How to use Flint in a sentence
The chief exports are oil-cake, flint, cod and Benedictine liqueur.
Jacobs Cavern was peculiarly rich in flint knives and projectile points.
For striking fire, flint is used even to the present day.
He was at once joined by the Percies; and Richard, abandoned by his friends, surrendered at Flint on the 19th of August.
Air, flint, glass, rock-crystal, calcareous spar were examined, but without effect.Advertisement
If the worldpowers were hard as flint in their dealings with Israel, the people of God were steeled to such moral endurance that each clash of their successive onsets kindled some new flame of devotion.
The prisms are necessarily compound, and usually consist of flint glass with compensating prisms of crown.
Flint scrapers were used in dressing down limestone sculpture in the IIIrd Dynasty.
The Solutrian work exhibits a transitory stage of art between the flint implements of the Mousterian and the bone implements of the Madelenian epochs.
In its modern form the Leyden jar consists of a widemouthed bottle of thin English flint glass of uniform thickness p. 512.Advertisement
It was laid out as a town and named Flint Hills (a translation of the Indian name, Shokokon) in 1834; but the name was soon changed to Burlington, after the city of that name in Vermont.
It generally consists of limestone, or of mixed limestone and clay, or of sand and clay, or of gravel, with here and there flint and rolled quartz.
The subsoils of some of the other districts (Cotes and St Emilion) contain much stone in the shape of flint and quartz.
Robert Flint published The Philosophy of History in Europe, Historical Philosophy in France; his volumes on Theism and Antitheistic Theories have passed through many editions.
The chief inlets are the mouth of the Dee, dividing Flint from Cheshire; the Menai Straits, separating Anglesea from the mainland; Carnarvon Bay; Cardigan Bay, stretching from Braich-y-Pwll to St Davids Head; St Brides Bay; Milford Haven; Carmarthen Bay; and Swansea Bay.Advertisement
The Dee (70 m.) traverses Bala Lake, and drains parts of the counties of Merioneth, Denbigh and Flint.
The diocese of St Asaph (Llanelwy) consists of the county of Denbigh, nearly the whole of Flint, with portions of Montgomery, Merioneth and Shropshire.
Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed.
The most productive counties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obtained in the Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contains.
If a collective system be corrected for the axis point for a definite wave-length, then, on account of the greater dispersion in the negative components - the flint glasses; - over-correction will arise for the shorter wavelengths (this being the error of the negative components), and under-correction for the longer wave-lengths (the error of crown glass lenses preponderating in the red).Advertisement
On Easter Eve new fire is made 3 with a flint and steel, and blessed; from this three candles are lighted, the lumen Christi, and from these again the Paschal Candle.
The state supports the Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1859), at Kalamazoo; the Eastern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1878), at Pontiac; the Northern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1885), at Traverse City; the Michigan Asylum for the Dangerous and Criminal Insane (established 1885), at Ionia; the Upper Peninsula Hospital for the Insane, at Newberry; a Psychopathic Hospital (established 1907), at Ann Arbor; a State Sanatorium (established 1905), at Howell; the Michigan State Prison (established 1839), at Jackson; the Michigan Reformatory (established 1887), at Ionia; the State House of Correction and Branch Prison (established 1885), at Marquette; the Industrial School for Boys, at Lansing; the Industrial Home for Girls (established 1879), near Adrian; the State Public School (opened 1874), at Coldwater, a temporary home for dependent children until homes in families can be found for them; the School for the Deaf (established 1854), at Flint; the School for the Blind, at Lansing; an Employment Institution for the Blind (established 1903), at Saginaw; the Home for the Feeble Minded and Epileptic (established 1893), at Lapeer; and the Michigan Soldiers' Home (established 1885), at Grand Rapids.
Flint in 1873 yielded 74% of morphia, equal to to% in perfectly-dried opium.
The church of St Edmund's is a Perpendicular flint structure.
Much of the raw material for this industry, such as ball, flint, and spar clays and kaolin, is imported from other states.Advertisement
Its walls of flint rubble survive in stately fragments, and enclose an area of 200 acres.
Between 1850 and 1860 French and English geologists were induced to examine into the facts, and found irresistible the evidence that man existed and used rude implements of chipped flint during the Quaternary or Drift period.
Near by were so-called "bear-wallows," which proved to be the remains of an aboriginal workshop, where masses of flint were broken into rectangular blocks; and spalls and flint-chips encumber the floor and choke the passage-way.
The typical implements are flint points or spear-heads, left smooth and flat on one side, as struck from the cave, pointed and edged from the other side; a scraper treated in the same way, but with edge rather upon the side than at the end, as in the succeeding Solutrian and Madelenian epochs.
In limestones of various kinds it occurs as nodules and bands of chert and flint, being in this case of organic origin.Advertisement
They are in every form from the rare to the common-glass pot clay, ball clays, kaolins, flint fireclays, plastic fireclays, stone-ware clays, paving-brick shales, building-brick and gumbo clays.
A well sunk in these formations without striking any fissure or water-bearing flint bed, receives water only at a very slow rate; but if, on the other hand, it strikes one or more of the natural water-ways, the quantity of water capable of being drawn from it will be greatly increased.
There are now three churches - St Peter's, St Cuthbert's and St Mary's - principally of Perpendicular flint work; of these St Mary's, on the Suffolk side, is the largest.
But it may be affirmed that Dogmatic must remain the vital centre; and so far we may soften Flint's censure of the British thoughtlessness which has called that study by the name " systematic theology."
Examples are preserved of the various forms of spoons used by the ancient Egyptians of ivory, flint, slate and wood, many of them carved with the symbols of their religion.Advertisement
See Flint (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Flint.
With skill and experience a mass of flint can be worked to any simple shape by well directed strokes, and further trimming can be effected with pressure by a pointed stone in a direction slightly across the edge of the weapon.
The purest flints have the most perfect conchoidal fracture, and prehistoric man is known to have quarried or mined certain bands of flint which were specially suitable for his purposes.
Silica forms nearly the whole substance of flint; calcite and dolomite may occur in it in small amounts, and analysis has also detected minute quantities of volatile ingredients, organic compounds, &c., to which the dark colour is ascribed by some authorities.
These are dispelled by heat and the flint becomes white and duller in lustre.Advertisement
Microscopic sections show that flint is very finely crystalline and consists of quartz or chalcedonic silica; colloidal or amorphous silica may also be present but cannot form any considerable part of the rock.
Spicules of sponges and fragments of other organisms, such as molluscs, polyzoa, foraminifera and brachiopods, often occur in flint, and may be partly or wholly silicified with retention of their original structure.
Nodules of flint when removed from the chalk which encloses them have a white dull rough surface, and exposure to the weather produces much the same appearance on broken flints.
This process must be a very slow one as, from its chemical composition, flint is a material of great durability.
Hence on beaches and in rivers, such as those of the southeast of England, flint pebbles exist in vast numbers.Advertisement
Although the flint nodules often lie in bands which closely follow the bedding, they were not deposited simultaneously with the chalk; very often the flint bands cut across the beds of the limestone and may traverse them at right angles.
Evidently the flint has accumulated along fissures, such as bedding planes, joints and other cracks, after the chalk had to some extent consolidated.
The process has been very gradual and the organisms of the original chalk often have their outlines preserved in the flint.
Shells may become completely silicified, or may have their cavities occupied by flint with every detail of the interior of the shell preserved in the outer surface of the cast.
Chert is a coarser and less perfectly homogeneous substance of the same nature and composition as flint.Advertisement
The principal uses to which flint has been put are the fabrication of weapons in Palaeolithic and Neolithic times.
Other materials have been employed where flint was not available, e.g.
Flint gravels are widely employed for dressing walks and roads, and for rough-cast work in architecture.
For road-mending flint, though very hard, is not regarded with favour, as it is brittle and pulverizes readily; binds badly, yielding a surface which breaks up with heavy traffic and in bad weather; and its fine sharp-edged chips do much damage to tires of motors and cycles.
Formerly flint and steel were everywhere employed for striking a light; and gun flints were required for fire-arms. A special industry in the shaping of gun flints long existed at Brandon in Suffolk.
Powdered flint was formerly used in the manufacture of glass, and is still one of the ingredients of many of the finer varieties of pottery.
In the latter place they contain workable coal-seams. The Carboniferous Limestone often contains black flint (chert), and at some horizons conglomerates occur, the pebbles being derived from the unconformable ridges of the " Caledonian " land.
Dark " green-sands," very rich in glauconite, are followed by yellow sandstones with some flint.
The Senonian chalk, or " White Limestone," is hard, with numerous bands of flint, and suffered from denudation in early Eocene times.
The lower Nile valley, however, forms an exception; flint implements of a palaeolithic type have been found near Thebes, not only on the surface of the ground, which for several thousand years has been desert owing to the contraction of the river-bed, but also in stratified gravel of an older date.
Four huge flint rocks bar the river at Ansongo and effectually prevent further navigation except in very small vessels.
Flint (valuable for railway ballast) occurs in immense quantities about Wymore and Blue Springs.
By introducing a dispersive lens of flint the magnifying glass could be corrected for both chromatic and spherical aberrations.
A flint arrow point would have been useful to keep in your pouch.
Finds include dozens of leaf shaped flint arrowheads which might suggest it was defended against unwanted human or animal invaders.
Cleadon The earliest recorded evidence of human activity at Cleadon is provided by prehistoric flint artifacts (HER 883 ).
The building is of flint rubble with stone dressings, and the tower has battlements and angle pinnacles, with two-light belfry windows.
Also, of course, there would be flint but, surprisingly, most probably very broken and unsuitable for knapping.
The flint artifacts found in the ancient river gravels are frequently rolled, battered, and stained brown by iron oxides.
These pits also contained significant amounts of domestic refuse including animal bones, burnt daub and burnt daub and burnt flint.
The price includes a sharp flint chard so that you are ready to go as son as you receive it.
These bronze Age people made flint and bronze daggers - often placed in their graves.
Derived fossils can be collected along the foreshore including echinoid 's in flint, shells and occasional mammal bones.
Mr Flint was severely injured in the incident suffering a broken fibula - the bone which runs from the knee to the ankle.
The gasoline filler cap and the flint replacement cap are both located underneath alongside the details ' McMurdo Pat.
An unburnt retouched flint flake was recovered which may have accompanied the burial.
In 2002 they found a flint flake - an undisputed artifact.
The material is almost entirely composed of knapped flint.
Between these facings was a rubble core of locally mined flint held together by mortar.
This enabled us to collect the flint for the floor.
One concentration of fire-cracked flint suggests the possible location of a flint cairn.
Even in the woods, Ju finds more flint and Roman pottery... One of the many burnt flints found across the survey area.
The deposits themselves contain the earliest evidence of man in the area, in the form of Paleolithic flint implements.
This website provides access to a complete record of the region's archeology, from the smallest prehistoric flint to the largest medieval castle.
The Museum also possesses a flint miner's pick used for extracting flint nodules.
Ah, he was the man to have a headpiece, was Flint!
The majority of the flint appears to be fairly homogenous in raw material characteristics.
Early history Evidence of flint tools shows some use of the Sherwood area by prehistoric hunter-gatherers.
It is a stiff, tenacious loam, mixed with flint stones.
The red clayey loam, mixed up with great yellow flint stones.
On the east side of the circular Mausoleum another apsidal wall of chalk and flint was reported in 1893.
The most common flint tools were trapezoidal shaped microliths.
Fill of grave comprised brown silty clay with very occasional small flint pebbles.
The enclosure ditch was found to have been cut through a shallow flint pebble layer which overlay coombe rock.
Other stray finds from topsoil included five flint flakes, animal bone and medieval to post-medieval pottery.
What we are seeing are, in fact, the remains of the flint rubble cores.
Successive wins over Conwy and Flint set the scene for the Friday night showdown with a point needed to open the safety valve.
It was found by geophysical survey on the site of a flint scatter in ploughsoil.
Gaia made a flint sickle and invited Kronos and his brothers to kill Uranus.
One of the flint knappers becomes a story teller through contact with a woman from outside the community who comes to live with them.
Analysis of the teeth shows prehistoric dentists had a go at curing toothache with drills made from flint heads.
Behind the robber trench was a solid flint floor, which has all the appearance of a well-made road.
Records show that they later bought wagonloads of the flint rubble to use as building materials.
Moral law implies a law-giver; " we are conscious of moral dependence " (Robert Flint).
Flint that while materialism requires sensationalist psychology, yet the psychology in question allows no valid inference to matter, and therefore destroys materialism.
Flint and chert were employed for knives, etc., but with none of the marvellous skill and artistry of the predynastic Egyptian flint-knapper; the early Babylonian used comparatively simple flakes and the wonderful serration of the Egyptian knives was unknown to him though he made the saw-blades.
These may have been Puka Puka of the Tuamotu Archipelago and Flint Island; but it may be stated here that the identification of islands sighted by the early explorers is often a matter of conjecture, and that therefore some islands of which the definite discovery must be dated much later had in fact been seen by Europeans at this early period.
The finest pottery, often painted but all hand-made without the wheel, belongs to the prehistoric period; so also do the finest flint implements, which, in the delicacy and exactitude of their form and flaking, surpass all that is known from other countries.
In spite of the improvements in themanufacture of optical glass (see Glass) practically the same crown and flint glasses as used by John Dollond in 1758 for achromatic objectives are still used for all the largest of the modern refracting telescopes.
For relatively short focal lengths a triple construction such as this is almost necessary in order to obtain an objective free from aberration of the 3rd order, and it might be thought at first that, given the closest attainable degree of rationality between the colour dispersions of the two glasses employed, which we will call crown and flint, it would be impossible to devise another form of triple objective, by retaining the same flint glass, but adopting two sorts of crown instead of only one, which would have its secondary spectrum very much further reduced.
Nor is the question of the vernacular itself of necessity bound up with this new movement, for Wales is essentially a bi-lingual country, wherein every educated Cymro speaks and writes English with ease, and where also large towns and whole districts - such as Cardiff, south Monmouth, the Vale of Glamorgan, Gower, south Glamorgan, south Pembroke, east Flint, Radnorshire and Breconshire - remain practically monoglot English-speaking.
The Wrexham, Mold & Connah's Quay railway, which was taken over by the Great Central company in 1905, helped to bring the mineral wealth of Flint and North Wales generally into the Birkenhead docks.
Boucher de Perthes, about 1841, of rude flint hatchets in a sand-bed containing remains of mammoth and rhinoceros at Menchecourt near Abbeville, which first find was followed by others in the same district (see Boucher de Perthes, De l'Industrie primitive, ou les arts a leur origine (1846); Antiquites celtiques et antediluviennes (Paris, 1847), &c.).
Flint occurs primarily as concretions, veins and tabular masses in the white chalk of such localities as the south of England (see Chalk).
The second aberration which must be removed from microscope objectives are the chromatic. To diminish these a collective lens of crown-glass is combined with a dispersing lens of flint; in such a system the red and the blue rays intersect at a point (see Aberration).
Flint's Pond, a mile eastward, allowing for the disturbance occasioned by its inlets and outlets, and the smaller intermediate ponds also, sympathize with Walden, and recently attained their greatest height at the same time with the latter.
I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.
Flint's, or Sandy Pond, in Lincoln, our greatest lake and inland sea, lies about a mile east of Walden.
When I crossed Flint's Pond, after it was covered with snow, though I had often paddled about and skated over it, it was so unexpectedly wide and so strange that I could think of nothing but Baffin's Bay.
It commonly opens about the first of April, a week or ten days later than Flint's Pond and Fair Haven, beginning to melt on the north side and in the shallower parts where it began to freeze.
One pleasant morning after a cold night, February 24th, 1850, having gone to Flint's Pond to spend the day, I noticed with surprise, that when I struck the ice with the head of my axe, it resounded like a gong for many rods around, or as if I had struck on a tight drum-head.
Subsequently the site was fieldwalked by the Suffolk Archeological Unit who found a scatter of flint and medieval pottery, but nothing very exciting.
The party is credited by some with inciting the 1937 Flint sit-down strike.
Flint stayed at the mine overnight, making her way to the closest entrance and staring into the blackness.
I remember my mother telling us that the flint wall running up Bear Road was strafed by German planes.
Scraping the striker down the flint generates a spark three times as hot as a standard match to ignite easily any dry tinder material.
Proposals to crack down on smoking among teenagers were unveiled by public health minister Caroline Flint today.
The Birch Run Outlet mall is located between the cities of Flint and Saginaw.
Flint River Ranch is a company that makes premium pet foods and they have a sample offer onsite.
Advisa Home Care provides skilled nursing, private care, non-medical, and companion services in Grand Rapids, Flint, Saginaw, and Kalamazoo.
Right at Home provides both home health care and non-medical care throughout Michigan, including Kalamazoo/Battle Creek, southwest Michigan, Livonia, Grand Rapids, and Flint.
The cowboy character Flint appears in similar scenes in both versions.
There is a connection between Flint and the dog as well.
The dog appears with the supposed main character in the Mother 3 screens and is shown in the same screenshot with Flint in the N64 version.
Does the dog befriend Flint and then the main character?
This is a pleaser in the mouth with springy grapefruit and lime flavors augmented with soft grass and flint, which turns with downward embellishment of round buttery texture, with just the right nuance.
Beautiful and clear crisp pale yellow, the wine releases distinctive aromas of citrus and tropical fruit that taper off with herb essence and flint.
Genesee County has death records spanning back to 1930, while the Flint Genealogical Society maintains a death index from 1867 to 1930 for Genesee County.
Lake Hubbard is an easy drive from Detroit, Saginaw, East Lansing, Flint, and other Michigan cities.
By the end of 2008, GM's production had dropped by 18.4%, and it had stopped shifts at its Pontiac and Flint, Michigan plants, as well as facilities in Oshawa, Ontario, and Janesville, Wisconsin.
While most television shows will turn a blind eye to fanfic written in their universe, some book authors are not so forgiving (while some, like Flint mentioned above, are quite open to fanfic).
We have intuitions of cause, of infinity, of good and Flint.
The coasting trade consists chiefly of imports of coal and provisions, the exports being principally timber for shipbuilding and flint for the Staffordshire potteries.
The discovery of flint implements of the same types as those found in Egypt, Mauritania, and Europe show Somaliland to have been inhabited by man in the Stone age.
The church of St Michael is a fine Perpendicular and Decorated building of black flint, surmounted by a tower 96 ft.
The first actual find of a palaeolithic implement was that of a rudely fashioned flint in a sandbank at Menchecourt in 1841 by Boucher de Perthes.
The Welsh mines are chiefly in Flint, Cardigan and Montgomery shires; the Scottish in Dumfries, Lanark and Argyll; and the Irish in Wicklow, Waterford and Down.
It is chiefly used as a pigment and in the manufacture of flint glass.
For the practical measurement of field intensity du Bois has used plates of the densest Jena flint glass.
The settlement of the place, then called the Grand Traverse of the Flint, began in 1820, but Flint's growth was very slow until 1831, when it was platted as a village; it was chartered as a city in 1855.
Upon that was raised a wall of rough rubble rudely faced with stone and flint, evidently a medieval work and about 22 ft.
Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward.
The essential materials of which these mixtures are made are, for English flint glass, sand, carbonate of potash and red lead; for plate and sheet glass, sand, carbonate or sulphate of soda.
Flint glass particularly, which appeared quite satisfactory when viewed in small pieces, was found to be so far from homogeneous as to be useless for lens construction.
The potash-lead glass, which was first used on a commercial scale in England for the manufacture of table-ware, and which is known as " flint " glass or " crystal," is also largely used in France, Germany and the United States.
It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.
Hoffman founded at New York the Knickerbocker (1833-1860), which soon passed under the control of Timothy Flint and became extremely successful, most of the leading native writers of the next twenty years having been contributors.
Its roof is a single flat stratum of limestone; its walls are well marked by lines of stratification; dripstone also partly covers the walls, fills a deep fissure at the end of the cave, and spreads over the floor, where it mingles with an ancient bed of ashes, forming an ash-breccia (mostly firm and solid) that encloses fragments of sandstone, flint spalls, flint implements, charcoal and bones.
The middle series of the Lower Tertiaries, known as the Woolwich and Reading beds, rests either on the Thanet beds or on chalk, and consists chiefly of irregular alternations of clay and sand of very various colours, the former often containing estuarine and oyster shells and the latter flint pebbles.
They consist chiefly of flint pebbles or of lightcoloured quartzose sand, the thickness being from 20 to 30 ft, and.
The " three footprints of Vishnu," for example, unmistakably gave its name to the Mexican day 0111n, signifying the " track of the sun "; and both series further contain a " flint weapon," a " stick," and a " house."
Denudation in earliest Eocene times has produced flint gravels above the chalk, and an ancient stream deposit of chalk pebbles occurs at Ballycastle.
Recently elevated marine clays, of post-glacial date, fringe the south-eastern coast, while gravels with marine shells, side by side with flint implements chipped by early man, have been lifted some 20 ft.
Materials for porcelain, including flint, feldspar and kaolin, abound in the east portion of the Piedmont, the kaolin chiefly in Cecil county, and material for mineral paint in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, as well as farther north-west.
The Mexican calendar depended on the combination of numbers with picture-signs, of which the four principal were the rabbit, reed, flint,, house - tochtli, acatl, tecpatl, calli.
The four leading Maya signs called kan, muluc, ix, cauac corresponded in their position to the four Aztec signs rabbit, reed, flint, house, but the meanings of the Maya signs are, unlike the Aztec, very obscure.
In Ireland and the west Highlands neolithic arrow-heads and flint chips are still fairy weapons.
Many indications of ice action are found in these islands; striated surfaces are to be seen on the cliffs in Eday and Westray, in Kirkwall Bay and on Stennie Hill in Eday; boulder clay, with marine shells, and with many boulders of rocks foreign to the islands (chalk, oolitic limestone, flint, &c.), which must have been brought up from the region of Moray Firth, rests upon the old strata in many places.
In prehistoric times in Egypt the dead were laid in the graves on mats in the crouching position common in the burials of primitive peoples, and were supplied with jars of food, flint instruments, &c. Perhaps the attempt was already made to preserve the bodies by drying or otherwise.
The constant a has the same value I 2 for crown and flint glass, so that there are only three disposable constants left.
The prism may be made of a dense flint glass or of quartz if the ultra-violet is to be explored, or it may be hollow and filled with carbon bisulphide, a-bromnaphthalene or other suitable liquid.
Rutherfurd devised one made of flint glass with two crown glass compensating prisms; whilst Thallon employed a hollow prism containing carbon bisulphide also compensated by flint glass prisms. In direct vision spectroscopes the refracting prisms and slit are in the observing telescope.
Amici in 1860 devised such an instrument; an improved form by Jannsen was made up of two flint and three crown prisms, and in Browning's form there are three flint and four crown.
The townwalls are built of flint and concrete bonded with ironstone, and are backed with earth.
The commonest aggregates are broken stone and natural flint gravel.
Generally speaking,broken stones will be rough and angular, whereas the stones in flint gravel will be comparatively smooth and round.
Experience shows that, although spherical pebbles are to be avoided, Portland cement adheres tightly to smooth flint surfaces, and that rough stones often give a less compact concrete than smooth ones on account of the difficulty of bedding them into the matrix when laying the concrete.
When natural flint gravel containing both stones and sand is used, it is usual to mix so much gravel with so much lime or cement.
The growth of a tree, the spark struck from a flint, the devastating floods of a river, mean to him the natural actions of beings within the tree, stone or water.
Hence the name seems to have been applied also to flint, and perhaps to emery and other hard stones.
Numerous isolated palaeolithic objects of the Mousterian type have been found in the neighbourhood of Rome in the quaternary gravels of the Tiber and Anio; but no certain traces of the neolithic period have come to light, as the many Pre" flint implements found sporadically round Rome pro- historic bably belong to the period which succeeded neolithic (called by Italian archaeologists the eneolithic period) inasmuch as both stone and metal (not, however, bronze, but copper) were in use.
A typical German find is at Taubach, near Weimar, where almond-shaped stone wedges, small flint knives, and roughly-hacked pieces of porphyry and quartz are found, together with the remains of elephants.
Other objects found in the graves are small flint knives, stone axes, flint and lumps of pyrites for obtaining fire, and, in the womens graves, hand-mills for grinding corn.
In the limestone was found the flint or chert used for weapons and instruments in early times.
Stone mace-heads are found in the earliest cemeteries, together with flint implements that may be the heads of lances, &c, and thin leaf-shaped daggers of bronze.
Flint axes were made in imitation of metal in the XIIth Dynasty (9).
Flint hoes (14) are common down to the XIIth Dynasty.
Slicing Tools.The knife was originally a flint saw (17), havint minute teeth; it must have been used for cutting up animals, fresh or dried, as the teeth break away on soft wood.
The flint knives of the time of Menes are finely curved (19), with a handle-notch; by the end of the lInd Dynasty they were much coarser (20) and almost straight in.
There are no dated specimens till the Assyrian iron saws (48) of the 7th century B.C. Drills were of flint (49) for hard material and bead-making, of bronze for woodwork.
Hunting Weapons.The forked lance of flint was at first wide with stTght hollow (73) from S.D.
The flint vase-grinders were used in the early dynasties (110), and also sandstone grinders for hollowing larger vases (III).
In some cases they appear to lie where they were chipped on the sites of flint factories.
Flint implements, exactly like those of Siberia and Russia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like the European ones, primitive pottery with decorations like those of Olonets and stone weights for nets.
The names generally given to the three prehistoric periods of man's life on the earth - the Stone, the Bronze and the Iron age - imply the vast importance of the progressive steps from the flint knife to the bronze celt, and lastly to the keen-edged elastic iron weapon or tool.
It is cruciform in shape, and the walls are built mainly of flint, but jambs and arches are formed of Roman bricks.
For the knives chipped from flint by prehistoric man see Archaeology and Flint Implements.
A form of flint corn, with variegated leaves, is grown for ornament under the name Zea japonica or Japanese striped corn.
The triple object-glass, consisting of a combination of two convex lenses of crown glass with a concave flint lens between them, was introduced in 1765 by Peter, son of John Dollond, and many excellent telescopes of this kind were made by him.
The reflecting telescope became the only available tool of the astronomer when great light grasp was requisite, as the difficulty of procuring disks of glass (especially of flint glass) of suitable purity and homogeneity limited the dimensions of the achromatic telescope.
It was in vain that the French Academy of Sciences offered prizes for perfect disks of optical flint glass.
In spite of the improvements in the manufacture of optical glass practically the same crown and flint glasses as used by John Dollond in 1758 for achromatic objectives are still used for all the largest of the modern refracting telescopes.
The primary reason for this retention is that nothing approaching the difference in dispersive power between ordinary crown glass and ordinary dense flint glass (a difference of i to 13) has yet been obtained between any pair of the newer glasses.
When all is taken into consideration it is scarcely possible to reduce the secondary colour aberration at the focus of such a double object-glass to less than a fourth part of that prevailing at the focus of a double objective of the same aperture and focus, but made of the ordinary crown and flint glasses.
The figures given are the partial dispersions for ordinary crown and ordinary extra dense flint glasses, styled in Messrs Schott's catalogue of optical glasses as o 60 and 0.102 respectively, having refractive indices of 1 5179 and 1.6489 for the D ray respectively, and (µ D -I)/(l F -µc) =60 2 and 33.8 respectively to indicate their dispersive powers (inverted), = v.
We find that we have now got a course of dispersion or degree of rationality which very closely corresponds to that of an ordinary light flint glass, styled o.
Hence it is clear that if the two positive lenses of equal curvature power of o 60 and 0.102 respectively are combined with a negative lens of light flint o 569, then a triple objective, having no secondary spectrum (at any rate with respect to the blue rays), may be obtained.
But while an achromatic combination of o 60 and 0.102 alone will yield an objective whose focal length is only 1.28 times the focal length of the negative or extra dense flint lens, the triple combination will be found to yield an objective whose focal length is 73 times as great as the focal length of the negative light flint lens.
The front lens is made of baryta light flint glass 3.
Large thin spear-heads; scrapers with edge not on the side but on the end; flint knives and saws, but all still chipped, not ground or polished; long spear-points, with tang and shoulder on one side only, are also characteristic implements of this epoch.
Such are the coal-fields of Flint in the north, the Forest of Wyre and the Forest of Dean, close to the Severn, on the east.
What is self-evident, Flint justly remarks, neither needs nor admits of argument.
According to Flint, 4 there were four men who in this and the preceding century seized and made prominent this idea, namely, Bodin, Bacon, Descartes and Pascal.
An argument for discontinuity of race is found in the fact that whereas the Sumerians are never represented as using the bow, their predecessors certainly made flint arrowheads.
The rock on the surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building which can be sawn into blocks of any size, hardening on exposure to the atmosphere.
The epoch is characterized by flint implements of the rudest type and never polished.
Flint has important manufacturing interests, its chief manufactures being automobiles, wagons, carriages - Flint is called "the vehicle city," - flour, woollen goods, iron goods, cigars, beer, and bricks and tiles; and its grain trade is of considerable importance.
On the other hand, while in the older crown and flint glasses the relation between refraction and dispersion had been practically fixed, dispersion and refraction increasing regularly with the density of the glass, in some of the new glasses introduced by Abbe and Schott this relation is altered and a relatively low refractive index is accompanied by a relatively high dispersion, while in others a high refractive index is associated with low dispersive power.
The older optical glasses, now generally known as the " ordinary " crown and flint glasses, are all of the nature of pure silicates, the basic constituents being, in the case of crown glasses, lime and soda or lime and potash, or a mixture of both, and in the case of flint glasses, lead and either (or both) soda and potash.
With the exception of the heavier flint (lead) glasses, these can be produced so as to be free both from noticeable colour and from such defects as bubbles, opaque inclusions or " striae," but extreme care in the choice of all the raw materials and in all the manipulations is required to ensure this result.
Nevertheless, disks of optical glass, both crown and flint, have been produced up to 39 in.
Sand consists of grains of quartz or flint, the individual particles of which are large enough to be seen with the unaided eye or readily felt as gritty grains when rubbed between the finger and thumb.
During the first year of Henry's reign Hotspur further was appointed justiciar of North Wales and constable of the castles of Chester, Flint, Conway, Denbigh and Carnarvon.
The implements found in the relic bed under it were axe-heads of stone, with their haftings of stag's horn and wood; a flint saw, set in a handle of fir wood and fastened with asphalt; flint flakes and arrow-heads; harpoons of stag's horn with barbs; awls, needles, chisels, fish-hooks and other implements of bone; a comb of yew wood 5 in.
Their knives and saws of flint were mounted in wooden handles and fixed with asphalt.
The crucibles or pots used for the production of optical glass very closely resemble those used in the manufacture of flint glass for other purposes; they are " covered " and the molten materials are thus protected from the action of the furnace gases by the interposition of a wall of fireclay, but as crucibles for optical glass are used for only one fusion and are then broken up, they are not made so thick and heavy as those used in flint-glass making, since the latter remain in the furnace for many weeks.
The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.