The farther ends of the flues of several such kilns are connected with a chimney shaft.
In flue curing, also known as the Virginian cure, fires are set outside the barn; and the heat led in iron pipes or flues, into the building are under the suspended tobacco, which is placed there quite fresh from the field.
In many mints the flues pass into condensing chambers where volatilized gold and silver are recovered.
[M] church has on its east side the "pisalis" or "calefactory" (H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed by flues beneath the floor.
Beyond this we often find the calefactorium or day-room - an apartment warmed by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their sandals and get themselves ready for the work of the day.
Plant houses were formerly heated in a variety of ways - by fermenting organic matter, such as dung, by smoke flues, by steam and by hot water circulating in iron pipes.
It involves the keeping clean of flues, ashpits and especially the fires themselves.
Another plan in the greenhouse is to dash water on the pipes or flues, which causes steam to rise to the glass and freeze there, stopping up all the crevices.
Traces of thallium, which are present in some pyrites, may be detected in the flues of the furnaces where the metal is roasted.
II) differs from the Whitwell (I) in having not a series of flat smooth walls, but a great number of narrow vertical flues, E, for the alternate absorption and emission of the heat, with the consequence that, for given outside dimensions, it offers about one-half more heating surface than the true Whitwell stove; and (2) in that the gas and the blast pass only once up and once down through it, instead of twice up and twice down as in the modern true Whitwell stoves.
- Plan through Regenerators, Flues and Reversing Valves..
This is dug out, and after being dried on floors heated by flues is ready for burning.
In consequence the fire-gases, when arriving there by the chimney shaft (a), have already a good upward draught, and when circulatung round the muffle are at a lower pressure than the gases within the muffle, so that in case of any cracks being formed, no hydrochloric acid escapes into the fire-flues, but vice versa.
A,a, Upright cast-iron cylinders; b,b, brick jacket; c,c, flues; d, e, iron plates arranged like venetian blinds, between which the contact-substance is contained; f, charging hole; g, discharging hole; h, entrance pipe for gas; i, exit pipe for gas.
It is important in all fire-proofing of columns and girders, and in all floor construction, furring and partitions, that there shall be no continuous voids, either vertical or horizontal, which may possibly serve as flues for the spread of heat or flame in case of fire.
The gas-producers constructed by Messrs Siemens Brothers, from 1856 onwards, were provided with a kind of brick chimney; on the top of this there was a horizontal iron tube, continued into an iron down-draught, and only from this the underground flues were started which sent the gas into the single furnaces.
The retort E is charged with ordinary bituminous coal which is submitted to destructive distillation by the heat communicated through the flues n 2 n 2, and is thus converted into coke.
The hot producer-gas formed in V is passed round the retort E in the flues n 2 n2, and ultimately goes away through K to the furnace FIG.
The lateral flues c, c prevent the brickwork from being melted.
The former are used principally as casing, walls, pillars or other supporting parts of the structure, and includes ordinary red or yellow bricks, clay-slate, granite and most building stones; the latter are reserved for the parts immediately in contact with the fuel and flame, such as the lining of the fire-place, the arches, roof and flues, the lower part if not the whole of the chimney lining in reverberatory furnaces, and the whole of the internal walls of blast furnaces.
In an oxidizing atmosphere it is indifferent to silica, and therefore siliceous bricks containing a considerable proportion of ferric oxide, when used in flues of boilers, brewers' coppers, &c. and similar situations, are perfectly fire-resisting so long as the heated gas contains a large proportion of unconsumed air.
Even under the most advantageous application, that of evaporation of water in a steam boiler where the gases of the fire have to travel through a great length of flues bounded by thin iron surfaces of great heat-absorbing capacity, the temperature of the current at the chimney is generally much above that required to maintain an active draught in the fireplace; and other tubes containing water, often in considerable numbers, forming the so-called fuel economizers, may often be interposed between the boiler and the chimney with marked advantage as regards saving of fuel.
In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
Small air-furnaces with hot plates or sand bath flues were formerly much employed in chemical laboratories, as well as small blast furnaces for crucibles heated with charcoal or coke.