Flight sentence example
A blowing snow storm delayed our flight north.
Owing to the rapidity of the French flight and the Russian pursuit and the consequent exhaustion of the horses, the chief means of approximately ascertaining the enemy's position--by cavalry scouting-- was not available.
They had a flight out yesterday afternoon.
Can you call Katie while I make flight arrangements?
He left the sparring level without saying a word to Ully and followed his instincts up a flight of stairs and down a narrow hall he recognized from his visit to their father.s catacombs with Kris.Advertisement
It was too late to get a non-stop flight so I have you going out of Allentown and changing planes in Baltimore.
It should be a slam-dunk and quick flight home.
It was the most ethereal flight I had ever witnessed.
On the flight down to Washington a strange and perhaps unfair thought hit me.
Cynthia had received a phone call from the Boston sisters telling her their flight was delayed and they weren't now expected until late afternoon.Advertisement
His flight was delayed and the power went off at the house.
A snow storm cancelled our return flight Sunday.
She smiled, "Have a nice flight," and walked away.
It was the roughest flight Dean had ever taken.
He's offered to pay for everything; even your flight down.Advertisement
The flight attendant approached and asked, "Can I get you anything?"
I've got a flight into Dallas tomorrow — well, actually it would be today — late evening.
This campaign consisted in a flight of the French during which they did all they could to destroy themselves.
Kutuzov merely shrugged his shoulders when one after another they presented projects of maneuvers to be made with those soldiers-- ill-shod, insufficiently clad, and half starved--who within a month and without fighting a battle had dwindled to half their number, and who at the best if the flight continued would have to go a greater distance than they had already traversed, before they reached the frontier.
She checked the clock on the nightstand then the notepad listing the time of the flight she'd booked the afternoon before after exploring the mansion.Advertisement
When the flight of the French army along the Smolensk road became well defined, what Konovnitsyn had foreseen on the night of the eleventh of October began to occur.
Seeing their enemy unexpectedly the French fell into confusion and stopped short from the sudden fright, but then they resumed their flight, abandoning their comrades who were farther behind.
The wings are well developed for flight, and there is a tendency in the group, especially among the males, towards an excessive development of the mandibles or the presence of enormous, horn-like processes on the head or pronotum.
On the 4th of January 1878 a Russian army again entered Sofia after the passage of the Balkans by Gourko; the bulk of the Turkish population had previously taken flight.
Seen in front, its white face, striped with black, and broad black gorget attract attention as it sits, often motionless, on the rocks; while in flight the white of the lower part of the back and white band across the wings are no less conspicuous even at a distance.Advertisement
In 1550 he succeeded his father in the office of secretary of state; in this capacity he attended Charles in the war with Maurice, elector of Saxony, accompanied him in the flight from Innsbruck, and afterwards drew up the treaty of Passau (August 1552).
Failing in an attempt to arrange terms, and also in obtaining the help which he solicited from France, O'Neill was utterly routed by the O'Donnells at Letterkenny; and seeking safety in flight, he threw himself on the mercy of his enemies, the MacDonnells.
Wing-covers and hind-wings are alike absent, and the latter are represented by a pair of little knobbed organs, the halteres or balancers, which have a controlling and directing function in flight.
A fine paved corridor running east from this gives access to a line of the later magazines, and through a columnar hall to the central court beyond, while to the left of this a broad and stately flight of steps leads up to a kind of entrance hall on an upper terrace.
The loss of the English did not exceed 700 killed and too() wounded; while the Irish, in their disastrous flight, lost about 7000 men, besides the whole material of the army.Advertisement
He is said to have been visited (1533) by Calvin on his flight from France.
There are two small towns, Capri (450 ft.) and Anacapri (980 ft.), which until the construction of a carriage road in 1874 were connected only by a flight of 784 steps (the substructures of which at least are ancient).
David's daring spirit might very well lead him to visit his wife even after his first flight.
David's hurried flight, attended only by his bodyguard, indicates that his position was not a very strong one, and it is difficult to connect this with the fact that he had already waged the wars mentioned in 2 Sam.
King and queen fly, carrying the child with them, and while the wife is tending her husband, who dies of a broken heart on his flight, the infant is carried off by a friendly water-fairy, the Lady of the Lake, who brings the boy up in her mysterious kingdom.Advertisement
He attended the queen in her flight to France in 1646, but disapproved of the prince's journey thither, and retired to Jersey, subsequently aiding in the king's escape to the Isle of Wight.
In 408 we find Rufinus at the monastery of Pinetum (in the Campagna ?); thence he was driven by the arrival of Alaric to Sicily, being accompanied by Melania in his flight.
At the outset of the Revolution she foresaw the gravity of events, and refused to leave the king, whom she accompanied in his flight on the 10th of June 1792, and with whom she was arrested at Varennes.
Accused of assisting the king's flight, of supplying emigres with funds, and of encouraging the resistance of the royal troops on the 10th of August 1792, she was condemned to death, and executed on the 10th of May 1794.
Alexander was defeated by Ptolemy at the battle of the Oenoparas near Antioch and murdered during his flight.Advertisement
Large pits are dug across the line of advance of these great insect armies to stop them when in the larval or wingless stage, and even huge bonfires are lighted to check their flight when adult.
The first repulse soon passed into a rout, and from a rout into a headlong flight, in which the English king himself barely escaped.
Beneath the fine banqueting hall, a flight of steps descends into "the Wogan," a vast subterranean chamber giving access to the harbour.
After Austerlitz the conqueror fulminated against them, and sent southwards a strong column which compelled an Anglo-Russian force to sail away and brought about the flight of the Bourbons to Sicily (February 1806).
They prepared for flight to America - a step which Napoleon took care to prevent; and a popular outbreak at Aranjuez decided the king then and there to abdicate (19th of March 1808).Advertisement
And the wings, though not always present, are highly characteristic of the Hexapoda, since no other group of the Arthropoda has acquired the power of flight.
On either side a variable amount of convex area is occupied by the compound eye; in many insects of acute sense and accurate flight these eyes are very large and sub-globular, almost meeting on the middle line of the head.
In the case of the common drone-fly, Eristalis tenax, the individual, from a sedentary maggot living in filth, without any relations of sex, and with only unimportant organs for the ingestion of its foul nutriment, changes to a creature of extreme alertness, with magnificent powers of flight, living on the products of the flowers it frequents, and endowed with highly complex sexual structures.
Fortunately, the two first passes were unoccupied; and the third, Pyhajoggi, was captured by Charles, who with 400 horsemen put 6000 Russian cavalry to flight.
To these succeeded forms where the down had developed into body feathers for warmth, not flight, whilst the fore-limbs had become organs of prehension, the hind-limbs of progression.Advertisement
Many of them were climbing animals, and from these true birds with the power of flight were developed.
Far more singular was the celebration at Beauvais, which was held on the 14th of January, and represented the flight into Egypt.
This noble pile, with a large and handsome dome, a secondary cupola over the altar, and a striking portal and flight of steps, occupies one of the most conspicuous sites in Venice on the point of land that separates the mouth of the Guidecca from the Grand Canal.
The destruction of the mainland cities, and the flight of their leading inhabitants to the lagoons, encouraged the lagoon population to assert a growing independence, and led them to advance the doctrine that they were "born independent."
Wayne's dragoons broke through the brushwood, attacked the left flank of the Indians and soon put them to flight.
Antonius (Mark Antony), while the population was not too large to save itself by timely flight.
The courage of the Romans, however, soon overcame such fears; the Britons were put to flight; and the groves of Mona, the scene of many a sacrifice and bloody rite, were cut down.
By the middle of July 1203 Constantinople was reached, the usurper was in flight, and Isaac Angelus was restored to his throne.
The various approaches to the citadel on the northern side - the rock-cut flight of steps north-east of the Erechtheum, the stairs leading to the well Clepsydra, and the intermediate passage supposed to have furnished access to the Persians - are all to be attributed to the primitive epoch.
Liu Yung-fu, the notorious Black Flag general, and the back-bone of the resistance, sought refuge in flight.
Nothing could shake the confidence of his master, which survived the ignominious flight into Bohemia, into which he was trapped by Briihl at the time of the battle of Kesseldorf, and all the miseries of the Seven Years' War.
The separation of the Ratitae from the other birds, and their seemingly fundamental differences, notably the absence of the keel and of the power of flight, induced certain authors to go so far as to derive the Ratitae from the Dinosaurian reptiles, whilst Archaeopteryx (q.v.) and the Carinatae were supposed to have sprung from some Pterosaurian or similar reptilian stock.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
In fact, after the flight of the king and the subsequent suppression of the riots, a warrant was issued for his arrest; and he had barely time to escape to Weimar, where Liszt was at that moment engaged in preparing Tannhauser for performance, before the storm burst upon him with alarming violence.
He returned to power next year, and decided to bring Boulanger and his chief supporters before the High Court, but the general's flight effectively settled the question.
Aello and Ocypete, daughters of Thaumas and Electra, winged goddesses with beautiful locks, swifter than winds and birds in their flight, and their domain is the air.
The British lost for killed and 85 wounded, but put the enemy to flight.
There were treaties between states for the extradition of fugitives, and contracts of mutual assurance between individuals against their loss by flight.
At one time hope, at another despondency, now assured confidence, now doubt and despair, here a firm faith in the speedy coming of the kingdom of .heaven, there the thought of taking refuge by flight - such is the range of the emotions.
A flight of iron steps enables the visitor now to examine this venerable specimen of early Christian art.
It was followed by the flight of large bodies of Christian refugees.
But the approach of the Portuguese fleet put him to flight; some of his vessels were wrecked; and on his return by way of Egypt he was arrested at Cairo and executed.
All officers who were partisans of the reforms were obliged to take refuge in flight; and Turkey's position would have been desperate but for the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1807) between Russia and France, to which Turkey also became a party.
Others treat it as a solar myth; the ram is the light of the sun, the flight of Phrixus and the death of Helle signify its setting, the recovery of the fleece its rising again.
His flight, however, only precipitated events.
Henceforward the retreat of the army became practically a headlong flight, and on the 5th of December, having reached Smorgoni and seeing that nothing further could be done by him at the front, the emperor handed over the command of what remained to Murat, and left for Paris to organize a fresh army for the following year.
But this is not yet perfect, although it has all the form of a perfect insect and is capable of flight; it is what is variously termed a "pseudimago," "sub-imago" or "pro-imago."
Even his attempted flight on the 10th of June 1791 did not entirely turn the nation against him, although he left documents which proved his opposition to the whole Revolution.
On the 1st of August 1431 a large army of crusaders, under Frederick, margrave of Brandenburg, whom Cardinal Cesarini accompanied as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian frontier; on the 14th of August it reached the town of Domazlice (Tauss); but on the arrival of the Hussite army under Prokop the crusaders immediately took to flight, almost without offering resistance.
The reference to "tail" is either to the expression "turn tail" in flight, or to the habit of animals dropping the tail between the legs when frightened; in heraldry, a lion in this position is a "lion coward."
The latter he escaped by flight to Berlin, and the elector Frederick III.
The second group represents, first, the birth of Mithras; then the god nude, cutting fruit and leaves from a fig-tree in which is the bust of a deity, and before which one of the winds is blowing upon Mithras; the god discharging an arrow against a rock from which springs a fountain whose water a figure is kneeling to receive in his palms; the bull in a small boat, near which again occurs the figure of the animal under a roof about to be set on fire by two figures; the bull in flight, with Mithras in pursuit; Mithras bearing the bull on his shoulders; Helios kneeling before Mithras; Helios and Mithras clasping hands over an altar; Mithras with drawn bow on a running horse; Mithras and Helios banqueting; Mithras and Helios mounting the chariot of the latter and rising in full course over the ocean.
The hero seized it by the horns and was borne headlong in the flight of the animal, which he finally subdued and dragged into a cavern.
Another interesting species is the toucan (Ramphastos), whose enormous beak, awkward flight and raucous voice make it a conspicuous object in the great forests of northern Brazil.
In strong contrast to the ungainly toucan is the tiny humming-bird, whose beautiful plumage, swiftness of flight and power of wing are sources of constant wonder and admiration.
The church of San Giovanni, the ancient baptistery, beneath the cathedral is approached by an outer flight of marble steps built in 1451.
The new administration found it hard to please the Dutch farmers, who among other grievances resented what they considered the undue favour shown to the Kaffirs, whose numbers had been greatly augmented by the flight of refugees from Panda.
During the first half of the 13th century, when the university of Paris was plunged in angry feuds with the municipality, feuds which even led at one time (1229) to the flight of the students in a body, the friars established teachers in their convents in Paris.
Narrowly escaping assassination, at a banquet a few days later, at the hands of his rival, King Sweyn III., he succeeded only with the utmost difficulty in escaping to Jutland, but on the 23rd of October utterly routed Sweyn at the great battle of Grathe Heath, near Viborg, Sweyn perishing in his flight from the field.
Potgieter, after the flight of the Matabele, issued a proclamation in which he declared the country which Mosilikatze had abandoned forfeited to the emigrant farmers.
The second, the period of Boer organized resistance, may be said to have finished with the occupation of Komati Poort in October 1900 (a month after Lord Roberts's formal annexation of the Transvaal) and the flight of President Kruger.
Scalich saved his life by flight, but Funck was executed; the question of the regency was settled; and a form of Lutheranism was adopted, and declared binding on all teachers and preachers.
After the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi (15th November 1848) he arranged the flight of Pius IX.
The confusion spread to the troops behind them, and the action ended in wild flight and slaughter.
A collision very soon took place; Usibepu's forces were victorious, and on the 22nd of July 1883, led by a troop of mounted whites, he made a sudden descent upon Cetywayo's kraal at Ulundi, which he destroyed, massacring such of the inmates of both sexes as could not save themselves by flight.
Huge caves, of which the most noted are the Farm Caves, occur in the hills near Moulmein, and they too are full of relics of their ancient use as temples, though now they are chiefly visited in connexion with the bats, whose flight viewed from a distance, as they issue from the caves, resembles a cloud of smoke.
In January 1790 he returned to Montpellier, was elected a member of the municipality, was one of the founders of the Jacobin club in that city, and on the flight of Louis XVI.
I +W a W a), ' (k) 4 (I I) I+ w- R For a shot in air the ratio W'/W is so small that the square may be neglected, and formula (II) can be replaced for practical purpose in artillery by tan26= n2 = W i (0 - a) (k ð)7()4, (12) if then we can calculate /3, a, or (3-a for the external shape of the shot, this equation will give the value of 6 and n required for stability of flight in the air.
He took a leading part in the flight to Varennes.
On the following day he was with the royal family from six o'clock in the evening till six o'clock the next morning, and convinced himself that a second flight was physically impossible.
On the old post-road in Greenwich is the inn, built about 1729, at which Israel Putnam was surprised in February 1779 by a force under General Tryon; according to tradition he escaped by riding down a flight of steep stone steps.
It lives in a burrow, generally excavated by itself; but when pursued, seeks safety in flight, rather than by a retreat to its hole.
This very likely formed the nucleus of a book which bore the name of that sheik and was much read in the 3rd century from the Flight.
For the chronology before the year ho of the Flight Wagidi did his best, but here, the material being defective, many of his conclusions are precarious.
These later historians had valuable help from the biographies of famous men and special histories of countries and cities, dynasties and princes, on which much labour was spent from the 4th century from the Flight onwards.
The people accepted all this, and so a romantic tradition sprang up side by side with the historical, and had a literature of its own, the beginnings of which must be placed as early as the 2nd century of the Flight.
The blackbird is of a shy and restless disposition, courting concealment, and rarely seen in flocks, or otherwise than singly or in pairs, and taking flight when startled with a sharp shrill cry.
On the eve of the fray Papineau sought safety in flight, followed by the leading spirits of the movement.
The wide distribution of certain species is undoubtedly attributable to the agency of ships and trains; under natural conditions mosquitoes seldom travel far from their breeding grounds, although the powers of flight of some species are greater than has been supposed.
There is a story - based, however, on no good evidence - that Walaf rid devoted himself so closely to letters as to neglect the duties of his office, owing to which he was expelled from his house; but, from his own verses, it seems that the real cause of his flight to Spires was that, notwithstanding the fact that he had been tutor to Charles the Bald, he espoused the side of his elder brother Lothair on the death cf Louis the Pious in 840.
It became a colony in 295 B.C. In 88 B.C. Marius in his flight from Sulla hid himself in the marshes of Minturnae.
The death of Mirabeau in April 1791 was a severe blow to Montmorin, the difficulty of whose position was enormously increased after the flight of the royal family to Varennes, to which he was not privy.
In these shrines a complete set of armour was kept, in accordance with the idea that the hero was essentially a warrior, who on occasion came forth from his grave and fought at the head of his countrymen, putting the enemy to flight as during his lifetime.
Walther is not an historical figure, although the legend undoubtedly represents typical occurrences of the migration period, such as the detention and flight of hostages of noble family from the court of the Huns, and the rescue of captive maidens by abduction.
As the lame smith he reminds us of Hephaestus, and in his flight with wings of Daedalus escaping from Minos.
Otto's precarious position was saved by a victory near Andernach when Eberhard was killed, and Giselbert drowned in the subsequent flight.
The building, sometimes of huge dimensions, is invariably surrounded by a raised gallery, reached by a flight of steps in the centre of the approach front, the balustrade of which is a continuation of the gallery railing.
The chief shrine was shown, as were also the gate and the long flight of stone steps leading up to it, several other buildings, the groves of cryptomeria that surround the mausolea, and the festival procession.
On the same day (13th of May) a mutiny at Karlsruhe forced the grand-duke to take to flight, and the next day he wis followed by the ministers, while a committee of the diet under Lorenz Brentano (1813-1891), who represented the more moderate Radicals as against the republicans, established itself in the capital to attempt to direct affairs pending the establishment of a provisional government.
He first undertook a preliminary inquiry into the principles upon which flight depends, and established at Allegheny a huge "whirling table," the revolving arm of which could be driven by a steamengine at any circumferential speed up to 70 m.
Various other delays and mishaps followed, but ultimately, on the 6th of May 1896, a successful flight was made.
He was stopped in his flight by some fishermen at Faversham, and was forced to return to London.
After this final flight of James, William, on the advice of an assembly of notables, summoned a convention parliament on the 22nd of January 1689.
In 1567 Mary made Bothwell keeper of the castle, and sought its shelter herself after the murder 'of Rizzio and again after her flight from Borthwick Castle.
The limestone pavement, with long porches on either side, was found to stop at the foot of a marble staircase of thirty-four steps of Byzantine construction, underneath which appeared a Roman arrangement of the two flights with a platform halfway up. The top flight led up to the propylaea.
Approached by a flight of steps partly rock-cut, it had at the rear of the porch a balustrade with marble lions' heads through which the water overflowed.
Near the middle of the long side is an opening; and from it a flight of seven steps led down to a trapezoidal chamber, on the back wall of which are two lions' heads of bronze, through which water, conducted in long semi-cylindrical channels of bronze, from behind the wall, poured out into pitchers for which holes are cut in the floor.
In his youth Casimir was considered frivolous and licentious; while his sudden flight from the field of Plowce, the scene of his father's great victory over the Teutonic knights, argued but poorly for his personal courage.
The era in use among the Turks, Arabs and other Mahommedan nations is that of the Hegira or Hejra, the flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 622 A.D.
Its commencement, however, does not, as is sometimes stated, coincide with the very day of the flight, but precedes it by sixty-eight days.
The era begins from the first day of the month of Muharram preceding the flight, or first day of that Arabian year which coincides with Friday, July 16, 622 A.D.
Like others of the revolutionists Bolivar took to flight, and succeeded in reaching Curacao in safety.
Both foreand hindwings are usually present, both pairs being membranous, the hindwings small and not folded when at rest, each provided along the costa with a row of curved hooks which catch on to a fold along the dorsum of the adjacent fore-wing during flight.
Mention has already been made of the series of curved hooks along the costa of the hind-wing; by means of this arrangement the two wings of a side are firmly joined together during flight, which thus becomes particularly accurate.
The eyes are well developed, with numerous facets; the antennae minal one shaped like that of the are transparent, with few nervures, flight.
The flight of the woman is mentioned in verse 6 to a place of refuge prepared for her by God.
Then again in 13-16 the flight of the woman is described.
But Gunkel's explanation is an attempt to account for one ignotum per ignotius; for hitherto no trace of the myth of the sun-god's birth and persecution and the flight into the wilderness has been found in Babylonian mythology.
There are obvious points of similarity, possibly of derivation, between the details in our text and the above myths, but the subject cannot be further pursued here, save that we remark that in the sun myth the dragon tries to kill the mother before the child's birth, whereas in our text it is after his birth, and that neither in the Egyptian nor in the Greek myth is there any mention of the flight into the wilderness.
Feeling herself helpless and almost isolated in Paris, she now relied chiefly on her friends outside France - Mercy, Count Axel Fersen, and the baron de Breteuil; and it was by their help and that of Bouille that after the death of Mirabeau, on the 8th of April 1791, the plan was arranged of escaping to Montmedy, which ended in the flight to Varennes (June 21, 1791).
The Mahratta power was, however, on the decline; the flight of the peshwa from his capital to Bassein before the British arms changed the aspect of affairs, and by the treaty concluded between the peshwa and the British government, the districts of Banda and Hamirpur were transferred to the latter.
While the commission was engaged in the prosecution of its enquiries, the flight of Pope John XXIII.
He resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and took up his residence at Turin.
The university was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632; but in 1699 teachers and students removed to Pernau on the advance of the Russians, and on the occupation of the country by Peter the Great again took flight to Sweden.
With the more critical and exciting events of the 19th of Brumaire at St Cloud Talleyrand had no direct connexion; but he had made all his preparations for flight in case the blow failed.
While Lincoln was at Worcester Shays planned to capture the arsenal at Springfield, but on the 25th of January Shepard's men fired upon Shays's followers, killing four and putting the rest to flight.
Thisbe was the first to arrive, but, terrified by the roar of a lion, took to flight.
In February 964, the emperor having withdrawn from the city, Leo found it necessary to seek safety in flight, whereupon he was deposed by a synod held under the presidency of John XII.
The necessity for sights follows directly on investigation of the forces acting on a projectile during flight.
It passes over equal spaces in equal times, but falls with an accelerating velocity according to the formula h = zgt 2, where h is the height fallen through, g the force of gravity, and t the time of flight.
He was active in organizing relief for the wounded at the commencement of the war, remained bravely at his post during the siege, and refused to seek safety by flight during the brief triumph of the Commune.
Certain it is that not long after his flight from Pomposa Guido was living at Arezzo, and it was here that, about 1030, he received an invitation to Rome from Pope John XIV.
About a mile and a quarter from the Bab Bu Saadun, the north-west gate of the city, is the ancient palace called the Bardo, remarkable for the "lion court," a terrace to which access is gained by a flight of steps guarded by marble lions, and for some apartments in the Moorish style.
Two of the Horatii were soon slain; the third brother feigned flight, and when the Curiatii, who were all wounded, pursued him without concert he slew them one by one.
Frequenting parts of the open country so very divergent in character, and as remarkable for the peculiarity of its flight as for that of its cry, the lapwing is far more often observed in nearly all parts of the British Islands than any other of the group Limicolae.
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
In 1552, suddenly marching against Charles at Innsbruck, he drove him to flight and then extorted from him the religious peace of Passau.
The first battle on Saxon soil was fought in 1631 at Breitenfeld, where the bravery of the Swedes made up for the flight of the Saxons.
They also furnished him with means of flight, and he made for Yverdun in the territory of Bern, whence he transferred himself to Motiers in Neuchatel, which then belonged to Prussia.
On the summit, approached by a well-preserved flight of steps, are the remains of a palace of the Mycenaean age, similar to that found at Tiryns, though not so complicated or extensive.
There is some evidence that he was summoned to the Council of Chalcedon,' though he could not attend it, and the concluding portion of his book known as The Bazaar of Heraclides not only gives a full account of the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus 449, but knows that Theodosius is dead (July 450) and seems aware of the proceedings of Chalcedon and the flight of Dioscurus the unscrupulous successor of Cyril at Alexandria.
In 1609 he caused the prince of Conde to marry Charlotte de Montmorency, whom shortly of ter Conde was obliged to save from the king's persistent gallantry by a hasty flight, first to Spain and then to Italy.
An attempt at an insurrection was made by the inhabitants of Rome even before Otto left the city, and on his departure John returned at the head of a formidable company of friends and retainers, and caused Leo to seek safety in immediate flight.
His responsibility for the disastrous experiment of the national workshops he himself denied in his Appel aux honnetes gens (Paris, 1849), written in London after his flight; but by the insurgent mob of the 15th of May and by the victorious Moderates alike he was regarded as responsible.
Vincent Zakrzewski, professor of history at Cracow, has written some works which have attracted considerable attention, such as On the Origin and Growth of the Reformation in Poland, and After the Flight of King Henry, in which he describes the condition of the country during the period between that king's departure from Poland and the election of Stephen Batory.
Most climb and walk well; the flight is powerful but low and undulating in most.
His flight on the shoulders of Aeneas is frequently represented on engraved gems of the Roman period; and his visit from Aphrodite is rendered in a beautiful bronze relief, engraved in Millingen's Unedited Gems.
This steadiness may vary during the flight of the projectile, as the shot may be unsteady for some distance after leaving the muzzle, afterwards steadying down, like a spinning-top. Again, a may increase as the gun wears out, after firing a number of rounds.
After all care has been taken in laying and pointing, in accordance with the rules of theory and practice, absolute certainty of hitting the same spot every time is unattainable, as causes of error exist which cannot be eliminated, such as variations in the air and in the muzzle-velocity, and also in the steadiness of the shot in flight.
McClellandescribed this flight to the James as a change of base, but his resolve to abandon the attitude of an invader was formed when General Lee in the middle of June had caused Stuart's cavalry to reconnoitre the flanks and rear of McClellan's army, and had summoned corps from the Shenandoah Valley.
He returned to Paris shortly afterwards on the summons of Louis XVI., but he was not sufficiently in the confidence of the court to be informed of the projected flight to Varennes.
The Parliament House, standing on the crown of the eastern hill, is a massive square brick building with a pillared freestone facade approached by a broad flight of steps.
At his birth Judas was enclosed in a chest and flung into the sea; picked up on a foreign shore, he was educated at the court until a murder committed in a moment of passion compelled his flight.
According to the usual account, he accompanied his father to Italy on his flight from Troy.
The place was sacked, but Gorsas escaped the popular fury by flight.
But in jumping a gate, or a flight of rails, as ordinarily situated, there is no width to be covered, and to make a horse go through the exertion of jumping both high and wide when he need only do one is to waste his power, added to which to ride fast at timber, unless very low with a ditch on the landing side, is highly dangerous.
The western entrance was approached by an ante-church, or narthex (B), itself an aisled church of no mean dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately flight of steps bearing a large stone cross.
The dormitory, as a rule, was placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the calefactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal services.
Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.
Noltland Castle, in the vicinity, is interesting as having been proposed as the refuge of Queen Mary after her flight from Loch Leven.
The perfect insects, whose flight is feeble, are never found far from the water.
They are relatively shorter and broader insects than the Embiidae with large prothorax and long wings, which have a transverse line of weakness at the base and are usually shed after the nuptial flight.
On their flight from Egypt, the Jews, from hatred to their ancient oppressors, made Saturday the last day of the week.
The Mahommedan Era, Or Era Of The Hegira, Used In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &C., Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mahomet From Mecca To Medina, I.E.
By British seamen it is commonly called the " molly mawk "1 (corrupted fromMallemuck),and is extremely well known to them, its flight, as it skims over the waves, first with a few beats of the wings and then gliding for a long way, being very peculiar.
He also made observations on the flight of rockets, and wrote on the advantages of rifled barrels.
Of the secular buildings the more interesting are the Palazzo Madama, first erected by William of Montferrat at the close of the 13th century on the Roman east gate of the town, remains of the towers of which were incorporated in it, and owing its name to the widow of Charles Emmanuel II., who added the west façade and the handsome double flight of steps from Juvara's designs; and the extensive royal palace begun in the 17th century.
On the first alarm of danger it sits erect to reconnoitre, when it either seeks concealment by clapping close to the ground, or takes to flight.
Close by is the Briihl Terrace, approached by a fine flight of steps, on which are groups, by Schilling, representing Morning, Evening, Day and Night.
The keys of the castle, which were thrown into the loch during her flight, were found and are preserved at Dalmahoy in Midlothian.
It sometimes climbs trees, but generally remains on the ground, only using its comparatively short wings to balance itself in running or to break its fall when it drops from a tree - though not always then - being apparently incapable of real flight.
The aborted condition of this process can hardly be regarded but in connexion with the incapacity of the bird for flight, and may very likely be the result of disuse.
It is approached in a very circuitous way, either by a passage (Xaupn) leading from a side door in the main propylaeum or by another long passage which winds round the back cf the chief hall, and so leads by a long flight of steps, cut in the rock, to the little postern door in the semicircular bastion.
One of the most conspicuous features of Bonn, viewed from the river, is the pilgrimage (monastic) church of Kreuzberg (1627), behind and above Poppelsdorf; it has a flight of 28 steps, which pilgrims used to ascend on their knees.
So soon as he realized the true position of affairs he attempted to break up the council by his flight to Schaffhausen (March 20-21, 1415) - a project in which he would doubtless have succeeded but for the sagacity and energy of Sigismund.
But, as early as the 29th of May 1434 a revolution broke out in Rome, which, on the 4th of June, drove the pope in flight to Florence; where he was obliged to remain, while Giovanni Vitelleschi restored order in the papal state.
Though he might have escaped by flight, and though he knew, as he quaintly remarked, that " Smithfield already groaned for him," he at once joyfully obeyed.
Thus the dressed stones of the ancient theatre served to build barracks; the material of the hippodrome went to build the church; while the portico of the hippodrome, supported by granite and marble columns, and approached by a fine flight of steps, was destroyed by Cardinal Lavigerie in a search for the tomb of St Marciana.
In some of these insects the wings are so small as to be useless for flight, being modified altogether for stridulation.
On the early morning of the 31st of July the prince's coup d'etat against the liberties of Utrecht and of Holland was carried out; the civic guard was disarmed - Grotius and his colleagues saving themselves by a precipitate flight.
Those who only know the Snipe as it shows itself in the shooting-season, when without warning it rises from the boggy ground uttering a sharp note that sounds like scape, scape, and, after a few rapid twists, darts away, if it be not brought down by the gun, to disappear in the distance after a desultory flight, have no conception of the bird's behaviour at breeding-time.
After Becket's flight (1164), the king put himself still further in the wrong by impounding the revenues of Canterbury and banishing at one stroke a number of the archbishop's friends and connexions.
It sits crouching on the ground during the day, with its bill pointing in the air, a position from which it is not easily roused, and even when it takes wing, its flight is neither swift nor long sustained.
These flies are characterized by a peculiar method of flight.
If they flew like ordinary flies their resemblance to Hymenoptera would be obscured by the rapidity of their flight and they might be caught on the wing by insectivorous birds or other insects; but when poised they display their coloration.
When the latter is lost during flight, the rapidity of their movement defies pursuit.
It is important to note that the scales are present when the moths first emerge from the pupa-case, but are loosely attached and fall off with the first flight.
On the Amazons and in other parts of South America there are butterflies of the group Ithomiinae which are distasteful and have all the characters of specially protected species, being conspicuously coloured, slow of flight, careless of exposure and abundant in individuals.
So alike in form, colour and mode of flight are those Lepidoptera that when on the wing it is almost or quite impossible to distinguish one from the other, and the resemblance between members belonging to different sub-families cannot be assigned to affinity.
The reason for this is to be found in the greater need of protection of the female which is slower in flight than the male and is exposed to special danger of attack when resting to lay her eggs.
The species are all characterized by short rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a thick hair-like covering.
Mary fled 60 miles from the field of her last battle before she halted at Sanquhar, and for three days of flight, according to her own account, had to sleep on the hard ground, live on oatmeal and sour milk, and fare at night like the owls, in hunger, cold and fear.
The Saxon troops were present at the battle of Breitenfeld, but were routed by the imperialists, the elector himself seeking safety in flight.
The grand flight of external steps entering the mansions of the medieval nobility or high officials was considered in itself a mark of jurisdiction, as it is said that sentence was there pronounced against criminals, who were afterwards executed at the foot of the steps--as at the Giant's Stairs of the Doge's palace at Venice.
There was also probably a road to Caere in early times, inasmuch as we hear of the flight of the Vestals thither in 389 B.C. The origin of the rest of the roads is no doubt to be connected with the gradual establishment of the Latin league.
Alexander pursued the Persian king on his flight to the East (summer 330), Bessus with some of the other conspirators deposed Darius and shortly afterwards killed him.
Among papers in scientific periodicals may be mentioned articles by Adler, Ball, Baumhauer, Beck, Bonney, Brewster, Chaper, Cohen, Crookes, Daubree, Derby, Des Cloizeaux, Doelter, Dunn, Flight, Friedel, Gorceix, Gurich, Goeppert, Harger, Hudleston, Hussak, Jannettaz, Jeremejew, de Launay, Lewis, Maskelyne, Meunier, Moissan, Molengraaff, Moulle, Rose, Sadebeck, Scheibe, Stelzner, Stow.
The story of her love for the disdainful Phaon, and her leap into the sea from the Leucadian promontory, together with that of her flight from Mytilene to Sicily, has no confirmation; we are not even told whether she died of the leap or not.
Almost all the skeletons and remains of bodies found in the city were discovered in similar situations, in cellars or underground apartments - those who had sought refuge in flight having apparently for the most part escaped from destruction, or having perished under circumstances where their bodies were easily recovered by the survivors.
In the circumstances, no resource was left him but secret flight.
A hastily collected force of 3000 men under C. Claudius Pulcher endeavoured to starve out the rebels, but the latter clambered down the precipices and put the Romans to flight.
During a temporary flight from Warsaw the child was lost, and eventually discovered in a stable; on another occasion she was for safety's sake hidden in an oven.
The attack on Thebes was repulsed, and during the flight the earth opened and swallowed up Amphiaraus together with his chariot.
The flight of the emperor had led to a revulsion of feeling in Vienna; but the issue of the proclamation and the attempt of the government to disperse the students by closing the university, led to a fresh outbreak on the 26th.
The conservative leaders of the Hungarian nationalists, Etitv6s and Deak, retired from public life; and, though Batthyani consented to remain in office, the slender hope that this gave of peace was ruined by the flight of the palatine (September 24) and the murder of Count Lamberg, the newly appointed commissioner and commander-in-chief in Hungary, by the mob at Pest (September 27).
We have in this list no genuine tradition, but rather the lucubrations of an undoubtedly conscientious Moslem critic, who may have lived about a century after the Flight.
In fact the whole history of Mahomet previous to the Flight is so imperfectly related that we are not even sure in what year he appeared as a prophet.
A good many fragments of this older theological and philological exegesis have survived from the first two centuries of the Flight, although we have no complete commentary of this period.
The last is interesting as being the first poem containing that form of the story of Aeneas's flight to which Virgil afterwards gave currency in his Aeneid.
The crypt dates from about the 6th century and is dedicated to Sitt Miriam (the Lady Mary), from a tradition that in the flight into Egypt the Virgin and Child rested at this spot.
At Mataria was a sycamore-tree, the successor of a tree which decayed in 1665, venerated as being that beneath which the Holy Family rested on their flight into Egypt.
At length the tone of the letters becomes one of despair, in which flight to Egypt appears the only resource left for the adherents of the Egyptian cause.
Shawars flight was directed to Damascus, where he was favorably received by the prince Nureddin, who sent with him to Cairo a force of Kurds under Asad al-din Shirguh.
The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
In November 1848 Pope Pius IX., after his flight in disguise from Rome, found a refuge at Gaeta, where he remained till the 4th of September 1849.
For two years his brother and he lived as fugitives in the mountains of the Cevennes, but they at last reached Geneva, where their mother afterwards joined them on escaping from the imprisonment in which she was held from the time of their flight.
Warned by Frederick, Keith escaped; but Katte delayed his flight too long, and a court-martial decided that he should be punished with two years' fortress arrest.
He was released on bail, and in February 1683, after the flight and death of Shaftesbury, he openly broke the implied conditions of his bail by paying a third visit to Chichester with Lord Grey and others on pretence of a hunting expedition.
The ceremony degenerated into a burlesque in which the ass of the flight became confused with Balaam's ass.
It was the site of a Premonstratensian abbey built by Fergus, and it was here that Queen Mary rested in her flight from the field of Langside (May 13, 1568).
A thunderstorm, with hail and intense cold, increased their confusion, and on Brennus himself being wounded they took to flight, pursued by the Greeks all the way back to Thermopylae.
This was fulfilled by the flight of the Syrian army under the circumstances stated in ch.
With Herries and Maxwell he shook the English centre, but while Stanley and the men of Cheshire drove the highlanders of Lennox and Argyll in flight (their leaders had already fallen), the admiral and Dacre fell on the flank of James's command, which Surrey, too wise to pursue the fleet highlanders, surrounded with his whole force.
Mar's highlanders began to desert; his council was a confusion of opinions and discontents, and when, after many dangers and in the worst of health, James joined the Jacobites at Perth, it was only to discourage his friends by his gloom, and to share their wintry flight before Argyll to Montrose.
The Jacobites surrounding James in Rome never ceased to weave at the endless tissue of their plot, but in Scotland nothing more substantial than the drinking of loyal healths was done, between the flight of Lockhart of Carnwath, the manager of the party, and the years of 1737-1744.
Of these scenes there are seventy-two, beginning with Harold's visit to Bosham on his way to Normandy, and ending with the flight of the English from the battle of Hastings, though the actual end of the strip has perished.
Schiller, embittered enough by the uncongenial conditions of his Stuttgart life, resolved on flight, and took advantage of some court festivities in September 1782 to put his plan into execution.
The churches are approached by a flight of forty-eight stone steps, the grouping of the whole mass of buildings being exceedingly impressive.
As they withdrew to the Mount of Olives He foretold their general flight, but promised that when He was risen He would go before them into Galilee.
The cruel tyrant kills the babes of Bethlehem, but the Child has been withdrawn by a secret flight into Egypt, whence he presently returns to the family home at Nazareth in Galilee.
Frau von Stein had not known of his flight to Italy until she received a letter from Rome; but he looked forward to her welcome on his return.
The young queen, left in the old home, mounts high into the air for her nuptial flight, and then returns to the hive and her duties of egg-laying.
Pepe saved himself by flight.
The two armies met in 507 at the Campus Vogladensis, near Poitiers, where the Goths were defeated, and their king, who took to flight, was overtaken and slain, it is said, by Clovis himself.
Even when in process of time they did accept the religion of the prophet, they leavened it thoroughly with their own peculiar leaven, and, especially, deprived it of the practical political and national character which it had assumed after the flight to Medina.
To Omar is due also the establishment of the Era of the Flight (Hegira).
Mahommed was beaten, taken in his flight, and, according to some reports, sewn in the skin of an ass and burned.
Nasr escaped only by a headlong flight to Nishapur.
Obaidallah governor of Medina, with orders to lay hands on Mahommed and his brother Ibrahim, who, warned betimes, took refuge in flight.
Mazyad, and put to flight.
Motamid's flight was stopped by his vizier Ibn Makhlad, and the caliph himself was reconducted to Samarra as a prisoner in the year 882.
The flight of Byzantine scholarship westward in the 15th century revealed, and finally, that the philosophic content of the Scholastic teaching was as alien from Aristotle as from the spirit of the contemporary revolt of science, with its cry for a new medicine, a new nautical astronomy and the like.
The flight from a cursory survey of facts to wide so-called principles must give way to a gradual progress upward from propositions of minimum to those of medium generality, and in these consists the fruitfulness of science.
At first he had lauded a constitutional monarchy; but the flight of Louis XVI.
Like Mary, she was reproached for showing no concern at the news of the king's flight, but her justification was that "she never loved to do anything that looked like an affected constraint."
The fight begins; Beowulf is all but overpowered, and the sight is so terrible that his men, all but one, seek safety in flight.
Thus in studying the flight of a stone through the air we replace the body in imagination by a mathematical point endowed with a masscoefficient.
Hector alone stands against Achilles - his flight round the walls - he is slain.
For instance, the word 4 6/30s, which in Homer means " flight in battle " (not " fear "), occurs thirty-nine times in the Iliad, and only once in the Odyssey; but then there are no battles in the Odyssey.
A long flight of steps leads up the eastern height to the abbey, the ruins of which gain a wonderful dignity from their commanding position.
But the bristle-tails and springtails, which form the modern order Aptera, are all without any trace of wings, and, on account of several remarkable archaic characters which they exhibit, there is reason for believing that they are primitively wingless - that they represent an early offshoot which sprang from the ancestral stock of the Hexapoda before organs of flight had been acquired by the class.
Swift of flight, powerfully armed, but above all endowed with extraordinary courage, they pursue their weaker cousins, making the latter disgorge their already swallowed prey, which is nimbly caught before it reaches the water; and this habit, often observed by sailors and fishermen, has made these predatory, and parasitic birds locally known as "Teasers," "Boatswains," 2 and, from a misconception of their 1 Thus written by Hoier (circa 1604) as that of a Faeroese bird (hodie Skuir) an example of which he sent to Clusius (Exotic. Auctarium, p. 367).
Although at times subject to fierce criticism with regard to matters of administration and finance, he was recognized as one of the ablest men on the Confederate side, and he remained with Jefferson Davis to the last, sharing his flight after the surrender at Appomattox, and only leaving him shortly before his capture, because he found himself unable to go farther on horseback.
To Danville, after the evacuation of Richmond on the 2nd of April 1865, the archives of the Confederacy were carried, and here President Jefferson Davis paused for a few days in his flight southward.
Upon the flight of James, and during the excitement against the Catholics, he partially gained his liberty, and brought an appeal against his sentence before the Lords, who, while admitting the sentence to be unjust, confirmed it by a majority of thirty-five to twentythree.
But after the flight of the king to Varennes, Duport sought to defend him; as member of the commission charged to question the king, he tried to excuse him, and on the 14th of July 1791 he opposed the formal accusation.
The domestic birds have comparatively seldom become feral, doubtless, as C. Darwin points out, from the reduction of their powers of flight in many cases.
The modern prosperity of the town dates from the completion in 1773 of the Bridgewater Canal, which here descends into the Mersey by a flight of locks.
It was thus during the reformer's absence that the murder of Darnley, the abduction and subsequent marriage of Mary, the flight of Bothwell, and the imprisonment in Lochleven of the queen, unrolled themselves before the eyes of Scotland.
When at last, after the catastrophe of Poltava (June 1709) and the flight into Turkey, he condescended to use diplomatic methods, it was solely to prolong, not to terminate, the war.
When attacked they broke up, as it seemed, in hasty and complete flight, and having thus led the hostile army to break its formation, they themselves rapidly reformed and renewed the assault.
Sayyar into headlong flight,, and finally expelled Merwan.
There must also be mentioned the university church, the new university buildings, which occupy the site of the ducal palace (Schloss) where Goethe wrote his Hermann and Dorothea, the Schwarzer Box Hotel, where Luther spent the night after his flight from the Wartburg, and four towers and a gateway which now alone mark the position of the ancient walls.
This battle was far more stubbornly contested than that of Ad Decimum, but it ended in the utter rout of the Vandals and the flight of Gelimer.
Among more ideal work are "Eve" (1880), "Diana" (1882 and 1891), "Woman and Peacock," and "The Poet," astride his Pegasus spreading wings for flight.
A flight of stone steps leads the way down to a narrow passage, through which the air rushes with violence, outward in summer and inward in winter.
His views had meanwhile been embittered by the attempted flight of Louis XVI., and he distinguished himself now by his hostility to the king.
On his flight to the border he was arrested, and imprisoned in the Conciergerie in Paris.
In June 1823 the expedition of General Santa Cruz, prepared with great zeal and activity at Lima, marched in two divisions upon Upper Peru, and in the following months of July and August the whole country between La Paz and Oruro was occupied by his forces; but later, the indecision and want of judgment displayed by Santa Cruz allowed a retreat to be made before a smaller royalist army, and a severe storm converted their retreat into a precipitate flight, only a remnant of the expedition again reaching Lima.
His flight escaped notice, and the conflict remained undecided, until Antony's fleet was set on fire and thus annihilated.
Considerant's share in the "demonstration" under the leadership of Ledru-Rollin on the 13th of June 1849 caused his compulsory flight to Belgium.
Its portico supported by eighteen colossal Ionic columns is reached by a wide flight of steps.
Carrying his aged father and household gods on his back and leading his little son Ascanius by the hand, he makes his way to the coast, his wife Creusa being lost during the confusion of the flight.
Her success surpassing his expectations, his hopes took a higher flight, and through Lebel, valet de chambre of Louis XV., and the duc de Richelieu, he succeeded in installing her as mistress of the king.
In 1856 the Coeur d'Alenes, Palouses and Spokanes went on the war-path; in April 1857 they put to flight a small force under Col.
On the flight of the mutineers, the king and several members of the royal family took refuge at Humayun's tomb.
The 10th of August impelled him to a still higher flight; he declared himself the personal enemy of Jesus Christ, and abjured all revealed religions.
It is little more than a collection of fables told with scarcely any attempt at criticism, and with no more regard to chronological sequence than was necessary to make the tale run smoothly or to fill up such gaps as that between the flight of Aeneas from Troy and the supposed year of the foundation of Rome.
The retreat soon became a disorderly flight, Mithradates himself escaping with difficulty into Lesser Armenia..
We find moreover as emi-scientific conception of the basis of divination; the whole of nature is linked together; just as the variations in the height of a column of mercury serve to foretell the weather, so the flight of birds or behaviour of cattle may help to prognosticate its changes; for the uncultured it is merely a step to the assumption that animals know things which are hidden from man.
None has the power of flight, though certain pelagic Copepoda are said to leap from the surface of the sea like flying-fish.
The elytra are very hard, and in some cases fused with one another, rendering flight impossible.
These creatures, however varied in form and structure, all fly according to one and the same principle; and this is a significant fact, as it tends to show that the air must be attacked in a particular way to ensure flight.
These changes in the direction of the long axis of the bird in swimming, diving and flying, and in the direction of the stroke of the wings in sub-aquatic and aerial flight, are due to the fact that the bird is heavier than the air and lighter than the water.
Weight, however paradoxical it may appear, is necessary to flight.
Many are of opinion that flight is a mere matter of levity and power.
It may be stated once for all that flying creatures are for the most part as heavy, bulk for bulk, as other animals, and that flight in every instance is the product, not of superior levity, but of weight and power directed upon properly constructed flying organs.
While, however, diminishing the surfaces of the flying animal as a whole, she increases as occasion demands the active or wing surfaces by wing movements, and the passive or dead surfaces by the forward motion of the body in progressive flight.
She knows that if the wings are driven with sufficient rapidity they practically convert the spaces through which they move into solid bases of support; she also knows that the body in rapid flight derives support from all the air over which it passes.
Finally, they are not essential to flight, as flight in the great majority of instances is performed without them.
The manner in which the wings of the insect traverse the air, so as practically to increase the basis of support, raises the whole subject of natural flight.
Inst., 1867; " On the Mechanical Appliances by which Flight is attained in the Animal Kingdom," by the same author, Trans.
The claim is, however, unwarranted; Leonardo's chief work on flight, bearing the title Codice sul Volo degli Uccelli e Varie Altre Materie, written in 1505, consists of a short manuscript of twenty-seven small quarto pages, with simple sketch illustrations interspersed in the text.
In addition he makes occasional references to flight in his other manuscripts, which are also illustrated.
In none of Leonardo's manuscripts, however, and in none of his figures, is the slightest hint given of his having any knowledge of the spiral movements made by the wing in flight or of the spiral structure of the wing itself.
As will be seen from this account, the figure-of-8 or wave theory of stationary and progressive flight has been made the subject of a rigorous experimentum crucis.
That this shape is intimately associated with flight is apparent from the fact that the rowing feathers of the wing of the bird are every one of them distinctly spiral in their nature; in fact, one entire rowing feather is equivalent - morphologically and physiologically - to one entire insect wing.
This is proved by making sections in various directions, and by finding that in some instances as much as two-thirds of the wing may be lopped off without materially impairing the power of flight."
Inst., 1867; " On the Mechanical Appliances by which Flight is attained in the Animal Kingdom," Trans.
It is in this way that weight forms a factor in flight, the wings and the weight of the body reciprocating and mutually assisting and relieving each other.
This is an argument for employing four wings in artificial flight, - the wings being so arranged that the two which are up shall always by their fall mechanically elevate the two which are down.
That the weight of the body plays an important part in the production of flight may be proved by a very simple experiment.
In flight one of two things is necessary.
The flight of the albatross supplies the necessary illustration.
In order to make the problem of flight more intelligible, the lever formed by the wing is prolonged beyond the body (b), and to the root of the wing so extended the weight (w, w') is attached; x represents the universal joint by which the wing is attached to the body.
While, therefore, there is apparently no correspondence between the area of the wing and the animal to be raised, there is, except in the case of sailing insects, birds and bats, an unvarying relation as to the weight and number of oscillations; so that the problem of flight would seem to resolve itself into one of weight, power, velocity and small surfaces, versus buoyancy, debility, diminished speed and extensive surfaces - weight in either case being a sine qua non.
The statements here advanced are borne out by the fact that the wings of insects, bats and birds may be materially reduced without impairing their powers of flight.
The existence of such a law is very encouraging so far as artificial flight is concerned, for it shows that the flying surfaces of a large, heavy, powerful flying machine will be comparatively small, and consequently comparatively compact and strong.
But every one knows that these grallatorial animals are excellent birds of flight.
They are, in addition, the eagle excepted, the birds which elevate themselves the highest, and the flight of which is the longest maintained.'".
The way in which the natural wing rises and falls on the air, and reciprocates with the body of the flying creature, has a very obvious bearing upon artificial flight.
The alternate rise and fall of the body and wing of the bird are well seen when contemplating the flight of the gull e ?
If the wings were to strike backwards in aerial flight, the bird would turn a forward somersault.