Autumn flowering: - Yellow: C. Scharojani.
Rose and other flowering shrubs and trees grow well on the banken veld and in the valleys.
P, Part of spiral hydroid (tracheid) of Phanerogam (Flowering Plant).
All the islands are richly clothed with palm trees and flowering underwood.
1, Apex of flowering shoot.
In the forest region no fewer than 772 flowering species are found, of which 568 dicotyledons occur in the Archangel government (only 436 to the E.
similar phenomenon is seen in two r widely separated genera of flowering plants: Primula Auricula and Gunnera (Halorageae).
Darian glimpsed an orchard with flowering trees and emerald grass as he ducked his head through the portal.
There are numerous varieties, differing in the size of the flower and the period of flowering.
The constitution of the stele of a flowering plant entirely from endarch collateral bundles, which are either themselves leaf-traces or will form leaf-traces after junction with other similar bundles, is the great characteristic of the stem-stele of flowering plants.
The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.
The single example was taken under flowering anemones.
Orchids are very prominent among a great variety of flowering plants.
Palaeontological evidence conclusively proves that the surface of the earth has been successively occupied by vegetative forms of increasing complexity, rising from the simplest algae to the most highly organized flowering plant.
The whole story points to a general distribution of flowering plants from the northern hemisphere southwards.
In the south, in the Julianehaab district, even flowering plants, such as aster, nemophilia and mignonette, are cultivated, and broccoli, spinach, sorrel, chervil, parsley, rhubarb, turnips, lettuce, radishes grow well.
Winter flowering: - C. hyemaeis, laevigatus, vitellinus.
If we take with Drude the number of known families of flowering plants at 240, 92 are generally dispersed, 17 are more restricted, while the remainder are either dominant in or peculiar to separate regions.
CRUCIFERAE, or Crucifer family, a natural order of flowering plants, which derives its name from the cruciform arrangement of the four petals of the flower.
Chastity is the flowering of man; and what are called Genius, Heroism, Holiness, and the like, are but various fruits which succeed it.
By the same path it kis received a remarkable contribution from the North Temperate region; such familiar genera as Ranunculus, Epilobfum and Veronica form more than 9% of the flowering plants.
The juice extracted by tapping the great aloe before flowering was fermented into an intoxicating drink about the strength of beer, octli, by the Spaniards called pulque.
Among indigenous fruit-bearing trees, shrubs and vines the state has the bird cherry, black cherry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, strawberry, grape and black currant; and conspicuous among a very great variety of shrubs and flowering plants are the rose, dogwood, laurel, sumac, holly, winterberry, trilliums, anemones, arbutuses, violets, azaleas, eglantine, clematis, blue gentians, orange lilies, orchids, asters and golden rod.
Flowering plants bear a seed containing an embryo, with usually one or two cotyledons, or seed-leaves; while in flowerless plants there is no seed and therefore no true cotyledon.
The true prairies, when first explored, were covered with a rich growth of natural grass and annual flowering plants.
The island has extensive forests of conifers with an undergrowth of ferns and flowering plants, and bears are numerous.
Each spikelet contains a solitary flower with two outer small barren glumes, above which is a large tough, compressed, often awned, flowering glume, which partly encloses the somewhat similar pale.
in height, form a luxuriant undergrowth in the ohia-lehua and the koa forests, and the islands are noted for the profusion and beautiful colours of their flowering plants.
A flowering plant (Saussurea tridactyla) was discovered by Bower at an elevation of 19,000 ft.
Among some flowering plants, however, the character has become one of specific rank, and among animals we have in the polar bear and the Greenland hare instances where partial albinism - for in them the eyes are black and other parts may be pigmented - has also become a specific character.
In the glades are bunch-grass and a variety of flowering plants; buttercups, daisies, forget-me-nots and other wild flowers may be found near melting snow-banks in August.
These conditions are satisfied in English Miles o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 £30 Peaks Passes Glaciers Land above 1500 feet left white Emery Walker sG As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above ii,000 ft.
Ball, 2010 well-marked species of flowering plants occur within the limits of the Alps.
A higher temperature, especially with deficiency of moisture, will tend to throw a plant into a flowering condition.
This is exemplified by the fact that the temperature of the climate of Great Britain is too low for the flowering, though sufficiently high for the growth of many plants.
The art of retarding the period of flowering in certain plants consists, in principle, in the artificial application of cold temperatures whereby the resting condition induced by low winter temperature is prolonged.
In a vinery, tomatohouse or a peach-house it is often good practice at the time of flowering to tap the branches smartly with a stick so as to ensure the dispersal of the pollen.
Standard fruit trees must be left to take their chance; and, indeed from the lateness of their flowering, they are generally more injured by blight, and by drenching rains, which wash away the pollen of the flowers, than by the direct effects of cold.
In some genera of flowering plants, and notably in Bryophyllum, little plants form on various parts of the leaves.
The Pruning of flowering plants is generally a much lighter matter than the pruning of fruit trees.
This permits the growing plant to be fed with rich fresh soil, without having been necessarily transferred to pots of unwieldy size by the time the flowering stage is reached.
The thorough ripening of the preceding season's wood in fruit trees and flowering plants, and of the crown in perennial herbs like strawberries, and the cessation of all active growth before the time they are to start into a new growth, are of paramount importance.
The great object must be to exhibit to advantage the graceful forms and glorious hues of flowering plants and shrubs.
In favourable situations and seasons some of the very hardiest, as Silene pendula, Saponaria, Nemophila, Gilia, &c., may be sown in September or October, and transplanted to the beds or borders for very early spring flowering.
Lupinus nanus: hardy, I ft., bluish-purple; abundant flowering.
Some of the most beautiful of hardy flowering plants belong to this class.
When the length of the flowering season is considered, it will be obvious that it is impossible to keep up the show of a single border or plot for six months together, since plants, as they are commonly arranged, come dropping into and out of flower one after another; and even where a certain number are in bloom at the same time, they necessarily stand apart, and so the effects of contrast, which can be perceived only among adjacent objects, are lost.
To obviate this defect, it has been recommended that ornamental plants should be formed into four or five separate suites of flowering, to be distributed over the garden.
Before beginning to plant, it would be well to construct tables or lists of the plants, specifying their respective times of flowering, colours and heights.
exaltata, deep blue; all flowering in the summer months.
high, flowering freely in spring if grown in rich light soil, and frequently divided and transplanted.
grandiflorum flore-pleno, 2 to 3 ft., of the richest dazzling blue, flowering on till September; D.
Stout growing showy composites for late summer and autumn flowering, requiring rich deep soil, and not to be often disturbed.
pulchellus, i ft., rich orange, flowering during the summer, are among the best kinds.
The Candytuft, of which several dwarf spreading subshrubby species are amongst the best of rock plants, clothing the surface with tufts of green shoots, and flowering in masses during May and June.
vulgaris, the common British toad-flax, and its regular peloriate form, are very handsome and free flowering during the summer months.
Handsome labiate plants, flowering towards autumn, and preferring a cool soil and partially shaded situation.
dissitiflora, 6 to 8 in., with large, handsome and abundant sky-blue flowers, is the best and earliest, flowering from February onwards; it does well in light cool soils, preferring peaty ones, and should be renewed annually from seeds or cuttings.
Some of the species look more like lichens than flowering plants.
Pottsi, 3 to 4 ft., bright yellow, are the best-known varieties, of which there are man y subsidiary ones, some being very large and free in flowering.
Showy ranunculaceous plants, of free growth, flowering about May and June.
filamentosa, flaccida and angustifolia are distinct and interesting kinds, the first two flowering annually.
* Ribes - Flowering Currant.
Of late years, however, more attention has been bestowed on arrangements of brilliant flowering plants with those of fine foliage, and the massing also of hardy early-blooming plants in parterre fashion has been very greatly extended.
- Foliage and the less common flowering plants may be used either in masses of one kind, or in groups arranged for contrast, or as the centres of groups of less imposing or of dwarfer-flowering subjects; or they may be planted as single specimens in appropriate open spaces, in recesses, or as distant striking objects terminating a vista.
Sow petunias in heat, and prick out and harden for bedding out; also gloxinias to be grown on in heat till the flowering season.
Propagate rare and fine plants by cuttings or grafting; increase bouvardias by cuttings, and grow on for winter flowering.
Plant out in rich soil Richardias, to be potted up in autumn for flowering.
Sow seed of herbaceous calceolarias; shift heaths, if they require it; cut down pelargoniums past flowering, and plant the cuttings.
Layer the tops of chrysanthemums, to obtain dwarf flowering plants.
Flower Garden, &c. - Sow in the beginning of this month all halfhardy annuals required for early flowering; also mignonette in pots, thinning the plants at an early stage; the different species of primula; and the seeds of such plants as, if sown in spring, seldom come up the same season, but if sown in September and October, vegetate readily the succeeding spring.
Plant the greater part of the common border bulbs, as hyacinths, narcissi, crocuses and early tulips, about the end of the month, with a few anemones for early flowering.
Pelargoniums, pinks, monthly roses and all the half-hardy kinds of flowering plants should be planted early, but coleus, heliotrope and the more tender plants should be delayed until the end of the month.
Violets that are wanted for winter flowering will now be growing freely, and the runners should be trimmed off.
Weathers, Flowering Trees and Shrubs (33 col.
Algae and fungi also were present, but there were no flowering plants.
As regards their geographical distribution, fungi, like flowering plants, have no doubt their centres of origin and of dispersal; but we must not forget that every exchange of wood, wheat, fruits, plants, animals, or other commodities involves transmission of fungi from one country to another; while the migrations of birds and other animals, currents of air and water, and so forth, are particularly efficacious in transmitting these minute organisms. Against this, of course, it may be argued that parasitic forms can only go where their hosts grow, as is proved to be the case by records concerning the introduction of Puccinia malvacearum, Peronospora viticola, Hemileia vastatrix, &c. Some fungi - e.g.
After flowering the plant dies down, but increases by new lateral growths from the rootstock.
Water-cress, sweet flag, flowering rush, several potamogetons, water milfoil, water ranunculus, and the reedy sweet watergrass (Glyceria aquatica) rank amongst the criteria of excellence.
Beyond the walls and the deep moat, especially on the northward side towards the port of Gravosa, are many pleasant villas, surrounded by gardens in which the aloe, palm and cypress are conspicuous among a number of flowering trees and shrubs.
Above the tree line the vegetation continues only a comparatively short distance, consisting chiefly of tussocks of coarse grass, and occasional flowering.
ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ayyeEov, receptacle, and o-71pua, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contradistinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits - the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.
Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.
The advent in 1351 of Hofmeister's brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct relationships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.
This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants.
And since this rule has been found to hold good for all the archegoniate series and also for the flowering plants where, however, the gametophyte generation has become so extremely reduced as to be only with difficulty discerned, it is natural that when alternation of generation is stated to occur in any group of Thallophyta it should be required that the cytological evidence should support the view.
While starch occurs commonly as a cell-content in the majority of the Green Algae no trace of it occurs in Vaucheria and some of been distinguished, relatively few have been traced from spore to spore, as the flowering plants have been observed from seed to seed.
In some cases such as Delesseria, Neurymenia, Fucus, Alaria, the leaf-like structure is provided with a strengthening mid-rib, and when as in Delesseria it is also richly veined the resemblance to the leaf of a flowering plant is striking.
Agarum, Claudea and Struvea are leaf-forms which are perforated like Aldrovanda among flowering plants.
IRIDACEAE (the iris family), in botany, a natural order of flowering plants belonging to the series Liliiflorae of the class Monocotyledons, containing about Boo species in 57 genera, and widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions.
An excellent example of structures differentiated according to position is given by the appendages borne on the stem of an ordinary flowering plant-the one or two seed leaves; the stem leaves, which may or may not be differentiated into secondary sets; and the various floral organs borne at the apex of the stem or its lateral branches.
The change which often occurs in the mean character and varia bility of the flowers produced at different periods of the flowering season by the same plant is an example of differentiation associated with time of production; as this kind of differentiation is less familiar than differentiation according to the region of production, it may be well to give an example.
Of the flora of the highest Andes, Whymper found 42 species, of various orders, above 16,000 ft., almost all of which were from Antisana and Chimborazo; 12 genera of mosses were found above 15,000 ft., and 59 species of flowering plants above 14,000 ft., of which 35 species came from above 15,000 and 20 species from above 16,000 ft.
Great numbers of grasses and flowering plants which once beautified the prairie landscape are still found on uncultivated lands, and there are about 80 species of trees, of which the oak, hickory, maple and ash are the most common.
1, Flowering branch.
The custom of employing the flowering branches for decorative purposes on the 1st of May is of very early origin; but since the alteration in the calendar the tree has rarely been in full bloom in England before the second week of that month.
The number of wild flowering plants may be estimated at 900, upwards of 270 of which are peculiar to the Canaries.
This treatment matures and prepares them for flowering.
5 is a spikelet of the female inflorescence, consisting of two outer glumes, the lower one ciliated, which enclose two florets - one (a) barren (sometimes fertile), consisting of a flowering glume and pale only, and the other (b) fertile, containing the pistil with elongated style.
Scientifically speaking, bhang consists of the dried leaves and small stalks, with a few fruits; ganja of the flowering and fruiting heads of the female plant; while charas is the resin itself, collected in various ways as it naturally exudes.
The town covers a considerable area; the detached white houses of its suburbs are surrounded by trees and flowering shrubs.
An early flowering species, Adonis vernalis, with large bright yellow flowers, is well worthy of cultivation.
Among the indigenous trees are the Abies excelsa, Abies microsperma, Pinus sinensis, Pinus pinea, three species of oak, five of maple, lime, birch, juniper, mountain ash, walnut, Spanish chestnut, hazel, willow, hornbeam, hawthorn, plum, pear, peach, Rhus vernicifera, (?) Rhus semipinnata, Acanthopanax ricinifolia, Zelkawa, Thuja orientalis, Elaeagnus, Sophora Japonica, &c. Azaleas and rhododendrons are widely distributed, as well as other flowering shrubs and creepers, Ampelopsis Veitchii being universal.
some famous none flowering plants are ferns an horse tails
Among the more beautiful of the flowering plants are rhododendrons, orchids and .pitcher-plants - the latter reaching extraordinary development, especially in the northern districts about Kinabalu.
decidere, to fall down), a botanical and zoological term for "falling in season," as of petals after flowering, leaves in autumn, the teeth or horns of animals, or the wings of insects.
The pods of Acacia nilotica, under the name of neb-neb, and of other African species Acacia Senegal, flowering branch, natural size (after A.
Another evil, which is caused by unseasonable weather during and shortly after the flowering, is known as coulure.
long and about an inch wide, closely arranged in two rows as in the true Flag (Iris); the tall, flowering stems (scapes), which very much resemble the leaves, bear an apparently lateral, blunt, tapering spike of densely packed, very small flowers.
Hooker ascertained the average vertical range of flowering plants in the Himalayas to be 4000 ft., while in some cases it extended to 8000 ft.
2 represents a flowering top of C. olitorius.
The number of years before flowering occurs depends on the vigour of the individual, the richness of the soil and the climate; during these years the plant is storing in its fleshy leaves the nourishment required for the effort of flowering.
The flowering stem of the last named, dried and cut in slices, forms.
They mature very slowly and die after flowering, but are easily propagated by the offsets from the base of the stem.
Of wild flowering plants only a very few are endemic species (though more are endemic varieties); the bulk are immigrants after the last glacial epoch.
It is said to be a distinct variety, flowering twice a year.
Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
Henslow, South African Flowering Plants (1903); W.
After ripening of the seed, the leafless flowering culms always die down.
The total number of flowering plants inhabiting the range amounts probably to 5000 or 6000 species, among which may be reckoned several hundred common English plants chiefly from the temperate and alpine regions; and the characteristic of the flora as a whole is that it contains a general and tolerably complete illustration of almost all the chief natural families of all parts of the world, and has comparatively few distinctive features of its own.
Of Phanerogams, only the Dryas octopetala covers small areas of the debris, interspersed with isolated Cochlearia, &c., and, where a layer of thinner clay has been deposited in sheltered places, the surface is covered with saxifrages, &c.; and a carpet of mosses allows the arctic willow (Salix polaris) to develop. Where a thin sheet of humus, fertilized by lemmings, has accumulated, a few flowering plants appear, but even so their brilliant flowers spring direct from the soil, concealing the developed leaflets, while their horizontally spread roots grow out of proportion; only the Salix lanata rises to 7 or 8 in., sending out roots I in.
It is generally introduced near mansion-houses for ornament and shade, and the celebrated avenues at Richmond and Bushey Park in England are objects of great beauty at the time of flowering.
After sowing, the land is harrowed, and the young plants are hoed and weeded, chiefly by women and children, from early spring until the time of flowering.
MANNA, a concrete saccharine exudation obtained by making incisions on the trunk of the flowering or manna ash tree, Fraxinus Ornus.
The botanic gardens, in the upper town, contain a very fine collection of flowering shrubs and semi-tropical trees.
With the exception of some stunted willows the islands are practically destitute of trees, but are covered with a luxuriant growth of herbage, including grasses, sedges and many flowering plants.
The legend says that his staff, planted in the ground, became a thorn flowering twice a year (see Glastonbury).
Here too are found many of the more beautiful open-air flowering plants of a shrubby character, e.g.
And the great height (13,000 ft.) at which the flowering plants blossom is not less remarkable than the great beauty and abundance of the flowers.
It is one of the largest and most widespread and, from an economic point of view, the most important family of flowering plants.
b, Barren glumes; f, flowering glumes.
It is this second bract or flowering glume which has been generally called by systematists the " lower pale," and with the " upper pale " was formerly considered to form an outer floral envelope (" calyx," Jussieu; " perianthium," Brown).
The flowering glume has generally a more or less boat-shaped form, is of firm consistence, and possesses a well-marked central midrib and frequently several lateral ones.
The form of the flowering glume is very various, this organ being plastic and extensively modified in different genera.
The awn may be either terminal or may come off from the back of the flowering glume, and Duval Jouve's observations have shown that it represents the blade of the leaf of which the portion of the flowering glume below its origin is the sheath; the twisted part (so often suppressed) corresponds with the petiole, and the portion of the glume extending beyond the origin of the awn (very long in some species, e.g.
Generally speaking they do not share in the special modifications of the flowering glumes, and rarely themselves undergo modification, chiefly in hardening of portions (Sclerachne, Manisuris, Anthe- phora, Peltophorum), so as to afford greater protection to the flowers or fruit.
13,) that is, within the flowering glume.
The pair of barren glumes (b) are separated from the flowering glume, which bears a long awn, twisted below the knee and feathery above.
To this peculiar fruit the term caryopsis has been applied (more familiarly " grain "); it is commonly furrowed longitudinally down one side (usually the inner, but in Coix and its allies, the outer), and an additional covering is not unfrequently provided by the adherence of the persistent palea, or even also of the flowering FIG.
b, Flowering glume.
One-flowered spikelets may fall as a whole (as in the tribes Paniceae and Andrepogoneae), or the axis is jointed above the barren glumes so that only the flowering glume and pale fall with the fruit.
In the sugar-cane (Saccharum) and several allied genera the separating joints of the axis bear long hairs below the spikelets; in others, as in Arundo (a reed-grass), the flowering glumes are enveloped in long hairs.
Aristida and Stipa are large and widely distributed genera, occurring especially on open plains and steppes; the conspicuously awned persistent flowering glume forms an efficient means of dispersing the grain.
- Grasses are the most universally diffused of all flowering plants.
The only genus of flowering plants peculiar to the arctic regions is the beautiful and rare grass Pleuropogon Sabinii, of Melville Island.
In the more heterogeneous structure of the wood and in the possession of true vessels the Gnetales agree closely with the higher flowering plants.
iiXtr t ta, a water-plant mentioned by Dioscorides), in botany, a natural order of monocotyledons belonging to the series Helobieae, and represented in Britain by the water plantain, Alisma Plantago, the arrow-head, Sagittaria, the star-fruit, Damasonium, and flowering rush, Butomus (from the Gr.
- Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus).
After the periodical rains, the Karroo and the great plains of Bushmanland are converted into vast fields of grass and flowering shrubs, but the summer sun reduces them again to a barren and burnt-up aspect.
The flora of the state is varied, between 1400 and 1500 species of flowering plants being found.
The outer glumes are acute and glabrous, the flowering glumes lance-shaped, with a comb-like keel at the back, and the outer or lower one prolonged at the apex into a very long bristly awn.
(X 8.) The adaptations in the vegetative organs of the sporophyte are similar to those Flowering Plants.
Each flower consists of an outer or lower glume, called the flowering glume, of the same shape as the empty glume and terminating in a long, or it may be in a short, awn or "beard."
D, Flowering glume or lower palea.
and they only separate for a short time when flowering takes place; after fertilization they close again.
It has also been observed that too heavy nitrogenous manuring stimulates and prolongs the growing period of the wheat; flowering is retarded, and thus there is a greater opportunity for infection to take place.
Smut of wheat, Ustilago Tritici, infects the host at the time of flowering.
These are scattered over the field and alight on other flowering wheat plants.
There are two forms of the plant, an annual and a biennial, which spring indifferently from the same crop of seed - the one growing on during summer to a height of from to 2 ft., and flowering and perfecting seed; the other producing the first season only a tuft of radical leaves, which disappear in winter, leaving under ground a thick fleshy root, from the crown of which arises in spring a branched flowering stem, usually much taller and more vigorous than the flowering stems of the annual plants.
The flowering stem pushes up from the root-crown in spring, ultimately reaching from 3 to 4 ft.
The flowers are shortlystalked, the lower ones growing in the fork of the branches, the upper ones sessile in one-sided leafy spikes which are rolled back at the top before flowering, the leaves becoming smaller upwards and taking the place of bracts.
or more broad; the tops of the fronds are fertile, the fertile pinnae being cylindrical and densely covered with the spore-cases, giving the appearance of a dense panicle of flowers, whence the plant is known as the flowering fern.
Both medicinal and flowering plants are exceptionally abundant; a few of the former are ginseng, snakeroot, bloodroot, hore-hound, thoroughwort, redroot (Ceanothus Americanus), horse mint and wild flax, and prominent among the latter are jessamines, azaleas, lilies, roses, violets, honey-suckle and golden-rod.
The number of different species is estimated at 12,000, of which one-third are phanerogamous,or flowering plants, and two-thirds cryptogamous, or flowerless.
The crown land of Lower Austria far surpasses in this respect the other divisions of the country, having about four-ninths of the whole, and not less than 1700 species of flowering plants.
Although flowers growing on the ground or on shrubs are not conspicuous for number or beauty, there arc many fine flowering trees, such as Poinciana regia, presenting a mass of scarlet flowers; 1 The words in parentheses are the native Malagasy names.
Independently of introduced plants, fifty-five species have been collected in the group, twenty-nine being flowering plants and twenty-six ferns and lycopods.
The flower is a characteristic feature of the highest group of the plant kingdom - the flowering plants (Phanerogams) - and is the name given to the association of organs, more or less leaf-like in form, which are concerned with the production of the fruit or seed.
This change is called phyllody of bracts, and is seen in species of Plantago, especially in the variety of Plantago media, called the rose-plantain in gardens, where the bracts become leafy and form a rosette round the flowering axis.
16 the biparous cyme is represented in the flowering branch of Cerastium.
- Flowering stalk of the White Dead-nettle (Lamium album).
- Flowering stalk of Ragwort (Senecio).
52); or along with the corolla, as in Ranunculus, and is deciduous; or it remains after flowering (persistent) as in Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae, and Boraginaceae; or its base only is persistent, as in Datura Stramonium.
- Quadrilocular or tetrathecal anther of the flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus).
The anthers dehisce at different periods during the process of flowering; sometimes in the bud, but more commonly when the pistil is fully developed and the flower is expanded.
It constitutes the innermost whorl, which after flowering is changed into the fruit and contains the seeds.
In Leontice thalictroides (Blue Cohosh), species of Ophiopogon, Peliosanthes and Stateria, the ovary ruptures immediately after flowering, and the ovules are exposed; and in species of Cuphea the placenta ultimately bursts through the ovary and corolla, and becomes erect, bearing the exposed ovules.
The first half of the 17th century may be described as the flowering time of the Barbary pirates.
There is no evidence that the Angiospermous flowering plants, now the dominant class, existed during the Palaeozoic period; they do not appear till far on in the Mesozoic epoch, and their earlier history is as yet entirely unknown.
The presence of Cordaitean leaves indicates that Gymnosperms of high organization already existed, a striking fact, showing the immense antiquity of this class compared with the angiospermous flowering plants.
A flora consisting entirely, with a single doubtful exception, of Gymnosperms and Cryptogams gives place to one containing many flowering plants; and these increase so rapidly that before long they seem to have crowded out many of the earlier types, and to have themselves become the dominant forms. Not only do Angiosperms suddenly become dominant in all known plantbearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous age, but strangely enough the earliest found seem to belong to living orders, and commonly have been referred to existing genera.
Among the flowering plants are Dewalquea, a ranunculaceous genus already mentioned as occurring in the Upper Cretaceous, and numerous living genera of forest-trees, such as occur throughout the Tertiary period, and are readily comparable with living forms. Saporta has described about seventy Dicotyledons, most of which are peculiar to this locality.
Of the 920 species described by Heer, 114 are Cryptogams and 806 flowering plants.
The plan of all is the same - an open court, with a tesselated pavement, and one or two marble fountains; orange and lemon trees, flowering shrubs, and climbing plants give freshness and fragrance.
Hemp is grown for three products - (r) the fibre of its stem; (2) the resinous secretion which is developed in hot countries upon its leaves and flowering heads; (3) its oily seeds.
Ganja, the guaza of the London brokers, consists of the flowering and fruiting heads of the female plant.
Beyond the flowering cherries, is the serpentine yew tunnel, which runs the full length of the lawn.
Once more the little plaza with flowering acacias, once more the clear fountain telling its tale of love.
There are other early flowering white alliums of lesser value.
bitter almonds come from a very similar tree which is white flowering.
angiosperm plant (flowering plant ).
The other involves dipping the cut flowering shoots in a chemical called auxin, a plant hormone.
A striped awning is mounted at the entrance where flowering plants help to improve the austere academic severity of the school entrance.
A late flowering Japanese azalea lit up a green corner.
There are 144 different species of flowering plant growing on the hill, including small balsam, lords and ladies and climbing corydalis.
As well as marram grass there are a lot of flowering plants such as ladies bedstraw, northern marsh orchid and cowslip.
Thorn forests, virgin rainforests, flowering cacti, extensive forests of monkey-puzzle trees and southern beech are also protected.
Color in a Basket These flowering baskets are full of trailing begonias.
sowing biennials In mild areas, toward the end of the month, you can start to sow biennials for flowering next spring.
Remove annuals and second year biennials that have finished flowering.
Teasels are tall biennials, forming a rosette of leaves in their first year, and flowering in their second year.
Well suited for out crossing with late bloomers to produce earlier flowering.
native bluebells were just coming to the end of their flowering period.
The pool, surrounded by flowering bougainvillea, offers a relaxing spot to soak up the sun and has a bar close to hand.
The planting time for the earliest flowering bulbs begins in September.
These birds are sometimes seen along with Red-whiskered bulbuls in larger flocks feeding in flowering trees.
To include color after the salad burnet has finished flowering, plant bulbs and corms such as spring and autumn crocus.
Evidence suggested that the murderer hid among flowering bushes in front of the Simpson home waiting for the victim.
The south drive has several different camellias flowering now.
Early flowering camellias and hellebores, coupled with the occasional snowdrop, make the new year seem more inviting.
Camellia x williamsii ' Saint Ewe ' is exquisitely beautiful and exceedingly free flowering and one of the most valuable hybrid camellia x williamsii ' Saint Ewe ' is exquisitely beautiful and exceedingly free flowering and one of the most valuable hybrid camellias ever produced.
Steve Weaver wrote: Does anyone growing summer flowering cattleyas have to contend with Japanese Beetles?
chrysanthemum growers the year actually starts at flowering time in September.
flowers chrysanthemums for indoor flowering should be brought inside.
Buy Plants Online Summer flowering clematis can be pruned back hard.
Jim was having a good old go at the spring flowering heathers, by using a pair of hedge clippers to do the pruning.
Alternatively divide clumps of spring flowering species in summer.
The grasses were also becoming quite coarse with a loss of small flowering plants.
Flowering sized bushy plants supplied in approx 2 liter containers.
At the harmonic convergence of 1987, this movement reached a flowering and a breakthrough.
This small corm takes another two seasons of growth to reach flowering size.
It is, however, well covered with flowering creepers, which give it a charming appearance in summer.
Spring flowering bulbs were covered too, these lilac and white crocus almost disappeared.
crocus flower that rises above the ground at flowering time.
A classic easy to grow early flowering basket cultivar that seems to be forever in flower.
Shrubs come in all shapes and sizes -- Buddleia for butterflies, flowering currant, hebe and mahonia for bees.
The flowering currant roars as I find the ball, Abandoned under the lilac after the semi-final.
Beale ' for the central spot, surrounded by autumn flowering cyclamen and autumn flowering pansies.
deadhead the plant to prolong the flowering period.
disinterest in things classical did not encourage the flowering of a neoclassical culture.
draughtyre the perfect flowering house plant for a cool room, that is not drafty.
Biology: Charlock generally flowers from May to July but flowering may begin as early as April in plants that germinated the previous autumn.
Blue light will encourage growth & lamps with more red will encourage flowering.
One dictionary defines marijuana as the leaves and flowering tops when taken to induce euphoria.
extremes of the weather by the large flowering trees.
flowering of a truly global culture?
flowering of plants when transported from one climate to another.
flowering of religious art such as is found in gospel books.
Again it is late flowering, from midsummer to mid autumn.
We have seen very early flowering with the plums.
It has double light crimson flowers and is very free flowering.
One particular variety for example is being marketed as very long flowering.
Is this really the first flowering of a truly global culture?
Paraquat, Diquat, contact action killing top growth, apply before flowering.
flowering shrubs brighten mixed borders, which by summer will be at their best.
flowering plants, plant data, plant images.
flowering clematis can be pruned back hard.
flowering cherries, is the Serpentine Yew Tunnel, which runs the full length of the lawn.
flowering bulbs to brighten up an earth bank adjacent to a busy junction.
flowering perennials will grow.
A summer bake together with some moisture from below will induce flowering.
Should I remove the flower heads once they are finished flowering?
Applying liquid tomato feed will encourage better flowering - see ' Feeding ' .
Feed with a low nitrogen feed throughout the Spring and Summer to promote flowering.
Turn bulb timer to a 12/12 cycle & wait for your buds to start flowering.
They include lime, flowering crab and Himalayan Birch and a 5.5 meter high Christmas tree.
A repeat flowering rose with a strong, fruity fragrance.
In flowering plants, anther s produce pollen which contains male gametes, and the embryo sac within the ovary contains a female gamete.
With some patience and careful cutting you can soon have a beautiful flowering garland running through your garden.
genusnolia Magnolias are among the most ancient of the flowering plant genera.
Holmes held up a crumpled branch of flowering gorse.
These make really attractive flowering displays through summer and are also reasonably hardy as long as they are kept dry over winter.
This is the first year we have had a strong show of flowering heather.
Dark purple heliotrope are flowering in pots, and I've also bought purple petunias as bedding plants this year.
Its even rarer cousin, the green hellebore, is an equally attractive plant, flowering in late winter and early spring.
We then both noticed a flowering hellebore that was growing from thick leaf mold in the ditch.
To get there, take a leisurely walk on a shaded path through tall coconuts and flowering hibiscus.
February's fragrance Be led by the nose this month, from the moment you walk through the gates and pass winter flowering honeysuckles.
Species found include slender ground hopper, great green bush cricket, brown argus, reed and sedge warblers and flowering rush.
hummingbirds busily fed on flowering shrubs, the former species being very aggressive in defense of good feeding zones.
hydrangea serrata 'Blue Deckle ' (Haworth-Booth) Best grown as blue, this is a lovely dwarf shrub with a long flowering period.
internode elongation on flowering stems begins in early May.
Plant irises now for flowering next May to July.
plant irises now for flowering next May to July.
You'll also see magnolias, camellias, rhododendrons, flowering shrubs, the ancient Lanhydrock Cross and the formal gardens.
The turn of the late flowering magnolias has arrived among the tall cow parsley.
CLICK ON PICTURE FOR MORE DETAILS A late flowering, deciduous magnolia with an upright habit when young, later spreading.
Lilium martagon album In the garden Lilium martagon album is still flowering, the white flowers looking at their best in the evening light.
mauve in color that has just finished flowering.
This dark electric netherworld has become a vast flowering electronic landscape.
CAUTION: Do not use flowering nettle for food or medicine.
black nightshade grows rapidly after germination and the time from emergence to flowering is around 60 days in May and 50 days in July.
Nerium oleander, so familiar to holidaymakers, was still flowering strongly as it tends to for nine months of the year.
pansy winter flowering pansies in pots or trays placed in a shaded cold frame.
pansyer 4/5 weeks you should have beautiful, flowering pansies to put in your baskets and containers.
pansyter color must also include a mention of winter flowering garden pansies.
The cow parsnip Is one of the most common. growing by roadsides and on waste ground everywhere and flowering from June until late autumn.
Marylyn has added an intriguing water parterre planted with flowering trees.
Among the flowering plants, rye shows paternal inheritance, and predominantly paternal inheritance has been observed in chaparral.
Gymnosperms have mainly paternal (pollen) transmission while most flowering plants seem to have maternal inheritance.
FEATURES It's the low growing shrubs or flowering perennials which provide most of the obvious colorful flowers in a garden.
For example glaciers shrinking, permafrost thawing, earlier flowering of trees.
perpetual flowering carnation.
All previous Rules and Standards for judging perpetual Flowering Carnations are hereby rescinded.
Observations of flowering and fruiting phenology were made at the time of mapping and seed collection.
Subjects: flowering plants, plant data, plant images.
prune to encourage the formation of flowering spurs, close to the main framework of the plant.
prunening - Climbers usually require pruning annually to improve their flowering.
This vigorous, flowering quince makes an attractive boundary hedge for a sunny or partly shady site with moderately fertile, well-drained soil.
The plants have an explosive flowering trait and are extremely resinous.
Visitors come on bus trips to view the flowering rhododendrons.
Finally in the ash garden is one of the earliest flowering rhododendrons.
Modern strains are selected for early flowering, but sometimes a few rogues get in.
pick runner beans frequently to encourage more flowering and keep well watered to prevent flower drop.
add 1 sachet to 25 gallons of nutrient water during the first week of the last 3 weeks of flowering.
In very sheltered, stable areas more robust flowering plants can occur such as, rock-rose, small scabious, bloody crane's-bill and marjoram.
In addition, grazing and early cutting of hay meadows makes that field scabious often does not reaches the flowering stage.
self-sown seed, these can have their heads removed after flowering to prevent them seeding.
Early flowering shrubs brighten mixed borders, which by summer will be at their best.
shrubbery on the south side will be planted with a mixture of flowering shrubs and trees for interest throughout the seasons.
similar in many respects to the modern perpetual flowering carnation.
solanum crispum " Glasnevin " has been flowering since last month, and its display continues unabated, with more buds still to bloom.
Edna St. Vincent Millay This plant, with its very tall flowering spike, is commonly found along roadsides, and in fields.
The flowers are first produced on the bottom of the flowering stalk or raceme.
The flowering stem has twisted, lance shaped leaves arranged in a spiral or scattered around the stem.
Other flowering plants include wood anemone, stitchwort and barren strawberry.
A further flush of flowering may occur from September to October if new shoots develop on the cut down stumps left in cereal stubble.
Culture notes An epiphytic free flowering succulent that grows to around 300mm high and 400mm across and is suitable for pots or hanging baskets.
Flowering trees in the gardens in town were the only places we saw copper sunbird.
Sweeps of purple flowering heather and sweet scented gorse dominate the heathland whilst the wetlands harbor insect-eating sundews and rare marsh gentians.
Loves to fly in wooded glades where tall flowering thistles abound rests at night among the foliage of trees.
There are over 270 species of flowering plants including species such as pale toadflax and bee orchid.
The species has been used extensively by horticulturists to introduce winter flowering into summer flowering tuberous Begonias.
Hoe or hand pull before flowering, easily uprooted.
red valerian is a charming, long flowering and easy-to-grow native plant.
There is nothing more cheering on a cold and dark day than the flowers of this winter flowering deciduous viburnum.
The shell of the Great Hall still stands, now covered with flowering vines.
The erect, flowering stems appear from July to late autumn and produce dense whorls of lilac flowers with a strong and pungent smell.
The Chinese wisteria is popular due to its flowering habit.
wisteria flower from flowering spurs that form on the stems.
The broom has finished flowering in the entrance and hedge woundwort is popping up around the site, especially in Shady Place.
HORSETAIL (Equisetum), the sole genus of the botanical natural order Equisetaceae, consisting of a group of vascular cryptogamous plants (see Pteridophyta) remarkable for the vegetative structure which resembles in general appearance the genera of flowering plants Casuarina and Ephedra.
The whole arrangement has a strong resemblance to the lacunae, mesophyll and stomata, which form the assimilative and transpiring (water-evaporating) apparatus in the leaves of flowering plants.
The gaps, are, however, often filled as they are formed by the development of external conjunctive tissue immediately above the points at which the bundles begin to bend out of the stele, so that sharply defined open gaps such as occur in fern-steles are but rarely met with in flowering plants.
the study of the anatomical features characteristic of the smaller groups of flowering plants, i.e.
Mosses and lichens are distinctive, as also are the birch, the dwarf willow and several shrubs; but where the soil is drier, and humus has been able to accumulate, a variety of herbaceous flowering plants, some of them familiar in W.
I), the flowering glume having its dorsal rib prolonged into an awn (fig.
In the north, where the lichen-covered or ice-shaven rocks do not protrude, the ground is covered with a carpet of mosses, creeping dwarf willows, crow berries and similar plants, while the flowers most common are the andromeda, the yellow poppy, pedicularis, pyrola, &c. besides the flowering mosses; but in South Greenland there is something in the shape of bush, the dwarf birches even rising a few feet in very sheltered places, the willows may grow higher than a man, and the vegetation is less arctic and more abundant.
Some two hundred species of flowering plants struggle for a precarious existence in the tundra region, the frozen ground and the want of humus militating against them more than the want of warmth.
Development of larva and seed go on together, a few of the seeds serving as food for the insect, which when mature eats through the pericarp and drops to the ground, remaining dormant in its cocoon until the next season of flowering when it emerges as a moth.
A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much used in Great Britain and in America, is that of Bentham and Hooker, whose Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) is a descriptive account of all the genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination.
These conditions are satisfied in English Miles o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 £30 Peaks Passes Glaciers Land above 1500 feet left white Emery Walker sG As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60Ã‚°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above ii,000 ft.
We propose hereto notice briefly the several parts of a flowering plant, and to point out the rationale of the cultural procedures connected with them (see the references to separate articles at the end of article on Botany).
- In fertilization - the influence in flowering plants of the male-cell in the pollen tube upon the eggcell in the ovule (see Botany) - there are many circumstances of importance horticulturally, to which, therefore, brief reference must be made.
P. vacciniifolium, 6 to to in., is a pretty prostrate subshrubby species, with handsome rose-pink flowers, suitable for rockwork, and prefers boggy soil; P. affine (Brunonis), I ft., deep rose, is a showy border plant, flowering in the late summer; P. cuspidatum, 8 to To ft., is a grand object for planting where a screen is desired, as it suckers abundantly, and its tall spotted stems and handsome cordate leaves have quite a noble appearance.
After dividing plants into flowerless and flowering, Ray says, "Floriferas dividemus in Dicotyledones, quarum semina sata binis foliis anomalis, seminal ibus dictis, quae cotyledonorum usum praestant, e terra exeunt, vel in binos saltem lobos dividuntur, quamvis eos supra terrem foliorum specie non efferunt; et Monocotyledones, quae nec folic bina seminalia efferunt nec lobos binos condunt.
opposite the flowering glume, the other two being posterior and in contact with the palea (fig.
The awn which is frequently borne on the flowering glume is also a very efficient means of distribution, catching into fur of animals or plumage of birds, or as often in Stipa (fig.
(Jena, 1892); Coulter and Chamberlain, Morphology of Spermatophytes (New York, 1901); Rendle, The Classification of Flowering Plants, vol.
Sometimes a persistent calyx increases much after flowering, and encloses the fruit without being incorporated with it, becoming accrescent, as in various species of Physalis (fig.
Professor Lester Ward has instituted a new generic name, Cycadella, for these woolly forms. In a few cases the fossil stems show no trace of any lateral flowering shoots, and in that respect agree with modern forms: an instance of this is afforded by a large Cycadean trunk discovered some years ago in one of the Portland quarries, and named Cycadeoidea gigantea (fig.
The mere enumeration of the genera will indicate how close the flowering plants are to living forms. Newberry records Juglans, Myrica (7 species), Populus, Salix (5 species), Quercus, Planera, Ficus (3 species), Persoonia and another extinct Proteaceous genus named Proteoides, Magnolia (7 species), Liriodendron (4 species), Menispermites, Laurus and allied plants, Sassafras (3 species), Cinnamomum, Prunus, Hymenaea, Dalbergia, Bauhinia, Caesalpinia, Fontainea, Colutea and other Leguminosae, Ilex, Celastrus, Celastrophyllum (Io species), Acer, Rhamnites, Paliurus, Cissites, Tiliaephyllum, Passiflora, Eucalyptus (5 species), Hedera, Aralia (8 species), Cornophyllum, Andromeda (4 species), Myrsine, Sapotacites, Diospyros, Acerates, Viburnum and various genera of uncertain affinities.
Finally in the ash garden is one of the earliest flowering Rhododendrons.
Pick runner beans frequently to encourage more flowering and keep well watered to prevent flower drop.
Add 1 sachet to 25 gallons of nutrient water during the first week of the last 3 weeks of flowering.
Some species in the mixture spread rapidly from self-sown seed, these can have their heads removed after flowering to prevent them seeding.
A large shrubbery on the south side will be planted with a mixture of flowering shrubs and trees for interest throughout the seasons.
Solanum crispum " Glasnevin " has been flowering since last month, and its display continues unabated, with more buds still to bloom.
Red valerian is a charming, long flowering and easy-to-grow native plant.
Wisteria flower from flowering spurs that form on the stems.
If you're looking for a quick-growing flowering tree, consider the Empress tree, which can grow up to 10 feet a year and has lovely lavender flowers in the spring.
The flowering crabapple offers profuse numbers of flowers in spring, colorful apples in fall and interesting branches in winter.
Lavender is another beautiful, flowering herb that has antiseptic properties when used as a skin treatment.
One of the most interesting tea offerings are flowering teas, which are carefully wrapped and hand-sewn tea "balls" that open up into a gorgeous flower when steeped in hot water.
This pungent herb comes from the root of a flowering perennial.
Chamomile is a flowering plant that is similar to a daisy.
Another flowering plant, lavender's scent is used in aromatherapy preparations.
The active compounds hypericin and hyperforin are concentrated in the flowering heads of the plant,and can be accessed in teas made from the flowerheads, capsules containing dried flowers or liquid alcohol extracts.
As the plant matures, the leaves are pinched off as frequently as daily to prevent the plant from flowering.
Since flowering basil plants tend to stop producing foliage, it is important to continually harvest the leaves and pinch any buds that form so the leaves continue to flourish.
A leafy or flowering branch from a magnolia or evergreen tree will look interesting without any fabric.
Select flowering shrubbery for exotic tropical aromas to perfume your courtyard.
Live plants with rich greens and flowering plants are wonderful additions to this theme.
Roses, daisies and flowering vines are examples of floral patterns.
It is hardy, of easy culture, and fitted for association with flowering shrubs of a medium size, but is of no high garden value in view of the many handsome hardy shrubs we possess.
It forms a bushy plant of about 2 feet high, flowering freely and through a long season, and the long-stemmed flowers are useful for cutting if gathered on first expanding, though they close up each evening.
Amongst these was a bulb which proved to be a Snowdrop flowering in the autumn, usually in October.
It also differs in being a week or ten days later in flowering.
It is a spreading evergreen, flowering sparsely on heavy and cold soil, but on light soils often blooming freely in May; the flowers yellow, about 1 1/2 inches across, but not pretty.
Although from the south of Europe they are hardy on the rock garden, but are apt to exhaust themselves in flowering.
Sea Bindweed (Convolvulus Soldanella) - A distinct trailing species with fleshy leaves; flowering in summer, pale red, and handsome in the rock garden, if planted so that its shoots droop over stones.
Bitter Vetch (Orobus) - Often pretty plants of the Pea order, flowering usually in spring.
Bladder Senna (Colutea) - These cannot be called choice flowering shrubs, but they are very useful for poor hungry soils, particularly for dry sunny banks, where few other plants can exist; they are excellent, too, in smoky districts.
Blue Cupidone (Catananche) - C. coerulea is an old border plant, about 2 feet high, flowering in summer; fine blue, and growing freely in borders and margins of shrubberies.
Flowering in summer, and increasing rapidly by its running stems.
Though not a showy flowering shrub, few others are so rapid in growth, so graceful, and so indifferent to the nature of the soil.
Flowering takes place from May to September and the seeds ripen from July to October.
As they are forms of distinct species or varieties, they differ in habit, the double pink being much the stronger and more free flowering.
Almost all kinds should have their stems cut away after flowering, leaving only the new shoots of the season.
At the time of flowering the foliage is often withered, and to hide the nakedness of the stems it is sometimes best planted among other low-growing plants.