The pope condemned this marriage as adulterous; and Abbo of Fleury, who visited Rome shortly after Gregory V.'s accession, is said to have procured the restoration of Arnulf at the new pontiff's demand.
See also le Comte Fleury d'Ideville, Le Comte Pellegrino Rossi, sa vie, ses ceuvres, sa mort (1887).
145 seq.; Rohault et Fleury, La Messe (Paris, 1889), vii.
Duchesne's Origines du culte chretien (Paris, 1903), and especially C. Rohault de Fleury's La Messe (Paris, 1883-89).
at Rome, Montpellier and Paris), dedicated to his friend and correspondent Constantine of Fleury.
He found favour at the Frankish court, was made abbot of Fleury and of Saint-Aignan, and in 781 became bishop of Orleans.
de Fleury's Les Monuments de Pise au moyen age (Paris, 1866); also Repetti's Dizionario geografico della Toscana, s.v.
Four of the medieval historians from whom he quotes most frequently are Sigebert of Gembloux, Hugh of Fleury, Helinand of Froidmont, and William of Malmesbury, whom he uses for Continental as well as for English history.
The Tara and Newtown-Hamilton, the Creggan and the Fleury, flow into the bay of Dundalk.
It passed into the office of Prime, apparently first at Fleury.
Fleury and Hirsau are well-known examples.
Basing themselves on St Gregory's counsel to St Augustine, Dunstan, lEthelwold and Oswald adopted from the observance of foreign monasteries, and notably Fleury and Ghent, what was suitable for the restoration of English monachism, and so produced the Concordia Regularis, interesting as the first serious attempt to bring about uniformity of observance among the monasteries of an entire nation.
Other notable Roman Catholic historians of the 17th and 18th centuries were Natalis Alexander, Bossuet, Tillemont, Fleury, Dupin and Ceillier.
with introduction and note by Comte Fleury, Paris, 1901), gives an interesting picture of the congress from its personal and social side.
c. 1048), French chronicler, was a monk of the Benedictine abbey of Fleury.
This Epitoma vitae Roberti regis, which is probably part of a history of the abbey of Fleury, deals rather with the private than with the public life of the king, and its value is not great either from the literary or from the historical point of view.
ANDRE HERCULE DE FLEURY (1653-1743), French cardinal and statesman, was born at Lodeve (Herault) on the 22nd of June 1653, the son of a collector of taxes.
On the death of the regent Orleans in 1723 Fleury, although already seventy years of age, deferred his own supremacy by suggesting the appointment of Louis Henri, duke of Bourbon, as first minister.
Fleury was present at all interviews between Louis XV.
and his first minister, and on Bourbon's attempt to break through this rule Fleury retired from court.
Internal peace was only seriously disturbed by the severities which Fleury saw fit to exercise against the Jansenists.
Fleury had economized in the army and navy, as elsewhere, and when in 1733 war was forced upon him he was hardly prepared.
Fleury was driven by Chauvelin to more energetic measures; he concluded a close alliance with the Spanish Bourbons and sent two armies against the Austrians.
in 1740 Fleury by a diplomatic quibble found an excuse for repudiating his engagements, when he found the party of war supreme in the king's counsels.
Fleury disavowed his own letter, and died a few days after the French evacuation of Prague on the 29th of January 1743.
de Fleury (Caen, 1 743); M.
van Hoey, Lettres et negotiations pour servir d l'histoire de la vie du Cardinal de Fleury (London, 1 743); Leben des Cardinals A.
Fleury (Freiburg, 1743); F.
Morenas, Parallele du ministere du Cardinal Richelieu et du Cardinal de Fleury (Avignon, 1743); Nachrichten von dem Leben and der Verwaltung des Cardinals Fleury (Hamburg, 1744).
Claude Fleury >>
One of the most prominent personages of the century was Gerbert of Aurillac, who, after teaching at Tours and Fleury, became abbot of Bobbio, archbishop of Reims, and ultimately pope under the name of Silvester II.
A greater originality in the method of teaching the ancient languages was exemplified by Fenelon, whose views were partially reflected by the Abbe Fleury, who also desired the simplification of grammar, the diminution of composition, and even the suppression of Latin verse.
Of the ordinary teaching of Greek in his day, Fleury wittily observed that most boys " learned just enough of that language to have a pretext for saying for the rest of their lives that Greek was a subject easily forgotten."
or reg.) of the 6th century, a palimpsest which once belonged to the monks of Fleury, and by the so-called speculum (m) or collection of quotations formerly attributed to Augustine but probably connected with Spain.
Abbon of Fleury >>
The badge is a green cross fleury; the ribbon is green.
The other two orders wear the cross fleury - Alcantara red, Calatrava green, with corresponding ribbons.
Of all the European nations France was the one on which Jacobite hopes mainly rested, and the warm sympathy which Cardinal Tencin, who had succeeded Fleury as French minister, felt for the Old Pretender resulted in a definite scheme for an invasion of England to be timed simultaneously with a prearranged Scottish rebellion.
Fleury, Etudes revolutionnaires (2 vols., 1851), with which cf.
Abraham Joseph Benard Fleury >>
AIMOIN (c. 960-c. ioio), French chronicler, was born at Villefranche de Longchapt about 960, and in early life entered the monastery of Fleury, where he became a monk and passed the greater part of his life.
He also wrote a Vita Abbonis, abbatis Floriacensis, the last of a series of lives of the abbots of Fleury, all of which, except the life of Abbo, have been lost.
of the Miracula Sancti Benedicti, the first book of which was written by another monk of Fleury named Adrevald.
CLAUDE FLEURY (1640-1723), French ecclesiastical historian, was born at Paris on the 6th of December 1640.
He had been some time in orders when Louis XIV., in 1672, selected him as tutor of the princes of Conti, with such success that the king next entrusted to him the education of the count of Vermandois, one of his natural sons, on whose death in 1683 Fleury received for his services the Cistercian abbey of Loc-Dieu, in the diocese of Rhodez.
Fleury's evident intention was to write a history of the church for all classes of society; but at the time in which his great work appeared it was less religion than theology that absorbed the attention of the clergy and the educated public; and his work accordingly appealed to the student rather than to the popular reader, dwelling as it does very particularly on questions of doctrine, of discipline, of supremacy, and of rivalry between the priesthood and the imperial power.
Fleury, who had been appointed confessor to the young king Louis XV.
Fleury left many works besides his Histoire ecclesiastique.
See C. Ernst Simonetti, Der Character eines Geschichtsschreibers in dem Leben and aus den Schriften des Abts C. Fleury (GÃ¶ttingen, 1746, 4to); C. F.
P. Jaeger, Notice sur C. Fleury, considers coinme historien de l'sglise (Strassburg, 1847, 8vo); Reichlin-Meldegg, Geschichte des Christentums,
Fleury, bishop of Frejus, was appointed his tutor, and the little king was sincerely attached to him.
In 1726 the duke of Bourbon was displaced by the king's tutor, Bishop (afterwards Cardinal) Fleury, who exercised almost absolute power, for the king took little interest in affairs of state.
Fleury's great age (he died still in office at the age of ninety) prevented him from really controlling the policy of France and of Europe.
On Fleury's death in 1743 no one took his place, and the king professed to adopt the example of Louis XIV.
Boutaric, Correspondance secrete de Louis X V.; Madame de Pompadour's Correspondance published by P. Malassi; Dietric, Les Mattresses de Louis X V.; and Fleury, Louis XV.
Fleury, Rabelais is a sober reformer, an apostle of earnest work, of sound education, of rational if not dogmatic religion, who wraps up his morals in a farcical envelope partly to make them go down with the vulgar and partly to shield himself from the consequences of his reforming zeal.
Mayrargues, Rabelais (1868); Jean Fleury (1876); Paul Stapfer (the best of all) (1889); and G.
ABBON OF FLEURY, or ABBO Floriacensis (c. 945-1004), a learned Frenchman, born near Orleans about 945.
After his return to France he was made abbot of Fleury on the Loire (988).
- Among these are Miracles of the Virgin; Liber super explanationem lamentationum Yeremiae prophetae; an abridgment of Amalarius' De divinis officiis; De dictis et factis memorabilibus philosophorum; an epitome of the Historia of Haymo of Fleury and some other works, historical and legal (autograph in the Bodleian); Lives of the English Saints.
From 1723 to 1743 came the mealy- eighteenth mouthed despotism of Cardinal Fleury, and his century.
They found standing in their way the very man who had been the author of their fortunes, Louis XV.s tutor, uneasy in the exercise of a veiled authority; for the churchman Fleury knew how to wait, on condition of ultimately attaining his end.
The irritation kept up by the agents of Philip V., incensed by this affront, and the discontent aroused by the institutions of the.inquan~ime and the militia, by the re-establishment of the feudal tax on Louis XV.s joyful accession, and by the resumption of a persecution of the Protestants and the Jansenists which had apparently died out, were cleverly exploited by Fleury; and a last ill-timed attempt by the queen to separate the king from him brought about the fall of the duc de Bourbon, very opportunely for France, in June 1726.
From the hands of his unthinking pupil Fleury eventually received the supreme direction of affairs, which he retained for seventeen years.
He was aged seventy-two when Fleury, he thus obtained the power which had been his un 1726 measured though not ill-calculated ambition.
The Jesuits, returned to power in 1723 with the duc de Bourbon and in 1726 with Fleury, rekindled the old strife regarding the bull Unigenitus in opposition to the Gallicans and the Jansenists.
Fleury found no other remedy for this agitationin which appeal was made even to miraclesthan lits de justice and leUres de cachet; Jansenism remained a potent source of trouble within the heart of Catholicism.
Fleury, supported by the English Hanoverian alliance, to which he sacrificed the French navy, obliged the emperor Charles VI.
The question of the succession in France lay dormant until the end of the century, and Fleury thought he had definitely obtained peace in the treaty of Vienna (1731).
Fleury never forgave him for this: Chauvelin had checkmated him with war; he checkmated Chauvelin with peace.
to obtain Lorraine for his father-in-law-still hoping for the reversion of the crown; but Fleury thus rendered impossible any influence of the queen, and held Stanislaus at his mercy.
Fleury hardly had time to breathe before a new conflagration broke out in the east.
in 1740 opened up a new period of wars and misfortunes for Europe and for War OF the the pacific Fleury.
He had to humble himself before Austria and the whole of Europe; and it was high time for Fleury, now fallen into second childhood, to vanish from the scene (January 1743).
See Comte Fleury, Carrier a Nantes,1793-1794(Paris, 1897); Alfred Lallie, J.
By Bertrada de Montfort he had three children: Philip, count of Montes; Fleury or Florus, who married the heiress of Nangis; and Cecilia, who married, first Tancred, prince of Galilee and Antioch, and secondly Pons de Saint Gilles, count of Tripoli.
Consequently, to the surprise of all Europe, while the allied forces were drawn up ready for battle, Napoleon, without consulting Victor Emmanuel, sent General Fleury on the 6th of July to Francis Joseph to ask for an armistice, which was agreed to.
de Fleury (Strassburg, 1737); C. Frey de Neuville, Oraison funebre de S.E.
Fleury (Paris, 1743); P. Vicaire, Oraison funebre du Cardinal A.
Among the friends of Alcuin and the advisers of Charles was Theodulfus, bishop of Orleans and abbot of Fleury (d.
About the same time in England Oswald of York, who had himself been educated at Fleury, invited Abbo (d.
In consulting the work of Fleury and its supplement, tile general table of contents, published by Rondel, Paris, 1758, i vol.
See C. Ernst Simonetti, Der Character eines Geschichtsschreibers in dem Leben and aus den Schriften des Abts C. Fleury (GÃƒ¶ttingen, 1746, 4to); C. F.
His life, written by his disciple Aimoin of Fleury, in which much of Abbon's correspondence was reproduced, is of great importance as a source for the reign of Robert II., especially with reference to the papacy (cf.
This was an ephemeral success, ill-prepared and obtained by taking a sudden advantage of national sentiment; it was soon followed by a check, owing to a Russian and German coalition and the baseness of Cardinal Fleury, who, in order to avoid intervening, pretended to tremble before an imaginary threat of reprisals on the part of England.
Joly de Fleury and DOrmesson, Neckers successors, pushed their narrow spirit of reaction and the temerity of their inexperience to the furthest limit; but the reaction which reinforced the privileged classes was not sufficient to fill the coffers of the treasury, and Marie Antoinette, who seemed gifted with a fatal perversity of instinct, confided the finances of the kingdom to Calonne, an upper-class official and a veritable Cagliostro of finance.
The work of Fleury only comes down to the year 1414.
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