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flora

flora

flora Sentence Examples

  • More than half of the flora is unknown elsewhere.

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  • The great primary divisions of the earths flora present themselves at a glance.

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  • The specter shook its head and rose, moving away without disturbing the flora on the jungle floor.

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  • Robinson, "Flora of the Galapagos Islands," Proc. Amer.

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  • Rose Tisdale first sighted the blue car circling the block and called Flora Watkins.

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  • This was unusual, as Bird Song's matron had pestered him about the details of the emerging flora since he had arrived at the inn the prior week.

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  • The Pliocene flora found refuges in favored localities from which at its close the lowlands were restocked while the arctic plants were left behind on the mountains.

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  • At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).

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  • This was accompanied in Europe by a drastic weeding out of Miocene types, ultimately leaving the flora pretty much as it now exists.

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  • Ferns are prominent among the flora, about one-third of which consists of endemic species.

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  • Both were in turn replaced by the Lower Mesozoic flora, which again is thought to have had its birth in the hypothetical Gondwana land, and in which Gymnosperms played the leading part formerly taken by vascular Cryptogams. The abundance of Cycadean plants is one of its most striking features.

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  • Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.

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  • This wealth of plant life is confined to the littoral and the coastal valleys, but the central valleys and the plateaux have, if not a varied flora, a considerable wealth of timber trees in every way superior to the flora inland in the same latitudes.

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  • The age of the glacial deposits is later than the Glossopteris flora and occurs early in the time of the Gangamopteris flora.

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  • The age of the glacial deposits is later than the Glossopteris flora and occurs early in the time of the Gangamopteris flora.

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  • The ultimate goal, I submit, is not to optimize just meter by meter but what I call "grape by grape," down to each individual piece of flora and fauna.

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  • The great peculiarity of Andaman flora is that, with the exception of the Cocos islands, no cocoanut palms are found in the archipelago.

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  • Among the natural flora may be noted the wild olive, the lentisk (from which oil is extracted), the prickly pear, the myrtle, broom, cytisus, the juniper.

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  • Among the natural flora may be noted the wild olive, the lentisk (from which oil is extracted), the prickly pear, the myrtle, broom, cytisus, the juniper.

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  • Even the usually bored Dawkinses ooh-ed and aah-ed appropriately but the brothers seemed more interested in the locale of the various shots than the scenery and flora so beautifully presented.

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  • This is a flora which, thinned out by losses, practically exists to this day in the southern United States.

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  • The Glossopteris flora gradually spread to the northern hemisphere and intermingled with the later Palaeozoic flora which still persisted.

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  • One thing is certain, that there is in Australia a flora that is a remnant of a vegetation once widely distributed.

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  • This flora, isolated by arid country from the rest of the continent, has evidently derived its plant life from an outside source, probably from lands no longer existing.

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  • For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).

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  • Wales, 1895; " The Relation of the Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," Nat.

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  • Among the imported flora are tea, Siberian coffee, cocoa, Ceara rubber (which has not done well), Manila hemp, teak, cocoanut and a number of ornamental trees, fruit-trees, vegetables and garden plants.

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  • One thing is certain, that there is in Australia a flora that is a remnant of a vegetation once widely distributed.

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  • Wales, 1895; " The Relation of the Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," Nat.

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  • It is well known that Darwin was deeply impressed by differences in flora and fauna, which seemed to be functions of locality, and not the result of obvious dissimilarities of environment.

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  • Flora and Fauna.

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  • Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.

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  • 70 contained Sequoia, planes, maples and magnolias, and closely agrees with the Miocene flora of central Europe.

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  • 70 contained Sequoia, planes, maples and magnolias, and closely agrees with the Miocene flora of central Europe.

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  • Flora), the primitive leaf was a reproductive leaf, a sporophyll, from which the foliage-leaf was derived by progressive sterilization.

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  • It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.

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  • Flora), the primitive leaf was a reproductive leaf, a sporophyll, from which the foliage-leaf was derived by progressive sterilization.

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  • While Europe and probably North America were occupied by a warm temperate flora, tropical types had been driven southward, while the adaptation of others to arctic conditions had become accentuated.

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  • The flora and fauna of Juan Fernandez are in most respects Chilean.

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  • The flora of Argentina should be studied according to natural zones corresponding to the physical divisions of the country - the rich tropical and sub-tropical regions of the north, the treeless pampas of the centre, the desert steppes of the south, and the arid plateaus of the north-west.

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  • In the " mesopotamia " region the flora is similar to that of the southern Chaco, but in the Misiones it approximates more to that of the neighbouring Brazilian highlands.

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  • The origin of the fauna and flora of Australia has attracted considerable attention.

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  • From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.

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  • At the close of the Pliocene the European flora was apparently little different from that now existing, though some warmer types such as the waterchestnut (Trapa natans) had a more northern extension.

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  • In North America there is no such barrier: the Miocene flora has been able to escape by migration the fluctuations of climate and to return when they ameliorated.

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  • ==Fauna== The Argentine fauna, like its flora, has been greatly influenced by the character and position of the pampas.

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  • While it has been customary to describe the Miocene flora of Europe as of a North American type, it would be more accurate to describe the latter as having in great measure preserved its Miocene character.

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  • Flora and Fauna.The flora of southern France and the Mediterranean is distinct from that of the rest of the country, which does not differ in vegetation from western Europe generally.

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  • His conclusions were that the group "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and ways from their ancestors.

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  • Behind the luxuriant jungles of the sub-tropical coast, once over the main range, we find the purely Australian flora with its apparent sameness and sombre dulness.

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  • Grasses and herbage in great variety constitute the most valuable element of Australian flora from the commercial point of view.

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  • The habit of forming mycorhizas is found more frequently in warm climates than cold; indeed, the percentage of the flora exhibiting this peculiarity seems to increase with a certain regularity from the Arctic Circle to the equator.

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  • Such plants, which comprise the b ~eat majority of the species of the central European flora, ~himper termed tropophytes.

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  • FLOWERS Imitations of natural flowers are sometimes made for scientific purposes (as the collection of glass flowers at Harvard University, which illustrates the flora of the United States), but more often as articles of decoration and ornament.

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  • The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.

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  • These immigrants then developed, with some exceptions, into the present Australian flora and fauna.

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  • Another point agreed upon is that the Australian flora is one of vast antiquity.

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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.

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  • In the southern hemisphere the Palaeozoic flora appears ultimately to have been profoundly modified by a lowering of temperature and the existence of glacial conditions over a wide area.

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  • The Cenomanian rocks of Bohemia have yielded remains of a sub-tropical flora which has been compared with that existing at present in Australia.

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  • While the tropics preserve for us what remains of the preTertiary or, at the latest, Eocene vegetation of the earth, which formerly had a much wider extension, the flora of the North Temperate region is often described as the survival of the Miocene.

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  • Their distinctive and adaptive characteristics doubtless began to be established as soon as the phanerogamic flora was constituted.

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  • There is no reason to suppose that the peculiarities of the arctic flora are more modern than those of any other, though there is no fossil evidence to prove that it was not so.

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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.

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  • In the southern hemisphere the Palaeozoic flora appears ultimately to have been profoundly modified by a lowering of temperature and the existence of glacial conditions over a wide area.

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  • We're infusing different charges on different forms of flora.

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  • Katie frowned.  In the course of a day, Gabe had gone from emotional to unaffected when discussing Death.  He was distracted, and she felt like she was talking to someone completely different.  Blaming herself for taking his mind off of their survival, she fell silent and followed him.   Briars and branches caught her pant legs, and she found herself slowing to push more and more of the jungle's flora out of the way.  Gabe, too, began to struggle with the bramble, and she noticed the jungle no longer laid their path before him.  Instead of clearing away to allow them passage, it stayed where it was, obstructing them.

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  • She focused her attention on the flora.

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  • The mountains of the north-east, on the contrary, are clothed to their summits with a rich and varied flora.

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  • Physical surroundings rather than latitude determine the character of the flora.

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  • No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.

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  • The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.

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  • He further found that there was an element which he termed boreal in a more intense degree, which amounted to about a fifteenth of the whole flora.

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  • Even so small an area as that of Britain illustrates what has already been pointed out, that the species of a flora change both with latitude and altitude.

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  • The British Phanerogamic flora, it may be remarked, does not contain a single endemic species, and 38% of the total number are common to the three northern continents.

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  • Assuming that in its circumpolar origin the North Temperate flora was fairly homogeneous, it would meet in its centrifugal extension with a wide range of local conditions; these would favor the preservation of numerous species in some genera, their greater or less elimination in others.

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  • 340); and Hemsley finds that not less than 75% of the genera in the flora of eastern North America are represented in the old world, and, according to Asa Gray, 50% in Europe.

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  • The Arctic-Alpine sub-region consists of races of plants belonging originally to the general flora, and recruited by subsequent additrons, which have been specialized in low stature and great capacity of endurance to survive long dormant periods, sometimes even unbroken in successive years by the transitory activity of the brief summer.

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  • Taking the whole arctic flora at 762 species, Hooker found that 616 occurred in arctic Europe, and of these 586 are Scandinavian.

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  • The arctic flora contains no genus that is peculiar to it, and only some fifty species that are so.

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  • Christ has objected to terming the arctic flora Scandinavian, but the name implies nothing more than that Scandinavia has been its chief centre of preservation.

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  • Comparing the Alps with the Pyrenees, according to Ball, each has about half its flora common to the other:

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  • It took place southwards, for the arctic flora is remarkably uniform, and, as Chodat points out, it shows no evidence of having been recruited from the several mountain floras.

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  • That the arctic flora was driven south into Central Europe cannot be contested in the face of the evidence collected by Nathorst from deposits connected with the boulderclay.

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  • And Reid has shown that during the glacial period the existing flora was replaced by an arctic one represented by such plants as Salix polaris, S.

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  • Christ, while admitting an ancient endemic element, such as Cam panula excise in the arctic-alpine flora of Europe, objects that a Scandinavian colonization could not furnish such characteristic plants as the larch and edelweiss.

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  • At the close of the glacial epoch the north Asiatic flora spread westwards into Europe and intermingled with the surviving vegetation.

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  • Some species, such as Anemone alpine, which are wanting in the Arctic flora of the Old World, he thinks must have reached Europe by way of Greenland from north-east America.

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  • The former support a copious herbaceous flora, the characteristics of which in the Old and New Worlds have been already briefly summarized.

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  • The Atlantic flora has also numerous oaks and maples, signalized by their autumnal coloration.

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  • These were abundant in Tertiary Europe, as they are now in Japan, and represent perhaps a cooler element in the flora than that indicated above.

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  • Its extreme richness in number of species (it comprises six-sevenths of the European flora) and the extremely restricted areas of many of them point to a great antiquity.

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  • Extensions of the flora occur southwards of the high mountains of tropical Africa; A denocaf pus, a characteristic Mediterranean genus, has been found on Kilimanjaro and 2000 m.

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  • The Mediterranean, however, has apparently been a barrier to the southward passage of the arcto-alpine flora which is totally wanting on the Atlas.

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  • Shortly afterwards the collections of Prejewalsky confirmed it for the flora.

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  • We may therefore regard the Himalayan flora as a westward extension of the Chinese rather than the latter as a development of the former.

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  • Otherwise the Californian flora is entirely deficient in the characteristic features of that of eastern North America.

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  • It is remarkable that the characteristic features of the Miocene flora, which in other partm of the world have spread and developed southwards, are conspicususly absent from the African tropical flora.

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  • Apart from the occurrence of Cycas, the Asiatic character of the Polynesian flora is illustrated by the distribution of Meliaceae.

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  • The flora of the Hawaiian Islands has complicated relations.

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  • The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.

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  • The South African sub-region has a flora richer perhaps in number of species than any other; and these are often extremely local ant restricted in area.

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  • There is an interestini connection with Europe through the so-called Iberian flora.

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  • This flora extends from Ireland to the Canaries and reappears on the highlands of Angola.

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  • On the eastern side the southern flora finds representatives in Abyssinia, including Protea, and on the mountains of equatorial Africa, Calodendron capense occurring on Kilimanjaro.

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  • In Lower Eocene times its flora appears to have been distinctly related to the existing one.

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  • The Australian flora has extensions at high levels in the tropics; such exists on Kinabalu in Borneo under the equator.

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  • While the flora of New Caledonia is rich in species (3000), that of New Zealand is poor (1400).

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  • While so many conspicuous Australian elements are wanting in New Zealand, one-eighth of its flora belongs to South American genera.

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  • In the New World, as already explained, the path of communication between the northerri and southern hemispheres has always been more or less open, and the temperate flora of southern America does not exhibit the isolation characteristic of the southern region of the Old World.

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  • Taking, however, the Andean flora as typical, it contains a very marked endemic element; Ball finds that half the genera and four-fifths of the species are limited to it; on the other hand, that half the species of Gamopetalae belong to cosmopolitan genera such as Valeriana, Gentiana, Bartsia and Gnaphalium.

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  • Compositae compose a quarter of the Andean flora, which is a greater proportion than in any in the world.

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  • New Zealand was poorly stocked with a weak flora; the more robust and aggressive one of the north temperate region was ready at any moment to invade it-, but was held back by physical barriers which human aid has alone enabled it to surpass.

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  • In this way the surface of the land is divided into numerous natural regions, the flora and fauna of each of which include some distinctive species not shared by the others.

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  • C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.

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  • the remark on p. 481 of his work that " the countries of the East Indian flora have no kinds of birds in common with America which are vegetable feeders."

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  • The surface of the summit (the highest point is variously stated at 3549, 35 82 and 3850 ft.) is broken into small valleys and hills, and is covered with luxuriant vegetation, its flora including the superb orchid Disa grandiflora and the well-known silver tree.

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  • The Kasteel-Berg (Castle Mount), a northern buttress of the mountain, has its own peculiar flora.

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  • Here palm trees, which had begun to appear singly at Deir, grow in large groves, the olive disappears entirely, and we have definitely passed over from the Syrian to the Babylonian, flora and climate.

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  • FLORA, in Roman mythology, goddess of spring-time and flowers, later identified with the Greek Chloris.

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  • In art Flora was represented as a beautiful maiden, bedecked with flowers (Ovid, Fasti, v.

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  • The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.

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  • Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.

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  • Moreover the fauna and flora of New Zealand in many ways resemble those of Samoa.

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  • As regards flora and fauna Bali is associated with Java.

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  • The flora of Russia, which represents an intermediate link between the flora of Germany and the flora of Siberia, is strikingly uniform over a very large area.

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  • Though not poor at any given Flora.

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  • Their flora is far closer akin to the floras of N.

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  • Viewed as a whole, the flora of the forest region is to be regarded as European-Siberian; and, though certain species disappear towards the E., while new ones make their appearance, it maintains, on the whole, the same features throughout from Poland to Kamchatka.

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  • European flora.

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  • coast of the Crimea, where a climate similar to that of the Mediterranean coast has permitted the development of a flora closely resembling that of the valley of the Arno in Italy.

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  • But on the whole, the Crimean flora has little in common with that of the Caucasus.'

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  • The avifauna, of course, becomes poorer; nevertheless, the woods of the steppe, and still more the forests of the ante-steppe, give refuge to many 1 Bibliography of Flora: Beketov, Appendix to Russian translation of Griesebach and Reclus's Geogr.

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  • von Ledebour, Flora Rossica (Stuttgart, 1842-53); E.

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  • For flora of the tundras, Beketov's " Flora of Archangel," in Mem.

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  • (1884); Regel, Flora Rossica (1884); Brown, Forestry in the Mining Districts of the Urals (1885); Reports by Commissioners of Woods and Forests in Russia (1884) birds, even to hazel-hen (Tetrao bonasa), capercailzie (T.

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  • and their flora is much the same as that of Antarctic South America.

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  • The flora of Nevada, although scanty, varies greatly according to its location.

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  • Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain.

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  • In North Carolina's flora are many species common to sub-tropical regions and many common to temperate regions, and the variety is consequently very great.

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  • of the Sauerbrunnen lies the Bofen or Biliner Stein (1763 ft.), a large mass of phonolite or clinkstone, with rare flora and fine view.

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  • The island lacks water, and is dusty during drought, but is fertile, producing fruit, wine and olive oil; the indigenous flora comprises Boo species.

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  • Modern science, however, has indicated a line of physical separation along the channel between Borneo and Celebes, called the Straits of Macassar, which follows approximately 120° E., to the west dl which the flora.

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  • S.) Flora And Fauna The general assemblage of animals and plants found over northern Asia resembles greatly that found in the parts of Europe which are adjacent and have a similar climate.

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  • The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.

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  • The flora of the whole of northern Asia is in essentials the same as that of northern Europe, the differences being due rather to variations of species than of genera.

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  • Along the warm temperate zone, from the Mediterranean to the Himalaya, extends a flora essentially European in character.

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  • The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.

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  • On reaching the Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness the flora assumes many features of the Siberian type.

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  • Some of the Siberian forms, thus brought into proximity with the Indian flora, extend to the rainy parts of the mountains, and even to the plains of upper India.

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  • But within this region there is a very great variation between the vegetation of the more humid and the more arid regions, while the characteristics of the flora on the higher mountain ranges differ wholly from those of the plains.

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  • In short, we have a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage of tropical, temperate and alpine plants, as has been already briefly indicated, of which, however, the tropical are so far dominant as to give their character to the flora viewed as a whole.

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  • The Indian flora contains a more general and complete illustration of almost all the chief natural families of all parts of the world than any other country.

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  • A similar forest flora extends along the mountains of eastern India to the Himalaya, where it ascends to elevations varying from 6000 to 7000 ft.

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  • A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.

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  • With these facts it has to be noticed that many of the principal forms of the eastern flora are absent or comparatively rare in the peninsula and Ceylon.

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  • The general physiognomy of the Indian flora is mainly determined by the conditions of humidity of climate.

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  • The flora of the rainless region of south-western Asia is continuous with the desert flora of northern and eastern Africa, and extends from the coast of Senegal to the meridian of 75° E., or from Asia.

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  • The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.

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  • Among the more mountainous regions of the south-western part of Arabia, known as Arabia Felix, the summits of which rise to 6000 or 7000 ft., the rainfall is sufficient to develop a more luxuriant vegetation, and the valleys have a flora like that of similarly situated parts of southern Persia, and the less elevated parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, partaking of the characters of that of the hotter Mediterranean region.

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  • The flora of the northern part of Afghanistan approximates to that of the contiguous western Himalaya.

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  • The flora of Asia Minor and northern Persia differs but little from that of the southern parts of Europe.

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  • On the mountains of Java there appears to be no truly alpine flora; Saxifrage is not found.

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  • The analysis of the Hong Kong flora indicates that about threefifths of the species are common to the Indian region, and nearly all the remainder are either Chinese or local forms. The number of species common to southern China, Japan and northern Asia is small.

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  • Flora and Fauna.-Plant-life, in such a mountainous country as Caucasia, being intimately dependent upon aspect and altitude, is treated under Caucasus.

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  • One of the things that he looked forward to during his last journey to Avignon was seeing the spring flowers and completing a flora of the locality.

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  • For other countries in the Levant there are Canon Tristram's Fauna and Flora of Palestine (4to, 1884) and Captain Shelley's Handbook to the Birds of Egypt (8vo, 1872).

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  • Climate, Flora, Fauna.

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  • The steppe region, whose flora begins to appear east of the western ridge, is distinguished by the variety of its species, the dry and thorny character of its shrubs, and great poverty in trees.

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  • Post, Flora of Syria, Palestine, &c. (1896); C. J.

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  • The Alpine flora is very beautiful.

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  • Flora d.

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  • The flora of N.

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  • Millspaugh's Flora of the Sand Keys of Florida (Chicago, 1907), a Field Columbian Museum publication, are of value.

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  • The flora is beautiful and varied.

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  • In the semi-arid districts on the south slope of the mountains the flora consists chiefly of dry grasses, acacias, yuccas and cactuses.

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  • On the 8th of May a holiday is still observed in Helston and known as Flora or Furry day.

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  • The highlands, which in an almost continuous line traverse East Africa, have to a great extent isolated the flora of Somaliland in spite of the general resemblance of its climate and soil to the country on the western side of the band of high ground.

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  • In the northern mountainous regions of Somaliland the flora resembles, however, to some extent, that of the Galla country and Abyssinia.

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  • Of herbaceous plants the kissenia, the sole representative of the order Loasaceae, which is common in America but very rare elsewhere, is found in Somaliland, which also possesses forms belonging to the eastern Mediterranean flora.

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  • These slopes are the home of aromatic flora which yields myrrh and frankincense.

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  • Ethnology, flora, fauna, geology, &c. P. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas.

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  • Engler on the flora in the Sitzungsberichte of the Prussian Academy of Science, Nos.

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  • Since the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation, degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily represented.

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  • Even in the best equipped botanical garden it is impossible to have, at one and the same time, more than a very small percentage of the representatives of the flora of any given region or of any large group of plants.

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  • The Kew herbarium, founded by Sir William Hooker and greatly increased by his son Sir Joseph Hooker, is also very rich in types, especially those of plants described in the Flora of British India and various colonial floras.

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  • At the herbarium in Brussels are the specimens obtained by the traveller Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, the majority of which formed the groundwork of his Flora Brasiliensis.

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  • The upland flora is the more diversified.

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  • Notable among the flora are roses, japonicas, hibiscus shrubs of various species, poinsettias, tea olives, crepe myrtle, jasmines, magnolias, camellias, oleanders, chrysanthemums, geraniums and plumbagos.

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  • For fauna and flora: publications of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Bibliographies).

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  • The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.

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  • The total number of species of the island flora was estimated in 1892 by a writer in the Revista Cubana (vol.

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  • The fauna of Cuba, like the flora, is still imperfectly known.

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  • Fauna and Flora.

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  • Sauvalle, Flora Cubana: revisio catalogi Grisebachiani (Havana, 1868); and Flora Cubana: enumeratio nova plantarum Cubensium (Havana, 1873); F.

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  • Gomez de laMaza, Flora Habanera (Havana, 1897); S.

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  • de Morales, Flora arboricola de Cuba aplicada (Havana, 1887, only part published); D.

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  • Segui, Ojeado sobre la flora medica y toxica de Cuba (Havana, 1900); J.

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  • The Bahamas are far poorer in their fauna than in their flora.

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  • Flora.

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  • - Serajevo museum has a collection of the Bosnian flora, representing over 3000 species; among them, the rare.

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  • Flora McDonald, the famous Scottish heroine, came to Campbelltown in April 1775 with her husband and children, and here she seems to have lived during the remainder of that year.

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  • Maw, explored the central part of the Great Atlas with the special object of investigating its flora and determining its relation to that of the mountains of Europe.

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  • Heer, Flora fossilis Arctica (7 vols., 1868-1883), and especially Meddelelser om Gronland for numerous papers on the geology and palaeontology.

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  • It was long a common belief that the fauna and flora of Greenland were essentially European, a circumstance which would make it probable that Greenland has been separated by sea from America during a longer period of time than from Europe.

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  • We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.

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  • The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.

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  • The flora and fauna are similar to those of the other states of the same latitude.

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  • Spengel, "Die Enteropneusten," Eighteenth Monograph on the Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel (1893); A.

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  • among its 40,000 volumes, and a botanical garden, rich in specimens of the Balkan flora.

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  • The flora of Siberia presents very great local varieties, not only on account of the diversity of physical characteristics, but also in consequence of the intrusion of new species from the neighbouring regions, as widely different as the arctic littoral, the arid steppes of Central Asia, and the wet monsoon regions of the Pacific littoral.

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  • Its open spaces are lovely prairies, on which the Daurian flora flourishes in full beauty.

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  • The flora of Minusinsk - the Italy of Siberia - is well known; the prairies on the Ishim and of the Baraba steppe are adorned with the same rich 'vegetation, so graphically described by Middendorff and O.

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  • Pallas, with several Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country.

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  • The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.

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  • for flora).

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  • The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.

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  • "Flying Fish," having discovered an anchorage in a bay which he named Flying Fish Cove, landed a party and made a small but interesting collection of the flora and fauna.

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  • The flora and fauna of the islands present features of unusual interest.

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  • The flora includes mangroves, Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae and other forms requiring more than pure coralline material for their growth.

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  • Writing of the fauna and flora generally, Mr R.

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  • There are comparatively few (10) species of plants which are endemic as far as the flora has been investigated, and it is probable that most of them are also existing in the Comoros, where the flora is not well known..

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  • Some of the plants are European forms, others belong to the Glossopteris flora characteristic of India and South Africa.

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  • The flora falls naturally into three great divisions: that of the Amazon basin where exceptional conditions of heat and moisture prevail; that of the coast where heat, varying rainfall, oceanic influences and changing seasons have greatly modified the general character of the vegetation; and that of the elevated interior, or sertao, where dryer conditions, rocky surfaces, higher sun temperatures and large open spaces produce a vegetation widely different from those of the other two regions.

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  • Besides these, the flora of the Paraguay basin varies widely from that of the inland plateau, and that of the Brazilian Guiana region is essentially distinct from the Amazon.

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  • Those opening northward have the characteristic flora of the Amazon basin.

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  • The Brazilian flora is also rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, dye-woods, and a wide range of gum and resin-producing shrubs and trees.

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  • P. von Martius on the Flora Braziliensis, and the explorations of Agassiz and Lund.

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  • The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.

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  • The construction of the coast road, the Via Severiana, from Ostia to Tarracina, added to the importance of the place; and the beauty of the promontory with its luxuriant flora and attractive view had made it frequented by the Romans as early as 200 B.C. Galba and Domitian possessed country houses here.

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  • The fossil flora - Thinnfeldia odontopteroides, Morr.

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  • In these zones the flora varies from sub-tropical to sub-alpine.

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  • The heaths and proteads common at the Cape peninsula, in Basutoland and other parts of South Africa, are rare in Natal, but almost any species of the flora of semi-tropical and temperate countries introduced attains perfection.

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  • But the most striking of the coast-belt flora are the tropical forms - the palm, mangrove, wild banana (Strelitzia augusta), tree-ferns, tree euphorbia, candelabra spurge and Caput medusae.

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  • For further historical works and for information on flora, fauna, climate, law, church, &c. see the bibliography under SOUTH AFRICA.

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  • This same character is also exhibited by the bottoms of the broad valleys, while the more elevated and hilly portions of the territory, especially on their northern slopes, are covered with larch, cedar, pine and deciduous trees belonging to the Siberian flora; where the forests fail they are marshy or assume the character of Alpine meadows - e.g.

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  • These patches, called " woodbushes," contain many hardwood trees of great size, their flora and fauna being altogether different from that immediately outside the wood.

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  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

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  • The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.

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  • In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.

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  • There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.

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  • The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent, having been annexed in 1887.

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  • ==Flora== The flora of Arabia has been investigated by P. Forskal, the botanist of Niebuhr's mission, P. E.

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  • The new museum contains a unique collection of the flora of the Riviera.

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  • Review (January, 1862), pp. 11-18; Brandis, Forest Flora of North-west and Central India, pp. 516-525 (London, 1874); Veitch, Manual of Coniferae (2nd ed., London, 1900).

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  • - Geographically speaking, Tunisia is merely the eastern prolongation of the Mauretanian projection of northern Africa, of that strip of mountainous, fertile and fairly well-watered country north of the Sahara desert, which in its flora and its fauna, and to some extent in its human race, belongs rather to Europe than to Africa.

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  • On the higher mountains the flora has a very English character, though the actual species of plants may not be the same.

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  • In fact, the country between the Matmata highlands and the strait separating Jerba from the mainland is singularly African in the character and aspect of its flora.

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  • The flora of Tunisia is very nearly identical with that of Algeria, though it offers a few species either peculiar to itself or not found in the last-named country.

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  • The present writer, riding up to these frontier mountains from the thoroughly Saharan country round Gafsa, found himself surrounded by a flora very reminiscent of Switzerland or England.

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