She stared at a flower pattern on the wall.
She picked the flower up and poked it over her left ear.
3, Flower viewed from the side.
The metal panels on top of the generator opened like a flower, automatically adjusting themselves to catch the most sun.
She ripped the flower from her hair and slung it in the dust.
In the middle of the circle was a large teardrop-shaped flower garden.
She worked her way toward a little yellow flower and leaned down to examine it.
She looked again at the flower, puzzled.
Why did you think I sent you the flower - and that dress?
She lay the flower and note aside and lifted a dress from the package, blushing as she realized his estimation of her size was accurate.
On the top of a pile of clothes lay a flower and note.
He glanced at the flower over her ear.
Sarah talked endlessly about her flower garden, the weather and anything else that came to her mind.
A tiny yellow flower peeped from under the log and she leaned down to examine it.
After she dressed, she stood before the mirror with the flower in her hand.
It grew to her height as she watched and then bloomed into an orange-pink flower the size of her head, shriveled and died, and returned.
With a trembling hand, she lifted the flower and tucked it behind her right ear.
She concentrated hard on another wilted flower, bringing it back to full bloom.
The flower box outside the upstairs window?
It is also probable that the various forms of the angiospermous flower, with its many specialized mechanisms for pollination, may be the result of insect-visits, the flowers becoming adapted to certain kinds of insects, and the insects having undergone corresponding modification.
I could always tell if visitors had called in my absence, either by the bended twigs or grass, or the print of their shoes, and generally of what sex or age or quality they were by some slight trace left, as a flower dropped, or a bunch of grass plucked and thrown away, even as far off as the railroad, half a mile distant, or by the lingering odor of a cigar or pipe.
- Flower of Veronica.
A bee settling on a flower has stung a child.
The only bait he could find was a bright red blossom from a flower; but he knew fishes are easy to fool if anything bright attracts their attention, so he decided to try the blossom.
Her chamber smelled of jasmine, her scrubbed body of flower musk.
Jennifer wanted to know the names of each flower and Cynthia was able to respond to most of her questions.
2) and the generally strong and large canines, as well as by the From Flower, Quart.
Do come, dear countess, and give me this flower as a pledge!
If I hand her a flower, and say, "Give it to mamma," she takes it to her mother.
How about modifying a flower to produce insulin?
She felt like a flower next to a tree and stared, hoping Elise didn't take his offer seriously.
Beautiful flower, you have taught me to see a little way into the hidden heart of things.
Its colors rippled and changed before the flower bent and delicate wings spread apart, revealing a creature that was surely a fairy.
It frequently happens that the perfume of a flower or the flavour of a fruit recalls to her mind some happy event in home life, or a delightful birthday party.
From the window a flower box was visible, overgrown with weeds.
A bird built a nest in the flower box and it has little baby birds!
"I don't believe in picking every flower I find in the woods," she said with feigned disdain.
in diameter, and bear in the axil a solitary, stalked, white flower, about the size and shape of the garden anemone, with six or more petals and twice as many hypogynous stamens.
A poet admires the bee sucking from the chalice of a flower and says it exists to suck the fragrance of flowers.
The single flower still stood in the fountain, and she crossed to it.
Flower of the Austrian army, hero of the Turkish wars Hostilities are ended, we can shake one another's hand....
It should be added that Professor Elliot Smith has pointed out a certain peculiarity in its commissures whereby the brain of the diprotodonts differs markedly from that of the polyprotodonts From Flower, Quart.
Monoecious, and bearing their male flowers in catkins, they are readily distinguished from the rest of the catkin-bearing trees by their peculiar fruit, an acorn or nut, enclosed at the base in a woody cup, formed by the consolidation of numerous involucral bracts developed beneath the fertile flower, simultaneously with a cup-like expansion of the thalamus, to which the bracteal scales are more or less adherent.
A second flower blossomed and remained.
They grew also behind my house, and one large tree, which almost overshadowed it, was, when in flower, a bouquet which scented the whole neighborhood, but the squirrels and the jays got most of its fruit; the last coming in flocks early in the morning and picking the nuts out of the burs before they fell, I relinquished these trees to them and visited the more distant woods composed wholly of chestnut.
The term Cryptogam is archaic, implying a hidden method of reproduction as compared with the obvious method represented by the flower of the Phanerogam; with the aid of a good microscope it is, however, easier to follow the process of fertilization.
Science (1893); Tenison-Woods, The Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales (Sydney, 1883); Ogilvy, Catalogue of Australian Mammals (Sydney, 1892); Aflalo, Natural History of Australia (London, 1896); Flower and Lydekker, Mammals, Living and Extinct (London, 1891); J.
They live a gay life, flitting from flower to flower, sipping the drops of honeydew, without a thought for the morrow.
From the rough comparison of the skeleton of a bird with that of a man by Pierre Delon, in the 16th century (to go no further back), down to the theory of the limbs and the theory of the skull at the present day; or, from the first demonstration of the homologies of the parts of a flower by C. F.
A botanist notices that the bee flying with the pollen of a male flower to a pistil fertilizes the latter, and sees in this the purpose of the bee's existence.
These bodies, known technically as chioroplaIts, are found embedded in the protoplasm of the cells of the mesophyll of foliage leaves, of certain of the cells of some of the leaves of the flower, and of the cortex of the young twigs and petioles.
The ovule develops into the seed; and the gynaeceum and even more remote parts of the flower, develop into the fruit.
Flower in the 9th edition of this work.
He observed that the appendicular organs, as he called the leaves, are developed in the same way, whether they be foliageleaves, or parts of the flower, and stated his conclusions thus:
Flower, "Batrachians of the Malay Peninsula and Siam," P.Z.S., 1899, p. 885; H.
Arctic plants make their brief growth and flower at a temperature little above freezing-point, and are dependent for their heat on the direct rays of the sun.
The functional teeth are reduced to one From Flower, Quart.
At this Natasha dashed swiftly among the flower tubs and hid there.
In August, the large masses of berries, which, when in flower, had attracted many wild bees, gradually assumed their bright velvety crimson hue, and by their weight again bent down and broke the tender limbs.
She is a sterile flower, you know--like some strawberry blossoms.
The flower moved as if caught in a breeze, not an earthquake.
So intent was she on finding the flower, that the crackling of the brush didn't immediately register a warning.
2, Flower viewed from above.
Another who " got the seed " and " grew the flower " was Herbert Spencer.
I want the flower and fruit of a man; that some fragrance be wafted over from him to me, and some ripeness flavor our intercourse.
She met his gaze, wondering if any part of him was capable of affection or if she'd wither like a dried-out flower.
- Diagram illustrating arrangement of parts in flower of Orchis.
On the a, Diagram of male flower.
Ball found the temperature one inch below the surface to be 83, and he collected over forty species in flower.
A stamen is opposite each sepal, and in the centre of the flower is the rudiment of a pistil.
The parts of the flower are most frequently arranged in fives, or multiples of fives; for instance, a common arrangement is as follows, - five sepals, succeeded by five petals, ten stamens in two sets of five, and five or fewer carpels; an arrangement in fours is less frequent, while the arrangement in threes, so common in monocotyledons, is rare in dicotyledons.
A genus much represented is Culcasia, and swampy localities are thickly set with the giant Cyrtosperma arum, with flower spathes that are blotched with deep purple.
For example, the grub of a pea or bean beetle (Bruchus) is hatched, from the egg laid by its mother on the carpel of a leguminous flower, with three pairs of legs and spiny processes on the prothorax.
In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?
The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.
2, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower in Barbarea.
Carnations and other plants that are throwing up flower stems, if wanted to flower in winter, should be cut back, that is, the flower stems should be cut off to say 5 in.
2, A flower cut through long14, Seed.
The axis of the flower is a shoot bearing leaves in the form of stamens.
These projections and ridges may be homologous with the seminiferous scale of the pines, firs, cedars, &c. The simplest interpretation of the cone of the Abietineae is that which regards it as a flower consisting of an axis bearing several open carpels, which in the adult cone may be very small or large and prominent, the scale bearing the ovules being regarded as a placental outgrowth from the flat and open carpel.
A single male flower consists of an axis enclosed at the base by an inconspicuous perianth formed of two concrescent leaves and terminating in two, or as many as eight, shortly stalked or sessile anthers.
After pollination the female flower becomes drawn below the surface by the spiral contraction of the long stalk, and the fruit ripens near the bottom.
1S a type of seed-plants, the microor macro-sporophylls are generally associated, often in large numbers, in separate cones, to which the term " flower " has been applied.
But there is considerable difference of opinion as to the relation between these cones and the more definite and elaborate structure known as the flower in the higher group of seed-plants--the Angiosperms - and it is to this more definite structure that we generally refer in using the term " flower."
A regular passion flower.
18, and Paniceae), and in these the male flower of a spikelet always blooms later than the hermaphrodite, so that its pollen can only effect cross-fertilization upon other spikelets in the same or another plant.
Plant in Flower; about a nat.
3, Barren pistil of male flower, enlarged.
4, Pistil of female flower.
3) is formed by a growing upwards of the flower-stalk immediately beneath the flower, upon which scaly or spiny protuberances appear; it is of the nature of bracts.
best distinctions are found in the position of the embryo in relation to the endosperm - lateral in grasses, basal in Cyperaceae - and in the possession by Gramineae of the 2-nerved palea below each flower.
No characters for main divisions can be obtained from the flower proper or fruit (with the exception of the character of the hilum), and it has therefore been found necessary to trust to characters derived from the usually less important inflorescence and bracts.
A small volume entitled Flower de Luce (1867) contains, among other fine things, the beautiful "threnos" on the burial of Hawthorne, and "The Bells of Lynn."
In Longfellow, the poet was the flower and fruit of the man.
I, Female flower, half natural size.
Robert Brown suggested two primary divisions - Paniceae and Poaceae, according to the position of the most perfect flower in the spikelet; this is the upper (apparently) terminal one in the first, whilst in the second it occupies the lower position, the more imperfect ones (if any) being above it.
Paniceae (about 25 genera, tropical to subtropical; a few temperate), a second flower, generally male, rarely hermaphrodite, is often present below the fertile flower.
46) being always regarded as the flower of the Italian forces (e.g.
An orchid flower has an inferior ovary like that just s, sl -- --s[ !
- Diagram of the flower FIG.
- Flower of Orchis.
Floral diagram of typical orchid flower; 1, labellum; a, anther; s, rudiments of barren stamens (staminodes).
nearest to the supporting stem, becomes in course of growth turned to the anterior or lower part of the flower nearest to the bract, from whose axil it arises.
Cross fertilization, or the impregnation of any given flower by pollen from another flower of the same species on the same or on another plant, has been proved to be of great - g advantage to the plant by securing a more FIG.
Other insects visit the flower with more questionable result.
For them the pollen is an attraction as food, or some other part of the flower offers an inducement to them for a like object.
Such visitors are clearly prejudicial to the flower, and so we meet with arrangements which are calculated to repel the intruders, or at least to force them to enter the flower in such a way as not to effect mischief.
In the common orchids of British meadows, Orchis Mori-o, mascula (Shakespeare's long purples), &c., the general structure of the flower is as we have described it (figs.
This column stands up from the base of the flower, almost at right angles to the lip, and it bears at the top an anther, in the two hollow lobes of which are concealed the two pollen-masses, each with its caudicle terminating below in a roundish gland, concealed at first in the pouch-like rostellum at the front of the column.
The other parts of the flower need not detain us.
Such being in general terms the mechanism of the flower of a common orchis, let us now see how it acts.
A bee, we will assume, attracted by the colour and perfume of the flower, alights on that part of it which is the first to attract its attention - the lip. There, guided by the hairs or ridges before-mentioned, it is led to the orifice of the spur with its store of honeyed juice.
Havingattained its object the insect withdraws, taking the pollen-masses, and visits another flower.
The object of these movements will be appreciated when it is remembered that, if the pollen-masses retained the original direction they had in the anther in which they were formed, they would, when transported by the insect to another flower, merely come in contact with the anther of that flower, where of course they would be of no use; but, owing to the divergences and flexions above alluded to, the pollen-masses come to be so placed that, when transplanted to another flower of the same species, they come in contact with the stigma and so effect the fertilization of that flower.
These illustrations are comparatively simple; it would have been easy to select others of a more complicated nature, but all evidently connected with the visits of insects and the cross fertilization of the flower.
- (I) Flower of Borage; (2) same in vertical section enlarged; (3) horizontal plan of flower; (4) flower of Comfrey after removal of corolla, showing unripe fruit; (I) and (4) natural size.
CAPRIFOLIACEAE, a natural order of plants belonging to the sympetalous or higher division of Dicotyledons, that namely which is characterized by having the petals of the flower united.
1, Fruit slightly reduced; 2, horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
In Sambucus and Viburnum the small white flowers are massed in heads; honey is secreted at the base of the styles and, the tube of the flower being very short, is exposed to the visits of flies and insects with short probosces.
The addition of a careful dissection of a flower greatly increases the value of the specimen.
A flower dissected and gummed on the sheets will often retain the colour which it is impossible to preserve in a crowded inflorescence.
If these be too luxuriant, they yield nothing but leaves; and if too weak, they are incapable of developing flower buds.
The trees must be got to start growth very C - ---- - gradually, and at first the house should be merely kept closed at a temperature of about 45°, but the heat should gradually increase to 50° at night by the time the trees are in flower, and to 60° when the fruit is set, after which the house should be kept moist by sprinkling the walls and paths, or by placing water troughs on the return pipes, and the temperature should range from 65° by day to 70° or more with sun heat.
Napoleon induced the king of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis of Romana 1 to assist the French on the Baltic. Then Dupont de l'Etang (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidassoa on the 22nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January 1808 he had reached Burgos and Valladolid.
CRUCIFERAE, or Crucifer family, a natural order of flowering plants, which derives its name from the cruciform arrangement of the four petals of the flower.
I, Flower in vertical section.
Flower with Perianth removed.
The flowers are arranged in racemes without bracts; during the life of the flower its stalk continues to grow so that the open flowers of an inflorescence stand on a level (that is, are corymbose).
The pistil, which is above the rest of the members of the flower, consists of two carpels joined at their edges to form the ovary, which becomes two-celled by subsequent ingrowth of a septum from these united edges; a row of ovules springs from each edge.
Napus), Raphanus sativus (radish), Cochlearia Armor acia (horse-radish), Nasturtium officinale (water - cress), showing Flower and Fruit.
The name Anthesteria, according to the account of it given above, is usually connected with avOos ("flower," or the "bloom" of the grape), but A.
The irregular construction of the flower is connected with fertilization by insect agency.
To reach the honey in the spur of the flower, the insect must thrust its proboscis into the flower close under the globular head of the stigma.
The proboscis, passing down this groove to the spur, becomes dusted with pollen; as it is drawn back, it presses up the lip-like valve of the stigma so that no pollen can enter the stigmatic chamber; but as it enters the next flower it leaves some pollen on the upper surface of the valve, and thus cross-fertilization is effected.
Flower more highly magnified and cut open.
b, pair of bracteoles below the flower; s, sepals; p, petals; st, stamens; o, ovary.
2, Flower, a natural size.
1, Male flower, 2, female flower, both enlarged; 3, berry, slightly reduced.
terminating the short annual shoot which bears a whorl of four or more leaves below the flower; in this and in some species of the nearly allied genus Trillium (chiefly temperate North America) the flowers have a fetid smell, which together with the dark purple of the ovary and stigmas and frequently also of the stamens and petals, attracts carrion-loving flies, which alight on the stigma and then climb the anthers and become dusted with pollen; the pollen is then carried to the stigmas of another flower.
It resembles Juncaceae in the general plan of the flower, which, however, has become much more elaborate and varied in the form and colour of its perianth in association with transmission of pollen by insect agency; a link between the two orders is found in the group of Australian genera referred to above under Asphodeloideae.
The tribe Ophiopogonoideae, with its tendency to an inferior ovary, suggests an affinity with the Amaryllidaceae which resemble Liliaceae in habit and in the horizontal plan of the flower, but have an inferior ovary.
There are cloth, artificial flower, and cigar factories, glass-works, potteries, and in the neighbourhood large granite quarries.
Its leaves are of a glossy dark green, its1 flower white and star-shaped, and its fruit resembles the plum.
io) the young monarch and the flower of the Magyar chivalry were overwhelmed by fourfold odds on Turkish soil.
The parts of the flower are in fives in calyx, corolla and stamens, followed by two carpels which unite to form a superior ovary.
The slender filaments of the stamens vary widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open lengthwise.
Flower cut vertically.
Seed cut lengthwise showing ment of flower.
These crocuses of the flower garden are mostly horticultural varieties of C. vernus, C. versicolor and C. aureus (Dutch crocus), the two former yielding the white, purple and striped, and the latter the yellow varieties.
The crocus succeeds in any fairly good garden soil, and is usually planted near the edges of beds or borders in the flower garden, or in broadish patches at intervals along the mixed borders.
The purple flower, which blooms late in autumn, is very similar to that of the common spring crocus, and the stigmas, which are protruded from the perianth, are of a characteristic orange-red colour.
The Royal Botanic Society has private gardens in the midst of Regent's Park, where flower shows and general entertainments are held.
Flower after fall of petals, magnified.
When they are in flower, and onwards during the swelling of the berries, 85° may be taken as a maximum, running up to 90° with sun heat and the temperature may be lowered somewhat when the fruit is ripe.
When the vines are in flower, and when the fruit is colouring, the evaporating troughs should be kept dry, but the aridity must not be excessive, lest the red spider and other pests should attack the leaves.
In the course of the season the borders (inside) will require several thorough soakings of warm water - the first when the house is shut up, this being repeated when the vines have made young shoots a few inches long, again when the vines are in flower, and still again when the berries are taking the second swelling after stoning.
The tobacco flower is fortunately perfectly self-fertile, and by enclosing the flowers of selected plants in paper bags, so as to exclude all possibility of hybridization, progeny true to the type of the mother plant can be obtained.
In the male flower the receptacle is "concrescent" or inseparate from the bract in whose axil it originates.
The female flower consists of a cup-like receptacle, inseparate from the ovary, and bearing at its upper part a bract and two bracteoles.
The inflorescence is a very simple one, consisting of one or two male flowers each comprising a single stamen, and a female flower comprising a flask-shaped pistil.
The order Lemnaceae to which they belong 1, Lemna minor (Lesser Duckstamen, and a female flower, weed) nat.
the whole enclosed in a 2, Plant in flower.
Among the first wild shrubs and trees that are met with are the chilca (Baccharis Feuillei), with a pretty yellow flower, the Mutisia acuminata, with beautiful red and orange flowers, several species of Senecio, calceolarias, the Schinus molle, with its graceful branches and bunches of red berries, and at higher elevations the lambras (Alnus acuminata), the sauco (Sambucus peruviana), the quenuar (Buddleia incana), and the Polylepis racemosa.
It is a very suitable subject for the back row in mixed flower borders, or for recesses in the front part of shrubbery borders.
These have the coronet in the centre of the flower very large in proportion to the other parts, and much expanded, like the old hooped petticoats.
1, Flower cut open; 2, pistil; 3, horizontal plan of flower.
The "Chinese sacred lily" or "joss flower" is a form of N.
It is particularly unfortunate that September should be the season of greatest typhoon frequency, for the earlier varieties of rice flower in that month and a heavy storm does much damage.
Neither the camellia noi the daphne is regarded as a refined flower: their manner of shedding their blossoms is too unsightly.
But the chief ornament of Lebanon is the Rhododendron ponticum, with its brilliant purple flower clusters; a peculiar evergreen, Vinca libanotica, also adds beauty to this zone.
The details of the structure of the flower show a wide variation; the flowers are often extremely simple, sometimes as in Arum, reduced to a single stamen or pistil.
She was a celebrated dancer and courtesan, who, in the full flower of her beauty and guilty sovereignty over the youth of Antioch, was suddenly converted by the influence of the holy bishop Nonnus, whom she had heard preaching in front of a church which she was passing with her gay train of attendants and admirers.
Each male flower consists of a small scale or bract, in the axil of which are usually two, sometimes three, rarely five stamens, and still more rarely a larger number.
2, Branchlet bearing male cat5, Female flower.
3, Male flower.
On the 22nd of January 1879 a British force encamped at the foot of the hill was attacked by about io,000 Zulus, the flower of Cetewayo's army, and destroyed.
The Order thus reached the highest pinnacle of its fame, and new knights flocked to be enrolled therein from the flower of the nobility of Europe; La Valette refused a cardinal's hat, determined not to impair his independence.
I, Flower reduced; 2, Same in vertical section; 3, Flattened branch much reduced; 4, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
The principal modern genera are grouped by the differences in the flower - tube just explained.
'SNOWDROP,' Galanthus nivalis, the best known representative of a small genus of the order Amaryllidaceae, all the species of which have bulbs, linear leaves and erect flower-stalks, destitute of leaves but bearing at the top a solitary pendulous bell-shaped flower.
There are numerous varieties, differing in the size of the flower and the period of flowering.
In modern botany it is a technical term sometimes denoting the lower part of the capsule called pyxidium, attached to the flower stalk in the form of an urn.
Subsequently the appearance in its vicinity of a white deer carrying a flower in its mouth was deemed so favourable an omen as to more than justify the change of its name to Luh or Deer city.
Graceful in form and active in motion, sun-birds flit from flower to flower, feeding on small insects which are attracted by the nectar and on the nectar itself; but this is usually done while perched and rarely on the wing as is the habit of humming-birds.
The forget-me-not, a favourite with poets, and the symbol of constancy, is a frequent ornament of brooks, rivers and ditches, and, according to an old German tradition, received its name from the last words of a knight who was drowned in the attempt to procure the flower for his lady.
1, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower of stonecrop; 2, flower of Sedum rubens.
Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
The pasque flower is found on all the prairies and is the earliest to appear.
The system of Linnaeus was founded on characters derived from the stamens and pistils, the so-called sexual organs of the flower, and hence it is often called the sexual system.
The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
In form, the flower assumes three types: trumpet-shaped, with a more or less elongated tube, e.g.
It was used in unguents and against the bites of snakes, &c. In the middle ages the flower continued to be common and was taken as the symbol of heavenly purity.
tigrinum, and its varieties Fortunei, splendidum and flore-pleno, are amongst the best species for the flower garden; L.
The pots should be plunged in a cold frame and protected from frost, and about May may be removed to a sheltered and moderately shady place out-doors to remain till they flower, when they may be removed to the greenhouse.
According to a later tradition, he was the son of Hera (Juno) alone, who became pregnant by touching a certain flower (Ovid, Fasti, v.
Of the Ceylonese galls, " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."
Tulips are readily raised from seeds, and the seedlings when they first flower (after about 7 years cultivation) are of one colour - that is, they are self-coloured.
The flower is then said to be "rectified"; it is a bizarre when it has a yellow ground marked with purple or red, a bybloemen when it has a white ground marked with violet or purple, or a rose when it has a white ground marked with rose colour.
The least stain at the base of the flower, technically called the "bottom," would render a tulip comparatively valueless.
The best effects are produced in formal beds by planting the same variety in each, to secure the plants being of the same height and in flower simultaneously.
In mixed flower borders, mixed varieties may be planted.
They are usually strong enough to flower the third year from this sowing.
They usually flower in about the seventh year.
The bulbs are placed in long shallow boxes, plunged in soil or ashes in the open air, and are later introduced as required into heat in semi-darkness, and are afterwards transferred to benches in the forcing houses where they flower.
According to Captain Stanley Flower, director of the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, Egypt, the ancient Egyptians kept various species of wild animals in captivity, but the first Zoological Garden of which there is definite knowledge was founded in China by the first emperor of the Chou dynasty, who reigned about iioo B.C. This was called the "Intelligence Park," and appears to have had a scientific and educational object.
According to a reference list compiled by Captain Stanley Flower, there were 102 actually existing public gardens or parks containing collections of wild animals in 1910, while there are also a considerable number of private collections.
Flower, Notes on Zoological Collections visited in Europe in 1907 (Public Works Dept., Cairo); Reference List of the Zoological Gardens of the World (t9 to); C. V.
POLLINATION, in botany, the transference of the pollen from the stamen to the receptive surface, or stigma, of the pistil of a flower.
Pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower - self-pollination (or autogamy), or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species - crosspollination (or allogamy).
Thus the anthers and stigmas in any given flower are often mature at different times; this condition, which is known as dichogamy and was first pointed out by Sprengel, may be so well marked that the stigma.
The flower is termed proterandrous or proterogynous according as anthers or stigmas mature first.
In very many cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated movements of two or more parts.
Selfpollination frequently becomes possible towards the end of the life of a flower which during its earlier stages has been capable only of cross-pollination.
In many cases pollen has no effect on the stigma of the same flower, the plants are selfsterile, in other cases external pollen is more effective (pre-potent) than pollen from the same flower; but in a very large number of cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference between the effects of external pollen and that from the same flower.
higher on to the stigmas of a lower flower.
Many plants produce, in addition to ordinary open flowers, so-called cleistogamous flowers, which remain permanently closed but which notwithstanding produce fruit; in these the corolla is inconspicuous or absent and the pollen grows from the anther on to the stigma of the same flower.
- Cleistogamous typical cleistogamous flower - these flower of Viola sylvatica.
have been distinguished as pseudoi, flower X 4.
Instances occur in 2, flower more cu highly magnified and cut open.
A, female flower; s, stigmas.
A male flower has floated alongside a female and one of its anthers, which have opened to set free the pollen, is in contact with a stigma.
- Grass Flower show FIG.
- Flower of Datura sanguinea visited by humming-bird Docirnastes ensiferus.
- Pollination I, Flower visited by a humblebee, showing the projection of the curved connective bearing the anther from the helmetshaped upper lip and the deposition of the pollen on the back of the humble-bee.
2, Older flower,with connective drawn back, and elongated style.
The form, colour and scent of the flower vary widely, according to the class of insect whose ' See A.
1, One of the scales which form the coronet in the flower, enlarged.
Sprengel came very near to appreciating the meaning of cross-pollination in the life of plants when he states that "it seems that Nature is unwilling that any flower should be fertilized by its own pollen."
An increasing number of workers in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in America has produced a great mass of observations, which have recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press.
Virginia, separating the two hostile capitals, Richmond and Washington, was the theatre of the great campaigns of the east, where the flower of both armies fought.
- The name "Costa Rica," meaning "rich coast," is well deserved; for, owing to the combination of ample sunshine and moisture with a wonderfully fertile soil, almost any kind of fruit or flower can be successfully cultivated; while the vast tracts of virgin forest, which remain along the Atlantic slopes, contain an abundance of cedar, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and ebony, with fustic and other precious dye-woods.
As a matter of fact, barbarism did break out after the flower had fallen from Neoplatonism.
It was first formally proposed as an independent method, with great improvements, by Robert Flower in The Radix, a new way of making Logarithms, which was published in 1771; and Leonelli, in his Supplement logarithmique (1802-1803), already noticed, referred to Flower and reproduced some of his tables.
(b) flower, nat.
Among the public buildings and institutions are the city hall, the Federal building, the county court house, a state armoury, the Flower Memorial Library (erected as a memorial to Roswell P. Flower, governor of New York in 1892-1895, by his daughter, Mrs J.
1, single spikelet; 2, single flower with awned plume and palea; 3, pistil; 4, grain.
"lily flower"), an heraldic device, very widespread in the armorial bearings of all countries, but more particularly associated with the royal house of France.
In mammals Sir William Flower pointed out that a generalized type of liver exists, from which that of any mammal may be derived by suppression or fusion of lobes.
The accompanying diagram of Flower (fig.
The type form is the Caucasian species roseum of botanists, hardy perennial, with finely cut leaves and large flower heads, having a ray of deep rosecoloured ligulate florets surrounding the yellow centre or disk.
They bloom during the months of May and June, as well as later, and are always most welcome ornaments for the flower borders, and useful for cutting for decorative purposes.
They may be placed either in separate beds or in the mixed flower border as may be required.
Seeds should be sown in spring in a cold frame, and the young plants should be put out into beds when large enough, and should flower the following May.
Each spikelet contains a solitary flower with two outer small barren glumes, above which is a large tough, compressed, often awned, flowering glume, which partly encloses the somewhat similar pale.
It derives its scientific name from a curious beak-like appendage at the end of the stigma, in the centre of the flower; this appendage though solid was supposed to be hollow (hence the name from 46a, a bladder, and stigma).
Flower, History of the Republican Party (1884).
In Pelargonium the flower is zygomorphic with a spurred posterior sepal and the petals differing in size or shape.
(After Curtis, Flora Londinensis.) 1, Flower after removal of petals.
They rendered good service at Syracuse and Arginusae; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at Delium over the flower of the Athenian army (424), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.
These latter bore (obverse) a Nepalese emblem surrounded by eight fleurons containing the eight sacred Buddhist jewels, and (reverse) an eight-petalled flower surrounded by eight fleurons containing the names of the eight jewels in Tibetan characters.
In botany the word is used of the praefloration or folded arrangement of the petals in a flower before expansion in the summer, contrasted with "vernation" of leaves which unfold in the spring.
The collar of the Star of India is composed of alternate links of the lotus flower, red and white roses and palm branches enamelled on gold, with an imperial crown in the centre; that of the Indian Empire is composed of elephants, peacocks and Indian roses.
the red sun with white and gold rays; in the former the lilac flowers of the Paulownia tree, the flower of the Tycoon's arms, take a prominent part.
The last two classes of the Rising Sun wear a decoration formed of the Paulownia flower and leaves.
Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.
An inferior variety of pear, for instance, may suddenly produce a shoot bearing fruit of superior quality; a beech tree, without obvious cause, a shoot with finely divided foliage; or a camellia an unwontedly fine flower.
The reproductive process of which the formation of the flower is the first stage being an exhaustive one, it is necessary that the plant, as gardeners say, should get " established " before it flowers.
Moreover, although the green portions of the flower do indeed perform the same office as the leaves, the more highly coloured and more specialized portions, which are further removed from the typical leaf-form, do not carry on those processes for which the presence of chlorophyll is essential; and the floral organs may, therefore, in a rough sense, be said to be parasitic upon the green parts.
A check or arrest of growth in the vegetative organs seems to be a necessary preliminary to the development of the flower.
The flower of a double dahlia, e.g.
The double poinsettia, again, owes its so-called double condition merely to the increased number of its scarlet involucral leaves, which are not parts of the flower at all.
It must suffice here to say that double flowers are most commonly the result of the substitution of brightly-coloured petals for stamens or pistils or both, and that a perfectly double flower where all the stamens and pistils are thus metamorphosed is necessarily barren.
It rarely happens, however, that the change is quite complete throughout the flower, and so a few seeds may be formed, some of which may be expected to reproduce the double-blossomed plants.
Self-fertilization occurs when the pollen of a given flower affects the egg-cell of the same individual flower.
In the simplest instances the pollen of one flower fertilizes the ovules of another on the same plant, owing to the stamens arriving at maturity in any one flower earlier or later than the pistils.
The conveyance of pollen from one flower to another in crossfertilization is effected naturally by the wind, or by the agency of insects and other creatures.
The colour and markings of a flower often serve to guide the insects to the honey, in the obtaining of which they are compelled either to remove or to deposit pollen.
It is very probable that the same flower at certain times and seasons is self-fertilizing, and at others not so.
Sometimes more delicate and direct manipulation is required, and the gardener has himself to convey the pollen from one flower to another, for which purpose a small camel's-hair pencil is generally suitable.
In a particular country or at certain seasons one flower will be self-sterile or nearly so, and another just the opposite.
To prevent self-fertilization, or the access of insects, it is advisable to remove the stamens and even the corolla from the flower to be impregnated, as its own pollen or that of a flower of the same species is often found to be " prepotent."
some passion-flowers and rhododendrons, in which a flower is more or less sterile with its own, but fertile with foreign pollen, even when this is from a distinct species.
- The site chosen for the mansion will more or less determine that of the garden, the pleasure grounds and flower garden being placed so as to surround or lie contiguous to it, while the fruit and vegetable gardens, either together or separate, should be placed on one side or in the rear, according to fitness as regards the nature of the soil and subsoil, the slope of the surface or the general features of the park scenery.
In the case of villa gardens there is usually little choice: the land to be occupied is cut up into plots, usually rectangular, and of greater or less breadth, and in laying out these plots there is generally a smaller space left in the front of the villa residence and a larger one behind, the front plot being usually devoted to approaches, shrubbery and plantations, flower beds being added if space permits, while the back or more private plot has a piece of lawn grass with flower beds next the house, and a space for vegetables and fruit trees at the far end, this latter being shut off from the lawn by an intervening screen of evergreens or other plants.
The almost universal practice is to have the fruit and vegetable gardens combined; and the flower garden may sometimes be conveniently placed in juxtaposition with them.
A considerable portion of the north wall is usually covered in front with the glazed structures called forcing-houses, and to these the houses for ornamental plants are sometimes attached; but a more appropriate site for the latter is the flower garden, when that forms a separate department.
The conservatory may also with great propriety be placed in the flower garden, where it may occupy an elevated terrace, and form the termination of one of the more important walks.
In some Monocotyledons, ordinarily in Chlorophytum, and exceptionally in Phalaenopsis and others, new plants arise on the flower stems.
It is also important to select leafy growths, and not such as will at'once run up to flower.
In transplanting smaller subjects, such as plants for the flower garden, much less effort is required.
Pruning is a very important operation in the fruit garden, its object being twofold - (i) to give form to the tree, and (2) to induce the free production of flower buds as the precursors of a plentiful crop of fruit.
Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season, - as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons.
Flower Garden and Pleasure Grounds.
- Wherever there is a flower garden of considerable magnitude, and in a separate situation, it should be constructed on principles of its own.
Two varieties of flower gardens have chiefly prevailed in Britain.
When the flower garden is to be seen from the windows, or any other elevated point of view, the former is to be preferred; but where the surface is irregular, and the situation more remote, and especially where the beauty of flowers is mainly looked to, the choice should probably fall on the latter.
The flower garden may include several different compartments..
of this class, with which may be associated hardy subjects which flower during that season or very early spring, as the Christmas rose, and amongst bulbs the crocus and snowdrop. Later the spring garden department is a scene of great attraction; and some of the gardens of this character, as those of Cliveden and Belvoir, are among the most fascinating examples of horticultural art.
The old-fashioned stereotyped flower garden that one met with almost everywhere is rapidly becoming a thing of the past, and grounds are now laid out more in accordance with their natural disposition, their climatic conditions and their suitability for certain kinds of plants.
- Annual plants are those which grow up from seed, flower, ripen seed, and die in the course of one season - one year.
Those sown in spring begin to flower about June.
The plants, if left to flower where they are sown, should be thinned out while young, to give them space for proper development.
The class of tender annuals, being chiefly grown for greenhouse decoration, should be treated much the same as soft-wooded plants, being sown in spring, and grown on rapidly in brisk heat, near the glass, and finally hardened off to stand in the greenhouse when in flower.
Those that are perfectly hardy are best planted where they are to flower in good time during autumn.
Dianthus chinensis (Indian Pink): half-hardy, I ft., various; flower earlier if treated as biennials; must be protected from frost.
Michauxia campanuloides, a remarkable bell flower, 3 to 8 ft.
When the length of the flowering season is considered, it will be obvious that it is impossible to keep up the show of a single border or plot for six months together, since plants, as they are commonly arranged, come dropping into and out of flower one after another; and even where a certain number are in bloom at the same time, they necessarily stand apart, and so the effects of contrast, which can be perceived only among adjacent objects, are lost.
Dwarf close-growing evergreen cruciferous plants, adapted for rockwork and the front part of the flower border, and of the easiest culture.
One of the best for the flower border is C. maximum and its varieties - all with beautiful white flowers having yellow centres.
C. majalis, the lily of the valley, a well-known sweet-scented favourite spring flower, growing freely in rich garden soil; its spikes, 6 to 9 in.
They flower in early spring, and all have a fine appearance when in bloom, on account of their large showy umbels of yellow flowers.
moschata, 2 ft., with a profusion of pale pink or white flowers, and musky deeply cut leaves, though a British plant, is worth introducing to the flower borders when the soil is light and free.
P. Russelliana (lunariaefolia), 4 ft., yellow, and P. tuberosa, 3 ft., purplish-rose, both with downy hoary leaves, come in well in broad flower borders.
Laggeri, rose, grow when in flower 3 to 6 in.
cordifolia, the foam flower, is very ornamental in border or rockery.
Pavonia, the peacock tiger flower, from Mexico, grows to 2 ft.
Few bulbs come into the summer flower gardens, but amongst those which should always be well represented are the Gladiolus, the Lilium, the Tigridia and the Montbretia.
While in flower, orchids may with advantage be removed to a drier and cooler situation, and may be utilized in the drawing-room or boudoir.
For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain and at the same time retain their aromatic properties.
Put plants of fuchsias, petunias, verbenas, heliotropes, salvias and other soft-wooded subjects, into a propagating house to obtain cuttings, &c., for the flower garden.
In the last week, sow hardy annuals in the borders, with biennials that flower the first season, as also perennials.
Pot off tender annuals, and cuttings of half-hardy greenhouse plants put in during February to get them well established for use in the flower garden.
Sow fragrant or showy annuals to flower in pots during winter; and grow on a set of decorative plants for the same object.
Propagate herbaceous and other plants that have gone out of flower, by means of cuttings and slips, especially those required for spring bedding; propagate also the various summer bedding plants increased by cuttings.
Sow half-hardy annuals, as Nemophila, Collinsia, Schizanthus, Rhodanthe, &c., to flower during winter.
Flower Garden, &c. - Sow in the beginning of this month all halfhardy annuals required for early flowering; also mignonette in pots, thinning the plants at an early stage; the different species of primula; and the seeds of such plants as, if sown in spring, seldom come up the same season, but if sown in September and October, vegetate readily the succeeding spring.
Flower Garden, &c. - Plant dried tubers of border flowers, but the finer sorts had better be deferred till spring.
Put in cuttings of bedding calceolarias, choosing the shoots that will not run up to flower.
Dig and dress such flower borders and shrubberies as may now be cleared of annuals and the stems of herbaceous plants.
Flower Garden, £&c. - Plant shrubs in open weather.
January Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
In the outside flower garden little can be done except that shrubs may be pruned, or new work, such as making walks or grading, performed, if weather permits.
February Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
March Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
In March flower seeds and vegetable seeds may be sown in boxes or flats in the greenhouse, or in residence windows, or near the kitchen stove.
April Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
Sow tender annual flower seeds in boxes inside.
MAY Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
June Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
July Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
August Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
September Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
October Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
November Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
Little can be done in the flower garden, except to clean off all dead stalks, and straw up tender roses, vines, &c., and, wherever there is time, to dig up and rake the borders, as it will greatly facilitate spring work.
December Flower Garden and Greenhouse.
Robinson, The English Flower Garden; Geo.
A widespread disease known as pocket-plums or bladderplums is due to an ascomycetous fungus, Exoascus pruni, the mycelium of which lives parasitically in the tissues of the host plant, passes into the ovary of the flower and causes the characteristic malformation of the fruit which becomes a deformed, sometimes curved or flattened, wrinkled dry structure, with a hollow occupying the place of the stone; the bladder plums are yellow at first, subsequently dingy red.
In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.
Flower removed from 2, Calyx.
ADIS ABABA (" the new flower"), the capital of Abyssinia and of the kingdom of Shoa, in 9° 1' N., 38° 56' E., 220 m.
The chiefs and their followers that settled Iceland were "picked men," the flower of the land, and sought a new home from other motives than want or gain.
Many other badges and various articles of jewellery have since been designed, with this flower as an emblem.
Different writers style her "the tenth Muse," "the flower of the Graces," "a miracle," "the beautiful," the last epithet referring to her writings, not her person, which is said to have been small and dark.
Such are the scales of a bulb, and the various parts of the flower, and assuming that the structure ordinarily termed a leaf is the typical form, these other structures were designated changed or metamorphosed leaves, a somewhat misleading interpretation.
cupri rosa, the flower of copper), green vitriol, or ferrous sulphate, FeSO 4.7H 2 0, having a bluish-green colour and an astringent, inky and somewhat sweetish taste.
Berlin is noted for its flower nurseries, the Rhine valley, Wurttemberg and the Elbe valley below Dresden for fruit, and Frankfurt-on-main for cider.
P. de Tournefort in taking the flower instead of the fruit as his basis of classification: he was no longer a fructicist but a corollist.
The sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or six) petals, which are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily.
She was worshipped as the goddess of flowers (avOeia); girls served in her temple under the name of "flowerbearers," and a flower festival ('HpoaavOela, 'HpoavOca) was celebrated by Peloponnesian women in spring.
The following are among those most easily explained reed flower, valueyand 5; from ~ ~ y, reed.
In rare cases the main axis is unbranched and ends in a flower, as, for instance, in the tulip, where scale-leaves, forming the underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral leaves are borne on one and the same axis.
A potential branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above each leaf.
The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the distinction of the series and families or natural orders, into which the group is divided.
The flower is a shoot (stem bearing leaves) which has a special form associated with the special function of ensuring the fertilization of the egg and the development of fruit containing seed.
Occasionally, as in violet, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then termed axillary.
The primary function of the flower is to bear the spores.
The flower may consist only of spore-bearing leaves, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels.
These form the perianth and are in one series, when the flower is termed monochlamydeous, or in two series (dichlamydeous).
In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.
The insect, &c., is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently also by honey which is secreted in some part of the flower.
(For further details on the form and arrangement of the flower and its parts, see Flower.) Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (microsporangia) which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on a stalk or filament.
The leaves show a remark the carpel of the same or another flower.
Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary, and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, as the floral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others.
A relation between such vegetative distribution buds and production of flower is usually marked.
Where there is free formation of buds there is little flower and commonly no seed, and the converse is also the case.
Viviparous plants are an illustration of substitution of vegetative buds for flower.
Within each class the flower-characters as the essential feature of Angiosperms supply the clue to phylogeny, but the uncertainty regarding the construction of the primitive angiospermous flower gives a fundamental point of divergence in attempts to construct progressive sequences of the families.
In Monocotyledons a similar advance from hypogyny to epigyny is observed, and from the dorsiventral to the radial type of flower.
In his arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two groups, a larger containing those in which both calyx and corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae, representing the Apetalae and Diclines Irregulares of Jussieu.
Series 6, Apocarpeae, is characterized by 5 carpels, and in the last series Glumaceae, great simplification in the flower is associated with a grass-like habit.
The second subclass, Gamopetalae, includes 9 series and culminates in those which show the most elaborate type of flower, the series Aggregatae, the chief representative of which is the great and wide-spread order Compositae.
Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903).
It is possible, though not certain, that to this date also belongs the famous portrait of himself at Munich bearing a false signature and date, 150o; in this it has been lately shown that the artist modified his own lineaments according to a preconceived scheme of facial proportion, so that it must be taken as an ideal rather than a literal presentment of himself to posterity as he appeared in the flower of his early middle age.
The arrangement of the parts in the flower resembles that in the nearly allied order Amaryllidaceae (Narcissus, Snowdrop, &c.), but differs in the absence of the inner whorl of stamens.
Flower, from which the outer 3.
Crocus in flower, reduced.
Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton: The Autocrat of Rebellion, Emancipation, and Reconstruction (New York, 1905).
The ideal of a prosperous, brilliant and attractive Magyar capital, which would keep the nobles and the intellectual flower of the country at home, uniting them in the service of the Fatherland, had received a powerful impetus from Count Stephan Szechenyi, the great Hungarian reformer of the pre-Revolutionary period.
Many new varieties of the flower have recently been cultivate$ in gardens.
The shady park and flower gardens are a popular resort of the people of Pozharevats.
plenissima, in which the brilliant inflorescence is branched, is as brilliant as the type, and keeps long in flower.
In autumn they must be removed to a house where the temperature is 50° at night, and by the end of September some of them may be put in the stove, where they will come into flower, the remainder being placed under heat later for succession.
we have wild olive, species of rock-rose, wild privet, acacias and mimosas, barberry and Zizyphus; and in the eastern ramifications of the chain, Chamaerops humilis (which is applied to a variety of useful purposes), Bignonia or trumpet flower, sissu, Salvadora persica, verbena, acanthus, varieties of Gesnerae.
The usual ornament is a conventional flower pattern, pricked in from paper and dusted along the pricking.
Its large variety of trees and shrubs, including oak, hickory, elm, maple, chestnut, birch, ash, cedar, pine, larch and sumach, its flower gardens, a palm house, ponds, a lake of 61 acres for boating, skating and curling, a parade ground of 40 acres for other athletic sports, a menagerie, and numerous pieces of statuary, are among its objects of interest or beauty.
Double nuts are the result of the equal development of the two carpels of the original flower, of which ordinarily one becomes abortive; fusion of two or more nuts is not uncommon.
- Catkin of Hazel (Corylus Avellana), consisting of an axis covered with bracts in the form of scales, each of which covers a male flower, the stamens of which are seen projecting beyond the scale.
Other characteristic plants of the Coastal Plain are the cranberry, wild rice, wild yam, wax myrtle, wistaria, trumpet flower, passion flower, holly and white alder.
But that audacious exploratory energy which formed the motive force of the Renaissance as distinguished from the Revival of Learning took, as we shall see, very different directions in the several nations who now were sending the flower of their youth to study at the feet of Italian rhetoricians.
But it was reserved for the 17th century to witness the flower and fruit time of this powerful art in the work of Porbus, Rubens and Vandyck, in the Dutch schools of landscape and home-life, and in the unique masterpieces of Rembrandt.
Flower and Rich.
As cultivated it is an annual with an erect stalk rising to a height of from 20 to 40 in., with alternate, sessile, narrowly lance-shaped leaves, branching only at the top, each branch or branchlet ending in a bright blue flower.
Sweet-peas raised in Calcutta from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never yield seed; plants from French seed flower better, but are still sterile; but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally imported from England) both flower and seed profusely.
The species and the numerous hybrids which have been obtained artificially, show a great variety in size and colour of the flower, including the richest deep crimson and blood-red, white, or with striped, mottled or blended colours.
The flower has in rare cases a perianth of six scale-like leaves arranged in two whorls, and thus conforming to the common monocotyledonous type of flower.
I, Spikelet of same; 2, flower.
I, Flower of true bulrush (Scirpus lacustris).
They grow slowly and flower but once after a number of years, when a tall stem or "mast" grows from the centre of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers.
americana and other species this is used by the Mexicans to make their national beverage, pulque; the flower shoot is cut out and the sap collected and subsequently fermented.
1, Flower; 2, same flower split open above the ovary; 3, ovary cut across; 1, 2, and 3, about 1/2 nat.
gariofilum), corrupted from the Latin Caryophyllum, and referring to the spicy odour of the flower, which seems to have been used in flavouring wine and other liquors to replace the more costly clove of India.
a, Male flower and young cones; b, male catkin; c, d, outer and inner side of anther-scale.
a, Fertile flower of mature cone; b, winged seed; c, fertile catkin.
Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America.
Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
The flower differs from that of the majority of grasses in having usually three lodicules and six stamens.
A dethroned sultan of Morocco, named Mulai Ahmad (Mahommed XI.), offered to acknowledge Portuguese suzerainty if he were restored to the throne by Portuguese arms, and Sebastian eagerly accepted these terms. The flower of his army was in Asia and his treasury was empty; but he contrived to extort funds from the " New Christians," and collected a force of some 18,000 men, chiefly untrained lads, wornout veterans, and foreign free-lances.
TUDOR FLOWER, or Cresting, an architectural ornament much used in the Tudor period on the tops of the cornices of screen work, &c., instead of battlements.
In the most arid regions there is a small growth of green in the rainy season, and a rich display of small wild-flowers, as well as the enormous flower clusters of the yucca, and blooms in pink and orange, crimson, yellow and scarlet of the giant cactus and its fellows.
Even in the Mexican border, desert oak, juniper and manzanita cover the mountains, and there is a vigorous though short-lived growth of grasses and flower from July to October.
californica, when full-grown and in flower, is a beautiful tree, but its leaves often fall before midsummer.
But it is easy to understand the half-despairing adoration with which a shrewd and somewhat prosaic person like Joinville must have regarded this flower of chivalry born out of due time.
It is, however, in the face that the most remarkable disposition of vivid hues occurs, more resembling those of a brilliantly coloured flower than what might be expected in a mammal.
1, Flower, enlarged.
On ladies' seals the owner is often gracefully depicted standing and holding flower or bird, or with shields of arms. After the 14th century, the figures of ladies, other than queens, vanish from seals.
1, Small branch with flower; 2, flower cut vertically; 3, section of seed of Bromelia.
His method of writing was characteristic. He planted a subject in his mind, and waited for thoughts and illustrations to come to it, as birds or insects to a plant or flower.
arose from the supposed resemblance of the corona to the crown of thorns, and of the other parts of the flower to the nails, or wounds, while the five sepals and five petals were taken to symbolize the ten apostles - Peter, who denied, and Judas, who betrayed, being left out of the reckoning.
The bracts on the flower-stalk are either small and scattered or large and leafy, and then placed near the flower, forming a sort of outer calyx or epicalyx.
The flower itself (seen in section in fig.
This coronet forms the most conspicuous and beautiful part of the flower of many species, and consists of outgrowths from the tube formed subsequently to the other parts, and having little morphological significance, but being physiologically useful in favouring the cross-fertilization of the flower by means of insects.
From the base of the inner part of the tube of the flower, but quite free from it, uprises a cylindrical stalk surrounded below by a small cup-like outgrowth, and bearing above the middle a ring of five flat filaments each attached by a thread-like point to an anther.
- Flower of Passionflower cut through the centre to show the arrangement of its constituent parts.
The grass-tree of Australia (Xanthorrhoea) is a remarkable plant, allied to the rushes in the form of its flower, but with a tall, unbranched, soft-woody, palm-like trunk bearing a crown of long, narrow, grass-like leaves and stalked heads of small, densely-crowded flowers.
as settled that the whole of the bodies known as glumes and paleae, and distichously arranged externally to the flower, form no part of the floral envelopes, but are of the nature of bracts.
In immediate relation with the flower itself, and often entirely concealing it, is the palea or pale (" upper pale " of most systematic agrostologists).
The flower with its pale is sessile, and is placed in the axil of another bract in such a way that the pale is exactly opposed to it, though at a slightly higher level.
In Leptaspis it is formed into a closed cavity by the union of its edges, and encloses the flower, the styles projecting through the pervious summit.
- Spikelet of Anthoxanthum (enlarged) without the two lower barren glumes, showing the two upper awned barren glumes (g) and the flower.
Of these the two placed distichously opposite each other at the base of the spikelet never bear any flower in thei axils, and are called the empty or barren glumes (figs.
The axis of the spikelet is frequently jointed and breaks up into articulations above each flower.
The axis is often continued beyond the last flower or glume as a bristle or stalk.
b, ing glume; p, Barren glumes; f, flower pale.
Fertile glumes, each enclosing one flower with its pale d.
Thus the species' of wheat are usually selffertilized, but cross-fertilization is possible since the glumes are open above, the stigmas project laterally, and the anthers empty only about one-third of their pollen in their own flower and the rest into the air.
In the genus Cycas the female flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like rudimentary pinnae.