Flora sentence example
More than half of the flora is unknown elsewhere.
The great primary divisions of the earths flora present themselves at a glance.
The specter shook its head and rose, moving away without disturbing the flora on the jungle floor.
Rose Tisdale first sighted the blue car circling the block and called Flora Watkins.
This was unusual, as Bird Song's matron had pestered him about the details of the emerging flora since he had arrived at the inn the prior week.Advertisement
The flora is beautiful and varied.
Ferns are prominent among the flora, about one-third of which consists of endemic species.
At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).
The Pliocene flora found refuges in favored localities from which at its close the lowlands were restocked while the arctic plants were left behind on the mountains.
She focused her attention on the flora.Advertisement
There is an interestini connection with Europe through the so-called Iberian flora.
We're infusing different charges on different forms of flora.
Katie frowned. In the course of a day, Gabe had gone from emotional to unaffected when discussing Death. He was distracted, and she felt like she was talking to someone completely different. Blaming herself for taking his mind off of their survival, she fell silent and followed him. Briars and branches caught her pant legs, and she found herself slowing to push more and more of the jungle's flora out of the way. Gabe, too, began to struggle with the bramble, and she noticed the jungle no longer laid their path before him. Instead of clearing away to allow them passage, it stayed where it was, obstructing them.
The mountains of the north-east, on the contrary, are clothed to their summits with a rich and varied flora.
Physical surroundings rather than latitude determine the character of the flora.Advertisement
No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.
The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.
He further found that there was an element which he termed boreal in a more intense degree, which amounted to about a fifteenth of the whole flora.
Even so small an area as that of Britain illustrates what has already been pointed out, that the species of a flora change both with latitude and altitude.
The British Phanerogamic flora, it may be remarked, does not contain a single endemic species, and 38% of the total number are common to the three northern continents.Advertisement
The Arctic-Alpine sub-region consists of races of plants belonging originally to the general flora, and recruited by subsequent additrons, which have been specialized in low stature and great capacity of endurance to survive long dormant periods, sometimes even unbroken in successive years by the transitory activity of the brief summer.
Assuming that in its circumpolar origin the North Temperate flora was fairly homogeneous, it would meet in its centrifugal extension with a wide range of local conditions; these would favor the preservation of numerous species in some genera, their greater or less elimination in others.
Taking the whole arctic flora at 762 species, Hooker found that 616 occurred in arctic Europe, and of these 586 are Scandinavian.
The arctic flora contains no genus that is peculiar to it, and only some fifty species that are so.
Christ has objected to terming the arctic flora Scandinavian, but the name implies nothing more than that Scandinavia has been its chief centre of preservation.Advertisement
It took place southwards, for the arctic flora is remarkably uniform, and, as Chodat points out, it shows no evidence of having been recruited from the several mountain floras.
That the arctic flora was driven south into Central Europe cannot be contested in the face of the evidence collected by Nathorst from deposits connected with the boulderclay.
At the close of the glacial epoch the north Asiatic flora spread westwards into Europe and intermingled with the surviving vegetation.
Some species, such as Anemone alpine, which are wanting in the Arctic flora of the Old World, he thinks must have reached Europe by way of Greenland from north-east America.
The former support a copious herbaceous flora, the characteristics of which in the Old and New Worlds have been already briefly summarized.Advertisement
The Atlantic flora has also numerous oaks and maples, signalized by their autumnal coloration.
These were abundant in Tertiary Europe, as they are now in Japan, and represent perhaps a cooler element in the flora than that indicated above.
Its extreme richness in number of species (it comprises six-sevenths of the European flora) and the extremely restricted areas of many of them point to a great antiquity.
Extensions of the flora occur southwards of the high mountains of tropical Africa; A denocaf pus, a characteristic Mediterranean genus, has been found on Kilimanjaro and 2000 m.
The Mediterranean, however, has apparently been a barrier to the southward passage of the arcto-alpine flora which is totally wanting on the Atlas.Advertisement
Shortly afterwards the collections of Prejewalsky confirmed it for the flora.
We may therefore regard the Himalayan flora as a westward extension of the Chinese rather than the latter as a development of the former.
Otherwise the Californian flora is entirely deficient in the characteristic features of that of eastern North America.
It is remarkable that the characteristic features of the Miocene flora, which in other partm of the world have spread and developed southwards, are conspicususly absent from the African tropical flora.
Apart from the occurrence of Cycas, the Asiatic character of the Polynesian flora is illustrated by the distribution of Meliaceae.Advertisement
The flora of the Hawaiian Islands has complicated relations.
The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.
The South African sub-region has a flora richer perhaps in number of species than any other; and these are often extremely local ant restricted in area.
This flora extends from Ireland to the Canaries and reappears on the highlands of Angola.
On the eastern side the southern flora finds representatives in Abyssinia, including Protea, and on the mountains of equatorial Africa, Calodendron capense occurring on Kilimanjaro.Advertisement
In Lower Eocene times its flora appears to have been distinctly related to the existing one.
The Australian flora has extensions at high levels in the tropics; such exists on Kinabalu in Borneo under the equator.
While the flora of New Caledonia is rich in species (3000), that of New Zealand is poor (1400).
While so many conspicuous Australian elements are wanting in New Zealand, one-eighth of its flora belongs to South American genera.
In the New World, as already explained, the path of communication between the northerri and southern hemispheres has always been more or less open, and the temperate flora of southern America does not exhibit the isolation characteristic of the southern region of the Old World.Advertisement
Taking, however, the Andean flora as typical, it contains a very marked endemic element; Ball finds that half the genera and four-fifths of the species are limited to it; on the other hand, that half the species of Gamopetalae belong to cosmopolitan genera such as Valeriana, Gentiana, Bartsia and Gnaphalium.
Compositae compose a quarter of the Andean flora, which is a greater proportion than in any in the world.
New Zealand was poorly stocked with a weak flora; the more robust and aggressive one of the north temperate region was ready at any moment to invade it-, but was held back by physical barriers which human aid has alone enabled it to surpass.
In this way the surface of the land is divided into numerous natural regions, the flora and fauna of each of which include some distinctive species not shared by the others.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
The surface of the summit (the highest point is variously stated at 3549, 35 82 and 3850 ft.) is broken into small valleys and hills, and is covered with luxuriant vegetation, its flora including the superb orchid Disa grandiflora and the well-known silver tree.
The Kasteel-Berg (Castle Mount), a northern buttress of the mountain, has its own peculiar flora.
Here palm trees, which had begun to appear singly at Deir, grow in large groves, the olive disappears entirely, and we have definitely passed over from the Syrian to the Babylonian, flora and climate.
The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.
Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.
Moreover the fauna and flora of New Zealand in many ways resemble those of Samoa.
As regards flora and fauna Bali is associated with Java.
The flora of Russia, which represents an intermediate link between the flora of Germany and the flora of Siberia, is strikingly uniform over a very large area.
Though not poor at any given Flora.
Viewed as a whole, the flora of the forest region is to be regarded as European-Siberian; and, though certain species disappear towards the E., while new ones make their appearance, it maintains, on the whole, the same features throughout from Poland to Kamchatka.
But on the whole, the Crimean flora has little in common with that of the Caucasus.'
The flora of Nevada, although scanty, varies greatly according to its location.
Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain.
In North Carolina's flora are many species common to sub-tropical regions and many common to temperate regions, and the variety is consequently very great.
The island lacks water, and is dusty during drought, but is fertile, producing fruit, wine and olive oil; the indigenous flora comprises Boo species.
The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.
The flora of the whole of northern Asia is in essentials the same as that of northern Europe, the differences being due rather to variations of species than of genera.
Along the warm temperate zone, from the Mediterranean to the Himalaya, extends a flora essentially European in character.
The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
On reaching the Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness the flora assumes many features of the Siberian type.
Some of the Siberian forms, thus brought into proximity with the Indian flora, extend to the rainy parts of the mountains, and even to the plains of upper India.
But within this region there is a very great variation between the vegetation of the more humid and the more arid regions, while the characteristics of the flora on the higher mountain ranges differ wholly from those of the plains.
In short, we have a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage of tropical, temperate and alpine plants, as has been already briefly indicated, of which, however, the tropical are so far dominant as to give their character to the flora viewed as a whole.
The Indian flora contains a more general and complete illustration of almost all the chief natural families of all parts of the world than any other country.
A similar forest flora extends along the mountains of eastern India to the Himalaya, where it ascends to elevations varying from 6000 to 7000 ft.
A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.
With these facts it has to be noticed that many of the principal forms of the eastern flora are absent or comparatively rare in the peninsula and Ceylon.
The general physiognomy of the Indian flora is mainly determined by the conditions of humidity of climate.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
Among the more mountainous regions of the south-western part of Arabia, known as Arabia Felix, the summits of which rise to 6000 or 7000 ft., the rainfall is sufficient to develop a more luxuriant vegetation, and the valleys have a flora like that of similarly situated parts of southern Persia, and the less elevated parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, partaking of the characters of that of the hotter Mediterranean region.
On the mountains of Java there appears to be no truly alpine flora; Saxifrage is not found.
The analysis of the Hong Kong flora indicates that about threefifths of the species are common to the Indian region, and nearly all the remainder are either Chinese or local forms. The number of species common to southern China, Japan and northern Asia is small.
Flora and Fauna.-Plant-life, in such a mountainous country as Caucasia, being intimately dependent upon aspect and altitude, is treated under Caucasus.
One of the things that he looked forward to during his last journey to Avignon was seeing the spring flowers and completing a flora of the locality.
For other countries in the Levant there are Canon Tristram's Fauna and Flora of Palestine (4to, 1884) and Captain Shelley's Handbook to the Birds of Egypt (8vo, 1872).
The steppe region, whose flora begins to appear east of the western ridge, is distinguished by the variety of its species, the dry and thorny character of its shrubs, and great poverty in trees.
The Alpine flora is very beautiful.
The highlands, which in an almost continuous line traverse East Africa, have to a great extent isolated the flora of Somaliland in spite of the general resemblance of its climate and soil to the country on the western side of the band of high ground.
Of herbaceous plants the kissenia, the sole representative of the order Loasaceae, which is common in America but very rare elsewhere, is found in Somaliland, which also possesses forms belonging to the eastern Mediterranean flora.
These slopes are the home of aromatic flora which yields myrrh and frankincense.
Since the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation, degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily represented.
Even in the best equipped botanical garden it is impossible to have, at one and the same time, more than a very small percentage of the representatives of the flora of any given region or of any large group of plants.
The Kew herbarium, founded by Sir William Hooker and greatly increased by his son Sir Joseph Hooker, is also very rich in types, especially those of plants described in the Flora of British India and various colonial floras.
At the herbarium in Brussels are the specimens obtained by the traveller Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, the majority of which formed the groundwork of his Flora Brasiliensis.
The upland flora is the more diversified.
Notable among the flora are roses, japonicas, hibiscus shrubs of various species, poinsettias, tea olives, crepe myrtle, jasmines, magnolias, camellias, oleanders, chrysanthemums, geraniums and plumbagos.
The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.
The Bahamas are far poorer in their fauna than in their flora.
Flora McDonald, the famous Scottish heroine, came to Campbelltown in April 1775 with her husband and children, and here she seems to have lived during the remainder of that year.
Maw, explored the central part of the Great Atlas with the special object of investigating its flora and determining its relation to that of the mountains of Europe.
It was long a common belief that the fauna and flora of Greenland were essentially European, a circumstance which would make it probable that Greenland has been separated by sea from America during a longer period of time than from Europe.
We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.
The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
The flora and fauna are similar to those of the other states of the same latitude.
Its open spaces are lovely prairies, on which the Daurian flora flourishes in full beauty.
Pallas, with several Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country.
The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.
The flora includes mangroves, Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae and other forms requiring more than pure coralline material for their growth.
There are comparatively few (10) species of plants which are endemic as far as the flora has been investigated, and it is probable that most of them are also existing in the Comoros, where the flora is not well known..
Some of the plants are European forms, others belong to the Glossopteris flora characteristic of India and South Africa.
Besides these, the flora of the Paraguay basin varies widely from that of the inland plateau, and that of the Brazilian Guiana region is essentially distinct from the Amazon.
Those opening northward have the characteristic flora of the Amazon basin.
The Brazilian flora is also rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, dye-woods, and a wide range of gum and resin-producing shrubs and trees.
The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.
The construction of the coast road, the Via Severiana, from Ostia to Tarracina, added to the importance of the place; and the beauty of the promontory with its luxuriant flora and attractive view had made it frequented by the Romans as early as 200 B.C. Galba and Domitian possessed country houses here.
The heaths and proteads common at the Cape peninsula, in Basutoland and other parts of South Africa, are rare in Natal, but almost any species of the flora of semi-tropical and temperate countries introduced attains perfection.
But the most striking of the coast-belt flora are the tropical forms - the palm, mangrove, wild banana (Strelitzia augusta), tree-ferns, tree euphorbia, candelabra spurge and Caput medusae.
For further historical works and for information on flora, fauna, climate, law, church, &c. see the bibliography under SOUTH AFRICA.
This same character is also exhibited by the bottoms of the broad valleys, while the more elevated and hilly portions of the territory, especially on their northern slopes, are covered with larch, cedar, pine and deciduous trees belonging to the Siberian flora; where the forests fail they are marshy or assume the character of Alpine meadows - e.g.
These patches, called " woodbushes," contain many hardwood trees of great size, their flora and fauna being altogether different from that immediately outside the wood.
The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.
In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.
There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.
The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent, having been annexed in 1887.
The new museum contains a unique collection of the flora of the Riviera.
On the higher mountains the flora has a very English character, though the actual species of plants may not be the same.
In fact, the country between the Matmata highlands and the strait separating Jerba from the mainland is singularly African in the character and aspect of its flora.
The flora of Tunisia is very nearly identical with that of Algeria, though it offers a few species either peculiar to itself or not found in the last-named country.
The present writer, riding up to these frontier mountains from the thoroughly Saharan country round Gafsa, found himself surrounded by a flora very reminiscent of Switzerland or England.
On the other hand, the flora of the shat region, of the south-eastern littoral, and of the Kerkena islands opposite Sfax, is thoroughly Saharan, with a dash, as it were, in places of an African element.
One is an amar- Coast Flora.
There is a tropical flora in the deep gorges, higher up a sub-tropical, then a temperate, then a sub-arctic flora.
The soil is sandy but affords good pasture in some places, and has been farmed with some success; the flora is rich, and includes some rare species.
Flora.The flora of Japan has been carefully studied by many scientific men from Siebold downwards.
It has been well said that to enumerate the constituents and inhabitants of the Japanese mountain-forests would be to name at least half the entire flora.
While there can be no doubt that the luxuriance of Japans flora is due to rich soil, to high temperature and to rainfall not only plentiful but well distributed over the whole year, the wealth and variety of her trees and shrubs must be largell the result of immigration.
By these paths the germs of Asiatic plants were carried over to join the endemic flora of the country, and all found suitable homes amid greatly varying conditions of climate and physiography.
The western slope of Lebanon has the common characteristics of the flora of the Mediterranean coast, but the Anti-Lebanon belongs to the poorer region of the steppes, and the Mediterranean species are met with only sporadically along the water-courses.
The alpine flora of Lebanon thus connects itself directly with the Oriental flora of lower altitudes, and is unrelated to the glacial flora of Europe and northern Asia.
They are nowhere covered by perpetual snow, and glaciers do not exist, so that the Carpathians, even in their highest altitude, recall the middle region of the Alps, with which, however, they have many points in common as regards appearance, structure and flora.
The highest parts in the High Tatra and in the Transylvanian Mountains have a flora similar to that of the Alps, more specially that of the middle region.
Remarkable is the sea-shore flora, which is found in the numerous salt-impregnated lakes, ponds and marshes in Transylvania.
Among the marine flora may be mentioned.
The arboreal flora of Louisiana and Arkansas extends into north-eastern Texas, conformable with the Coastal Plain, where, immediately south of the Colorado river, the great pine belt of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts terminates.
The flora of the Great Plains region, consisting principally of nutritious grasses, enters the north-western portion of the state and extends south to the Edwards Plateau and east into the Prairie Plains region.
The peculiar plants of the Rocky Mountain plateaus penetrate into the Trans-Pecos region, which the north Mexican flora, including the Agave lecheguilla, a valuable commercial fibre, is found along the Rio Grande.
On the fauna and flora see Vernon Bailey, Biological Survey of Texas (Washington, D.C., 1905) in North American Fauna, No.
Busoga and the Elgon district the flora is very West African in character.
So far the highest altitudes yet botanically investigated are those of the Owen Stanley range and the mountains in Kaiser Wilhelms Land, but of the flora of the highest range of all - the Charles Louis mountains - nothing is known.
In the low and sub-mountainous lands the flora is a mixture of Malayan, Australian and Polynesian forms. There are, according to Muller, twice as many palms known from New Guinea as from Australia.
The alpine flora, beginning at 6000 ft., is specially characterized by its rhododendrons, pines (Araucaria and Libocedrus), and palms, by numerous superb species of Agapetes (Ericaceae), and on the summits by an extraordinary association of species characteristically European (Rubus, Ranunculus, Leontodon, Aspidium), Himalayan, New Zealandian (Veronica), Antarctic and South American (Drymus, Libocedrus).
Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.
In such oases the flora is exceedingly rich.
Gardens and promenades have taken the place of the old ramparts, and on the south the city is bounded by the Frederiks and the Flora parks, between which runs the fine avenue called the Dreef, leading to the Haarlemmer Hout or wood.
These hills exhibit the usual black earth flora, and they have a settled population.
The scanty vegetation is a mixture of the flora of south-east Russia and that of the deserts of central Asia.
The New Zealand flora, like the fauna, has been cited in support of the theory of the remote continental period.
In appearance the more conspicuous flora differs very greatly from that of Australia, Polynesia, and temperate South America, and helps to give to the scenery a character of its own.
The fauna and flora are similar to those of the Gold Coast and Liberia.
He was identified by the Romans with Favonius, and Chloris with Flora.
The flora is most closely associated with that of New Zealand, and the avifauna indicates the same connexion rather than one with Australia, as those birds which belong to Australian genera are apparently immigrants, while those which occur on the island in common with New Zealand would be incapable of such distant migration.
The flora is typical of a region of scanty rainfall.
On March 23rd, two weeks after he ceased to be president, Mr Roosevelt sailed for Africa, to carry out a long-cherished plan of conducting an expedition for the purpose of making a scientific collection of the fauna and flora of the tropical regions of that continent.
Her success brought her other leading roles - Bellario, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster; Flora, in Rhodes's Flora's Vagaries; Samira, in Sir Robert Howard's Surprisal; and she remained a member of the Drury Lane company until 1669, playing continuously save for a brief absence in the summer of 1667 when she lived at Epsom as the mistress of Lord Buckhurst, afterwards 6th earl of Dorset (q.v.).
The first was the case of Lady Flora Hastings.
Clark, the queen's physician, and the result was that Lady Flora was subjected to the indignity of a medical examination, which,.
The ladies of the bedchamber were so unpopular in consequence of their behaviour to Lady Flora Hastings that the public took alarm at the notion that the queen had fallen into the hands of an intriguing coterie; and Lord Melbourne, who was accused of wishing to rule on the strength of court favour, resumed office with diminished prestige.
It was an untoward coincidence that Lady Flora Hastings died on the 5th of July, for though, she repeated on her deathbed, and wished it to be published, that the queen had taken no part whatever in the proceedings which had shortened her life, it was remarked that the ladies who were believed to have persecuted her still retained the sovereign's favour.
The flora of North Dakota is typical of a semi-arid country.
In its flora and fauna Siam combines the forms of Burma and the Shan States with those of Malaya, farther south, and of Cambodia to the south-east.
The Linnean system was strongly supported by Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828), who adopted it in his English Flora, and who also became possessor of the Linnean collection.
The nature of the climate at different epochs of the earth's history has also been determined from the character of the flora.
The flora of the Asiatic islands (thus distinguished) "is a special development of that prevailing from the Himalayas to the Malay Peninsula and south China.
Lilies, however, are not a conspicuous feature in the flora of Palestine, and the red anemone (Anemone coronaria), with which all the hill-sides of Galilee are dotted in the spring, is perhaps more likely to have suggested the figure.
On the Arka-tagh even the moss, the last surviving representative of the flora, disappears entirely.
The fauna and flora resemble those of the Mediterranean coasts of Spain or France.
The flora of Algeria consists of about 3000 species, of which some 450 are indigenous to the country, ioo being peculiar to the Sahara.
The flora of the Tell is South European in character.
The flora of the high plateaus consists chiefly of grasses, notably various kinds of alfa or esparto, and aromatic herbs.
Trabut, Flore de l'Algerie (Algiers and Paris, 1884 and onwards), contains a scientific and descriptive catalogue, in several volumes, of the indigenous flora.
In considering the flora of the islands it is necessary to distinguish between the rich vegetation of the fertile volcanic islands and the poor vegetation of the coral islands.
The flora is estimated to include 15% of ferns, but they form only the most important group among many plants of beautiful foliage, such as draceanas and crotons.
Besides those already mentioned, his works include An Outline of the First Principles of Horticulture (1832), An Outline of the Structure and Physiology of Plants (1832), A Natural System of Botany (1836), The Fossil Flora of Great Britain (with William Hutton, 1831-1837), Flora Medica (1838), Theory of Horticulture (1840), The Vegetable Kingdom (1846), Folia Orchidacea (1852), Descriptive Botany (1858).
Its geology, flora and fauna are therefore described under Central America.
In its primeval state Kentucky was generally well timbered, but most of the middle section has been cleared and here the blue grass is now the dominant feature of the flora.
The most accessible and best critical edition of the fragments which have been preserved word for word is to be found in Hilgenfeld's Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentums. One of the most important of these fragments is the letter of Ptolemaeus to Flora, preserved in Epiphanius, Haeres.
These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.
In the intermediate zones between the higher sierras and the tierras calientes the flora is very largely composed of species characteristic of the bordering hot and cold regions.
No brief description can adequately portray the marvellous variety and magnificence of the flora of the tierras calientes.
They occur in the Lower Chalk formations, and in Tertiary times were widely diffused; the genus is represented in the Eocene flora of Great Britain, and in the succeeding Miocene period was widely distributed in Europe and western Asia.
The geology, fauna and flora of Guatemala are discussed under Central America.
Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.
Flora.The Alpine flora, which is found in the United States only on the tops of those mountains which rise above the limit of trees, consists principally of a variety of plants which bloom as soon as the snow melts and for a short season make a brilliant display of colors.
The general flora of the Maritime Provinces, Quebec and Eastern Ontario is much the same, except that in Nova Scotia a number of species are found common also to Newfoundland that are not apparent inland.
In New Brunswick the western flora begins to appear as well as immigrants from the south, while in the next eastern province, Quebec, the flora varies considerably.
From the city of Quebec westwards there is a constantly increasing ratio of southern forms, and when the mountain (so called) at Montreal is reached the representative Ontario flora begins.
In Ontario the flora of the northern part is much the same as that of the Gulf of St Lawrence, but from Montreal along the Ottawa and St Lawrence valleys the flora takes a more southern aspect, and trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants not found in the eastern parts of the Dominion become common.
In the ravines the eastern flora continues for some distance, and then disappearing gives place to that of the prairie, which is found everywhere between the Red river and the Rocky Mountains except in wooded and damp localities.
Northwards, in the Saskatchewan country, the flora of the forest and that of the prairies intermingle.
The flora of the forest belt of the North-West Territories differs little from that of northern Ontario.
On the western slope of the mountains, that is, the Selkirk and Coast ranges as distinguished from the eastern or Rocky Mountains range, the flora differs, the climate being damp instead of dry.
In some of the valleys having an outlet to the south the flora is partly peculiar to the American desert, and such species as Purshia tridentata, D.C., and Artemisia tridentata, Nutt., and species of Gilia, Aster and Erigonum are found that are not met with elsewhere.
Above Yale, in the drier part of the Fraser valley, the absence of rain results in the same character of flora, while in the rainy districts of the lower Fraser the vegetation is so luxuriant that it resembles that of the tropics.
So in various parts of the mountainous country of British Columbia, the flora varies according to climatic conditions.
There is also Kersal Moor, 21 acres of Moorland, crossed by a Roman road, which has been noticed for the variety of its flora, and for the capture of the Oecophara Woodiella, of which there is no other recorded habitat.
The fauna and flora of Alabama are similar to those of the Gulf states in general and have no distinctive characteristics.
The flora and fauna are scarcely investigated.
The fauna and flora have no distinctive features.
The Hawaiian Islands have a peculiar flora.
When undisturbed by cultivation, the myrtle, arbutus, bay and ilex form a rich brushwood and the minor flora of the island is extensive.
The flora is most varied in the Susquehanna Valley below Harrisburg, and on Presque Isle are some plants peculiar to the Lake region.
Our knowledge of the flora of northern and central Tibet has been considerably increased by the collections of Prjevalsky, Wellby, Bower, Thorold, Littledale and the Lhasa Mission, and that of eastern Tibet by Rockhill.
Western and southern Tibetan flora were partially explored previously to the advent of these travellers.
Professor Maximowicz concludes from an analysis of the Prjevalsky collection that the flora of Tibet is extremely ancient, and that it is chiefly composed of immigrants from the Himalaya and Mongolia.
Thiselton-Dyer classes the flora of Tibet on the whole as belonging to the Arctic-Alpine section of the great northern division, but containing a purely endemic element.
In south-eastern Tibet, where Himalayan conditions of climate prevail, we have a completely different class of flora.
The lichen flora of temperate regions again is essentially distinguished from the preceding by the frequency of corticolous species belonging to Lecanora, Lecidea and Graphidei.
There is reason to think, however, that it is the want of soil rather than climatal conditions that checks the upward extension of the alpine flora.
The stronghold of this last, the distinctively " Alpine " flora, is the region above the tree-limit.
Its closest relationship is with the flora of the Pyrenees; but an alpine flora is characteristic of all the lofty mountains of central Europe.
Indeed, an analysis of the composition of the alpine flora as a whole leads to the conclusion that the chief bond of union between its members consists in the treeless character of their habitat.
We may broadly distinguish two main geographical elements in the alpine flora, namely, the northern element and the endemic element.
This division (which is not, however, strictly exhaustive) directs special attention to what is undoubtedly the most striking feature of the flora - namely, that of its 693 species no less than 271 reappear in the extreme north.
This relation of the arctic to the alpine flora is all the more remarkable in view of the very important differences between the arctic and alpine climates.
For example, in the genus Primula, a highly characteristic genus of the alpine flora, whose members are among the most striking ornaments of the rocks, the single northern species, P. farinosa, grows only in marshy meadows.
With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps.
The same explanation covers the case of the similarity of the flora (not merely as regards the northern element) on all the high mountains of central Europe.
Their affinities are chiefly, though not exclusively, with the present Mediterranean flora - about fifty are of presumably Mediterranean origin - and a large proportion of them are restricted to the southern slopes of the Alps.
The presence of these plants among the alpine flora is traceable to the steppe-like conditions which prevailed in central Europe both during the warmer inter-glacial periods and (probably) for a time after the close of the ice-age.
About 40% of the endemic element in the alpine flora are endemic also in the narrower sense, i.e.
The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
Not to mention the more vernal flowers, the first might contain the flora of May; the second that of June; the third that of July; and the fourth that of August and the following months.
He was distinguished for his researches on the Carboniferous and Cretaceous rocks and fossils of Saxony, and in particular for those relating to the fauna and flora of the Permian or Dyas formation.
In the Lower Carboniferous the flora was composed of six great groups of plants, viz.
Sediments approaching to the culm type, with similar flora and fauna, were deposited in synclinal hollows in parts of France and Spain.
Disguised in female attire and aided by a passport obtained by the devoted Flora Macdonald, he passed through Skye and parted from his gallant conductress at Portree.
A remarkable feature of the Sumatran flora is the great variety of trees that vie with each other in stature and beauty, and as a timber-producing country the island ranks high even among the richly wooded lands of the archipelago.
The flora may be most conveniently dealt with in the four physiographical divisions to which it belongs.
Natural history is covered by various periodical publications of the Royal Zoological Society " Natura Artis Magistra " at Amsterdam, and the Natuurlijke Historie van Nederland (Haarlem, 1856-1863) written by specialists, and including ethnology and flora.
In the third and highest zone the vegetation is stunted, and there is a narrow zone of sub-Alpine shrubs, but no Alpine flora.
The country forms a section of the central European zone, and its flora is largely under the influence of the Baltic and Alpine elements, which to a great degree here coalesce.
The museum contains a natural history section with the complete fauna and flora of Transylvania, and a rich ethnographical section.
The flora of Sicily is remarkable for its wealth of species; but, comparing Sicily with other islands that have been long separated from the mainland, the number of endemic species is not great.
In 1803 he was appointed commander-in-chief in Scotland, and in 1804 he married Flora Mure Campbell, countess of Loudoun in her own right.
Flora.Egypt possesses neither forests nor woods arid, as practically the whole of the country which will support vegetation is devoted to agriculture, the flora is limited.
The wild flora of the alluvial valley was probably always restricted and eventually was reduced almost to the weeds of cultivation, when every acre of soil, at one period of the year dnder water, and at another roasted under the burning heat of a semi-tropical sun, was carefully tilled.
In Bornholm, it should be mentioned, the flora is more like that of Sweden; not the beech, but the pine, birch and ash are the most abundant trees.
Mr Jackson and his party landed at "Elmwood" (which was named from Lord Northcliffe's seat in the Isle of Thanet), near Cape Flora, at the western extremity of Northbrook Island, on the 7th of September.
The quantitative estimate of the amount of this flora has revealed its enormous aggregate amount and therefore its great importance in the economy of oceanic and lacustrine animal life.
He was rewarded by five or six months of dangerous and distressful wanderings, and would certainly have been taken at one juncture but for the courageous and wise assistance of Flora Macdonald, while on all hands the highlanders displayed the most devoted loyalty.
The analogy possibly may be extended to such cases as the occurrence of flora or fauna with alpine characters on the summits of mountains separated by broad zones of tropical climate.
The climate of eastern Bokhara and Darwaz is delightful in summer, and Dr Regel writes of its Alpine scenery and flora in terms of enthusiastic admiration.
The flora of the Quito basin has been well studied by various European botanists, more especially by Dr William Jameson (1796-1873) of the university of Quito, who began the preparation of a synopsis of the Ecuadorean flora in 1864-1865 (Synopsis plantarum Quitensium, 2 vols., Quito, 1865).
The flora of the forested lowlands on both sides of the Andes has not been studied and described so fully.
On the paramos of Chimborazo, Pichincha, Iliniza, &c., the relation of characteristic genera to those identical with genera in the Alpine flora of Europe is as 5 to 4; and the botanist might almost suppose himself in the Upper Engadine.
Of the flora of the highest Andes, Whymper found 42 species, of various orders, above 16,000 ft., almost all of which were from Antisana and Chimborazo; 12 genera of mosses were found above 15,000 ft., and 59 species of flowering plants above 14,000 ft., of which 35 species came from above 15,000 and 20 species from above 16,000 ft.
The fauna and flora, which are similar to those of the other North Central States of North America, impressed the early explorers with their richness and variety.
The flora is varied.
Eight genera are represented in the British flora.
The flora of Palestine has a considerable range and variety, owing to the variation in local climatic conditions.
In 1864 was founded the Palestine Exploration Fund, under the auspices of which an ordnance survey map of the country was completed (published 1881), and accompanied by volumes containing memoirs on the topography, orography, hydrography, archaeology, fauna and flora, and other details.
The flora is even more peculiar than the fauna.
The flora and also (though to a less degree) the fauna present not only Asian and Central African affinities, but, what is more interesting, Mascarene, South African and Antipodean-American relationships, indicating a very different distribution of land and water and necessitating other bridges of communication than now exist.
In early and middle Tertiary times, when the Indian peninsula was an island, and the sea which stretched into Europe washed the base of the Himalayan hills, Sokotra was in great part submerged and the great mass of limestone was deposited; but its higher peaks were still above water, and formed an island, peopled mainly by African species - the plants being the fragmentary remains of the old African flora - but with an admixture of eastern and other Asian forms. Thereafter it gradually rose, undergoing violent volcanic disturbance."
The Antipodean-American element in the Sokotran flora probably arrived via the Mascarene Islands or South Africa from a former Antarctic continent.
In many respects the flora of the highest of these three divisions (the Panchet group) is more nearly related to that of the Upper Gondwanas than it is to the other Lower Gondwana floras.
Although during the Gondwana period the flora of India differed greatly from that of Europe, it was strikingly similar to the contemporaneous floras of South America, South Africa and Australia.
It is somewhat remarkable that this characteristically southern flora, known as the Glossopteris Flora (from the name of one of the most characteristic genera), has also been found in the north of Russia.
This is part of the great temperate flora which, with locally individualized species, but often with identical genera, ranges over the whole of the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere.
In the western Himalayas this upland flora is marked by a strong admixture of European species, such as the columbine (Aquilegia) and hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha).
Above that there is a rich temperate flora which in the eastern chain may be regarded as forming an extension of that of northern China, gradually assuming westwards more and more of a European type.
A notable further instance of the connexion of the western Himalayan flora with that of Europe is the holm oak (Quercus Ilex), which is characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
The flora is a poor one in number of species, and is essentially identical with that of Persia, southern Arabia and Egypt.
For the Malayan area, which Sir Joseph Hooker describes as forming " the bulk of the flora of the perennially humid regions of India, as of the whole Malayan peninsula, Upper Assam valley, the Khasi mountains, the forests of the base of the Himalaya from the Brahmaputra to Nepal, of the Malabar coast, and of Ceylon," see AssAM, Ceylon and Malay Peninsula.
In respect to positive affinities, Sir Joseph Hooker pointed out some relations with the flora of tropical Africa as evidenced by the prevalence of such genera as Grewia and Impatiens, and the absence, common to both countries, of oaks and pines which abound in the Malayan archipelago.
Owing to the destruction of the primeval forests for the formation of sugar plantations, the indigenous flora is only seen in parts of the interior plains, in the river valleys and on the hills; and it is not now easy to distinguish between what is native and what has come from abroad.
In the low country the flora differs little from that of tropical Africa generally, whilst on the plateau the vegetation is characteristic of the temperate zone.
The rich and varied flora of the Philippines is essentially Malayan, intermixed with Chinese and Australian elements, but with sufficient individuality to constitute a sub-region, there being at least 769 species peculiar to the archipelago.
The flora of the government reserved forests is rich and varied.
The fauna and flora are both comparatively meagre.
The state possesses a rich fauna and flora.
The physiography of the state is the evident determinant of its climate, fauna and flora.
The flora of the coast islands of California is very interesting.
The native flora is rich, and teak, ebony and canari trees are especially abundant; the fauna, which is similarly varied, includes the babirusa, which occurs in this island only of the Moluccas.
The flora of Borneo is very rich, the greater portion of the surface of the island being clothed in luxuriant vegetation.
It thus corresponds to the term "flora" in respect to plant life.
From the midst of the Franciscans who had persecuted Roger Bacon because he presumed to know more than was consistent with human humility arose John of Parma, adopting and popularizing the mystic prophecy of Joachim of Flora.
The minor flora of the country is exceedingly rich.
The grass flora of the lowlands is not so rich in variety nor so abundant in quality as that of high altitudes.
The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam species for each province.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
Here also is Skansen, an ingenious reproduction in miniature of the salient physical features of Sweden with its flora, fauna, and characteristic dwellings inhabited by peasants in the picturesque costumes of the various districts.
In the arctic zone they form to% of the flora; they will flourish in soils rich in humus which are too acid to support grasses.
Henry Phillips (1775-1838), in his Flora historica, remarks that Turner (1568) "calls it gelouer, to which he adds the word stock, as we would say gelouers that grow on a stem or stock, to distinguish them from the clove-gelouers and the wall-gelouers.
The effects of the great latitudinal range of Sweden on its climate and flora has its parallel to a modified extent in the case of fauna.
The indigenous flora of Chile is less extensive and less interesting than those of Argentina and Brazil, but contains many peculiar genera and species.
To some degree the flora of central Chile is of a transition character between the northern and southern zones.
Tristram (Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p. 139) regards it as but a straggler from central Arabia, though we have little information as to its distribution in that country.
As we approach inner Persia the flora rapidly makes place to steppe vegetation in the plains, while the mediterranean flora predominates in the hills.
Beyond this outer range and along the shore of the sea the flora is that of the Sahara region, which extends eastwards to Sind.
In consequence of the deficient rainfall over the greater part of the country the flora is not luxuriant and there are no large forests.
Of non-indigenous flora are the oak, poplar, bluegum, the Australian wattle, the vine, and almost every variety of fruit tree and European vegetables.
The genus was represented in the Tertiary flora of Europe, when it extended into the polar regions; nineteen species have been recorded from the Miocene strata of Oeningen in Switzerland.
Speaking broadly, the general type of the flora of the lower, hotter and wetter regions, which extend along the great plain at the foot of the Himalaya, and include the valleys of the larger rivers which penetrate far into the mountains, does not differ from that of the contiguous peninsula and islands, though the tropical and insular character gradually becomes less marked going from east to west, where, with a greater elevation and distance from the sea and higher latitude, the rainfall and humidity diminish and the winter cold increases.
The European flora, which is diffused from the Mediterranean along the high lands of Asia, extends to the Himalaya; many European species reach the central parts of the chain, though few reach its eastern end, while genera common to Europe and the Himalaya are abundant throughout and at all elevations.
Passing to the westward, and viewing the flora of Kumaon, which province holds a central position on the chain, on the 80th meridian, we find that the gradual decrease of moisture and increase of high summer heat are accompanied by a marked change of the vegetation.
The alpine flora is slower in changing its character as we pass from east to west, but in Kashmir the vegetation of the higher mountains hardly differs from that of the mountains of Afghanistan, Persia and Siberia, even in species.
The total number of flowering plants inhabiting the range amounts probably to 5000 or 6000 species, among which may be reckoned several hundred common English plants chiefly from the temperate and alpine regions; and the characteristic of the flora as a whole is that it contains a general and tolerably complete illustration of almost all the chief natural families of all parts of the world, and has comparatively few distinctive features of its own.
But its flora is the richest in Europe, and combines with the brilliant sunshine, the vivid but harmonious costumes of the peasantry, and the white or paletinted houses to compensate for any such deficiency.
As far as the constituents of its flora are concerned Portugal is not very dissimilar from Spain, but their distribution is peculiar.
The soil is fertile, and the indigenous flora has been greatly enriched by the importation of such plants as the agave, the Mexican opuntia, the American maple, the Australian eucalyptus, the Scotch fir and the so-called Portuguese cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) from the Azores.
The Serra da Estrella has a rich alpine flora, and the lagoon of Aveiro contains a great number of aquatic plants.
Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.
The flora of Bolivia has been studied less than the flora of the neighbouring republics, however, because of the inaccessibility of these inland regions.
The general conditions of distribution of the fauna of Arizona are shown even more distinctly by the flora.
The flora is on the whole poor, although the higher regions carry good forests of larch, pitch pine, cedar, birch and alder, with rhododendrons and species of Berberis and Ribes.
The fauna and flora of Idaho are similar in general to those of the other states in the north-western part of the United States.
The steppe flora penetrates into the mountains, ascending some 1100-1200 ft., and in sheltered valleys even up to 5500 ft., when it of course comes into contact with the purely alpine flora.
According to some, Acca Larentia was the mother of the Lares, and, like Ceres, Tellus, Flora and others, symbolized the fertility of the earth - in particular the city lands and their crops.
Wheeler, Michigan Flora (Lansing, 1892), contains the results of an extensive study of the subject.
Still another class, and the most clearly marked of all, is the flora of the beaches, salt marshes and meadows.
The large amount of salt in the water makes both fauna and flora of the lake scanty; there are a few algae, the larvae of an Ephydra and of a Tipula fly, specimens of what seems to be Corixa decolor, and in great quantities, so as to tint the surface of the water, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (or gracilis or fertilis), notable biologically for the rarity of males, for the high degree of parthenogenesis and for apparent interchangeableness with the Branchipus.
Sargent, in his Forest Flora of Japan, says, "Japan owes much of the beauty of its groves and gardens to the Cryptomeria.
The Alaskan flora is less varied than the fauna.
The most distinguishing feature of the flora of this region is the predominance of arborescent growths; forests cover in fact 56% of the area, and are not only dense but laced together with climbing and twining plants.
The flora of this section bears a general resemblance to that farther west.
The most valuable of the forest flora are the lianas, notably Landolphia florida, which yield the india-rubber of commerce.
Phalarideae (6 genera, three of which are South African and Australasian; the others are more widely distributed, and represented in our flora).
There is no district in which they do not occur, and in nearly all they are a leading feature of the flora.