My parents, now residing in Florida, would attend the ceremony along with my older brother and his family who would fly in from Seattle, Oregon.
It started as a geezer bike for retirees in Florida and Arizona.
He's been in northern Florida since we cut him loose.
The building swayed gently in the strong winds whipping through southern Florida, and water pelted the windows across from her.
Everything set for tonight in Florida?
Evac our folks out of HQ and southern Florida at dawn.
I've gotta return to Florida.
I leave for a few days and you blow up Florida.
I'm hoping whatever happened here in Florida didn't permanently damage our power.
Interesting. Dusty found his mate and destroyed most of Florida.
Sofi had said similar before Dusty almost blew up Florida.
"Come to Florida," Dusty suggested.
"So we evac tomorrow and set up HQ in Florida," he summarized.
I'll release the locks, if you promise to take only what you need and not sell the rest, like the feds in Florida.
"Florida communications are up," she reported.
"I suppose you folks are on your way for a vacation in Florida and just stopped off for the night," the man said with mock innocence.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD (1801-1872), American statesman, was born on the 16th of May 1801 in the village of Florida, Orange county, New York.
virens, the live oak of the southern states; more or less abundant on the Atlantic coasts of the Carolinas and Florida, its true home is the country around the Mexican Gulf, where it rarely grows more than 50 or 60 m.
After the close of the war for the Union Mrs Stowe bought an estate in Florida, chiefly in hope of restoring the health of her son, Captain Frederick Beecher Stowe, who had been wounded in the war, and in this southern home she spent many winters.
distichum), which extends from Florida to Texas.
Florida derives a tropical element from the Antilles.
Hernan Cortes overran and conquered Mexico from 1518 to 1521, and the discovery and conquest of Guatemala by Alvarado, the invasion of Florida by De Soto, and of Nueva Granada by Quesada, followed in rapid succession.
Admiral de Coligny made several unsuccessful endeavours to form a colony in Florida under Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Rene de Laudonniere and others, but the settlers were furiously assailed by the Spaniards and the attempt was abandoned.
- Excepting towards the north, where, in Mexico, it meets, and inosculates with the Nearctic subregion, the boundaries of the Neotropical region are simple enough to trace, comprehending as it does the whole of South America and all Central America; besides including the Falkland islands to the south-east and the Galapagos under the equator to the west, as well as the Antilles or West India islands up to the Florida channel.
For narrow as are the channels between Cuba and the opposite coast of Central America, between the Bahamas and Florida, and between Grenada and Tobago, the fauna of the Antillean chain, instead of being a mixture of that of the almost contiguous countries, differs, much from all, and exhibits in some groups a degree of speciality which may be not unfitly compared with that of oceanic islands..
He died at St Augustine, Florida, on the 4th of March 1906.
At the close of the Seven Years' War (1763) France ceded to Great Britain all her territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans, and Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain.
7, 1763) these new possessions were divided into East Florida and West Florida, the latter lying S.
The territorial limits were extended on the north to the state of Tennessee in 1804 by the acquisition of the west cessions of South Carolina and Georgia, and on the south to the Gulf of Mexico by the seizure of West Florida in 1810-1813, 1 but were restricted on the east by the formation of the Territory of Alabama in 1817.
The seizure of West Florida was supplemented by the treaty of 1819-1821, in which Spain surrendered all of her claims.
After receiving from Queen Elizabeth a patent for colonization in the New World, Sir Walter Raleigh, in April 1584, sent Philip Amadas, or Amidas (1S501618), and Arthur Barlowe (c. 1550 - c. 1620) to discover in the region bordering on Florida a suitable location for a colony.
From 1886 he was assistant land commissioner of the Florida Southern Railroad.
TAMPA, a city and the county seat of Hillsboro county, Florida, U.S.A., in the western part of the state, at the head of Hillsborough Bay (the E.
The Florida Citrus Exchange has its headquarters here.
1743 Mark Catesby brought out in London his Natural History of Carolina - two large folios containing highly coloured plates of the birds of that colony, Florida and the Bahamas.'
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
Nothing definite can be said with regard to a rotation of crops Sea Island Cotton - Carolina Sea Island Florida „ „ Georgia „ Barbados „ „ Egyptian Cottons Yannovitch.
- Spain, Italy, Albania ., Croatia, Hungary, Hesse, Hanover, Transcaspia, Algeria, Florida, Alabama, California, Mexico, Peru, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.
FLORIDA, the most southern of the United States of America, situated between 24° 30' and 3 i° N.
by the Strait of Florida, which separates it from Cuba, and by the Gulf of Mexico, and W.
The Florida Keys, a chain of islands extending in a general south-westerly direction from Biscayne Bay, are included in the state boundaries, and the city of Key West, on an island of the same name, is the seat of justice of Monroe county.
The peculiar outline of Florida gives it the name of " Peninsula State."
o y Westba c NOR_ TH - Western Florida ?'
part of Polk county, and forming near its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico the boundary between Levy and Citrus counties, and four rivers, the Escambia, the Choctawatchee, the Apalachicola, and the Suwanee, having their sources in other states and traversing the north-western part of Florida.
The soils of Florida have sand as a common ingredient.'
Florida, the richest class, which require drainage to fit them for cultivation.
As regards climate Florida may be divided into three more or less distinct zones.
On account of its warm climate, Florida has many resorts for health and pleasure, which are especially popular in the season from January to April; the more important are St Augustine, Ormond, Daytona, Palm Beach, Miami, Tampa, White Springs, Hampton Springs, Worthington Springs and Orange Springs.
No metals have ever been discovered in Florida.
Although the economic value of the phosphate deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons) in 1907 being valued at $ 6, 577,757; that of the whole country at $10,653,558.
Florida is also the principal source in the United States for fuller's earth, a deposit of which, near Quincy, was first discovered in 1893 and clay (including kaolin) is also mined to some extent.
Florida is similar to that of south-eastern North America; that of S.
Florida seems to be a link between the vegetation of North America and that of South America and the West Indies, for out of 247 species of S.
Florida that have been examined, 187 are common to the West Indies, Mexico and South America.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
among the peculiar species are the red bay or" Florida Mahogany," satinwood and cachibou, and the Florida yew and savin, both almost extinct.
The fisheries are very valuable; the total number of species of fish in Florida waters is about 600, and many species found on one coast are not found on the other.
The discovery of Florida's adaptability to the culture of oranges about 1875 may be taken as the beginning of the state's modern industrial development.
The cultivation of pineapples, in sub-tropical Florida, is proving successful, the product far surpassing that of California, the only other state in the Union in which pineapples are grown.
In 1903, according to the statistics of the United States Department of Agriculture, Indian corn ranked next to fruits .(as given in the state reports), but its product as compared with that of various other states is unimportant - in 1907 it amounted to 7,017,000 bushels only; rice is the only other cereal whose yield in 1899 was greater than that of 1889, but the Florida product was surpassed (in 1899) by that of the Carolinas, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas; in 1907 the product of rice in Florida (69,000 bushels) was less than that of Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Arkansas and Georgia severally.
The manufactures of Florida, as compared with those of other states, are unimportant.
In 1900 Florida ranked fourth in the manufacture of tobacco among the states of the Union, being surpassed by New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio; in 1905 it ranked third (after New York and Pennsylvania).
In the manufacture of fertilizers, the raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.
Florida's industrial progress has been mainly since the Civil War, for before that conflict a large part of the state was practically undeveloped.
The largest system is the Atlantic Coast Line, the lines of which in Florida were built or consolidated by H.
The Florida East Coast Railway is also the product of one man's faith in the country, that of Henry M.
The Seaboard Air Line, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Georgia Southern & Florida are the other important railways.
In 1882 the Florida East Coast Line Canal and Transportation Co.
Population.-The population of Florida in 1880 was 269,493; in 1890, 391,422, an increase of 45-2%; and in 1900, 528,542, or a further increase of 35%; and in 1905, by a state census, 614,845; and in 1910, 751,139.
The urban population on the basis of places having a population of 4000 or more was 16.6% of the total in 1900 and 22.7% in 1905, the percentage for Florida, as for other Southern States; being small as compared with the percentage for most of the other states of the Union.
Before 1905 the state provided for higher education by the Florida State College, at Tallahassee, formerly the West Florida Seminary (founded in 1857); the University of Florida, at Lake City, which was organized in 1903 by enlarging the work of the Florida Agricultural College (founded in 1884); the East Florida Seminary, at Gainesville (founded 1848 at Ocala); the normal school (for whites) at De Funiak Springs; and the South Florida Military Institute at Bartow; but in 1905 the legislature passed the Buckman bill abolishing all these state institutions for higher education and establishing in their place the university of the state of Florida and a state Agricultural Experiment Station, both now at Gainesville, and the Florida Female College at Tallahassee, which has the same standards for entrance and for graduation as the state university for men.
Private educational institutions in Florida are John B.
Stetson University at De Land (Baptist); Rollins College (1885) at Winter Park (non-sectarian), with a collegiate department, an academy, a school of music, a school of expression, a school of fine arts, a school of domestic and industrial arts, and a business school; Southern College (1901), at Sutherland (Methodist Episcopal, South); the Presbyterian College of Florida (1905), at Eustis; Jasper Normal Institute (1890), at Jasper, and the Florida Normal Institute at Madison.
The earliest explorations and attempts at colonization of Florida by Europeans were made by the Spanish.
The Council of the Indies claimed that since 1510 fleets and ships had gone to Florida, and Florida is shown on the Cantino map of 1502.
Soon after Easter Day he came in sight of the coast of Florida, probably near the mouth of the St Johns river.
From the name of the day in the calendar, Pascua Florida, or from the fact that many flowers were found on the coast, the country was named Florida.
He returned to Spain in 1514, and obtained from the king a grant to colonize " the island of Bimini and the island of Florida," of which he was appointed adelantado, and in 1521 he made another expedition, this one for colonization as well as for discovery.
The next important exploration of Florida was that of Panfilo de Narvaez.
Florida was also partially explored by Ferdinando de Soto in 1539-1540.
In the summer of 1559 another attempt at colonization was made by Tristan de Luna, who sailed from Vera Cruz, landed at Pensacola Bay, and explored a part of Florida and (possibly) Southern Alabama.
Menendez then turned his attention to the founding of a settlement which he named St Augustine (q.v.); he also explored the Atlantic coast from Cape Florida to St Helena, and established forts at San Mateo (Fort Caroline), Avista, Guale and St Helena.
When the English colonies of the Carolinas and Georgia were founded, there was constant friction with Florida.
In 1706 a Spanish and French expedition against Charleston, South Carolina, failed, and the Carolinians retaliated by invading middle Florida in 1708 and again in 1722.
By the treaty of Paris in 1763 Florida was ceded to England in return for Havana.
The provinces of East Florida and West Florida were now formed, the boundaries of West Florida being 31° N.
Consequently, the people of Florida were for the most part loyal to Great Britain during the War of American Independence.
In the following year, Spain having declared war against Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), the Spanish governor at New Orleans, seized most of the English forts in West Florida, and in 1781 captured Pensacola.
By the treaty of Paris (1783) Florida reverted to Spain, and, no religious liberty being promised, many of the English inhabitants left East and West Florida.
The westward expansion of the United States made necessary American ports on the Gulf of Mexico; consequently the acquisition of West Florida as well as of New Orleans was one of the aims of the negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
After the cession of Louisiana to the United States, the people of West Florida feared that that province would be seized by Bonaparte.
When it was found that the Spanish governor did not accept these plans in good faith, another convention was held on the 26th of September which declared West Florida to be an independent state, organized a government and petitioned for admission to the American Union.
Livingston that West Florida was ceded by Spain to France in 1800 along with Louisiana, and was therefore included by France in the sale of Louisiana to the United States in 1803, declared West Florida to be under the jurisdiction of the United States.
Two years later the American Congress annexed the portion of West Florida between the Pearl and the Mississippi rivers to Louisiana (hence the so-called Florida parishes of Louisiana), and that between the Pearl and the Perdido to the Mississippi Territory.
The American government asked the Spanish authorities of East Florida to permit an American occupation of the country in order that it might not be seized by Great Britain and made a base of military operations.
By the treaty of 1819 Spain formally ceded East and West Florida to the United States; the treaty was ratified in 1821, when the United States took formal possession, but civil government was not established until 1822.
Indian affairs furnished the most serious problems of the new Territory of Florida.
There was a strong demand for the removal of these Creek Indians, known as Seminoles, and by treaties at Payne's Landing in 1832 and Fort Gibson in 1833 the Indian chiefs agreed to exchange their Florida lands for equal territory in the western part of the United States.
But a strong sentiment against removal suddenly developed, and the efforts of the United States to enforce the treaty brought on the Seminole War (1836-42), which resulted in the removal of all but a few hundred Seminoles whose descendants still live in southern Florida.
In 1845 Florida became a state of the American Union.
On the 10th of January 1861 an ordinance of secession, which declared Florida to be a " sovereign and independent nation," was adopted by a state convention, and Florida became one of the Confederate States of America.
The legislature of 1866 rejected the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and soon afterwards Florida was made a part of the Third Military District, according to the Reconstruction Act of 1867.
A new constitution was framed and was ratified by the electors, and Florida passed from under a quasi-military to a full civil government on the 4th of July 1868.
Drew (1827-1900), the Democratic candidate for governor, then secured a mandamus from the circuit court restraining the board from going behind the face of the election returns; this was not obeyed and a similar mandamus was therefore obtained from the supreme court of Florida, which declared that the board had no right to determine the legality of a particular vote.
American Governors Of Florida.
Norton's Handbook of Florida (2nd edition, New York, 1892); the volumes of the Twelfth Census of the United States (for 1900) which treat of Agriculture and Manufactures, and the Special Report on Mines and Quarries for 1902.
Cockerell's " West Indian Fauna in Florida " (Nature, vol.
Millspaugh's Flora of the Sand Keys of Florida (Chicago, 1907), a Field Columbian Museum publication, are of value.
Cory's Hunting and Fishing Florida (Boston, 1896) and A.
Dimock's Florida Enchantments (New York, 1908) areof interest.
Yocum's Civil Government of Florida (De Land, Florida, 1904); and the Revised Statutes of Florida (1892).
Fairbanks, History of Florida (Philadelphia, 1871).
ii., sub-title Florida, 1905); R.
Campbell's Historical Sketches of Colonial Florida (Cleveland, 1892), which treats at length of the history of Pensacola; H.
Chambers's West Florida and its Relation to the Historical Cartography of the United States (Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series 16, No.
Fuller's The Purchase of Florida; its History and Diplomacy (Cleveland, 0., 1906).
The only published collections of documents relating to the state are Buckingham Smith's Collection de varios documentos para la historic de la Florida y tierras adyacentes (London, 1857), and Benjamin F.
While Ponce was exploring Florida in 1513 the conquerors of Porto Rico had established their domination in the upper western portion of the island by a series of settlements.
The domestic dogs of some North American Indian tribes closely resemble the coyote; the black wolfdog of Florida resembles the black wolf of the same region; the sheepdogs of Europe and Asia resemble the wolves of those countries, whilst the pariah dog of India is closely similar to the Indian wolf.
to S., west of the Mississippi, and also, save only the prairies, in the so-called " Florida parishes " E.
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
They serve the trade of Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida parishes, the lumber, coal, fish, oyster and truck trade of New Orleans, and to some extent are the highway of a miscellaneous coasting trade.
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important posts in the British colony of West Florida.
The machinations of Aaron Burr are of interest in connexion with Louisiana annals, and likewise the settlement and revolutionizing of West Florida by Americans.
A few days later the portion of West Florida between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers (the present " Florida Parishes ") was included in its boundaries, making them as they are to-day.
In the national election of 1876 there were double returns (Republican: 75,315 for Hayes and 70,508 for Tilden; and Democratic: 83,723 for Tilden and 77,174 for Hayes) from Louisiana, which, as was the case with the double electoral returns from Florida, Oregon and South Carolina, were adjudicated by the Electoral Commission in favour of the Republican electors voting for Hayes.
French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (5 series, N.Y., 1846-1853) and Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida, New Series (N.Y., 1869, 1875).
It divides the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico into two passages of nearly equal width, - the Strait of Florida, about I io m.
wide between Capes Hicacos in Cuba and Arenas in Florida (Key West being a little over i oo m.
In 1908, by the opening of a railway along the Florida Keys, the time of passage by water between Cuba and the United States was reduced to a few hours.
All the characteristic species of the West Indies, the Central American and Mexican and southern Florida seaboard, and nearly all the large trees of the Mexican tropic belt, are embraced in it.
Cables connect the island with Florida, Jamaica, Haiti and San Domingo, Porto Rico, the lesser Antilles, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.
A school was established by the government in Key West, Florida (U.S.A.), in 1905, for the benefit of the Cuban colony there.
From Cuba went the expeditions that discovered Yucatan (1517), and explored the shores of Mexico, Hernando Cortes's expedition for the invasion of Mexico, and de Soto's for the exploration of Florida.
It is estimated to consist of 29 islands, 661 cays and 2387 rocks, and extends along a line from Florida on the northwest to Haiti on the south-east, between Cuba and the open Atlantic, over a distance of about 630 m., from 80° 50' to 72° 50' W., and 22° 25' to 26° 40' N.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
There is direct connexion with New York by steamers, which make the journey in about four days; and there is also connexion with Miami in Florida.
Nassau with West Jupiter in Florida.
This main scheme is complicated in various ways: (r) by the rotation of the earth, which continually deflects currents of water or air to the right in the northern or to the left in the southern hemisphere; (2) by the conformation of the land masses (as in the case of the equatorial stream which is banked up in the Gulf of Mexico and flows out through the Straits of Florida); (3) by the varying depth of the ocean, for currents tend to flow more readily through deep than in shallow waters (as in the case of the main Atlantic drift, which flows most strongly through the deep channel between Shetland and the Faroe Is.); and (4) by the driving force of the winds acting on the surface of the sea (thus the drift of water from the equator is not N.E., as one might expect, but from E.
Other species of Landolphia, including Landolphia florida, abundant in both E.
During part of this time (1794-1795) he was also envoy extraordinary to Spain, and in this capacity negotiated (1795) the important Treaty of San Lorenzo el Real; by that treaty the boundary between the United States and East and West Florida and between the United States and " Louisiana was settled (Spain relinquishing all claims east of the Mississippi above 31 0 N.
Having in 1834 gone to the South for the benefit of his health, he was led by what he witnessed of the evils of slavery (chiefly in Florida) to write the anti-slavery novel The Slave: or Memoir of Archy Moore (1836; enlarged edition, 1852, The White Slave).
Livingston, the resident minister, in obtaining by purchase the territory at the mouth of the Mississippi, including the island of New Orleans, and at the same time authorized him to co-operate with Charles Pinckney, the minister at Madrid, in securing from Spain the cession of East and West Florida.
Columbus is served by the Southern, the Central of Georgia, and the Seaboard Air Line railways, and three steamboat lines afford communication with Apalachicola, Florida.
Gaines took a prominent part in the operations against the Seminoles in Florida in 1817 (when he was in command of the Southern Military District) and in 1836 and during the Mexican War commanded the department of the South-West, with headquarters at New Orleans.
Giddings published a series of political essays signed "Pacificus" (1843); Speeches in Congress (1853); The Exiles of Florida (1858); and a History of the Rebellion: Its Authors and Causes (1864).
TALLAHASSEE, the capital of Florida, U.S.A., and the county seat of Leon (disambiguation)|Leon county, in the W.
Tallahassee is served by the Seaboard Air Line and the Georgia, Florida & Alabama railways.
deep, one of the largest of the remarkable springs of Florida.
In 1824 Tallahassee, then virtually uninhabited, was formally chosen by the United States Government as the capital of the Territory of Florida, and it continued as the capital after the admission of Florida into the Union as a state in 1845.
in Florida, vigorous suckers are sometimes allowed to remain when the plant is cut, and produce a " sucker crop " inferior in character to the first or principal crop, but still serviceable.
Sumatra produced the best cigar wrappers of the world, and efforts to cultivate Sumatra tobacco in Florida under apparently suitable conditions of climate and soil were not successful.
The U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, in co-operation with local growers, devoted a great deal of attention and money to the problem, and Sumatra tobacco of very high quality is now produced in Florida and Connecticut.
When Cuban tobaccos were first introduced into Florida, the type broke up, but by carefully selecting the best plants and using them only as sources of seed for later crops, a good type was obtained.
The principal tobacco-producing states, with the approximate value of their crops, were: Kentucky, £3,885,400; Ohio, £1,706,600;£1,706,600; North Carolina, £1,396,153; Wisconsin, £1,342,600; Virginia, £1,206,309, Pennsylvania, £979,550; Connecticut, £883,184; Tennessee, £511,035£511,035 Florida, £330,750; New York, £244,053, and Maryland, £241,046.
On graduation at the United States Military Academy in 1835, he served in Florida with the 3rd Artillery against the Seminoles.
For about three months following this event he was held as a prisoner on parole within the limits of Charleston; then, because of his influence in deterring others from exchanging their paroles for the privileges of British subjects, he was seized, taken to St Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would not give another parole to those who had violated the former agreement affecting him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon.
OCALA (a Seminole word for green or fertile land), a city and the county-seat of Marion county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.
is Silver Spring, the largest and best known of the springs of Florida.
He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1834, and subsequently held pastorates at Newark, New Jersey (1851-1857), and Georgetown, Massachusetts; and from 1870 to 1877 lived in Florida, where he was state superintendent of public instruction in 1871-1873.
Graduating from West Point in 1831, he served with the 2nd Artillery in the Florida war in 1835.
piscivorus, the "water-viper" front Carolina and Indiana to Florida and Texas.
The moccasin-snake ranges fromMassachusetts and Kansas to Florida and Texas and into Mexico, preferring swampy localities or meadows with high grass, where it hunts for small mammals and birds.
His first field service was in Florida against the Seminole Indians.
After the Mexican war he served in the West, in Florida and elsewhere; was married in 1850 to Miss Almira Russell of St Louis; became first lieutenant in 1853, and assistant-quartermaster with the rank of captain in 1855.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
The north equatorial current divides into the current entering the Caribbean Sea and issuing thence by the Strait of Florida as the Gulf Stream, and the Antilles current passing to the north of the Antilles.
The result was the disputed election of 1876, when two sets of returns were sent to Washington from the states of Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina and Oregon.
1878 the New York Tribune (Republican) published a series of telegraphic despatches in cipher, accompanied by translations, by which it attempted to prove that during the crisis folio;ring the election Tilden had been negotiating for the purchase of the electoral votes of South Carolina and Florida.
By the Florida treaty, finally ratified at that time, the claims of the United States to Texas, based on the Louisiana purchase, were given up, and the eastern and northern boundaries of the province were determined.
Under the Florida treaty of 1819-21 a portion of the Red river was to be the northern boundary of Texas east of the tooth meridian, but as there are two branches of%the river meeting east of the meridian the enclosed territory (Greer county) was in dispute.
It is here we find the Landolphia Florida, which yields the best rubber.
It is allied to the European species of shad and pilchard, and, like the latter, approaches the coast in immense shoals, which are found throughout the year in some part of the littoral waters between Maine and Florida, the northern shoals retiring into deeper water or to more southern latitudes with the approach of cold weather.
In 1512 (or 1513) Juan Ponce de Leon made the first recorded exploration of the coast of Florida and the Bahama Channel.
From Nombre de Dios or Porto Bello the convoys went to La Vera Cruz for the trade of New Spain, and returned home in July by the Florida straits.
But the Huguenots, under the inspiration of Coligny, made three attempts to found colonies to the south - at Rio de Janeiro in 1555-1567, near the present Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1562, and in Florida in 1565.
Moore, papers on archaeology of Florida and neighbouring states, Journal Acad.
JACKSONVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Duval county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.E.
It is served by the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air Line, the Georgia Southern & Florida and the Florida East Coast railways, and by several steamship lines.'
It is the largest railway centre in the state, and is popularly known as the Gate City of Florida.
Among the places of interest in the vicinity is the large Florida ostrich farm.
Jacksonville is the most important distributing centre in Florida, and is a port of entry.
The most active operations are carried on in Florida, where the phosphate was first worked in 1887 in the form of pebbles in the gravels of Peace River.
The land pebble is worked in central South Florida; the hard rock chiefly between Albion and Bay City.
Then the Florida deposits began to be worked.
In 1908 Florida produced 1,673,651 tons of phosphate valued at 11 million dollars.
All the other states together produce less phosphate than Florida, and among them Tennessee takes the first place with an output of 403,180 tons.
46 (1888); Florida, South Carolina and Canadian Phosphates, by C. C. Hoyer Miller (London, 1892); and The Nonmetallic Minerals, by G.
The Company promised to permit the patroons to engage in the fur trade, whenever it had no commissary of its own, subject to a tax of one guilder (40 cents) on each skin, and to engage in other trade along the coast from Newfoundland to Florida subject to a tax of 5% on goods shipped to Europe.
MARK TWAIN, the nom de plume of [[Samuel Langhorne Clemens]] (1835-1910), American author, who was born on the 30th of November 1835, at Florida, Missouri.
The Civil War in America, and the questions which arose from the relations of Great Britain with both belligerents, rendered the duties of the law officers of the crown more than usually onerous, and Palmer was called upon to take part, as adviser of the ministry, in the courts, and in the House, in the questions which arose in respect of the "Trent" and the "Peterhoff," the cruisers "Alabama" and "Florida" and the "Alexandra," a ship which was seized by the government, and other matters.
The Confederacy consisted of eleven states (Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas and Tennessee).
The "Florida" (built at Liverpool in 1861-1862) crossed the Atlantic, refitted at Mobile, escaped the blockaders, and fulfilled the instructions which, as her captain said, "left much to the discretion but more to the torch."
The Florida rice-rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is another well-known representative of the group. In the Old World the group is represented by the Persian Calomyscus, a near relative of Peromyscus.
It grows to a length of three feet and inhabits marshes in North and South Carolina, Florida and Texas.
The only species, P. striatus, is a much smaller creature, growing to six inches only, and striated black and yellow; it inhabits Georgia and Florida.
Rhineura of Florida, and also known from the Oligocene of South Dakota; Lepidosternum of South America; and Anops in America and Africa; Blanus cinereus, Mediterranean countries.
General Benjamin Lincoln, succeeding Howe, undertook to drive the British out of Georgia, but General Augustine Prevost, who had commanded in Florida, moved up and compelled Lincoln to retire to Charleston.
In February and March a Spanish force from New Orleans, under Don Bernardo de Galvez, invaded West Florida with success.
de Fuentes y Guzman, Historia de Guatemala o Recordacion Florida (Madrid, 1882); A.
The special features of the Gulf Plain are the peninsular extension of the plain in Florida, the belted arrangement of relief and soils in Alabama and in Texas, and the Mississippi embayment or inland extension of the plain half-way up the course of the Mississippi river, with the Mississippi flood plain there included.
A broad, low crustal arch extends southward at the junction of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains; the emerged half of the arch, constitutes the visible lowland peninsula of Florida; the submerged half extends westward under the shallow Florida.
The southern part of the state includes the Everglades (qv.), a large area of low, flat, marshy land, overgrown with tall reedy grass, a veritable wilderness; thus giving Florida an unenvied first rank among the states in marsh area.
Hence at a short distance from the river the flood plain is often swampy, unless its surface is there aggraded by the tributary streams: for this reason Louisiana, Arkansas and Mississippi rank next after Florida in swamp area.
In Florida the system contains Y calcium phosphate of commercial value.
The marine Pliocene has but trifling development on the Atlantic Piior~ne coast north of Florida, and somewhat more extensive System.
In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.
A southern portion of this zone, comprising a narrow strip along the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida and up the Atlantic coast to South Carolina, is semi-tropical, and is the northernmost habitation of several small mammals, the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the ground dove, white-tailed kite, Florida screech owl and Chapman s night-hawk.
There is some resemblance to the Tropical life-zone at the south-eastern extremity of Texas, but this zone in the United States is properly restricted to southern Florida and the lower valley of the Colorado along the border of California and Arizona, and the knowledge of the latter is very imperfect.
The area in Florida is too small for characteristic tropical mammals, but it has the true crocodile (Crocodilus americanus) and is the home of a few tropical birds.
The Tropical belt of southern Florida has the royal palm.
The achievement of independence found the people of the United States owning the entire country between the Gulf and the Great Lakes, excepting only Florida, as far to the west as the Mississippi; but the actual settlements were, with a few minor exceptions, confined to a strip of territory along the Atlantic shore.
II Florida purchase from Spain; population counted first, 1830.
(I) the North Atlantic division~down to New Jersey and Pennsylvania; (2) the South Atlantic divisionfrom Delaware to Florida (including West Virginia); (3) the North Central divisionincluding the states within a triangle tipped by Ohio, Kansas and North Dakota; (4) the South Central division -covering a triangle tipped by Kentucky, Alabama and Texas; and (5) the Western divisionincluding the Rocky Mountains and Pacific states.
- Psammobia Florida, right side, showing expanded foot e, and g incurrent and g' excurrent siphons.
Mactra, the right valve of the Rangia; brackish water, Florida.
An excited controversy having arisen about the result of the balloting in the states of South Carolina, Florida, Oregon and Louisiana, the two parties in Congress in order to allay a crisis dangerous to public peace agreed to pass an act referring all contested election returns to an extraordinary commission, called the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.), which decided each contest by eight against seven votes in favour of the Republican candidates.
by Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, and W.
deep, on which the national government spends large sums of money; yet an increasing amount of Alabama cotton is sent to New Orleans for shipment, and Pensacola, Florida, receives much of the lumber.
The first Europeans to enter the limits of the present state of Alabama were Spaniards, who claimed this region as a part of Florida.
of West Florida, and the portion north of this line a part of the "Illinois country," set apart, by royal proclamation, for the use of the Indians.
In 1767 the province of West Florida was extended northward to 32° 28' N.
By the treaty of Versailles, on the 3rd of September 1783, England ceded West Florida to Spain; but by the treaty of Paris, signed the same day, she ceded to the United States all of this province north of 30, and thus laid the foundation for a long controversy.
In 1812 Congress annexed to the Mississippi Territory the Mobile District of West Florida, claiming that it was included in the Louisiana Purchase; and in the following year General James Wilkinson occupied this district with a military force, the Spanish commandant offering no resistance.
This platform was endorsed by conventions in Florida and Virginia and by the legislatures of Georgia and Alabama.
by Florida, and W.
to the Florida line.
All the nine climate belts in the United States, except that of southern Florida, are represented within its borders.
and generally those on the Florida frontier are not suitable for cultivation, on account of the numerous marshes and swamps, Okefinokee Swamp being 45 m.
The products are so diversified that, with the exception of some tropical fruits of California and Florida, almost everything cultivated in the United States can be produced.
The sugar-cane crop declined in value after 1890, and each year more of it was made into syrup. In 1908 the tobacco crop was 2,705,625 lb, and the average farm price was 35 cents, being nearly as high as that of the Florida crop; Sumatra leaf for wrappers is grown successfully..
The yellow pines of the southern part of the state, which have a stand of approximately 1 3,77 8, 000 ft., yielded in 1900 rosin and turpentine valued at $8,110,468 (more than the product of any other state in the Union) and in 1905 valued at $7,705,643 (second only to the product of Florida).
The most important of the railways are the Central of Georgia, the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air Line, the Georgia and the Georgia Southern & Florida.
Its formation was due to a desire of the British government to protect South Carolina from invasion by the Spaniards from Florida and by the French from Louisiana, as well as to the desire of James Edward Oglethorpe to found a refuge for the persecuted Protestant sects and the unfortunate but worthy indigent classes of Europe.
On the small high island of Florida there is much undulating grass-land interspersed with fine clumps of trees; patches of cultivated land surround its numerous villages, and plantations on the hill-sides testify to the richness of its soil.
As captain of artillery and later as lieutenant-colonel he served against the British in South Carolina in 1779-80, but he was captured near Charleston in 1780, and was imprisoned at St Augustine, Florida, for a year.
is considered the oldest city save one (St Augustine, Florida) in the United States.
For the conduct of Jackson in Florida, in the summary execution of Arbuthnot and Ambrister, he had only strong condemnation.
In 1764 he was made secretary to General Johnstone at Pensacola, West Florida, and when he returned, two years later, to England, after a quarrel with Johnstone, he was allowed to retain his salary as a pension.
In 1683, several families, chiefly Scotch, led by Henry Erskine, third Lord Cardross (1650-1693), established on the island a settlement named Stuart's Town (probably in honour of Cardross's family); but three years later most of the settlers were murdered by Spaniards from Florida and the remainder fled to Charleston.
On the British side, the naval force in American waters under Sir John Borlase Warren, who took up the general command on the 26th of September 1812, consisted of ninety-seven vessels in all, of which eleven were of the line and thirty-four were frigates, a power much greater than the national navy of America, but inadequate to the blockade of the long coast from New Brunswick to Florida.
Apuleius, Florida, iv.
DE LAND, a town and the county-seat of Volusia county, Florida, U.S.A., iii m.
His father, Thomas (1778-1851), was born in Rockingham (then Augusta) county, Virginia; he was hospitable, shiftless, restless and unsuccessful, working now as a carpenter and now as a farmer, and could not read or write before his marriage, in Washington county, Kentucky, on the 12th of June 1806, to Nancy Hanks (1783-1818), who was a native of Virginia, who is said to have been the illegitimate daughter of one Lucy Hanks, and who seems to have been, in 1 Lincoln's birthday is a legal holiday in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.
There was much opposition in these states to such a course, but the secessionists triumphed, and by the time President Lincoln was inaugurated, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas had formally withdrawn from the Union.
The persons in these three States - Georgia, Florida and South Carolina - heretofore 2 In November 1861 the president drafted a bill providing (i) that all slaves more than thirty-five years old in the state of Delaware should immediately become free; (2) that all children of slave parentage born after the passage of the act should be free; (3) that all others should be free on attaining the age of thirty-five or after the 1st of January 1893, except for terms of apprenticeship; and (4) that the national government should pay to the state of Delaware $23,200 a year for twenty-one years.
On the 1st day of January 1863 the final proclamation of emancipation was duly issued, designating the States of Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and certain portions of Louisiana and Virginia, as "this day in rebellion against the United States," and proclaiming that, in virtue of his authority as commander-inchief, and as a necessary war measure for suppressing rebellion, "I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are and henceforward shall be free," and pledging the executive and military power of the government to maintain such freedom.
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