, and 0 the angle which the outward-drawn normal makes with the velocity q at that point, dM/dt = rate of increase of fluid inside the surface, (I) =flux across the surface into the interior _ - f f pq cos OdS, the integral equation of continuity.

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  • The equations of motion can be established in a similar way by considering the rate of increase of momentum in a fixed direction of the fluid inside the surface, and equating it to the momentum generated by the force acting throughout the space 5, and by the pressure acting over the surface S.

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  • Taking the fixed direction parallel to the axis of x, the time-rate of increase of momentum, due to the fluid which crosses the surface, is - f'fpuq cos OdS = - f f (lpu 2 -+mpuv+npuw)dS, (1) which by Green's transformation is (d(uiu 2) dy dz dxdydz.

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  • The time rate of increase of momentum of the fluid inside S is )dxdydz; (5) and (5) is the sum of (I), (2), (3), (4), so that /if (dpu+dpu2+dpuv +dpuw_ +d p j d xdyd z = o, (b)` dt dx dy dz dx / leading to the differential equation of motion dpu dpu 2 dpuv dpuv _ X_ (7) dt + dx + dy + dz with two similar equations.

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  • As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.

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  • (5) (8) (I) The components of acceleration of a particle of fluid are consequently Du dudu du du dt = dt +u dx +v dy + wdz' Dr dv dv dv dv dt -dt+udx+vdy+wdz' dt v = dtJ+udx+vdy +w dx' leading to the equations of motion above.

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  • If F (x, y, z, t) =o represents the equation of a always the same particles of fluid, DF =o, or dF {-u dx-rzd { w d d = o, Trt y _ which is called the differential equation of the bounding surface.

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  • A bounding surface is such that there is no flow of fluid across it, as expressed by equation (6).

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  • The surface always contains the same fluid inside it, and condition (6) is satisfied over the complete surface, as well as any part of it.

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  • But turbulence in the motion will vitiate the principle that a bounding surface will always consist of the same fluid particles, as we see on the surface of turbulent water.

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  • A small sphere of the fluid, if frozen suddenly, would retain this angular velocity.

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  • If w vanishes throughout the fluid at any instant, equation (I I) shows that it will always be zero, and the fluid motion is then called irrotational; and a function 4) exists, called the velocity function, such that udx+vdy-{-wdz =-d, (13) and then the velocity in any direction is the space-decrease or downward gradient of cp.

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  • and as we prove subsequently (§ 37) that the vortex lines are composed of the same fluid particles throughout the motion, the surface m and satisfies the condition of (6) § 23; so that K is uniform throughout the fluid at any instant, and changes with the time only, and so may be replaced by F(t).

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  • d - K dK dK _ dK dK dK ?dx n dyd °, udx dz - ° and K=fdp/o+V+2q 2 =H (3) is constant along a vortex line, and a stream line, the path of a fluid particle, so that the fluid is traversed by a series of H surfaces, each covered by a network of stream lines and vortex lines; and if the motion is irrotational H is a constant throughout the fluid.

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  • If through every point of a small closed curve the vortex lines are drawn, a tube is obtained, and the fluid contained is called a vortex filament.

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  • By analogy with the spin of a rigid body, the component spin of the fluid in any plane at a point is defined as the circulation round a small area in the plane enclosing the point, divided by twice the area.

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  • ,In a fluid, the circulation round an elementary area dxdy is equal to dv du udx + (v+dx) dy- (u+dy) dx-vdy= () dxdy, so that the component spin is dv du (5) 2 dx - dy) in the previous notation of § 24; so also for the other two components and n.

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  • Hence in any infinitesimal part of the fluid the circulation is zero round every small plane curve passing through the vortex line; and consequently the circulation round any curve drawn on the surface of a vortex filament is zero.

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  • = -dQ+1dg2, and integrating round a closed curve (udx+vdy+wdz) =0, and the circulation in any circuit composed of the same fluid particles is constant; and if the motion is differential irrotational and due to a velocity function, the circulation is zero round all reconcilable paths.

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  • Interpreted dynamically the normal pressure of the surrounding fluid on a tube cannot create any circulation in the tube.

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  • The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.

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  • The components of velocity of the moving origin are denoted by U, V, W, and the components of angular velocity of the frame of reference by P, Q, R; and then if u, v, w denote the components of fluid velocity in space, and u', v', w' the components relative to the axes at a point (x, y, z) fixed to the frame of reference, we have u =U +u' - yR +zQ, v =V +v -zP +xR, w=W +w -xQ +yP.

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  • But the presence of the medium makes the effective inertia depend on the direction of motion with respect to the external shape of the body, and on W' the weight of fluid medium displaced.

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  • In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.

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  • branous sheath filled with fluid.

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  • The cyst is filled with a toxic fluid and may bud off new or daughter scolices.

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  • Thus Echinococci contains a leucomaine which sets up an urticaria; Cysticercus tenuicollis occasions anaemia and death if injecte-1 into rabbits; and the cystic fluid of the common Coenurus serialis is said to be used by Kirghizes to poison wolves.

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  • Jalap is a typical hydragogue purgative, causing the excretion of more fluid than scammony, but producing less stimulation of the muscular wall of the bowel.

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  • The eggs, which are 16 in number, are deposited in a leathery capsule fixed by a gum-like substance to the abdomen of the female, and thus carried about till the young are ready to escape, when the capsule becomes softened by the emission of a fluid substance.

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  • His observations led him to the view that a glacier is an imperfect fluid or a viscous body which is urged down slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual pressure of its parts, and involved him in some controversy with Tyndall and others both as to priority and to scientific principle.

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  • He noticed that when ice melts it takes up a quantity of heat without undergoing any change of temperature, and he argued that this heat, which as was usual in his time he looked upon as a subtle fluid, must have combined with the particles of ice and thus become latent in its substance.

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  • Thus in the Phylactolaemata the contraction of the muscular body-wall exerts a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity and is the cause of the protrusion of the polypide.

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  • The parietal muscles (p.m.), which pass from the vertical walls to the frontal wall, thus act by depressing the latter and so exerting a pressure on the fluid of the bodycavity.

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  • It is joined to the rigid body-wall by numerous muscle-fibres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide.

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  • The exchange of fluid in the sac may well have a respiratory significance, in addition to its object of facilitating the movements of the tentacles.

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  • Rydo = fluid.

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  • An astringent fluid, known as shibu, rich in tannin, is expressed from the green fruit and used in various industries.

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  • The so-called colubrine venomous snakes, which retain in a great measure an external resemblance to the innocuous snakes, have the maxillary bone not at all, or but little, shortened, armed in front with a fixed, erect fang, which is provided with a deep groove or canal for the conveyance of the poison, the fluid being secreted by a special poison-gland.

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  • The poison is a clear, pale-yellow fluid which reacts acid, and contains about 30% of solids, but this varies according to the state of concentration.

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  • bleaching powder, is very good, or of a I% solution of permanganate of potash, or Condy's fluid.

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  • During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).

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  • Its high coefficient of thermal expansion, coupled with its low freezing point, renders it a valuable thermometric fluid, especially when the temperatures to be measured are below - 39° C., for which the mercury thermometer cannot be used.

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  • (2) A mixture of loo litres of spirit, 14 litres of the naphtha-pyridine mixture described above, 4 litre of methyl violet solution, and from 2 to 20 litres of benzol; this fluid is limited to combustion in motors and agricultural engines.

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  • Its especial affinity for the nervous system is indicated by the fact that, when all traces of it have disappeared elsewhere, it can still be detected with ease in the cerebro-spinal fluid.

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  • Stokes's theorem becomes an obvious truism if applied to an incompressible fluid.

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  • Let a source of fluid be a point from which an incompressible fluid is emitted in all directions.

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  • If we consider any short length of the stream bounded by two imaginary cross-sections A and B on either side of the plug, unit mass of the fluid in passing A has work, p'v', done on it by the fluid behind and carries its energy, E'+ U', with it into the space AB, where U' is the kinetic energy of flow.

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  • In passing B it does work, p"v", on the fluid in front, and carries its energy, E"+ U", with it out of the space AB.

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  • (15) where d0 is the fall of temperature of the fluid corresponding to a diminution of pressure dp. If there is no fall of temperature in passing the plug, d0 = o, and we have the condition Odv/d0 =v.

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  • The characteristic equation of the fluid must then be of the form v/0=f(p), where f(p) is any arbitrary function of p. If the fluid is a gas also obeying Boyle's law, pv = f (0), then it must be an ideal gas.

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  • An irreversible process which permits a more complete experimental investigation is the steady flow of a fluid in a tube already referred to in section to.

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  • p, Pressure of fluid.

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  • U, Kinetic energy of flow of fluid.

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  • v, Specific volume of fluid, reciprocal of density.

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  • W, External work done by fluid.

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  • With 10% of gold present the amalgam is fluid, and with 12.5% pasty, while with 13% it consists of yellowish-white crystals.

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  • The definiteness and persistence of this creed, which of course is the strength also of Mahommedanism, presents a contrast to the fluid character of the statements in the Vedas, and to the chaos of conflicting opinions of philosophers among the Greeks and Romans.

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  • Hydro- statical principles can be applied to density determinations in four typical ways: (I) depending upon the fact that the heights of liquid columns supported by the same pressure vary inversely as the densities of the liquids; (2) depending upon the fact that a body which sinks in a liquid loses a weight equal to the weight of liquid which it displaces; (3) depending on the fact that a body remains suspended, neither floating nor sinking, in a liquid of exactly the same density; (4) depending on the fact that a floating body is immersed to such an extent that the weight of the fluid displaced equals the weight of the body.

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  • The point of the rostrum is pressed against the surface to be pierced; then the stylets come into play and the fluid food is believed to pass into the mouth by capillary attraction.

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  • " Stink glands," which secrete a nauseous fluid with a defensive function, are present in many Hemiptera.

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  • When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.

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  • In hydrostatics, for instance, we define a fluid by means of one of its known properties, and from this definition we make the system of deductions which constitutes the science of hydrostatics.

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  • In this way the science of hydrostatics may be built upon an experimental basis, without any consideration of the constitution of a fluid as to whether it is molecular or continuous.

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  • Correlated with the mode of life are the two features character istic of all Sporozoa: (a) They absorb only fluid nutriment, osmotically, and so lack any organs for ingesting and digesting solid food; and (b) they reproduce by sporulation, i.e.

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  • Thus in 1864 the spectroscope yielded him evidence that planetary and irregular nebulae consist of luminous gas - a conclusion tending to support the nebular hypothesis of the origin of stars and planets by condensation from glowing masses of fluid material.

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  • The difficulty is perhaps less for volumes than for areas, on account of the close relationship between solid and fluid measure.

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  • are immediately above those in the fixed plate, and let the bellows by which air is forced into the cylinder (air, for simplicity, being supposed to be the fluid employed) be put in action; then the air in its passage will strike the side of each opening in the movable plate in an oblique direction (as shown in fig.

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  • Marat declares that physiology alone can solve the problems of the connexion between soul and body, and proposes the existence of a nervous fluid as the true solution.

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  • Various analogies of this sort are open to us to follow up: for example, the way in which a fluid medium transmits pressure from one immersed solid to another - or from one vortex ring belonging to the fluid to another, which is a much wider and more suggestive case; or the way in which an elastic fluid like the atmosphere transmits sound; or the way in which an elastic solid transmits waves of transverse as well as longitudinal displacement.

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  • On such a view the aether might conceivably be a perfect fluid, its fundamental property of elastic reaction arising (as at one time suggested by Kelvin and G.

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  • With reference to all such further refinements of theory, it is to be borne in mind that the perfect fluid of hydrodynamic analysis is not a merely passive inert plenum; it is also a continuum with the property that no finite internal slip or discontinuity of motion can ever arise in it through any kind of disturbance; and this property must be postulated, as it cannot be explained.

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  • We can obtain a pertinent illustration from the motion of a vortex ring in a fluid; if the circular core of the ring is thin compared with its diameter, and the vorticity is not very great, it is the vortical state of motion that travels across the fluid without transporting the latter bodily with it except to a slight extent very close to the core.

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  • We might thus examine a structure formed of an aggregation of very thin vortex rings, which would move across the fluid without sensibly disturbing it; on the other hand, if formed of stronger vortices, it may transport the portion of the fluid that is within, or adjacent to, its own structure along with it as if it were a solid mass, and therefore also push aside the surrounding fluid as it passes.

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  • If this relation is true along all paths, the velocity of the aether must be of irrotational type, like that of frictionless fluid.

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  • The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants.

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  • Legendre's second memoir was communicated to the Academie in 1784, and relates to the conditions of equilibrium of a mass of rotating fluid in the form of a figure of revolution which does not deviate much from a sphere.

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  • The most striking addition which is here made to previous researches consists in the treatment of a planet supposed entirely fluid; the general equation for the form of a stratum is given for the first time and discussed.

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  • The embryo passes through three stages - (I) still enclosed within the egg and living on its own yolk; (2) free, within the vitelline mass, which is directly swallowed by the mouth; (3) there is no more vitelline mass, but the embryo is possessed of long external gills, which serve for an exchange of nutritive fluid through the maternal uterus, these gills functioning in the same way as the chorionic villi of the mammalian egg.

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  • Large doses of these salts are used to remove fluid in dropsy.

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  • The milk of the cow, which may be taken as typical of all others, and is indeed by far the most important and valuable of all, is, when newly drawn, an opaque white fluid, with a yellowish tinge, soft, bland and sweetish to the taste, and possessed of a faintly animal odour.

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  • To prepare the cadmium amalgam, one part of pure cadmium is dissolved in six parts of pure mercury, and the product while warm and fluid is placed in one limb of the cell and warmed, to ensure perfect contact with the platinum wire.

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  • P. blainvillei of California, have the power of squirting a blood-red fluid from the corner of the eye, still requires renewed investigation.

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  • troy or apothecaries' weight, +0.2 grain is allowed; on 1 pint pot, 4 fluid drachms is permitted; on 1 brass yard, 0.05 inch in excess or 0.02 inch in deficiency in length is allowed for ordinary trade purposes.

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  • Castellani (6) found the organisms (most probably the same species) in the cerebro-spinal fluid of patients suffering from sleeping-sickness in Uganda; and it has since been conclusively proved by Sir David Bruce and D.

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  • A discussion of the equilibrium of Saturn's rings led him to conclude in 1855 that they must be of a fluid nature.

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  • %- fluid.

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  • It is inadvisable to explore for a suspected abscess with a hollow needle without first opening the abdomen, as septic fluid might thus be enabled to leak out, and infect the general peritoneal cavity.

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  • Inside this wall is the special covering of the embryo which shortly becomes distended with clear hydatid fluid.

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  • indicate the course of fluid ab, Posterior, cut remnants of the from the pericardium outintestine and ventricle.

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  • At one point this is continuous with a layer of cells called the stratum granulosum which lines the outer wall of the follicle, but elsewhere the two layers are separated by fluid, the liquor folliculi.

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  • When a body floats in a fluid under the action of gravity, the weight of the body is equal to that of the fluid which it displaces.

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  • Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.

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  • Real larch turpentine is a thick tenacious fluid, of a deep yellow colour, and nearly transparent; it does not harden by time; it contains 15% of the essential oil of turpentine, also resin, succinic, pinic and sylvic acids, and a bitter extractive matter.

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  • As the larva approaches maturity these vessels become gorged with a clear viscous fluid, which, upon being exposed to the air immediately hardens to a solid mass.

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  • The larvae are killed and hardened by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; the silk glands are then separated from the bodies, and the vis cous fluid drawn out to the condition of a fine uniform line, which is stretched between pins at the extremity of a board.

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  • The stronger the solution administered, the greater is the quantity of water that passes into the bowel, a fact to be borne in mind when the salt is administered for the purpose of draining superfluous fluid from the system, as in dropsy.

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  • NAPHTHA, a word originally applied to the more fluid kinds of petroleum, issuing from the ground in the Baku district of Russia and in Persia.

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  • These break off and, lying in the coelomic fluid, break up into spermatozoa.

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  • All agreed that ice flowed as if it were a viscous fluid; and of this apparent viscosity James Thomson offered an independent explanation by the application of pure thermodynamical theory, which Tyndall considered inefficient to account for the facts he observed.

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  • of strychnine in each fluid drachm.

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  • In the casting of iron, steel and brass, the addition of a trifling proportion (0.005%) removes oxide and renders the molten metal more fluid, causing the finished products to be more homogeneous, free from blow-holes and solid all through.

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  • From Aristotle we learn (I) that Thales found in water the origin of things; (2) that he conceived the earth to float upon a sea of the elemental fluid; (3) that he supposed all things to be full of gods; (4) that in virtue of the attraction exercised by the magnet he attributed to it a soul.

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  • Latex-tubes abound in the tissues of Lactarius, Stereum, Mycena, Fistulina, filled with white or coloured milky fluids, and Istvanffvi has shown that similar tubes with fluid or oily contents are widely spread in other Hymenomycetes.

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  • 7, (2) that it will be fluid enough to run out through the cinder notch, and (3) that it will be rich enough in lime to supply that needed for the desulphurizing reaction FeS+ CaO+C = Fe+CaS+CO.

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  • (5) In that carburizing lowers the melting point of the iron greatly, it lowers somewhat the temperature to which the mineral matter of the ore has to be raised in order that the iron may be separated from it, because this separation requires that both iron and slag shall be very fluid.

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  • But Massenez and Richards, following the plan outlined by Pourcel in 1879, have found that even 3% of silicon is permissible if, by adding iron ore, the resultant silica is made into a fluid slag, and if this is removed in the early cool part of the process, when it attacks the lining of the converter but slightly.

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  • The iron for a statuette must first of all be very fluid, so that it will run into every crevice in its mould, and it must expand in solidifying, so that it shall reproduce accurately every detail of that mould.

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  • The sulphur-content should not exceed 0.12%, and it is better that it should not exceed 0.08% in castings which have to be soft enough to be machined, nor 0.05% in thin castings the metal for which must be very fluid.

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  • Fortunately its embrittling effect on cast iron is very much less than on steel, so that the upper limit or greatest tolerable proportion of phosphorus, instead of being o.10 or better 0.08% as in the case of rail steel, may be put at 0.50% in case of machinery castings even if they are exposed to moderate shocks; at 1.60% for gas and water mains in spite of the gravity of the disasters which extreme brittleness here might cause; and even higher for castings which are not exposed to shock, and are so thin that the iron of which they are made must needs be very fluid.

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  • Before this final change the heart may be started again by the application of a soluble potassium salt, or by raising the fluid pressure within it.

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  • break off from this ridge, and increase in size considerably in the fluid of the body-cavity.

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  • A fluid drachm of friar's balsam may be added to a pint of water at a temperature of about 140° F., and the resultant vapour may be inhaled from the spout of a kettle or from a special inhaler.

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  • A solution of the crude salt is used as a disinfectant under the name of "Condy's fluid."

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  • Both first and second compartments are remarkable for the presence of a number of pouches or cells in their walls, with muscular partitions, and a sphincter-like arrangement of their orifices, by which they can be shut off from the rest of the cavity, and into which the fluid portion only of the contents of the stomach is allowed to enter.

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  • There was a truth in these criticisms. It was the very aim of Hegelianism to render fluid the fixed phases of reality - to show existence not to be an immovable rock limiting the efforts of thought, but to have thought implicit in it, waiting for release from its petrifaction.

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  • Thought in its primary form is, as it were, thoroughly transparent and absolutely fluid, free and mutually interpenetrable in every part - the spirit in its seraphic scientific life, before creation had produced a natural world, and thought had risen to independent existence in the social organism.

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  • "Oil of mace," or nutmeg butter, is a solid fatty substance of a reddish-brown colour, obtained by grinding the refuse nutmegs to a fine powder, enclosing it in bags and steaming it over large cauldrons for five or six hours, and then compressing it while still warm between powerful wedges, the brownish fluid which flows out being afterwards allowed to solidify.

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