Flower sentence example

flower
  • She stared at a flower pattern on the wall.
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  • She picked the flower up and poked it over her left ear.
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  • 3, Flower viewed from the side.
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  • The metal panels on top of the generator opened like a flower, automatically adjusting themselves to catch the most sun.
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  • She ripped the flower from her hair and slung it in the dust.
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  • She worked her way toward a little yellow flower and leaned down to examine it.
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  • She looked again at the flower, puzzled.
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  • Why did you think I sent you the flower - and that dress?
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  • A bee settling on a flower has stung a child.
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  • He glanced at the flower over her ear.
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  • With a trembling hand, she lifted the flower and tucked it behind her right ear.
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  • In the middle of the circle was a large teardrop-shaped flower garden.
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  • A tiny yellow flower peeped from under the log and she leaned down to examine it.
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  • She lay the flower and note aside and lifted a dress from the package, blushing as she realized his estimation of her size was accurate.
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  • The parts of the flower are in fives in calyx, corolla and stamens, followed by two carpels which unite to form a superior ovary.
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  • 1, Fruit slightly reduced; 2, horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
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  • The addition of a careful dissection of a flower greatly increases the value of the specimen.
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  • If these be too luxuriant, they yield nothing but leaves; and if too weak, they are incapable of developing flower buds.
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  • The trees must be got to start growth very C - ---- - gradually, and at first the house should be merely kept closed at a temperature of about 45°, but the heat should gradually increase to 50° at night by the time the trees are in flower, and to 60° when the fruit is set, after which the house should be kept moist by sprinkling the walls and paths, or by placing water troughs on the return pipes, and the temperature should range from 65° by day to 70° or more with sun heat.
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  • Napoleon induced the king of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis of Romana 1 to assist the French on the Baltic. Then Dupont de l'Etang (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidassoa on the 22nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January 1808 he had reached Burgos and Valladolid.
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  • The flowers are arranged in racemes without bracts; during the life of the flower its stalk continues to grow so that the open flowers of an inflorescence stand on a level (that is, are corymbose).
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  • The pistil, which is above the rest of the members of the flower, consists of two carpels joined at their edges to form the ovary, which becomes two-celled by subsequent ingrowth of a septum from these united edges; a row of ovules springs from each edge.
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  • To reach the honey in the spur of the flower, the insect must thrust its proboscis into the flower close under the globular head of the stigma.
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  • Flower more highly magnified and cut open.
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  • 1, Male flower, 2, female flower, both enlarged; 3, berry, slightly reduced.
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  • The tribe Ophiopogonoideae, with its tendency to an inferior ovary, suggests an affinity with the Amaryllidaceae which resemble Liliaceae in habit and in the horizontal plan of the flower, but have an inferior ovary.
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  • There are cloth, artificial flower, and cigar factories, glass-works, potteries, and in the neighbourhood large granite quarries.
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  • Flower after fall of petals, magnified.
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  • The slender filaments of the stamens vary widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open lengthwise.
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  • Flower cut vertically.
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  • Seed cut lengthwise showing ment of flower.
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  • These crocuses of the flower garden are mostly horticultural varieties of C. vernus, C. versicolor and C. aureus (Dutch crocus), the two former yielding the white, purple and striped, and the latter the yellow varieties.
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  • The crocus succeeds in any fairly good garden soil, and is usually planted near the edges of beds or borders in the flower garden, or in broadish patches at intervals along the mixed borders.
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  • The purple flower, which blooms late in autumn, is very similar to that of the common spring crocus, and the stigmas, which are protruded from the perianth, are of a characteristic orange-red colour.
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  • The Royal Botanic Society has private gardens in the midst of Regent's Park, where flower shows and general entertainments are held.
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  • When they are in flower, and onwards during the swelling of the berries, 85° may be taken as a maximum, running up to 90° with sun heat and the temperature may be lowered somewhat when the fruit is ripe.
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  • When the vines are in flower, and when the fruit is colouring, the evaporating troughs should be kept dry, but the aridity must not be excessive, lest the red spider and other pests should attack the leaves.
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  • In the course of the season the borders (inside) will require several thorough soakings of warm water - the first when the house is shut up, this being repeated when the vines have made young shoots a few inches long, again when the vines are in flower, and still again when the berries are taking the second swelling after stoning.
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  • The tobacco flower is fortunately perfectly self-fertile, and by enclosing the flowers of selected plants in paper bags, so as to exclude all possibility of hybridization, progeny true to the type of the mother plant can be obtained.
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  • In the male flower the receptacle is "concrescent" or inseparate from the bract in whose axil it originates.
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  • The female flower consists of a cup-like receptacle, inseparate from the ovary, and bearing at its upper part a bract and two bracteoles.
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  • The inflorescence is a very simple one, consisting of one or two male flowers each comprising a single stamen, and a female flower comprising a flask-shaped pistil.
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  • The order Lemnaceae to which they belong 1, Lemna minor (Lesser Duckstamen, and a female flower, weed) nat.
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  • Among the first wild shrubs and trees that are met with are the chilca (Baccharis Feuillei), with a pretty yellow flower, the Mutisia acuminata, with beautiful red and orange flowers, several species of Senecio, calceolarias, the Schinus molle, with its graceful branches and bunches of red berries, and at higher elevations the lambras (Alnus acuminata), the sauco (Sambucus peruviana), the quenuar (Buddleia incana), and the Polylepis racemosa.
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  • It is a very suitable subject for the back row in mixed flower borders, or for recesses in the front part of shrubbery borders.
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  • These have the coronet in the centre of the flower very large in proportion to the other parts, and much expanded, like the old hooped petticoats.
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  • 1, Flower cut open; 2, pistil; 3, horizontal plan of flower.
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  • It is particularly unfortunate that September should be the season of greatest typhoon frequency, for the earlier varieties of rice flower in that month and a heavy storm does much damage.
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  • But the chief ornament of Lebanon is the Rhododendron ponticum, with its brilliant purple flower clusters; a peculiar evergreen, Vinca libanotica, also adds beauty to this zone.
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  • The details of the structure of the flower show a wide variation; the flowers are often extremely simple, sometimes as in Arum, reduced to a single stamen or pistil.
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  • Each male flower consists of a small scale or bract, in the axil of which are usually two, sometimes three, rarely five stamens, and still more rarely a larger number.
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  • 2, Branchlet bearing male cat5, Female flower.
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  • On the 22nd of January 1879 a British force encamped at the foot of the hill was attacked by about io,000 Zulus, the flower of Cetewayo's army, and destroyed.
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  • The Order thus reached the highest pinnacle of its fame, and new knights flocked to be enrolled therein from the flower of the nobility of Europe; La Valette refused a cardinal's hat, determined not to impair his independence.
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  • I, Flower reduced; 2, Same in vertical section; 3, Flattened branch much reduced; 4, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
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  • The principal modern genera are grouped by the differences in the flower - tube just explained.
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  • 'SNOWDROP,' Galanthus nivalis, the best known representative of a small genus of the order Amaryllidaceae, all the species of which have bulbs, linear leaves and erect flower-stalks, destitute of leaves but bearing at the top a solitary pendulous bell-shaped flower.
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  • There are numerous varieties, differing in the size of the flower and the period of flowering.
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  • In modern botany it is a technical term sometimes denoting the lower part of the capsule called pyxidium, attached to the flower stalk in the form of an urn.
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  • Subsequently the appearance in its vicinity of a white deer carrying a flower in its mouth was deemed so favourable an omen as to more than justify the change of its name to Luh or Deer city.
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  • Graceful in form and active in motion, sun-birds flit from flower to flower, feeding on small insects which are attracted by the nectar and on the nectar itself; but this is usually done while perched and rarely on the wing as is the habit of humming-birds.
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  • The forget-me-not, a favourite with poets, and the symbol of constancy, is a frequent ornament of brooks, rivers and ditches, and, according to an old German tradition, received its name from the last words of a knight who was drowned in the attempt to procure the flower for his lady.
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  • Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
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  • The pasque flower is found on all the prairies and is the earliest to appear.
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  • The system of Linnaeus was founded on characters derived from the stamens and pistils, the so-called sexual organs of the flower, and hence it is often called the sexual system.
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  • The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
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  • In form, the flower assumes three types: trumpet-shaped, with a more or less elongated tube, e.g.
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  • It was used in unguents and against the bites of snakes, &c. In the middle ages the flower continued to be common and was taken as the symbol of heavenly purity.
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  • The pots should be plunged in a cold frame and protected from frost, and about May may be removed to a sheltered and moderately shady place out-doors to remain till they flower, when they may be removed to the greenhouse.
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  • Of the Ceylonese galls, " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."
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  • Tulips are readily raised from seeds, and the seedlings when they first flower (after about 7 years cultivation) are of one colour - that is, they are self-coloured.
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  • The flower is then said to be "rectified"; it is a bizarre when it has a yellow ground marked with purple or red, a bybloemen when it has a white ground marked with violet or purple, or a rose when it has a white ground marked with rose colour.
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  • The least stain at the base of the flower, technically called the "bottom," would render a tulip comparatively valueless.
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  • The best effects are produced in formal beds by planting the same variety in each, to secure the plants being of the same height and in flower simultaneously.
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  • In mixed flower borders, mixed varieties may be planted.
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  • They are usually strong enough to flower the third year from this sowing.
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  • They usually flower in about the seventh year.
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  • The bulbs are placed in long shallow boxes, plunged in soil or ashes in the open air, and are later introduced as required into heat in semi-darkness, and are afterwards transferred to benches in the forcing houses where they flower.
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  • According to Captain Stanley Flower, director of the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, Egypt, the ancient Egyptians kept various species of wild animals in captivity, but the first Zoological Garden of which there is definite knowledge was founded in China by the first emperor of the Chou dynasty, who reigned about iioo B.C. This was called the "Intelligence Park," and appears to have had a scientific and educational object.
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  • According to a reference list compiled by Captain Stanley Flower, there were 102 actually existing public gardens or parks containing collections of wild animals in 1910, while there are also a considerable number of private collections.
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  • Pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower - self-pollination (or autogamy), or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species - crosspollination (or allogamy).
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  • Thus the anthers and stigmas in any given flower are often mature at different times; this condition, which is known as dichogamy and was first pointed out by Sprengel, may be so well marked that the stigma.
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  • The flower is termed proterandrous or proterogynous according as anthers or stigmas mature first.
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  • In very many cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated movements of two or more parts.
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  • Selfpollination frequently becomes possible towards the end of the life of a flower which during its earlier stages has been capable only of cross-pollination.
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  • In many cases pollen has no effect on the stigma of the same flower, the plants are selfsterile, in other cases external pollen is more effective (pre-potent) than pollen from the same flower; but in a very large number of cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference between the effects of external pollen and that from the same flower.
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  • - Flower of Datura sanguinea visited by humming-bird Docirnastes ensiferus.
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  • - Pollination I, Flower visited by a humblebee, showing the projection of the curved connective bearing the anther from the helmetshaped upper lip and the deposition of the pollen on the back of the humble-bee.
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  • 2, Older flower,with connective drawn back, and elongated style.
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  • 1, One of the scales which form the coronet in the flower, enlarged.
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  • Sprengel came very near to appreciating the meaning of cross-pollination in the life of plants when he states that "it seems that Nature is unwilling that any flower should be fertilized by its own pollen."
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  • An increasing number of workers in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in America has produced a great mass of observations, which have recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press.
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  • Virginia, separating the two hostile capitals, Richmond and Washington, was the theatre of the great campaigns of the east, where the flower of both armies fought.
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  • - The name "Costa Rica," meaning "rich coast," is well deserved; for, owing to the combination of ample sunshine and moisture with a wonderfully fertile soil, almost any kind of fruit or flower can be successfully cultivated; while the vast tracts of virgin forest, which remain along the Atlantic slopes, contain an abundance of cedar, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and ebony, with fustic and other precious dye-woods.
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  • As a matter of fact, barbarism did break out after the flower had fallen from Neoplatonism.
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  • It was first formally proposed as an independent method, with great improvements, by Robert Flower in The Radix, a new way of making Logarithms, which was published in 1771; and Leonelli, in his Supplement logarithmique (1802-1803), already noticed, referred to Flower and reproduced some of his tables.
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  • In mammals Sir William Flower pointed out that a generalized type of liver exists, from which that of any mammal may be derived by suppression or fusion of lobes.
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  • The type form is the Caucasian species roseum of botanists, hardy perennial, with finely cut leaves and large flower heads, having a ray of deep rosecoloured ligulate florets surrounding the yellow centre or disk.
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  • They bloom during the months of May and June, as well as later, and are always most welcome ornaments for the flower borders, and useful for cutting for decorative purposes.
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  • They may be placed either in separate beds or in the mixed flower border as may be required.
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  • Seeds should be sown in spring in a cold frame, and the young plants should be put out into beds when large enough, and should flower the following May.
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  • Each spikelet contains a solitary flower with two outer small barren glumes, above which is a large tough, compressed, often awned, flowering glume, which partly encloses the somewhat similar pale.
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  • It derives its scientific name from a curious beak-like appendage at the end of the stigma, in the centre of the flower; this appendage though solid was supposed to be hollow (hence the name from 46a, a bladder, and stigma).
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  • In Pelargonium the flower is zygomorphic with a spurred posterior sepal and the petals differing in size or shape.
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  • They rendered good service at Syracuse and Arginusae; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at Delium over the flower of the Athenian army (424), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.
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  • These latter bore (obverse) a Nepalese emblem surrounded by eight fleurons containing the eight sacred Buddhist jewels, and (reverse) an eight-petalled flower surrounded by eight fleurons containing the names of the eight jewels in Tibetan characters.
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  • In botany the word is used of the praefloration or folded arrangement of the petals in a flower before expansion in the summer, contrasted with "vernation" of leaves which unfold in the spring.
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  • The collar of the Star of India is composed of alternate links of the lotus flower, red and white roses and palm branches enamelled on gold, with an imperial crown in the centre; that of the Indian Empire is composed of elephants, peacocks and Indian roses.
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  • The last two classes of the Rising Sun wear a decoration formed of the Paulownia flower and leaves.
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  • Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.
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  • An inferior variety of pear, for instance, may suddenly produce a shoot bearing fruit of superior quality; a beech tree, without obvious cause, a shoot with finely divided foliage; or a camellia an unwontedly fine flower.
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  • The reproductive process of which the formation of the flower is the first stage being an exhaustive one, it is necessary that the plant, as gardeners say, should get " established " before it flowers.
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  • Moreover, although the green portions of the flower do indeed perform the same office as the leaves, the more highly coloured and more specialized portions, which are further removed from the typical leaf-form, do not carry on those processes for which the presence of chlorophyll is essential; and the floral organs may, therefore, in a rough sense, be said to be parasitic upon the green parts.
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  • A check or arrest of growth in the vegetative organs seems to be a necessary preliminary to the development of the flower.
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  • It must suffice here to say that double flowers are most commonly the result of the substitution of brightly-coloured petals for stamens or pistils or both, and that a perfectly double flower where all the stamens and pistils are thus metamorphosed is necessarily barren.
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  • It rarely happens, however, that the change is quite complete throughout the flower, and so a few seeds may be formed, some of which may be expected to reproduce the double-blossomed plants.
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  • Self-fertilization occurs when the pollen of a given flower affects the egg-cell of the same individual flower.
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  • In the simplest instances the pollen of one flower fertilizes the ovules of another on the same plant, owing to the stamens arriving at maturity in any one flower earlier or later than the pistils.
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  • The conveyance of pollen from one flower to another in crossfertilization is effected naturally by the wind, or by the agency of insects and other creatures.
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  • The colour and markings of a flower often serve to guide the insects to the honey, in the obtaining of which they are compelled either to remove or to deposit pollen.
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  • It is very probable that the same flower at certain times and seasons is self-fertilizing, and at others not so.
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  • Sometimes more delicate and direct manipulation is required, and the gardener has himself to convey the pollen from one flower to another, for which purpose a small camel's-hair pencil is generally suitable.
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  • In a particular country or at certain seasons one flower will be self-sterile or nearly so, and another just the opposite.
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  • To prevent self-fertilization, or the access of insects, it is advisable to remove the stamens and even the corolla from the flower to be impregnated, as its own pollen or that of a flower of the same species is often found to be " prepotent."
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  • - The site chosen for the mansion will more or less determine that of the garden, the pleasure grounds and flower garden being placed so as to surround or lie contiguous to it, while the fruit and vegetable gardens, either together or separate, should be placed on one side or in the rear, according to fitness as regards the nature of the soil and subsoil, the slope of the surface or the general features of the park scenery.
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  • In the case of villa gardens there is usually little choice: the land to be occupied is cut up into plots, usually rectangular, and of greater or less breadth, and in laying out these plots there is generally a smaller space left in the front of the villa residence and a larger one behind, the front plot being usually devoted to approaches, shrubbery and plantations, flower beds being added if space permits, while the back or more private plot has a piece of lawn grass with flower beds next the house, and a space for vegetables and fruit trees at the far end, this latter being shut off from the lawn by an intervening screen of evergreens or other plants.
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  • The almost universal practice is to have the fruit and vegetable gardens combined; and the flower garden may sometimes be conveniently placed in juxtaposition with them.
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  • A considerable portion of the north wall is usually covered in front with the glazed structures called forcing-houses, and to these the houses for ornamental plants are sometimes attached; but a more appropriate site for the latter is the flower garden, when that forms a separate department.
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  • The conservatory may also with great propriety be placed in the flower garden, where it may occupy an elevated terrace, and form the termination of one of the more important walks.
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  • In some Monocotyledons, ordinarily in Chlorophytum, and exceptionally in Phalaenopsis and others, new plants arise on the flower stems.
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  • It is also important to select leafy growths, and not such as will at'once run up to flower.
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  • In transplanting smaller subjects, such as plants for the flower garden, much less effort is required.
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  • Pruning is a very important operation in the fruit garden, its object being twofold - (i) to give form to the tree, and (2) to induce the free production of flower buds as the precursors of a plentiful crop of fruit.
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  • Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season, - as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons.
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  • - Wherever there is a flower garden of considerable magnitude, and in a separate situation, it should be constructed on principles of its own.
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  • Two varieties of flower gardens have chiefly prevailed in Britain.
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  • When the flower garden is to be seen from the windows, or any other elevated point of view, the former is to be preferred; but where the surface is irregular, and the situation more remote, and especially where the beauty of flowers is mainly looked to, the choice should probably fall on the latter.
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  • The flower garden may include several different compartments..
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  • The old-fashioned stereotyped flower garden that one met with almost everywhere is rapidly becoming a thing of the past, and grounds are now laid out more in accordance with their natural disposition, their climatic conditions and their suitability for certain kinds of plants.
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  • - Annual plants are those which grow up from seed, flower, ripen seed, and die in the course of one season - one year.
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  • Those sown in spring begin to flower about June.
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  • The plants, if left to flower where they are sown, should be thinned out while young, to give them space for proper development.
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  • The class of tender annuals, being chiefly grown for greenhouse decoration, should be treated much the same as soft-wooded plants, being sown in spring, and grown on rapidly in brisk heat, near the glass, and finally hardened off to stand in the greenhouse when in flower.
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  • Those that are perfectly hardy are best planted where they are to flower in good time during autumn.
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  • Dianthus chinensis (Indian Pink): half-hardy, I ft., various; flower earlier if treated as biennials; must be protected from frost.
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  • When the length of the flowering season is considered, it will be obvious that it is impossible to keep up the show of a single border or plot for six months together, since plants, as they are commonly arranged, come dropping into and out of flower one after another; and even where a certain number are in bloom at the same time, they necessarily stand apart, and so the effects of contrast, which can be perceived only among adjacent objects, are lost.
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  • Dwarf close-growing evergreen cruciferous plants, adapted for rockwork and the front part of the flower border, and of the easiest culture.
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  • One of the best for the flower border is C. maximum and its varieties - all with beautiful white flowers having yellow centres.
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  • C. majalis, the lily of the valley, a well-known sweet-scented favourite spring flower, growing freely in rich garden soil; its spikes, 6 to 9 in.
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  • They flower in early spring, and all have a fine appearance when in bloom, on account of their large showy umbels of yellow flowers.
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  • P. Russelliana (lunariaefolia), 4 ft., yellow, and P. tuberosa, 3 ft., purplish-rose, both with downy hoary leaves, come in well in broad flower borders.
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  • Laggeri, rose, grow when in flower 3 to 6 in.
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  • Pavonia, the peacock tiger flower, from Mexico, grows to 2 ft.
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  • Few bulbs come into the summer flower gardens, but amongst those which should always be well represented are the Gladiolus, the Lilium, the Tigridia and the Montbretia.
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  • While in flower, orchids may with advantage be removed to a drier and cooler situation, and may be utilized in the drawing-room or boudoir.
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  • For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain and at the same time retain their aromatic properties.
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  • Put plants of fuchsias, petunias, verbenas, heliotropes, salvias and other soft-wooded subjects, into a propagating house to obtain cuttings, &c., for the flower garden.
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  • In the last week, sow hardy annuals in the borders, with biennials that flower the first season, as also perennials.
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  • Pot off tender annuals, and cuttings of half-hardy greenhouse plants put in during February to get them well established for use in the flower garden.
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  • Sow fragrant or showy annuals to flower in pots during winter; and grow on a set of decorative plants for the same object.
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  • Propagate herbaceous and other plants that have gone out of flower, by means of cuttings and slips, especially those required for spring bedding; propagate also the various summer bedding plants increased by cuttings.
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  • Sow half-hardy annuals, as Nemophila, Collinsia, Schizanthus, Rhodanthe, &c., to flower during winter.
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  • Flower Garden, &c. - Sow in the beginning of this month all halfhardy annuals required for early flowering; also mignonette in pots, thinning the plants at an early stage; the different species of primula; and the seeds of such plants as, if sown in spring, seldom come up the same season, but if sown in September and October, vegetate readily the succeeding spring.
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  • Flower Garden, &c. - Plant dried tubers of border flowers, but the finer sorts had better be deferred till spring.
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  • Put in cuttings of bedding calceolarias, choosing the shoots that will not run up to flower.
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  • Dig and dress such flower borders and shrubberies as may now be cleared of annuals and the stems of herbaceous plants.
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  • In the outside flower garden little can be done except that shrubs may be pruned, or new work, such as making walks or grading, performed, if weather permits.
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  • In March flower seeds and vegetable seeds may be sown in boxes or flats in the greenhouse, or in residence windows, or near the kitchen stove.
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  • Little can be done in the flower garden, except to clean off all dead stalks, and straw up tender roses, vines, &c., and, wherever there is time, to dig up and rake the borders, as it will greatly facilitate spring work.
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  • A widespread disease known as pocket-plums or bladderplums is due to an ascomycetous fungus, Exoascus pruni, the mycelium of which lives parasitically in the tissues of the host plant, passes into the ovary of the flower and causes the characteristic malformation of the fruit which becomes a deformed, sometimes curved or flattened, wrinkled dry structure, with a hollow occupying the place of the stone; the bladder plums are yellow at first, subsequently dingy red.
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  • In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.
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  • Flower removed from 2, Calyx.
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  • The chiefs and their followers that settled Iceland were "picked men," the flower of the land, and sought a new home from other motives than want or gain.
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  • Many other badges and various articles of jewellery have since been designed, with this flower as an emblem.
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  • Different writers style her "the tenth Muse," "the flower of the Graces," "a miracle," "the beautiful," the last epithet referring to her writings, not her person, which is said to have been small and dark.
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  • Such are the scales of a bulb, and the various parts of the flower, and assuming that the structure ordinarily termed a leaf is the typical form, these other structures were designated changed or metamorphosed leaves, a somewhat misleading interpretation.
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  • Berlin is noted for its flower nurseries, the Rhine valley, Wurttemberg and the Elbe valley below Dresden for fruit, and Frankfurt-on-main for cider.
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  • P. de Tournefort in taking the flower instead of the fruit as his basis of classification: he was no longer a fructicist but a corollist.
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  • The sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or six) petals, which are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily.
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  • She was worshipped as the goddess of flowers (avOeia); girls served in her temple under the name of "flowerbearers," and a flower festival ('HpoaavOela, 'HpoavOca) was celebrated by Peloponnesian women in spring.
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  • The following are among those most easily explained reed flower, valueyand 5; from ~ ~ y, reed.
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  • In rare cases the main axis is unbranched and ends in a flower, as, for instance, in the tulip, where scale-leaves, forming the underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral leaves are borne on one and the same axis.
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  • A potential branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above each leaf.
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  • The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the distinction of the series and families or natural orders, into which the group is divided.
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  • The flower is a shoot (stem bearing leaves) which has a special form associated with the special function of ensuring the fertilization of the egg and the development of fruit containing seed.
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  • Occasionally, as in violet, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then termed axillary.
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  • The primary function of the flower is to bear the spores.
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  • The flower may consist only of spore-bearing leaves, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels.
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  • These form the perianth and are in one series, when the flower is termed monochlamydeous, or in two series (dichlamydeous).
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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.
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  • The insect, &c., is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently also by honey which is secreted in some part of the flower.
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  • (For further details on the form and arrangement of the flower and its parts, see Flower.) Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (microsporangia) which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on a stalk or filament.
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  • The leaves show a remark the carpel of the same or another flower.
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  • Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary, and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, as the floral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others.
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  • A relation between such vegetative distribution buds and production of flower is usually marked.
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  • Where there is free formation of buds there is little flower and commonly no seed, and the converse is also the case.
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  • Viviparous plants are an illustration of substitution of vegetative buds for flower.
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  • Within each class the flower-characters as the essential feature of Angiosperms supply the clue to phylogeny, but the uncertainty regarding the construction of the primitive angiospermous flower gives a fundamental point of divergence in attempts to construct progressive sequences of the families.
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  • In Monocotyledons a similar advance from hypogyny to epigyny is observed, and from the dorsiventral to the radial type of flower.
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  • In his arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two groups, a larger containing those in which both calyx and corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae, representing the Apetalae and Diclines Irregulares of Jussieu.
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  • Series 6, Apocarpeae, is characterized by 5 carpels, and in the last series Glumaceae, great simplification in the flower is associated with a grass-like habit.
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  • The second subclass, Gamopetalae, includes 9 series and culminates in those which show the most elaborate type of flower, the series Aggregatae, the chief representative of which is the great and wide-spread order Compositae.
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  • Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903).
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  • It is possible, though not certain, that to this date also belongs the famous portrait of himself at Munich bearing a false signature and date, 150o; in this it has been lately shown that the artist modified his own lineaments according to a preconceived scheme of facial proportion, so that it must be taken as an ideal rather than a literal presentment of himself to posterity as he appeared in the flower of his early middle age.
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  • The arrangement of the parts in the flower resembles that in the nearly allied order Amaryllidaceae (Narcissus, Snowdrop, &c.), but differs in the absence of the inner whorl of stamens.
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  • Crocus in flower, reduced.
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  • Flower dissected.
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  • The ideal of a prosperous, brilliant and attractive Magyar capital, which would keep the nobles and the intellectual flower of the country at home, uniting them in the service of the Fatherland, had received a powerful impetus from Count Stephan Szechenyi, the great Hungarian reformer of the pre-Revolutionary period.
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  • Many new varieties of the flower have recently been cultivate$ in gardens.
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  • The shady park and flower gardens are a popular resort of the people of Pozharevats.
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  • In autumn they must be removed to a house where the temperature is 50° at night, and by the end of September some of them may be put in the stove, where they will come into flower, the remainder being placed under heat later for succession.
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  • The usual ornament is a conventional flower pattern, pricked in from paper and dusted along the pricking.
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  • Its large variety of trees and shrubs, including oak, hickory, elm, maple, chestnut, birch, ash, cedar, pine, larch and sumach, its flower gardens, a palm house, ponds, a lake of 61 acres for boating, skating and curling, a parade ground of 40 acres for other athletic sports, a menagerie, and numerous pieces of statuary, are among its objects of interest or beauty.
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  • Double nuts are the result of the equal development of the two carpels of the original flower, of which ordinarily one becomes abortive; fusion of two or more nuts is not uncommon.
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  • - Catkin of Hazel (Corylus Avellana), consisting of an axis covered with bracts in the form of scales, each of which covers a male flower, the stamens of which are seen projecting beyond the scale.
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  • Other characteristic plants of the Coastal Plain are the cranberry, wild rice, wild yam, wax myrtle, wistaria, trumpet flower, passion flower, holly and white alder.
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  • But that audacious exploratory energy which formed the motive force of the Renaissance as distinguished from the Revival of Learning took, as we shall see, very different directions in the several nations who now were sending the flower of their youth to study at the feet of Italian rhetoricians.
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  • But it was reserved for the 17th century to witness the flower and fruit time of this powerful art in the work of Porbus, Rubens and Vandyck, in the Dutch schools of landscape and home-life, and in the unique masterpieces of Rembrandt.
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  • As cultivated it is an annual with an erect stalk rising to a height of from 20 to 40 in., with alternate, sessile, narrowly lance-shaped leaves, branching only at the top, each branch or branchlet ending in a bright blue flower.
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  • Sweet-peas raised in Calcutta from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never yield seed; plants from French seed flower better, but are still sterile; but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally imported from England) both flower and seed profusely.
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  • The species and the numerous hybrids which have been obtained artificially, show a great variety in size and colour of the flower, including the richest deep crimson and blood-red, white, or with striped, mottled or blended colours.
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  • The flower has in rare cases a perianth of six scale-like leaves arranged in two whorls, and thus conforming to the common monocotyledonous type of flower.
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  • They grow slowly and flower but once after a number of years, when a tall stem or "mast" grows from the centre of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers.
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  • Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America.
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  • Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
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  • The flower differs from that of the majority of grasses in having usually three lodicules and six stamens.
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  • A dethroned sultan of Morocco, named Mulai Ahmad (Mahommed XI.), offered to acknowledge Portuguese suzerainty if he were restored to the throne by Portuguese arms, and Sebastian eagerly accepted these terms. The flower of his army was in Asia and his treasury was empty; but he contrived to extort funds from the " New Christians," and collected a force of some 18,000 men, chiefly untrained lads, wornout veterans, and foreign free-lances.
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  • In the most arid regions there is a small growth of green in the rainy season, and a rich display of small wild-flowers, as well as the enormous flower clusters of the yucca, and blooms in pink and orange, crimson, yellow and scarlet of the giant cactus and its fellows.
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  • Even in the Mexican border, desert oak, juniper and manzanita cover the mountains, and there is a vigorous though short-lived growth of grasses and flower from July to October.
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  • But it is easy to understand the half-despairing adoration with which a shrewd and somewhat prosaic person like Joinville must have regarded this flower of chivalry born out of due time.
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  • It is, however, in the face that the most remarkable disposition of vivid hues occurs, more resembling those of a brilliantly coloured flower than what might be expected in a mammal.
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  • 1, Flower, enlarged.
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  • On ladies' seals the owner is often gracefully depicted standing and holding flower or bird, or with shields of arms. After the 14th century, the figures of ladies, other than queens, vanish from seals.
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  • 1, Small branch with flower; 2, flower cut vertically; 3, section of seed of Bromelia.
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  • His method of writing was characteristic. He planted a subject in his mind, and waited for thoughts and illustrations to come to it, as birds or insects to a plant or flower.
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  • The bracts on the flower-stalk are either small and scattered or large and leafy, and then placed near the flower, forming a sort of outer calyx or epicalyx.
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  • This coronet forms the most conspicuous and beautiful part of the flower of many species, and consists of outgrowths from the tube formed subsequently to the other parts, and having little morphological significance, but being physiologically useful in favouring the cross-fertilization of the flower by means of insects.
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  • From the base of the inner part of the tube of the flower, but quite free from it, uprises a cylindrical stalk surrounded below by a small cup-like outgrowth, and bearing above the middle a ring of five flat filaments each attached by a thread-like point to an anther.
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  • - Flower of Passionflower cut through the centre to show the arrangement of its constituent parts.
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  • The grass-tree of Australia (Xanthorrhoea) is a remarkable plant, allied to the rushes in the form of its flower, but with a tall, unbranched, soft-woody, palm-like trunk bearing a crown of long, narrow, grass-like leaves and stalked heads of small, densely-crowded flowers.
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  • In immediate relation with the flower itself, and often entirely concealing it, is the palea or pale (" upper pale " of most systematic agrostologists).
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  • The flower with its pale is sessile, and is placed in the axil of another bract in such a way that the pale is exactly opposed to it, though at a slightly higher level.
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  • In Leptaspis it is formed into a closed cavity by the union of its edges, and encloses the flower, the styles projecting through the pervious summit.
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  • - Spikelet of Anthoxanthum (enlarged) without the two lower barren glumes, showing the two upper awned barren glumes (g) and the flower.
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  • The axis of the spikelet is frequently jointed and breaks up into articulations above each flower.
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  • The axis is often continued beyond the last flower or glume as a bristle or stalk.
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  • Fertile glumes, each enclosing one flower with its pale d.
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  • Thus the species' of wheat are usually selffertilized, but cross-fertilization is possible since the glumes are open above, the stigmas project laterally, and the anthers empty only about one-third of their pollen in their own flower and the rest into the air.
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  • In the genus Cycas the female flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like rudimentary pinnae.
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  • The male flower of Cycas conforms to the type of structure characteristic of the cycads, and consists of a long cone of numerous sporophylls bearing many oval pollen-sacs on their lower faces.
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  • - The stem does not grow through the female flower; both male and female flowers are in the form of cones.
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  • In Cycas revoluta and C. circinalis each leaf-like carpel may produce several laterally attached ovules, but in C. Normanbyana the carpel is shorter and the ovules are reduced to two; this latter type brings us nearer to the carpels of Dioon, in which the flower has the form of a cone, and the distal end of the carpels is longer and more leaf-like than in the other genera of the Zamieae, which are characterized by shorter carpels with thick peltate heads bearing two ovules on the morphologically lower surface.
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  • This lateral course is due to the more vigorous growth of the axillary branch formed near the base of each flower, which is a terminal structure, and, except in the female flower of Cycas, puts a limit to the apical growth of the stem.
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  • The mesarch structure of the leaf-bundles is met with in a less pronounced form in the flower peduncles of some cycads.
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  • A typical male flower consists of a central axis bearing numerous spirally-arranged sporophylls (stamens), each of which consists of a slender stalk (filament) terminating distally in a more or less prominent knob or triangular scale, and bearing two or more pollen-sacs (microsporangia) on its lower surface.
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  • The female flower is enveloped in a closely fitting sac-like investment, which must be regarded as a perianth; within this is an orthotropous ovule surrounded by a single integument prolonged upwards as a beak-like micropyle.
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  • After fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the integument remains membranous.
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  • A male flower consists of a single angular perianth, through the open apex of which the flower-axis projects as a slender column terminating in two anthers.
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  • The whole flower may be looked upon as an adventitious bud bearing two pairs of leaves; each pair becomes concrescent and forms a perianth, the apex of the shoot being converted into an orthotropous ovule.
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  • Each cone consists of an axis, on which numerous broad and thin bracts are arranged in regular rows; in the axil of each bract occurs a single flower; a male flower is enclosed by two opposite pairs of leaves, forming a perianth surrounding a central sterile ovule encircled by a ring of stamens united below, but free distally as short filaments, each of which terminates in a trilocular anther.
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  • A complete and functional female flower consists of a single ovule with two integuments, the inner of which is prolonged into a narrow tubular micropyle, like that in the flower of Gnetum.
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  • The ceremonies which accompany a wedding preserve the tradition of marriage by capture; a peasant bride must enter her new home carrying bread and salt, and in parts of Walachia a flower is painted on the outer wall of cottages in which there is a girl old enough to marry.
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  • Among plants remarkable in their appearance and structure may be noted the cactus-like Euphorbiae or spurge plants, the Stapelia or carrion flower, and the elephant's foot or Hottentots' bread, a plant of the same order as the yam.
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  • The hardy and ubiquitous sunflower has been chosen as the Kansas state flower or floral emblem.
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  • Simon., fought most gallantly, and was left dead on the field along with his eldest son Henry, his justiciar HughDespenser, and the flower of his party.
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  • In ecclesiastical architecture his reign represents the early flower of the Decorated order, perhaps the most beautiful of all the developments of English art.
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  • The female flower is a small bud-like cone situated at the apex of a small branch, and consists of two or three whorls of two or three scales.
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  • The anniversary of his death has since been honoured in an unprecedented manner, the 19th of April being celebrated as "Primrose Day" - the primrose, for reasons impossible accurately to define, being popularly supposed to have been Disraeli's favourite flower.
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  • It made most havoc in the flower of the nation, since every kind of eminence marked men for death.
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  • Each flower consists of an outer or lower glume, called the flowering glume, of the same shape as the empty glume and terminating in a long, or it may be in a short, awn or "beard."
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  • On the other side of the flower and at a slightly higher level is the "palea," of thinner texture than the other glumes, with infolded margins and with two ribs or veins.
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  • Under natural circumstances wheat is selffertilized: that is to say, the pollen of any given flower impregnates the stigma and ovule of the same flower; the glumes and coverings of the flower being tightly pressed round the stamens and stigmas in such a way as to prevent the access of insects and to ensure the deposit of the pollen upon the stigmas of the same flower.
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  • The separation of the glumes, which occurs at the time of fertilization, and which permits the egress of the useless stamens after that operation, occurs only under certain conditions of temperature, when the heat, in fact, is sufficient to cause the lodicules of the flower to become turgid and thus to press apart the glumes.
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  • The fungus-spores, from some diseased plant, alight on the stigma of the flower, and germinate there along with the pollen-grains.
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  • The name of Hallgrim Petursson, whose Passion-hymns, " the flower of all Icelandic poetry," have been the most popular composition in the language, is foremost of all writers since the second change of faith.
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  • No historic event has made such a deep impression on the mind of the Serbs as the battle of Kossovo - probably because the flower of the Serb aristocracy fell in that battle, and because both the tsar of the Serbs, Lazar, and the sultan of the Turks, Murad I., lost their lives.
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  • 2, Older flower, with connective drawn back, and elongated style.
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  • The Papuan loves personal adornment and loses no chance of dressing himself up. His chief home-made ornaments are necklaces, armlets and ear-rings of shells, teeth or fibre, and cassowary, cockatoo, or bird of paradise feathers - the last two, or a flower, are worn through the septum of the nose.
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  • In the United Kingdom the prevailing conditions, climatic A, Flower, magnified twice.
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  • It is impossible to give a rigid botanical definition of the term " flower."
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  • The flower is a characteristic feature of the highest group of the plant kingdom - the flowering plants (Phanerogams) - and is the name given to the association of organs, more or less leaf-like in form, which are concerned with the production of the fruit or seed.
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  • The term bract is properly applied to the leaf from which the primary floral axis, whether simple or branched, arises, while the leaves which arise on the axis between the bract and the outer envelope of the flower are bracteoles or bractlets.
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  • They are distinguished by their position at the base of the flower or flower-stalk.
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  • When the flower is sessile the bracts are often applied closely to the calyx, and may thus be confounded with it, as in the order Malvaceae and species of Dianthus and winter aconite (Eranthis), where they have received the name of epicalyx or calyculus.
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  • In Compositae besides the involucre there are frequently chaffy and setose bracts at the base of each flower, and in Dipsacaceae a membranous tube surrounds each flower.
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  • Axis prolonged, bearing an imperfect flower at its apex.
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  • A flower having a stalk is called pedunculate or pedicel- late; one having no stalk is sessile.
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  • The peduncle is simple, bearing a single flower, as in primrose; or branched, as in London-pride.
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  • The peduncle occasionally becomes abortive, and in place of bearing a flower, is transformed into a tendril; at other times it is hollowed at the apex, so as apparently to form the lower part of the outer whorl of floral leaves as in Eschscholtzia.
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  • The termination of the peduncle, or the part on which the whorls of the flower are arranged, is called the thalamus, torus or receptacle.
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  • - Spikelet of Oat (Avena sativa) laid open, showing the sterile bracts gl, gl, or empty glumes; g, the fertile or floral glume, with a dorsal awn a; p, the pale; fs, an abortive flower.
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  • In this the axis is either elongated and ends in a solitary flower, which thus terminates the axis, and if other.
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  • From the leaves which are radical proceeds the axis ending in a solitary terminal flower f'.
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  • About the middle of this axis there is a leaf or bract, from which a secondary floral axis a" is produced, ending in a single flower less advanced than the flower f.
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  • This secondary axis bears a leaf also, from which a tertiary floral axis a" is produced, bearing an unexpanded solitary flower f"'.
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  • Here f is the termination of the primary axis, and this flower expands first, while the other flowers are developed centrifugally on separate axes.
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  • Amongst indefinite forms the simplest occurs when a lateral shoot produced in the axil of a large single foliage leaf of the plant ends in a single flower, the axis of the plant elongating beyond, as in Veronica hederifolia, Vinca minor and Lysimachia nemorum.
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  • The flower in this case is solitary, and the ordinary leaves become bracts by producing flower-buds in place of leaf-buds; their number, like that of the leaves of this main axis, is indefinite, varying with the vigour of the plant.
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  • Usually, however, the floral axis, arising from a more or less altered leaf or bract, instead of ending in a solitary flower, is prolonged, and bears numerous bracteoles, from which smaller peduncles are produced, and those again in their turn may be branched in a similar way.
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  • - Amentum or catkin of Hazel (CorylusAvellana), consisting of an axis or rachis covered with bracts in the form of scales, each of which covers a male flower, the stamens of which are seen projecting beyond the scale.
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  • The simplest form of the definite type of the inflorescence is seen in Anemone nemorosa and in gentianella (Gentiana acaulis), where the axis terminates in a single flower, no other flowers being produced upon the plant.
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  • If other flowers were produced, they would arise as lateral shoots from the bracts below the first-formed flower.
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  • A cymose inflorescence is an inflorescence where the primary floral axis before terminating in a flower gives off one or more lateral unifloral axes which repeat the process - the development being only limited by the vigour of the plant.
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  • Here the primary axis t ends in a flower, which has passed into the state of fruit.
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  • But on examination it is found that there is a central flower expanding first, and from its axis two secondary axes spring bearing solitary flowers; the expansion is thus centrifugal.
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  • The bract is not, however, the one from which the axis terminating in the flower arises, but is a bract produced upon it, and gives origin in its axil to a new axis, the basal portion FIG.
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  • 18, the axis a l ends in a flower (cut off in the figure) and bears a leaf.
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  • From the axil of this leaf, that is, between it and the primary axis a l arises a secondary axis a2, ending in a flower f 2, and producing a leaf about the middle.
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  • From the axil of this leaf a tertiary floral axis a 3, ending in a flower f 3, takes origin.
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  • Here there are scorpioid cymes of pairs of flowers, each pair consisting of an older and a younger flower.
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  • Upon this torus the parts of the flower are arranged in a crowded manner, usually forming a series of verticils, the parts of which alternate; but they are sometimes arranged spirally especially if the floral axis be elongated.
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  • 23 is a diagrammatic representation of the arrangement of the parts of such a flower; it is known as a floral diagram.
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  • The flower is supposed to be cut transversely, and the parts of each whorl are distinguished by a different symbol.
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  • The sepals are generally of a greenish colour; their function is mainly protective, shielding the more delicate internal organs before the flower opens.
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  • Sometimes both are absent, when the flower is achlamydeous, or naked, as in willow.
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  • The gynoecium or pistil is the central portion of the flower, terminating the floral axis.
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  • When both are present the flower is hermaphrodite; and in descriptive botany such a flower is indicated by the symbol l.
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  • When only one of those organs is present the flower is unisexual or diclinous, and is either male (staminate), j, or female (pistillate), ?
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  • A flower then normally consists of the four series of leaves - calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium - and when these are all present the flower is complete.
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  • Usually the successive whorls of the flower, disposed from below upwards or from without inwards upon the floral axis, are of the same number of parts, or are a multiple of the same number of parts, those of one whorl alternating with those of the whorls next it.
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  • - Diagram of a completely symmetrical flower, consisting of four whorls, each of five parts.
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  • - Monochlamydeous (apetalous) flower of Goosefoot (Chenopodium), consisting of a single perianth (calyx) of five parts, enclosing five stamens, which are opposite the divisions of the perianth, owing to the absence of the petals.
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  • - Diagrams illustrating hypogyny, perigyny and epigyny of the flower.
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  • In Symmetry contrast to the cyclic flowers are those, as in Magnoli of the flower.
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  • A flower is said to be symmetrical when each of its whorls consists of an equal number of parts, or when the parts of any one whorl are multiples of that preceding it.
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  • Thus, a symmetrical flower may have five sepals, five petals, five stamens and five carpels, or the number of any of these parts may be ten, twenty or some multiple of five.
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  • 23 is a diagram of a symmetrical flower, with five parts in each whorl, alternating with each other.
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  • 33 is a diagram of a symmetrical flower of stone-crop, with five sepals, five alternating petals, ten stamens and five carpels.
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  • 34 shows a symmetrical flower, with five parts in the three outer rows, and ten divisions in the inner.
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  • 35 shows a flower of heath, with four divisions of the calyx and corolla, eight stamens in two rows, and four divisions of the pistil.
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  • In all these cases the flower is symmetrical.
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  • Flowers in which the number of parts in each whorl is the same, are isomerous (of equal number); when the number in some of the whorls is different, the flower is anisomerous (of unequal number).
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  • In such circumstances, however, a flower has been called symmetrical, provided the parts of the other whorls are normal, - the permanent state of the pistil not being taken into account in determining symmetry.
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  • 38 shows a pentamerous symmetrical flower, with dimerous pistil.
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  • A flower in which the parts are arranged in twos is called dimerous; when the parts of the whorls are three, four or five, the flower is trimerous, tetramerous or pentamerous, respectively.
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  • The various parts of the flower have a certain definite relation to the axis.
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  • - Diagrammatic section of a symmetrical pentamerous flower of Stone-crop (Sedum), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p) alternating with the sepals, ten stamens (a) in two rows, and five carpels (c) containing ovules.
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  • - Diagram of the flower of Flax (Linum), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p), five stamens (a), and five carpels (c), each of which is partially divided into two.
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  • - Diagram of the flower of Saxifrage (Saxifraga tridactylites).
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  • - Diagram of flower of Sweet-pea (Lathyrus), showing five sepals (s), two superior, one inferior, and two lateral; five petals (p), one superior, two inferior, and two lateral; ten stamens in two rows (a); and one carpel (c).
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  • When the different members of each whorl are like in size and shape, the flower is said to be regular; while differences in the size and shape of the parts of a whorl make the flower irregular, as in the papilionaceous flower, represented in fig.
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  • When a flower can be divided by a single plane into two exactly similar parts, then it is said to be zygomorphic. Such flowers as Papilionaceae, Labiatae, are examples.
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  • When the parts of any whorl are not equal to or some multiple of the others, then the flower 15 asymmetrical.
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  • By suppression or non-appearance of a part at the place where it ought to appear if the structure was normal, the symmetry or completeness of the flower is disturbed.
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  • This suppression when confined to the parts of certain verticils makes the flower asymmetrical.
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  • In many instances the parts which are afterwards suppressed can be seen in the early stages of growth, and occasionally some vestiges of them remain in the fully developed flower.
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  • The suppression of parts of the flower may be carried so far that at last a flower consists of only one part of one whorl.
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  • In the Euphorbiaceae we have an excellent example of the gradual suppression of parts, where from an apetalous, trimerous, staminal flower we pass to one where one of the stamens is suppressed, and then to forms where two of them are wanting.
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  • We next have flowers in which the calyx is suppressed, and its place occupied by one, two or three bracts (so that the flower is, properly speaking, achlamydeous), and only one or two stamens are produced.
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  • There is thus traced a degradation, as it is called, from a flower with three stamens and three divisions of the calyx, to one with a single bract and a single stamen.
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  • Thus in Cucurbita the stamens are originally five in number, but subsequently some cohere, so that three stamens only are seen in the mature flower.
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  • Thus in the horse-chestnut there is an interposition of two stamens, and thus seven stamens are formed in the flower, which is asymmetrical.
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  • Parts of the flower