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florentine

florentine

florentine Sentence Examples

  • He contributed to the Antologia, a celebrated Florentine review, and in 1847 founded a newspaper called L' Italia, the programme of which, was "Reform and Nationality."

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  • It was afterwards adopted by other cities, and first appears on a Florentine battlefield in 1228.

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  • The Florentine carroccio was usually followed by a smaller car bearing the martinella, a bell to ring out military signals.

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  • The Florentine mosaics are perhaps better known abroad; they are composed of larger pieces than the Roman.

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  • They fought the battles of the republic with success against the Visconti, and widely extended the Florentine domain over the Tuscan cities.

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  • After Cosimo de Medicis death in 1464, the presidency of the Florentine republic passed to his son Piero, who left it in 1469 to his sons Lorenzo and Giuliano.

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  • Machiavellis Stonia florentine, B.

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  • In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.

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  • Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.

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  • It was under the protection of Siena till 1202, when it declared for Florence and thenceforward passed from one mistress to the other, until early in the 16th century when it finally became Florentine.

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  • The republic entrusted the work to the Florentine Verrocchio, who dying before the statue was completed begged the government to allow his pupil Lorenzo di Credi to carry it to a conclusion.

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  • The library (1888-1895; cost $2,486,000, exclusive of the site, given by the state) is a dignified, finely proportioned building of pinkish-grey stone, built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, suggesting a Florentine palace.

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  • Pico's works cannot now be read with much interest, but the man himself is still interesting, partly from his influence on Reuchlin and partly from the spectacle of a truly devout mind in the brilliant circle of half-pagan scholars of the FlOrentine renaissance.

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  • His declining days were spent in the discharge of his honourable Florentine office and in the composition of his history.

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  • 1476), Florentine historian, occupied various positions in the service of the Florentine republic after the expulsion of the Medici in 1494, and even on their return in 1512 he continued in the public service.

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  • He spent the rest of his days in various parts of Italy, chiefly in Venice, and wrote a statement of the claims of the Florentine exiles against the Medici, addressed to the emperor Charles V.

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  • The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.

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  • Alexander, although he could not get Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the reformer to death (May 23, 1498).

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  • At last the book appeared in 1482, the expenses of the press being defrayed by the noble Florentine, Filippo Valori.

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  • The transition from this point of view to an almost superstitious adoration of Plato was natural; and Ficino, we know, joined in the hymns and celebrations with which the Florentine Academy honoured their great master on the day of his birth and death.

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  • As instances of his close intimacy with illustrious Florentine families, it may be mentioned that he held the young Francesco Guicciardini at the font, and that he helped to cast the horoscope of the Casa Strozzi in the Via Tornabuoni.

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  • In later years he did not shrink from uttering a word of warning and advice, when he thought that the master of the Florentine republic was too much inclined to yield to pleasure.

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  • He now set out once more for Scotland, but was intercepted by the Florentine cardinal Luigi Capponi, who induced him to remain at Bologna as professor of Humanity.

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  • This defeat crushed the power of Florence for many years, reduced the city to desolation, and apparently annihilated the Florentine Guelfs.

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  • In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.

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  • On the 2nd of August of the same year, at Marciano in Val di Chiana, he won a complete victory over the Sienese and French troops under Piero Strozzi, the Florentine exile and marshal of France.

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  • Thus Siena was annexed to the Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.

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  • The Palazzo Pretorio, or Vicariale, the residence of the Florentine governors, recently restored to its original condition, has a picturesque façade and court adorned with coats of arms, and in the interior are various frescoes dating from the 13th to the 16th century.

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  • confirmed a grant to Florentine merchants in 1318, while the Lombards maintained their position until Tudor times.

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  • Of the very numerous Florentine churches the Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore) is the largest and most.

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  • Among others we may mention the Palazzo Vecchio, formerly the seat of the government of the Republic and now the town hall, the Palazzo Riccardi, the residence of the Medici and now the prefecture, the palaces of the Strozzi, Antinori (one of the most perfect specimens of Florentine quattrocento architecture), Corsini, Davanzati, Pitti (the royal palace), 4c. The palace of the Arte della Lana or gild of wool merchants, tastefully and intelligently restored, is the headquarters of the Dante Society.

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  • It contains nearly io,000 MSS., including many magnificent illuminated missals and Bibles and a number of valuable Greek and Latin texts, 242 incunabula and 11,000 printed books, chiefly dealing with palaeography; it is in some ways the most important of the Florentine libraries.

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  • The Biblioteca Riccardiana, founded in the 16th century by Romolo Riccardi, contains nearly 4000 MSS., over 32,000 books and 650 incunabula, chiefly relating to Florentine history.

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  • There are many other smaller establishments, and the Florentine artificer seems to possess an exceptional skill in all kinds of work in which art is combined with technical ability.

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  • The Ghibellines now triumphed completely, and in 1249 the Guelph leaders were driven into exile - the first of many instances in Florentine history of exile en masse of a defeated party.

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  • But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.

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  • A Florentine army assisted by Guelphs of other towns was cunningly induced to believe that Siena would surrender at the first summons; but it was met by a Sienese army reinforced by Florentine exiles, including Farinata degli Uberti and other Ghibellines, and by the cavalry of Manfred of Sicily, led by Count Giordano and the count of Arras, with the result that the Florentines were - totally routed at Montaperti on the 4th of September 1260.

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  • Florentine cloth especially was known and sold all over Europe, and the Florentines were regarded as the first merchants of the age.

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  • In this same year Henry of Luxemburg was elected king of the Romans and with the pope's favour he came to Italy in 1310; the Florentine exiles and all the Ghibellines of Italy regarded him as a saviour and regenerator of the country, while the Guelphs of Florence on the contrary opposed New both him and the pope as dangerous to their own liberties and accepted the protection of King Robert of Naples, disregarding Henry's summons to submission.

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  • of England repudiated the heavy debts contracted for his wars in France with the Florentine banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi (1339), which eventually led to their failure and to that of many smaller firms, and shook Florentine credit all over the world; Philip VI.

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  • of France extorted large sums from the Florentine merchants and bankers in his dominions by accusing them of usury; in 1 34 o plague and famine wrought terrible havoc in Florence, and riots again broke out between the grandi and the popolo, partly on account of the late unsuccessful wars and the unsatisfactory state of the finances.

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  • Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were Ito churches, 39 religious houses; the shops of the ante della lana numbered over 200, producing cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public buildings, were barely 40,000.

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  • The first of these bands with whom Florence came into contact was the Great Company, commanded by the count of Lando, which twice entered Tuscany Y but was expelled both times by the Florentine troops (1358-1359).

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  • This was agreed to, and in 1405 the city was sold to Florence for 260,000 florins; and Gino Capponi,' the Florentine commissioner, took possession of the citadel, but a few days later the citizens arose in arms and recaptured it from the mercenaries.

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  • In 1437 Florence and Venice were again at war with the Visconti, whose chief captain, Niccolo Piccinino, on entering Tuscany with many Florentine exiles in his train, was signally defeated at Anghiari by the Florentines under Francesco Sforza (1440); peace was made the following year.

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  • The death of Sforza led to a war for the succession of Milan, and the Venetians, instigated by Florentine exiles, invaded Tuscany.

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  • Ill-health now gained on Lorenzo, and Savonarola, whom he had summoned to his bedside, refused to give absolution to the destroyer of Florentine liberties.

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  • of France came to Italy to conquer Naples Piero decided to assist the latter kingdom, although the traditional sympathies of the people were for the French king, and when Charles entered Florentine territory and captured Sarzana, Piero went to his camp and asked pardon for opposing him.

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  • The war against Pisa was renewed, and in 1499 the city might have been taken but for the dilatory tactics of the Florentine commander Paolo Vitelli, who was consequently arrested on a charge of treason and put to death.

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  • Cesare Borgia, who had seized many cities in Romagna, suddenly demanded the reinstatement of the Medici in Florence, and the danger was only warded off by appointing him captain-general of the Florentine forces at a large salary (1501).

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  • The election fell on Piero Soderini (1448-1522), an honest public-spirited man of no particular party, demanded that it be held in Florentine territory.

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  • Among the English histories of Florence, Napier's Florentine History (6 vols., London,1846-1847) and A.Trollope's History of the Commonwealth of Florence (4 vols., London, 1865) are not without value although out of date.

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  • There is a large number of small treatises and compendia of Florentine history of the guide-book description.

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  • Summoning Siena, Pistoia and the Florentine exiles to their aid, they boldly faced their foe, but were defeated in 1254.

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  • In 1276 the Pisans were compelled to agree to very grievous terms - to exempt Florentine merchandise from all harbour dues, to yield certain strongholds to Lucca, and to permit the return of Count Ugolino, whose houses they had burnt, and whose lands they had confiscated.

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  • The sympathies of Dante Alighieri, the Florentine patriot and foe of Rome, were naturally in favour of the victims of an aristocratic prelate, opposed to all reconciliation with Florence.

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  • Such were the orders sent by the Ten of War to the representatives of the Florentine government in Pisa, and such was then the established policy of every Italian state.

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  • And, although that monarch was ostensibly the friend of Florence, they did not hesitate, even in his presence, to assert their own independence, and, casting the Florentine ensign, the Marzocco, into the Arno, made instant preparations for war.

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  • The most striking of these are the palaces of Duke Max and of Prince Luitpold; the Odeon, a large building for concerts, adorned with frescoes and marble busts; the war office; the royal library, in the Florentine palatial style; the Ludwigskirche, a successful reproduction of the Italian Romanesque style, built in 1829-1844, and containing a huge fresco of the Last Judgment by Cornelius; the blind asylum; and, lastly, the university.

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  • But menacing briefs poured in from Rome; the pope had read one of Savonarola's recent sermons on Exodus; the city itself was threatened with interdict, and the Florentine ambassador could barely obtain a short delay.

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  • (iii.) The next period is that of Florentine influence.

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  • This sculptor, though of Milanese origin, belongs really to the school of the Florentine Andrea Pisano.

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  • The architecture of Verona, like its sculpture, passed through Lombard, Florentine and Venetian stages.

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  • (ii.) The Florentine period (c. 1250 to 1400) is represented by the church of S.

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  • The Nuova antologia (1866) soon acquired a well-deserved reputation as a high-class review and magazine; its rival, the Rivista europea, being the special organ of the Florentine men of letters.

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  • During these years he painted several Florentine subjects- "Tybalt and Romeo," "The Death of Brunelleschi," a cartoon of "The Pest in Florence according to Boccaccio," and "The Reconciliation of the Montagues and the Capulets."

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  • Amongst these are St James, Antrim Road; St Peter's Roman Catholic chapel, with its Florentine spire; Presbyterian churches in Fitzroy Avenue, and Elmwood Avenue, and the Methodist chapel, Carlisle Circus.

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  • They sent their own ambassadors to foreign powers, transacted business with the cities of the Florentine domain, and controlled the military establishment of the commonwealth.

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  • The next fourteen years of Machiavelli's life were fully occupied in the voluminous correspondence of his bureau, in diplomatic missions of varying importance, and in the organization of a Florentine militia.

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  • The country districts of the Florentine dominion were now divided into departments, and levies of foot soldiers were made in order to secure a standing militia.

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  • Italian jealousy shrank from conferring this important office on a Florentine, lest one member of the state should acquire a power dangerous to the whole.

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  • Upon these embassies Machiavelli represented the Florentine dieci in quality of envoy.

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  • The reports of Venetian and Florentine ambassadors at this epoch contain the first germs of an attempt to study politics from the point of view of science.

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  • The choice of this man as a possible Italian liberator reminds us of the choice of Don Micheletto as general of the Florentine militia.

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  • It is not so much a chronicle of Florentine affairs, from the commencement of modern history to the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in 1492, as a critique of that chronicle from the point of view adopted by Machiavelli in his former writing5,.

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  • Having condensed his doctrines in the Principe and the Discorsi, he applies their abstract principles to the example of the Florentine republic. But the History of Florence is not a mere political pamphlet.

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  • In point of form the Florentine History is modelled upon Livy.

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  • It contains incomparable studies of the Florentine housewife and her husband, a grave business-like citizen, who falls into the senile folly of a base intrigue.

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  • It is true that the Florentine Simone Sigoli, who visited Cairo in 1384, in his Viaggio al Monte Sinai still speaks of "Presto Giovanni" as a monarch dwelling in India; but it is the India which is conterminous with the dominions of the soldan of Egypt, and whose lord is master of the Nile, to close or open its discharge upon Egypt.

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  • But it is not necessary to stand in such fear of the thunder of Christ's vicar, but rather to fear Christ Himself, for it is the Florentine's business, not Christ's, that is at issue."

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  • King Francis encouraged the ill-recorded and disputed voyages of the Florentine Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, and the undoubted explorations of Jacques Cartier.

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  • These were appointed governors of the Florentine republic when the Companies of the Arts seized the government in 1282.

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  • The works of art visible in Prato are due, as will be seen, entirely to Florentine artists.

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  • Francesco Piccolomini (Florentine)1649-16519.

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  • Lorenzo Ricci (Florentine).

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  • One of its chief treasures is an exquisite 15th-century Florentine altar-frontal, preserved in the sacristy.

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  • His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the "Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was "consul" of the academy.

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  • The cathedral of St John the Baptist is a cruciform Renaissance building dating from 1492-1498, by the Florentine lIeo da Caprina.

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  • The feud between Italian and Frenchman broke out in a violent form; and it was in vain that St Catherine of Siena proffered her mediation in the bloody strife betwixt the pope and the Florentine republic. The letters that she addressed to the pontiff, on this and other occasions, are documents, which are, perhaps, unique in their kind, and of great literary beauty.

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  • - the Heidelberg (Palatine), Florentine, Vatican and Augsburg - by Stephanus (1547), Nevelet (1610), Hudson (1718), Hauptmann (1741), Furia (1810), Coray (1810), Schneider (1812) and others.

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  • The entire edifice is covered externally with terra-cotta, and its facade, designed by the Florentine Antonio Averulino (Filarete) and begun in 1 457, is superior to any other of the kind in Milan.

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  • Of these works, only three, the Milanese Theocritus and Isocrates and the Florentine Homer, were classics.

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  • The combustibility of the diamond was predicted by Sir Isaac Newton on account of its high refractive power; it was first established experimentally by the Florentine Academicians in 1694.

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  • The Florentine, 1331 carats, one of the Austrian crown jewels, is a very pale yellow.

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  • (Maffeo Barberini), pope from 1623 to 1644, was born in 1568, of a wealthy Florentine family.

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  • In the nudes of the next four or five years, which included a "St Sebastian," the so-called "Four Witches" (1497), the "Dream" or "Temptation," the "Rape of Amymome," and the "Jealousy" or "Great Hercules," Venetian, Paduan and Florentine memories are found, in the treatment of the human form, competing somewhat uncomfortably with his own inherited Gothic and northern instincts.

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  • The cathedral has a fine portal by the Florentine Giovanni Rosso (1435), and contains the remains of S Nicholas of Tolentino (d.

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  • Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, beyond all other men, of pietistic painting.

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  • Marco in Florence, and in 1438 undertook to paint the altarpiece for the choir, followed by many other works; he may have studied about this time the renowned frescoes in the Brancacci chapel in the Florentine church of the Carmine and also the paintings of Orcagna.

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  • Dominic. For the church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a "Deposition from the Cross," and for the church of the Angeli, a "Last Judgment," both now in the Florentine academy; for S.

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  • Cellini, the great Florentine artist of the 16th century, has described it fully in his Trattato della Scultura.

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  • Whole volumes might be devoted to the magnificent works in bronze produced by the Florentine artists of this century, works such as the baptistery gates by Ghiberti, the statues of Verrocchio, Donatello and many others, the bronze screen in Prato cathedral by Simone, brother of Donatello, in 1444-1461, and the screen and bronze ornaments of the tomb of Piero and Giovanni dei Medici in San Lorenzo, Florence, by Verrocchio, in 1472.

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  • Florentine work.

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  • Very great importance has been attached to a Florentine MS. (Laur.

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  • Guicciardini pushed his servility so far as to defend this infamous despot at Naples in 1535, before the bar of Charles V., from the accusations brought against him by the Florentine exiles (Op. ined.

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  • It remains the most solid monument of the Italian reason in the 16th century, the final triumph of that Florentine school of philosophical historians which included Machiavelli, Segni, Pitti, Nardi, Varchi, Francesco Vettori and Donato Giannotti.

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  • The various schools of the 17th century, moreover, are animated with the Renaissance spirit no less surely than the Florentine school of the 15th or the Venetian of the 16th.

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  • CORSINI, the name of a Florentine princely family, of which the founder is said to be Neri Corsini, who flourished about the year 1170.

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  • Like other Florentine nobles the Corsini had at first no titles, but in more recent times they received many from foreign potentates and from the later grand dukes of Tuscany.

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  • PIETRO CARNESECCHI (1508-1567), Italian humanist, was the son of a Florentine merchant, who under the patronage of the Medici, and especially of Giovanni de' Medici as Pope Clement VII., rapidly rose to high office at the papal court.

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  • The manuscripts of A Florentine Tragedy and an essay on Shakespeare's sonnets were stolen from his house in 1895.

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  • In the one field his labours are represented by his Storia Pittorica della Italia, the first portion of which, containing the Florentine, Sienese, Roman and Neapolitan schools, appeared in 1792, the rest in 1796.

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  • His notices of ancient sculpture and its various styles appeared as an appendix to the Saggio di lingua Etrusca, and arose out of his minute study of the treasures then added to the Florentine collection from the Villa Medici.

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  • PIERO SODERINI (1450-1513), Florentine statesman, was elected gonfalonier for life in 1502 by the Florentines, who wished to give greater stability to their republican institutions, which had been restored after the expulsion of Piero de' Medici and the martyrdom of Savonarola.

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  • The chapel was built in 1484 by Matteo Civitali, a local sculptor of the early Renaissance (1436-1501); he was the only master of Tuscany outside Florence who worked thoroughly in the Florentine style, and his creations are among the most charming works of the Renaissance.

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  • The first authenticated visit of a European to what is now New Jersey was made under French authority by Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine navigator, who in the spring of 1524 sailed within Sandy Hook and dropped anchor in the waters of upper New York Bay.

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  • His father Petracco held a post of notary in the Florentine Rolls Court of the Riformagioni; but, having espoused the same cause as Dante during the quarrels of the Blacks and Whites, Petracco was expelled from Florence by that decree of the 27th of January 1302 which condemned Dante to lifelong exile.

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  • LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519), the great Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mechanician, engineer and natural philosopher, was the son of a Florentine lawyer, born out of wedlock by a mother in a humble station, variously described as a peasant and as of gentle birth.

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  • The place of his birth was Vinci, a castello or fortified hill village in the Florentine territory near Empoli, from which his father's family derived its name.

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  • Of equal or even more intense power, though of narrower scope, is an unfinished monochrome preparation for a St Jerome, found accidentally at Rome by Cardinal Fesch and now in the Vatican gallery; this also seems to belong to the first Florentine period, but isnot mentioned in documents.

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  • The original and earlier version is one of the glories of the Louvre, and shows far more of a Florentine and less of a Milanese character than the London picture.) In the same year, 1494, or early in the next, Leonardo, if Vasari is to be trusted, paid a visit to Florence to take part in deliberations concerning the projected new council-hall to be constructed in the palace of the Signory.

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  • The National Gallery "Virgin of the Rocks" certainly, with help from Ambrogio de Predis; in this the Florentine character of the original is modified by an admixture of Milanese elements, the tendency to harshness and over-elaboration of detail softened, the strained action of the angel's pointing hand altogether dropped, while in many places pupils' work seems recognizable beside that of the master.

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  • Leonardo's own native Florentine manner had at first been not a little modified by that of the Milanese school as he found it represented in the works of such men as Bramantino, Borgognone and Zenale; but his genius had in its turn reacted far more strongly upon the younger members of the school, and exercised, now or later, a transforming and dominating influence not only upon his immediate pupils, but upon men like Luini, Giampetrino, Bazzi, Cesare da Sesto and indeed the whole Lombard school in the early 15th century.

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  • From the same example Fra Bartolommeo and a crowd of other Florentine painters of the rising or risen generation took in like manner a new impulse.

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  • A portrait of a Florentine lady, said to have been painted for Giuliano de' Medici and seen afterwards in France, may also have been done at Rome; or may what we learn of this be only a confused account of the Monna Lisa?

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  • But he showed the cardinal three pictures, the portrait of a Florentine lady done for Giuliano de' Medici (the Gioconda ?), the Virgin in the lap of St Anne (the Louvre picture; finished at Florence or Milan 1507-1513?), and a youthful John the Baptist.

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  • Leonardo sought to achieve that conquest and at the same time to carry the old Florentine excellences of linear drawing and psychological expression to a perfection of which other men had not dreamed.

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  • A full critical discussion and catalogue of the extant drawings of Leonardo are to be found in Berenson's Drawings of the Florentine Painters.

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  • (London, 1902); Bernhard Berenson, The Drawings of the Florentine Painters (London, 1903); Edmondo Solmi, Studi sulla filosofia naturale di L.

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  • The tranquillity which he thus obtained was employed by Brancovan as by his predecessor in furthering the internal well-being of the country, with what success is best apparent from the description of Walachia left by the Florentine Del Chiaro, who visited the country in 1709 and spent seven years there.

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  • In 1762 and 1764 he published experiments in refutation of the decision of the Florentine Academy, at that time generally accepted, that water is incompressible; and in 1768 he described the preparation, by calcining oyster-shell with sulphur, of the phosphorescent material known as Canton's phosphorus.

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  • Notwithstanding the opposition of his relatives, he entered the order of the Servi di Maria, a minor Augustinian congregation of Florentine origin, at the age of thirteen.

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  • The Florentine Paul Toscanelli, in his letters to Columbus and the Portuguese court (1474), takes Antilia as the principal landmark for measuring the distance between Lisbon and the island of Cipango or Zipangu (Japan).

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  • At first he seems to have lived with the Florentine scholars on tolerably good terms; but his temper was so arrogant that Cosimo de' Medici's friends were not long able to put up with him.

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  • Eggert in the Florentine Renaissance style, was built in 1889-1893; it is crowned by a cupola 115 ft.

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  • At the age of fifteen she fell in love with Pietro Bonaventuri, a young Florentine clerk in the firm of Salviati, and on the 28th of November 1563 escaped with him to Florence, where they were married and she had a daughter named Pellegrina.

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  • The Palazzo Patrizi is a building of the early Renaissance in the Florentine style.

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  • After Galileo's death Torricelli was nominated grand-ducal mathematician and professor of mathematics in the Florentine academy.

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  • The hour had come for Dante, the great Florentine poet, to curse the man who was to dismember the empire, precipitate the fall of the papacy and discipline feudalism.

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  • This second Florentine, at once jealous of power and incapable of exercising it, bore little reseniblance to her predecessor.

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  • The savings all expended and Sully fallen into disgrace, she lost her influence and became the almost unconscious instrument of an ambitious man of low birth, the Florentine Concini, who was to drag her down with him in his fall; petty shifts became thenceforward the order of the day.

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  • His father, Vincenzio, was an impoverished descendant of a noble Florentine house, which had exchanged the surname of Bonajuti for that of Galilei, on the election, in 1 343, of one of its members, Tommaso de' Bonajuti, to the college of the twelve Buonuomini.

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  • We next hear of him as lecturing before the Florentine Academy on the site and dimensions of Dante's Inferno; and he shortly afterwards published an essay descriptive of his invention of the hydrostatic balance, which rapidly made his name known throughout Italy.

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  • In 1533 he left San Germano, and went to Rome, where he became tutor in the house of a Florentine gentleman named Galeotto Caccia.

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  • Especially noteworthy is the marble monument in Santo Tomas, carved by the 15th-century Florentine sculptor Domenico Fancelli, over the tomb of Prince John (d.

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  • He was for some time professor of jurisprudence in the university of Florence, and on the death of the celebrated Poggio, in 1459, became chancellor of the Florentine republic. He died at Florence.

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  • He has his own label including a very affordable Florentine cashmere in many colors.

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  • Most of the Florentine production was devoted to cabinets and table tops which provided the best vehicles to display the virtuosity of the craftsmen.

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  • On the ist of October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, and when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans Julius II.

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  • Other important contemporary sources are the Italian History of the Florentine writer Guicciardini, covering the period1492-1530(4 vols., Milan, 1884); the reports of the Venetian ambassadors, Marino Giorgi (1517), Marco Minio (1520) and Luigi Gradenigo (1523), in vol.

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  • He contributed to the Antologia, a celebrated Florentine review, and in 1847 founded a newspaper called L' Italia, the programme of which, was "Reform and Nationality."

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  • It was afterwards adopted by other cities, and first appears on a Florentine battlefield in 1228.

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  • The Florentine carroccio was usually followed by a smaller car bearing the martinella, a bell to ring out military signals.

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  • 5 (Florence, 1825-1826); P. Villari, The Two First Centuries of Florentine History, vol.

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  • The Florentine mosaics are perhaps better known abroad; they are composed of larger pieces than the Roman.

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  • After the expulsion of the duke of Athens in 1343, and the great plague of 1348, the Florentine proletariate rose up against the merchant princes.

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  • They fought the battles of the republic with success against the Visconti, and widely extended the Florentine domain over the Tuscan cities.

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  • After Cosimo de Medicis death in 1464, the presidency of the Florentine republic passed to his son Piero, who left it in 1469 to his sons Lorenzo and Giuliano.

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  • Niccolini blasted tyranny in his tragedies, the novelist Guerrazzi re-evoked the memories of the last struggle for Florentine freedom in LAssedio di Firenze, and Verdis operas bristled with political double entendres which escaped the censor but were understood and applauded by the audience.

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  • Machiavellis Stonia florentine, B.

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  • In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.

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  • The Florentine democracy was, in truth, rather to be called an oligarchy, if we accept the best definition of democracy (see Thucydides vi.

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  • Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.

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  • It was under the protection of Siena till 1202, when it declared for Florence and thenceforward passed from one mistress to the other, until early in the 16th century when it finally became Florentine.

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  • The cathedral built by Bartolommeo Ammanati (1S70), modified by Ippolito Scalza, and completed in 1680 (with the exception of the facade, which is still unfinished) contains a large altar-piece by Taddeo di Bartolo of Siena, and the fragments of an imposing monument erected in1427-1436by the Florentine architect Michelozzo in honour of Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secretary of Pope Martin V., which was taken down in the 18th century.

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  • The republic entrusted the work to the Florentine Verrocchio, who dying before the statue was completed begged the government to allow his pupil Lorenzo di Credi to carry it to a conclusion.

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  • The library (1888-1895; cost $2,486,000, exclusive of the site, given by the state) is a dignified, finely proportioned building of pinkish-grey stone, built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, suggesting a Florentine palace.

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  • Pico's works cannot now be read with much interest, but the man himself is still interesting, partly from his influence on Reuchlin and partly from the spectacle of a truly devout mind in the brilliant circle of half-pagan scholars of the FlOrentine renaissance.

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  • His declining days were spent in the discharge of his honourable Florentine office and in the composition of his history.

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  • 1476), Florentine historian, occupied various positions in the service of the Florentine republic after the expulsion of the Medici in 1494, and even on their return in 1512 he continued in the public service.

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  • He spent the rest of his days in various parts of Italy, chiefly in Venice, and wrote a statement of the claims of the Florentine exiles against the Medici, addressed to the emperor Charles V.

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  • The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.

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  • Alexander, although he could not get Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the reformer to death (May 23, 1498).

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  • At last the book appeared in 1482, the expenses of the press being defrayed by the noble Florentine, Filippo Valori.

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  • The transition from this point of view to an almost superstitious adoration of Plato was natural; and Ficino, we know, joined in the hymns and celebrations with which the Florentine Academy honoured their great master on the day of his birth and death.

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  • As instances of his close intimacy with illustrious Florentine families, it may be mentioned that he held the young Francesco Guicciardini at the font, and that he helped to cast the horoscope of the Casa Strozzi in the Via Tornabuoni.

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  • In later years he did not shrink from uttering a word of warning and advice, when he thought that the master of the Florentine republic was too much inclined to yield to pleasure.

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  • He now set out once more for Scotland, but was intercepted by the Florentine cardinal Luigi Capponi, who induced him to remain at Bologna as professor of Humanity.

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  • This defeat crushed the power of Florence for many years, reduced the city to desolation, and apparently annihilated the Florentine Guelfs.

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  • In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.

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  • On the 2nd of August of the same year, at Marciano in Val di Chiana, he won a complete victory over the Sienese and French troops under Piero Strozzi, the Florentine exile and marshal of France.

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  • Thus Siena was annexed to the Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.

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  • Consequently Sienese art seemed almost stationary amid the general progress and development of the other Italian schools, and preserved its medieval character down to the end of the 15th century, when the influence of the Umbrian and - to a slighter degree - of the Florentine schools began to penetrate into Siena, followed a little later by that of the Lombard.

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  • The Palazzo Pretorio, or Vicariale, the residence of the Florentine governors, recently restored to its original condition, has a picturesque façade and court adorned with coats of arms, and in the interior are various frescoes dating from the 13th to the 16th century.

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  • The result was recorded in a formal manner by the Florentine Academy, sometime shortly before 1 535: "Quae, excusso.

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  • confirmed a grant to Florentine merchants in 1318, while the Lombards maintained their position until Tudor times.

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  • The invention of the barometer and Torricelli's explanation of the vacuity above the mercury column placed before the members of the Florentine academy a ready method of obtaining vacua; for to exhaust a vessel it was only necessary to join, by means of a tube provided with stopcocks, the vessel to a barometer tube, fill the compound vessel with mercury and then to invert it in a basin containing this liquid, whereupon the mercury column fell, leaving a Torricellian vacuum in the vessel, which could be removed after shutting off the stop-cocks.

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  • Of the very numerous Florentine churches the Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore) is the largest and most.

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  • Among others we may mention the Palazzo Vecchio, formerly the seat of the government of the Republic and now the town hall, the Palazzo Riccardi, the residence of the Medici and now the prefecture, the palaces of the Strozzi, Antinori (one of the most perfect specimens of Florentine quattrocento architecture), Corsini, Davanzati, Pitti (the royal palace), 4c. The palace of the Arte della Lana or gild of wool merchants, tastefully and intelligently restored, is the headquarters of the Dante Society.

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  • The centre of Florence, which was becoming a danger from a hygienic point of view, was pulled down in 1880-1890, but, unfortunately, sufficient care was not taken to avoid destroying certain buildings of historic and artistic value which might have been spared without impairing the work of sanitation, while the new structures erected in their place, especially those in the Piaza Vittorio Emanuele, are almost uniformly ugly and quite out of keeping with Florentine architecture.

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  • It contains nearly io,000 MSS., including many magnificent illuminated missals and Bibles and a number of valuable Greek and Latin texts, 242 incunabula and 11,000 printed books, chiefly dealing with palaeography; it is in some ways the most important of the Florentine libraries.

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  • The Biblioteca Riccardiana, founded in the 16th century by Romolo Riccardi, contains nearly 4000 MSS., over 32,000 books and 650 incunabula, chiefly relating to Florentine history.

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  • The two former are among the finest in the world, and are filled with masterpieces by Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, the Lippi, and many other Florentine, Umbrian, Venetian, Dutch and Flemish artists, as well as numerous admirable examples of antique, medieval and Renaissance sculpture.

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  • There are many other smaller establishments, and the Florentine artificer seems to possess an exceptional skill in all kinds of work in which art is combined with technical ability.

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  • The Ghibellines now triumphed completely, and in 1249 the Guelph leaders were driven into exile - the first of many instances in Florentine history of exile en masse of a defeated party.

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  • But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.

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  • A Florentine army assisted by Guelphs of other towns was cunningly induced to believe that Siena would surrender at the first summons; but it was met by a Sienese army reinforced by Florentine exiles, including Farinata degli Uberti and other Ghibellines, and by the cavalry of Manfred of Sicily, led by Count Giordano and the count of Arras, with the result that the Florentines were - totally routed at Montaperti on the 4th of September 1260.

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  • Florentine cloth especially was known and sold all over Europe, and the Florentines were regarded as the first merchants of the age.

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  • This, however, was not enough for the Florentine democracy, who viewed with alarm the increasing power and arrogance of the grandi, who in spite of their exclusion from many offices were still influential and constituted independent clans within the state.

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  • In this same year Henry of Luxemburg was elected king of the Romans and with the pope's favour he came to Italy in 1310; the Florentine exiles and all the Ghibellines of Italy regarded him as a saviour and regenerator of the country, while the Guelphs of Florence on the contrary opposed New both him and the pope as dangerous to their own liberties and accepted the protection of King Robert of Naples, disregarding Henry's summons to submission.

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  • of England repudiated the heavy debts contracted for his wars in France with the Florentine banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi (1339), which eventually led to their failure and to that of many smaller firms, and shook Florentine credit all over the world; Philip VI.

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  • of France extorted large sums from the Florentine merchants and bankers in his dominions by accusing them of usury; in 1 34 o plague and famine wrought terrible havoc in Florence, and riots again broke out between the grandi and the popolo, partly on account of the late unsuccessful wars and the unsatisfactory state of the finances.

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  • Florentine democracy, however, was limited to the walls of the city, for no one of the contado nor any citizen of the subject towns enjoyed political rights, which were reserved for the inhabitants of Florence alone and not by any means for all of them.

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  • Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were Ito churches, 39 religious houses; the shops of the ante della lana numbered over 200, producing cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public buildings, were barely 40,000.

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  • The first of these bands with whom Florence came into contact was the Great Company, commanded by the count of Lando, which twice entered Tuscany Y but was expelled both times by the Florentine troops (1358-1359).

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  • This was agreed to, and in 1405 the city was sold to Florence for 260,000 florins; and Gino Capponi,' the Florentine commissioner, took possession of the citadel, but a few days later the citizens arose in arms and recaptured it from the mercenaries.

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  • In 1437 Florence and Venice were again at war with the Visconti, whose chief captain, Niccolo Piccinino, on entering Tuscany with many Florentine exiles in his train, was signally defeated at Anghiari by the Florentines under Francesco Sforza (1440); peace was made the following year.

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  • The death of Sforza led to a war for the succession of Milan, and the Venetians, instigated by Florentine exiles, invaded Tuscany.

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  • Ill-health now gained on Lorenzo, and Savonarola, whom he had summoned to his bedside, refused to give absolution to the destroyer of Florentine liberties.

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  • of France came to Italy to conquer Naples Piero decided to assist the latter kingdom, although the traditional sympathies of the people were for the French king, and when Charles entered Florentine territory and captured Sarzana, Piero went to his camp and asked pardon for opposing him.

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  • The war against Pisa was renewed, and in 1499 the city might have been taken but for the dilatory tactics of the Florentine commander Paolo Vitelli, who was consequently arrested on a charge of treason and put to death.

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  • Cesare Borgia, who had seized many cities in Romagna, suddenly demanded the reinstatement of the Medici in Florence, and the danger was only warded off by appointing him captain-general of the Florentine forces at a large salary (1501).

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  • The election fell on Piero Soderini (1448-1522), an honest public-spirited man of no particular party, demanded that it be held in Florentine territory.

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  • Among the English histories of Florence, Napier's Florentine History (6 vols., London,1846-1847) and A.Trollope's History of the Commonwealth of Florence (4 vols., London, 1865) are not without value although out of date.

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  • There is a large number of small treatises and compendia of Florentine history of the guide-book description.

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  • Summoning Siena, Pistoia and the Florentine exiles to their aid, they boldly faced their foe, but were defeated in 1254.

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  • In 1276 the Pisans were compelled to agree to very grievous terms - to exempt Florentine merchandise from all harbour dues, to yield certain strongholds to Lucca, and to permit the return of Count Ugolino, whose houses they had burnt, and whose lands they had confiscated.

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  • The sympathies of Dante Alighieri, the Florentine patriot and foe of Rome, were naturally in favour of the victims of an aristocratic prelate, opposed to all reconciliation with Florence.

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  • Such were the orders sent by the Ten of War to the representatives of the Florentine government in Pisa, and such was then the established policy of every Italian state.

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  • And, although that monarch was ostensibly the friend of Florence, they did not hesitate, even in his presence, to assert their own independence, and, casting the Florentine ensign, the Marzocco, into the Arno, made instant preparations for war.

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  • The most striking of these are the palaces of Duke Max and of Prince Luitpold; the Odeon, a large building for concerts, adorned with frescoes and marble busts; the war office; the royal library, in the Florentine palatial style; the Ludwigskirche, a successful reproduction of the Italian Romanesque style, built in 1829-1844, and containing a huge fresco of the Last Judgment by Cornelius; the blind asylum; and, lastly, the university.

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  • Gregory empowered her to treat for peace, but the Florentine ambassadors were first tardy and then faithless.

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  • But menacing briefs poured in from Rome; the pope had read one of Savonarola's recent sermons on Exodus; the city itself was threatened with interdict, and the Florentine ambassador could barely obtain a short delay.

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  • (iii.) The next period is that of Florentine influence.

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  • This sculptor, though of Milanese origin, belongs really to the school of the Florentine Andrea Pisano.

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  • (iv.) In the 15th century the influence of Venice became paramount, though this was really only a further development of the Florentine manner, Venice itself having been directly influenced in the 14th century by man y able sculptors from Florence.

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  • The architecture of Verona, like its sculpture, passed through Lombard, Florentine and Venetian stages.

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  • (ii.) The Florentine period (c. 1250 to 1400) is represented by the church of S.

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  • The Nuova antologia (1866) soon acquired a well-deserved reputation as a high-class review and magazine; its rival, the Rivista europea, being the special organ of the Florentine men of letters.

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  • During these years he painted several Florentine subjects- "Tybalt and Romeo," "The Death of Brunelleschi," a cartoon of "The Pest in Florence according to Boccaccio," and "The Reconciliation of the Montagues and the Capulets."

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  • Amongst these are St James, Antrim Road; St Peter's Roman Catholic chapel, with its Florentine spire; Presbyterian churches in Fitzroy Avenue, and Elmwood Avenue, and the Methodist chapel, Carlisle Circus.

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  • They sent their own ambassadors to foreign powers, transacted business with the cities of the Florentine domain, and controlled the military establishment of the commonwealth.

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  • The next fourteen years of Machiavelli's life were fully occupied in the voluminous correspondence of his bureau, in diplomatic missions of varying importance, and in the organization of a Florentine militia.

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  • The country districts of the Florentine dominion were now divided into departments, and levies of foot soldiers were made in order to secure a standing militia.

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  • Italian jealousy shrank from conferring this important office on a Florentine, lest one member of the state should acquire a power dangerous to the whole.

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  • Upon these embassies Machiavelli represented the Florentine dieci in quality of envoy.

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  • The reports of Venetian and Florentine ambassadors at this epoch contain the first germs of an attempt to study politics from the point of view of science.

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  • The choice of this man as a possible Italian liberator reminds us of the choice of Don Micheletto as general of the Florentine militia.

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  • It is not so much a chronicle of Florentine affairs, from the commencement of modern history to the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in 1492, as a critique of that chronicle from the point of view adopted by Machiavelli in his former writing5,.

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  • Having condensed his doctrines in the Principe and the Discorsi, he applies their abstract principles to the example of the Florentine republic. But the History of Florence is not a mere political pamphlet.

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  • In point of form the Florentine History is modelled upon Livy.

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  • It contains incomparable studies of the Florentine housewife and her husband, a grave business-like citizen, who falls into the senile folly of a base intrigue.

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  • of the library of St Mark, Venice (c. 1200), and the Reali di Francia (c. 1400) of a Florentine writer, Andrea da Barberino (b.

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  • It is true that the Florentine Simone Sigoli, who visited Cairo in 1384, in his Viaggio al Monte Sinai still speaks of "Presto Giovanni" as a monarch dwelling in India; but it is the India which is conterminous with the dominions of the soldan of Egypt, and whose lord is master of the Nile, to close or open its discharge upon Egypt.

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  • But it is not necessary to stand in such fear of the thunder of Christ's vicar, but rather to fear Christ Himself, for it is the Florentine's business, not Christ's, that is at issue."

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  • King Francis encouraged the ill-recorded and disputed voyages of the Florentine Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, and the undoubted explorations of Jacques Cartier.

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  • These were appointed governors of the Florentine republic when the Companies of the Arts seized the government in 1282.

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  • The works of art visible in Prato are due, as will be seen, entirely to Florentine artists.

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  • Francesco Piccolomini (Florentine)1649-16519.

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  • Lorenzo Ricci (Florentine).

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  • One of its chief treasures is an exquisite 15th-century Florentine altar-frontal, preserved in the sacristy.

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  • His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the "Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was "consul" of the academy.

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  • The cathedral of St John the Baptist is a cruciform Renaissance building dating from 1492-1498, by the Florentine lIeo da Caprina.

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  • The feud between Italian and Frenchman broke out in a violent form; and it was in vain that St Catherine of Siena proffered her mediation in the bloody strife betwixt the pope and the Florentine republic. The letters that she addressed to the pontiff, on this and other occasions, are documents, which are, perhaps, unique in their kind, and of great literary beauty.

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  • - the Heidelberg (Palatine), Florentine, Vatican and Augsburg - by Stephanus (1547), Nevelet (1610), Hudson (1718), Hauptmann (1741), Furia (1810), Coray (1810), Schneider (1812) and others.

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  • The entire edifice is covered externally with terra-cotta, and its facade, designed by the Florentine Antonio Averulino (Filarete) and begun in 1 457, is superior to any other of the kind in Milan.

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  • Of these works, only three, the Milanese Theocritus and Isocrates and the Florentine Homer, were classics.

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  • The combustibility of the diamond was predicted by Sir Isaac Newton on account of its high refractive power; it was first established experimentally by the Florentine Academicians in 1694.

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  • The Florentine, 1331 carats, one of the Austrian crown jewels, is a very pale yellow.

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  • (Maffeo Barberini), pope from 1623 to 1644, was born in 1568, of a wealthy Florentine family.

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  • In the nudes of the next four or five years, which included a "St Sebastian," the so-called "Four Witches" (1497), the "Dream" or "Temptation," the "Rape of Amymome," and the "Jealousy" or "Great Hercules," Venetian, Paduan and Florentine memories are found, in the treatment of the human form, competing somewhat uncomfortably with his own inherited Gothic and northern instincts.

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  • The cathedral has a fine portal by the Florentine Giovanni Rosso (1435), and contains the remains of S Nicholas of Tolentino (d.

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  • Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, beyond all other men, of pietistic painting.

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  • Marco in Florence, and in 1438 undertook to paint the altarpiece for the choir, followed by many other works; he may have studied about this time the renowned frescoes in the Brancacci chapel in the Florentine church of the Carmine and also the paintings of Orcagna.

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  • Dominic. For the church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a "Deposition from the Cross," and for the church of the Angeli, a "Last Judgment," both now in the Florentine academy; for S.

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  • Cellini, the great Florentine artist of the 16th century, has described it fully in his Trattato della Scultura.

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  • Whole volumes might be devoted to the magnificent works in bronze produced by the Florentine artists of this century, works such as the baptistery gates by Ghiberti, the statues of Verrocchio, Donatello and many others, the bronze screen in Prato cathedral by Simone, brother of Donatello, in 1444-1461, and the screen and bronze ornaments of the tomb of Piero and Giovanni dei Medici in San Lorenzo, Florence, by Verrocchio, in 1472.

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  • Florentine work.

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  • Very great importance has been attached to a Florentine MS. (Laur.

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  • Guicciardini pushed his servility so far as to defend this infamous despot at Naples in 1535, before the bar of Charles V., from the accusations brought against him by the Florentine exiles (Op. ined.

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  • It remains the most solid monument of the Italian reason in the 16th century, the final triumph of that Florentine school of philosophical historians which included Machiavelli, Segni, Pitti, Nardi, Varchi, Francesco Vettori and Donato Giannotti.

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  • The various schools of the 17th century, moreover, are animated with the Renaissance spirit no less surely than the Florentine school of the 15th or the Venetian of the 16th.

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  • CORSINI, the name of a Florentine princely family, of which the founder is said to be Neri Corsini, who flourished about the year 1170.

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  • Like other Florentine nobles the Corsini had at first no titles, but in more recent times they received many from foreign potentates and from the later grand dukes of Tuscany.

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  • PIETRO CARNESECCHI (1508-1567), Italian humanist, was the son of a Florentine merchant, who under the patronage of the Medici, and especially of Giovanni de' Medici as Pope Clement VII., rapidly rose to high office at the papal court.

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  • The manuscripts of A Florentine Tragedy and an essay on Shakespeare's sonnets were stolen from his house in 1895.

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  • In the one field his labours are represented by his Storia Pittorica della Italia, the first portion of which, containing the Florentine, Sienese, Roman and Neapolitan schools, appeared in 1792, the rest in 1796.

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  • His notices of ancient sculpture and its various styles appeared as an appendix to the Saggio di lingua Etrusca, and arose out of his minute study of the treasures then added to the Florentine collection from the Villa Medici.

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  • PIERO SODERINI (1450-1513), Florentine statesman, was elected gonfalonier for life in 1502 by the Florentines, who wished to give greater stability to their republican institutions, which had been restored after the expulsion of Piero de' Medici and the martyrdom of Savonarola.

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  • The chapel was built in 1484 by Matteo Civitali, a local sculptor of the early Renaissance (1436-1501); he was the only master of Tuscany outside Florence who worked thoroughly in the Florentine style, and his creations are among the most charming works of the Renaissance.

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  • The first authenticated visit of a European to what is now New Jersey was made under French authority by Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine navigator, who in the spring of 1524 sailed within Sandy Hook and dropped anchor in the waters of upper New York Bay.

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  • His father Petracco held a post of notary in the Florentine Rolls Court of the Riformagioni; but, having espoused the same cause as Dante during the quarrels of the Blacks and Whites, Petracco was expelled from Florence by that decree of the 27th of January 1302 which condemned Dante to lifelong exile.

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  • LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519), the great Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mechanician, engineer and natural philosopher, was the son of a Florentine lawyer, born out of wedlock by a mother in a humble station, variously described as a peasant and as of gentle birth.

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  • The place of his birth was Vinci, a castello or fortified hill village in the Florentine territory near Empoli, from which his father's family derived its name.

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  • Of equal or even more intense power, though of narrower scope, is an unfinished monochrome preparation for a St Jerome, found accidentally at Rome by Cardinal Fesch and now in the Vatican gallery; this also seems to belong to the first Florentine period, but isnot mentioned in documents.

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  • The original and earlier version is one of the glories of the Louvre, and shows far more of a Florentine and less of a Milanese character than the London picture.) In the same year, 1494, or early in the next, Leonardo, if Vasari is to be trusted, paid a visit to Florence to take part in deliberations concerning the projected new council-hall to be constructed in the palace of the Signory.

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  • as to its execution; the conception and style are essentially Florentine, carried out by Leonardo to a point of intense and almost glittering finish, of quintessential, almost overstrained, refinement in design and expression, and invested with a new element of romance by the landscape in which the scene is set - a strange watered country of basaltic caves and arches, with the lights and shadows striking sharply and yet mysteriously among rocks, some upright, some jutting, some pendent, all tufted here and there with exquisite growths of shrub and flower.

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  • The National Gallery "Virgin of the Rocks" certainly, with help from Ambrogio de Predis; in this the Florentine character of the original is modified by an admixture of Milanese elements, the tendency to harshness and over-elaboration of detail softened, the strained action of the angel's pointing hand altogether dropped, while in many places pupils' work seems recognizable beside that of the master.

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  • Leonardo's own native Florentine manner had at first been not a little modified by that of the Milanese school as he found it represented in the works of such men as Bramantino, Borgognone and Zenale; but his genius had in its turn reacted far more strongly upon the younger members of the school, and exercised, now or later, a transforming and dominating influence not only upon his immediate pupils, but upon men like Luini, Giampetrino, Bazzi, Cesare da Sesto and indeed the whole Lombard school in the early 15th century.

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  • To the young Michelangelo was presently entrusted a rival battle-piece to be painted on another wall of the same apartment; he chose, as is well known, a surprise of the Florentine forces in the act of bathing near Pisa.

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  • From the same example Fra Bartolommeo and a crowd of other Florentine painters of the rising or risen generation took in like manner a new impulse.

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  • A portrait of a Florentine lady, said to have been painted for Giuliano de' Medici and seen afterwards in France, may also have been done at Rome; or may what we learn of this be only a confused account of the Monna Lisa?

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  • But he showed the cardinal three pictures, the portrait of a Florentine lady done for Giuliano de' Medici (the Gioconda ?), the Virgin in the lap of St Anne (the Louvre picture; finished at Florence or Milan 1507-1513?), and a youthful John the Baptist.

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  • Leonardo sought to achieve that conquest and at the same time to carry the old Florentine excellences of linear drawing and psychological expression to a perfection of which other men had not dreamed.

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  • A full critical discussion and catalogue of the extant drawings of Leonardo are to be found in Berenson's Drawings of the Florentine Painters.

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  • (London, 1902); Bernhard Berenson, The Drawings of the Florentine Painters (London, 1903); Edmondo Solmi, Studi sulla filosofia naturale di L.

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  • The tranquillity which he thus obtained was employed by Brancovan as by his predecessor in furthering the internal well-being of the country, with what success is best apparent from the description of Walachia left by the Florentine Del Chiaro, who visited the country in 1709 and spent seven years there.

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  • In 1762 and 1764 he published experiments in refutation of the decision of the Florentine Academy, at that time generally accepted, that water is incompressible; and in 1768 he described the preparation, by calcining oyster-shell with sulphur, of the phosphorescent material known as Canton's phosphorus.

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  • Notwithstanding the opposition of his relatives, he entered the order of the Servi di Maria, a minor Augustinian congregation of Florentine origin, at the age of thirteen.

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  • The Florentine Paul Toscanelli, in his letters to Columbus and the Portuguese court (1474), takes Antilia as the principal landmark for measuring the distance between Lisbon and the island of Cipango or Zipangu (Japan).

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  • At first he seems to have lived with the Florentine scholars on tolerably good terms; but his temper was so arrogant that Cosimo de' Medici's friends were not long able to put up with him.

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  • Eggert in the Florentine Renaissance style, was built in 1889-1893; it is crowned by a cupola 115 ft.

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  • At the age of fifteen she fell in love with Pietro Bonaventuri, a young Florentine clerk in the firm of Salviati, and on the 28th of November 1563 escaped with him to Florence, where they were married and she had a daughter named Pellegrina.

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  • The Palazzo Patrizi is a building of the early Renaissance in the Florentine style.

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  • After Galileo's death Torricelli was nominated grand-ducal mathematician and professor of mathematics in the Florentine academy.

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  • The hour had come for Dante, the great Florentine poet, to curse the man who was to dismember the empire, precipitate the fall of the papacy and discipline feudalism.

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  • On the 5th of January, 1589, died his mother, Catherine deMedici, the astute Florentine.

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  • This second Florentine, at once jealous of power and incapable of exercising it, bore little reseniblance to her predecessor.

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  • The savings all expended and Sully fallen into disgrace, she lost her influence and became the almost unconscious instrument of an ambitious man of low birth, the Florentine Concini, who was to drag her down with him in his fall; petty shifts became thenceforward the order of the day.

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  • His father, Vincenzio, was an impoverished descendant of a noble Florentine house, which had exchanged the surname of Bonajuti for that of Galilei, on the election, in 1 343, of one of its members, Tommaso de' Bonajuti, to the college of the twelve Buonuomini.

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  • We next hear of him as lecturing before the Florentine Academy on the site and dimensions of Dante's Inferno; and he shortly afterwards published an essay descriptive of his invention of the hydrostatic balance, which rapidly made his name known throughout Italy.

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  • Salviati and Sagredo took their names from two of Galileo's early friends, the former a learned Florentine, the latter a distinguished Venetian gentleman; Simplicio ostensibly derived his from the Cilician commentator of Aristotle, but the choice was doubtless instigated by a sarcastic regard to the double meaning of the word.

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  • In 1533 he left San Germano, and went to Rome, where he became tutor in the house of a Florentine gentleman named Galeotto Caccia.

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  • Especially noteworthy is the marble monument in Santo Tomas, carved by the 15th-century Florentine sculptor Domenico Fancelli, over the tomb of Prince John (d.

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  • He was for some time professor of jurisprudence in the university of Florence, and on the death of the celebrated Poggio, in 1459, became chancellor of the Florentine republic. He died at Florence.

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  • Most of the Florentine production was devoted to cabinets and table tops which provided the best vehicles to display the virtuosity of the craftsmen.

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  • The hotel was originally a bank, and holds true to its original Florentine Renaissance structuring from the 1920s.

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  • Beyond the shores of England, the continent of Europe may send visitors to the renaissance faire, allowing faire goers to dress as Vikings, Florentine artists, German merchants and occasionally French arms men or Knights.

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  • These convenient kits contain everything you need to create finishes such as black onyx marble, Florentine green marble, or crackle coat.

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  • The brick oven pizza is served in a variety of styles including a traditional pizza, chicken florentine pizza and pizza melanzane, which is topped with eggplant.

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